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Immunological Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258703/the-cd47-sirp%C3%AE-signaling-axis-as-an-innate-immune-checkpoint-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Hanke L Matlung, Katka Szilagyi, Neil A Barclay, Timo K van den Berg
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including those targeting CTLA-4/B7 and the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathways, are now available for clinical use in cancer patients, with other interesting checkpoint inhibitors being currently in development. Most of these have the purpose to promote adaptive T cell-mediated immunity against cancer. Here, we review another checkpoint acting to potentiate the activity of innate immune cells towards cancer. This innate immune checkpoint is composed of what has become known as the 'don't-eat me' signal CD47, which is a protein broadly expressed on normal cells and often overexpressed on cancer cells, and its counter-receptor, the myeloid inhibitory immunoreceptor SIRPα...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258702/advances-in-targeting-co-inhibitory-and-co-stimulatory-pathways-in-transplantation-settings-the-yin-to-the-yang-of%C3%A2-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Leslie S Kean, Laurence A Turka, Bruce R Blazar
In the past decade, the power of harnessing T-cell co-signaling pathways has become increasingly understood to have significant clinical importance. In cancer immunotherapy, the field has concentrated on two related modalities: First, targeting cancer antigens through highly activated chimeric antigen T cells (CAR-Ts) and second, re-animating endogenous quiescent T cells through checkpoint blockade. In each of these strategies, the therapeutic goal is to re-ignite T-cell immunity, in order to eradicate tumors...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258701/potential-targeting-of-b7-h4-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Joseph R Podojil, Stephen D Miller
Observations noting the presence of white blood cell infiltrates within tumors date back more than a century, however the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating tumor immunity continue to be elucidated. The recent successful use of monoclonal antibodies to block immune regulatory pathways to enhance tumor-specific immune responses for the treatment of cancer has encouraged the identification of additional immune regulatory receptor/ligand pathways. Over the past several years, a growing body of data has identified B7-H4 (VTCN1/B7x/B7S1) as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258700/the-ectonucleotidases-cd39-and-cd73-novel-checkpoint-inhibitor-targets
#4
REVIEW
Bertrand Allard, Maria Serena Longhi, Simon C Robson, John Stagg
Cancers are able to grow by subverting immune suppressive pathways, to prevent the malignant cells as being recognized as dangerous or foreign. This mechanism prevents the cancer from being eliminated by the immune system and allows disease to progress from a very early stage to a lethal state. Immunotherapies are newly developing interventions that modify the patient's immune system to fight cancer, by either directly stimulating rejection-type processes or blocking suppressive pathways. Extracellular adenosine generated by the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 is a newly recognized "immune checkpoint mediator" that interferes with anti-tumor immune responses...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258699/new-checkpoints-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Ling Ni, Chen Dong
Immune responses must be fine-tuned to allow effective clearance of invading pathogens, while maintain tolerance to self-antigens. T cells are the major effector cells for fighting and killing tumor cells. Immune checkpoints play a pivotal role in T cell activation, and determine the functional outcome of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. The blockade of immune checkpoints CTLA-4 and PD-1 has already been one of the most successful cancer immunotherapies. In this review, we will focus on three novel inhibitory B7 family checkpoint molecules, B7-H3, B7S1 and VISTA...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258698/introduction-to-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Arlene H Sharpe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258697/tim-3-and-its-role-in-regulating-anti-tumor-immunity
#7
REVIEW
Madhumita Das, Chen Zhu, Vijay K Kuchroo
Immunotherapy is being increasingly recognized as a key therapeutic modality to treat cancer and represents one of the most exciting treatments for the disease. Fighting cancer with immunotherapy has revolutionized treatment for some patients and therapies targeting the immune checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 have achieved durable responses in melanoma, renal cancer, Hodgkin's diseases and lung cancer. However, the success rate of these treatments has been low and a large number of cancers, including colorectal cancer remain largely refractory to CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258696/co-inhibitory-blockade-while-preserving-tolerance-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-glioblastoma
#8
REVIEW
Liliana E Lucca, David A Hafler
The introduction of immunotherapy with checkpoint receptor blockade has changed the treatment of advanced cancers, at times inducing prolonged remission. Nevertheless, the success rate of the approach is variable across patients and different tumor types, and treatment is often accompanied by severe immune-related side effects, suggesting the importance of co-inhibitory pathway for both prevention of autoimmunity and failure of tumor rejection. A better understanding of how to uncouple anti-tumor activity from loss of self-tolerance is necessary to increase the therapeutic efficacy of checkpoint immunotherapy...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258695/tigit-and-cd96-new-checkpoint-receptor-targets-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
William C Dougall, Sema Kurtulus, Mark J Smyth, Ana C Anderson
While therapies targeting the co-inhibitory or immune checkpoint receptors PD-1 and CTLA-4 have shown remarkable success in many cancers, not all patients benefit from these therapies. This has catalyzed enormous interest in the targeting of other immune checkpoint receptors. In this regard, TIGIT and CD96 have recently entered the limelight as novel immune checkpoint receptor targets. TIGIT and CD96 together with the co-stimulatory receptor CD226 form a pathway that is analogous to the CD28/CTLA-4 pathway, in which shared ligands and differential receptor:ligand affinities fine-tune the immune response...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258694/immunoregulatory-functions-of-vista
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Nowak, J Louise Lines, Frederick S Varn, Jie Deng, Aurelien Sarde, Rodwell Mabaera, Anna Kuta, Isabelle Le Mercier, Chao Cheng, Randolph J Noelle
Utilization of negative checkpoint regulators (NCRs) for cancer immunotherapy has garnered significant interest with the completion of clinical trials demonstrating efficacy. While the results of monotherapy treatments are compelling, there is increasing emphasis on combination treatments in an effort to increase response rates to treatment. One of the most recently discovered NCRs is VISTA (V-domain Ig-containing Suppressor of T cell Activation). In this review, we describe the functions of this molecule in the context of cancer immunotherapy...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258693/the-third-group-of-the-b7-cd28-immune-checkpoint-family-hhla2-tmigd2-b7x-and-b7-h3
#11
REVIEW
Murali Janakiram, Urvi A Shah, Weifeng Liu, Aimin Zhao, Mark P Schoenberg, Xingxing Zang
The B7-CD28 family of ligands and receptors play important roles in T-cell co-stimulation and co-inhibition. Phylogenetically they can be divided into three groups. The recent discovery of the new molecules (B7-H3 [CD276], B7x [B7-H4/B7S1], and HHLA2 [B7H7/B7-H5]/TMIGD2 [IGPR-1/CD28H]) of the group III has expanded therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of human diseases. In this review, we describe the discovery, structure, and function of B7-H3, B7x, HHLA2, and TMIGD2 in immune regulation. We also discuss their roles in important pathological states such as cancers, autoimmune diseases, transplantation, and infection...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258692/lag3-cd223-as-a-cancer-immunotherapy-target
#12
REVIEW
Lawrence P Andrews, Ariel E Marciscano, Charles G Drake, Dario A A Vignali
Despite the impressive impact of CTLA4 and PD1-PDL1-targeted cancer immunotherapy, a large proportion of patients with many tumor types fail to respond. Consequently, the focus has shifted to targeting alternative inhibitory receptors (IRs) and suppressive mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment. Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3) (CD223) is the third IR to be targeted in the clinic, consequently garnering considerable interest and scrutiny. LAG3 upregulation is required to control overt activation and prevent the onset of autoimmunity...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258691/viewing-siglecs-through-the-lens-of-tumor-immunology
#13
REVIEW
Isabella Fraschilla, Shiv Pillai
Many Siglecs function as inhibitory receptors on innate and adaptive immune cells and may contribute to the attenuation of immune responses to tumors. Siglec 9 on neutrophils and Siglec 7 on NK cells are prominent examples of inhibitory Siglecs that can potentially dampen anti-tumor immunity. CD169 is a Siglec that may function as an adhesion molecule and a facilitator of the recognition and internalization of sialic acid decorated apoptotic bodies and exosomes derived from tumors. It can potentially contribute to both the attenuation as well as the facilitation of anti-tumor immunity...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258690/tam-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-as-emerging-targets-of-innate-immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-cancer-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Yemsratch T Akalu, Carla V Rothlin, Sourav Ghosh
Cancer immunotherapy utilizing T-cell checkpoint inhibitors has shown tremendous clinical success. Yet, this mode of treatment is effective in only a subset of patients. Unresponsive patients tend to have non-T-cell-inflamed tumors that lack markers associated with the activation of adaptive anti-tumor immune responses. Notably, elimination of cancer cells by T cells is critically dependent on the optimal activity of innate immune cells. Therefore, identifying new targets that regulate innate immune cell function and promote the engagement of adaptive tumoricidal responses is likely to lead to the development of improved therapies against cancer...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133814/identification-and-specificity-of-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-against-hiv
#15
REVIEW
Laura E McCoy, Dennis R Burton
Beginning in 2009, studies of the humoral responses of HIV-positive individuals have led to the identification of scores, if not hundreds, of antibodies that are both broadly reactive and potently neutralizing. This development has provided renewed impetus toward an HIV vaccine and led directly to the development of novel immunogens. Advances in identification of donors with the most potent and broad anti-HIV serum neutralizing responses were crucial in this effort. Equally, development of methods for the rapid generation of human antibodies from these donors was pivotal...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133813/the-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-structure-nailing-down-a-moving-target
#16
REVIEW
Andrew B Ward, Ian A Wilson
Structure determination of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) presented a number of challenges, but several high-resolution structures have now become available. In 2013, cryo-EM and x-ray structures of soluble, cleaved SOSIP Env trimers from the clade A BG505 strain provided the first glimpses into the Env trimer fold as well as more the variable regions. A recent cryo-EM structure of a native full-length trimer without any stabilizing mutations had the same core structure, but revealed new insights and features...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133812/antibodyomics-bioinformatics-technologies-for-understanding-b-cell-immunity-to-hiv-1
#17
REVIEW
Peter D Kwong, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Brandon J DeKosky, Tatyana Gindin, Ivelin S Georgiev, Thomas Lemmin, Chaim A Schramm, Zizhang Sheng, Cinque Soto, An-Suei Yang, John R Mascola, Lawrence Shapiro
Numerous antibodies have been identified from HIV-1-infected donors that neutralize diverse strains of HIV-1. These antibodies may provide the basis for a B cell-mediated HIV-1 vaccine. However, it has been unclear how to elicit similar antibodies by vaccination. To address this issue, we have undertaken an informatics-based approach to understand the genetic and immunologic processes controlling the development of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. As DNA sequencing comprises the fastest growing database of biological information, we focused on incorporating next-generation sequencing of B-cell transcripts to determine the origin, maturation pathway, and prevalence of broadly neutralizing antibody lineages (Antibodyomics1, 2, 4, and 6)...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133811/complex-immune-correlates-of-protection-in-hiv-1-vaccine-efficacy-trials
#18
REVIEW
Georgia D Tomaras, Stanley A Plotkin
Development of an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine is a major priority for improving human health worldwide. Vaccine-mediated protection against human pathogens can be achieved through elicitation of protective innate, humoral, and cellular responses. Identification of specific immune responses responsible for pathogen protection enables vaccine development and provides insights into host defenses against pathogens and the immunological mechanisms that most effectively fight infection. Defining immunological correlates of transmission risk in preclinical and clinical HIV-1 vaccine trials has moved the HIV-1 vaccine development field forward and directed new candidate vaccine development...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133810/systems-serology-for-evaluation-of-hiv-vaccine-trials
#19
REVIEW
Margaret E Ackerman, Dan H Barouch, Galit Alter
The scale and scope of the global epidemic, coupled to challenges with traditional vaccine development approaches, point toward a need for novel methodologies for HIV vaccine research. While the development of vaccines able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies remains the ultimate goal, to date, vaccines continue to fail to induce these rare humoral immune responses. Conversely, growing evidence across vaccine platforms in both non-human primates and humans points to a role for polyclonal vaccine-induced antibody responses in protection from infection...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133809/survivors-remorse-antibody-mediated-protection-against-hiv-1
#20
REVIEW
George K Lewis, Marzena Pazgier, Anthony L DeVico
It is clear that antibodies can play a pivotal role in preventing the transmission of HIV-1 and large efforts to identify an effective antibody-based vaccine to quell the epidemic. Shortly after HIV-1 was discovered as the cause of AIDS, the search for epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies became the driving strategy for an antibody-based vaccine. Neutralization escape variants were discovered shortly thereafter, and, after almost three decades of investigation, it is now known that autologous neutralizing antibody responses and their selection of neutralization resistant HIV-1 variants can lead to broadly neutralizing antibodies in some infected individuals...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
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