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Immunological Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664578/tcr-tuning-of-t-cell-subsets
#1
REVIEW
Jae-Ho Cho, Jonathan Sprent
After selection in the thymus, the post-thymic T cell compartments comprise heterogenous subsets of naive and memory T cells that make continuous T cell receptor (TCR) contact with self-ligands bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. T cell recognition of self-MHC ligands elicits covert TCR signaling and is particularly important for controlling survival of naive T cells. Such tonic TCR signaling is tightly controlled and maintains the cells in a quiescent state to avoid autoimmunity. Here, we review how naive and memory T cells are differentially tuned and wired for TCR sensitivity to self and foreign ligands...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664577/the-gradual-rise-of-memory-inflation
#2
REVIEW
Paul Klenerman
Memory inflation, as a term, has been used for 15 years now to describe the longitudinal development of stable, expanded CD8+ T memory pools with a distinct phenotype and functional profile which emerge in specific infection and vaccine settings. These settings have in common the persistence of antigen, especially cytomegalovirus infection but also more recently adenoviral vector vaccination. However, in contrast to chronic infections which lead to "exhaustion" the repeated antigen encounters experienced by CD8+ T cells lead to development of a robust T-cell population structure which maintains functionality and size...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664576/memory-vs-memory-like-the-different-facets-of-cd8-t-cell-memory-in-hcv-infection
#3
REVIEW
Maike Hofmann, Dominik Wieland, Hanspeter Pircher, Robert Thimme
Memory CD8+ T cells are essential in orchestrating protection from re-infection. Hallmarks of virus-specific memory CD8+ T cells are the capacity to mount recall responses with rapid induction of effector cell function and antigen-independent survival. Growing evidence reveals that even chronic infection does not preclude virus-specific CD8+ T-cell memory formation. However, whether this kind of CD8+ T-cell memory that is established during chronic infection is indeed functional and provides protection from re-infection is still unclear...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664575/dimensions-of-immunologic-memory
#4
Dirk Homann, Ross M Kedl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664574/innate-immune-memory-an-evolutionary-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Benjamin Gourbal, Silvain Pinaud, Gerold J M Beckers, Jos W M Van Der Meer, Uwe Conrath, Mihai G Netea
Over the last decades, there was increasing evidence for the presence of innate immune memory in living organisms. In this review, we compare the innate immune memory of various organisms with a focus on phylogenetics. We discuss the acquisition and molecular basis of immune memory and we describe the innate immune memory paradigm and its role in host defense during evolution. The molecular characterization of innate immunological memory in diverse organisms and host-parasite systems reconciles mechanisms with phenomena and paves the way to molecular comprehension of innate immune memory...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664573/tcr-repertoire-evolution-during-maintenance-of-cmv-specific-t-cell-populations
#6
REVIEW
Kilian Schober, Veit R Buchholz, Dirk H Busch
During infections and cancer, the composition of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells changes over time. TCR avidity is thought to be a major driver of this process, thereby interacting with several additional regulators of T-cell responses to form a composite immune response architecture. Infections with latent viruses, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), can lead to large T-cell responses characterized by an oligoclonal TCR repertoire. Here, we review the current status of experimental studies and theoretical models of TCR repertoire evolution during CMV infection...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664572/ilc2-memory-recollection-of-previous-activation
#7
REVIEW
Itziar Martinez-Gonzalez, Maryam Ghaedi, Catherine A Steer, Laura Mathä, Eric Vivier, Fumio Takei
Immunological memory, traditionally thought to belong to T and B cells, has now been extended to innate lymphocytes, including NK cells and ILC2s, myeloid cells such as macrophages, also termed "trained immunity" and more recently to epithelial stem cells. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying memory generation on ILC2s and speculate about their potential role in human allergic diseases, such as asthma. Moreover, we examine the relevance of the spontaneous ILC2 activation in the lung during the neonatal period in order to efficiently respond to stimuli later in life...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664571/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-in-tissue-homeostasis-persistent-infection-and-cancer-surveillance
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Gebhardt, Umaimainthan Palendira, David C Tscharke, Sammy Bedoui
A large proportion of memory T cells disseminated throughout the body are non-recirculating cells whose maintenance and function is regulated by tissue-specific environmental cues. These sessile cells are referred to as tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells and similar populations of non-recirculating cells also exist among unconventional T cells and innate lymphocyte cells. The pool of TRM cells is highly diverse with respect to anatomical positioning, phenotype, molecular regulation and effector function...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664570/what-if-protective-immunity-is-antigen-driven-and-not-due-to-so-called-memory-b-and-t-cells
#9
REVIEW
Rolf M Zinkernagel
Vaccines or early childhood exposure to infection mediate immunity, that is, improved resistance against disease and death caused by a second infection with the same agent. This has been explained by and equaled to immunological memory, that is, an "altered immune system behavior" that is maintained in a presumably antigen-independent fashion. This review summarizes epidemiological and experimental data, that largely falsify this idea and that show that periodic re-exposure to antigen either, artificially as vaccines or naturally as low-level persisting antigens or infections, or immune complexes on follicular dendritic cells or endemic re-exposure is necessary for protection...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664569/fatty-acid-metabolism-in-cd8-t-cell-memory-challenging-current-concepts
#10
REVIEW
Brenda Raud, Peter J McGuire, Russell G Jones, Tim Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
CD8+ T cells are key members of the adaptive immune response against infections and cancer. As we discuss in this review, these cells can present diverse metabolic requirements, which have been intensely studied during the past few years. Our current understanding suggests that aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of activated CD8+ T cells, while naive and memory (Tmem ) cells often rely on oxidative phosphorylation, and thus mitochondrial metabolism is a crucial determinant of CD8+ Tmem cell development. Moreover, it has been proposed that CD8+ Tmem cells have a specific requirement for the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LC-FAO), a process modulated in lymphocytes by the enzyme CPT1A...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664568/the-role-of-cytokines-in-t-cell-memory-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Miro E Raeber, Yves Zurbuchen, Daniela Impellizzieri, Onur Boyman
Upon stimulation with their cognate antigen, naive T cells undergo proliferation and differentiation into effector cells, followed by apoptosis or survival as precursors of long-lived memory cells. These phases of a T-cell response and the ensuing maintenance of memory T cells are shaped by cytokines, most notably interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, and IL-15 that share the common γ chain (γc ) cytokine receptor. Steady-state production of IL-7 and IL-15 is necessary for background proliferation and homeostatic survival of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664567/memory-control-by-the-b-cell-antigen-receptor
#12
REVIEW
Niklas Engels, Jürgen Wienands
The generation of memory B cells (MBCs) that have undergone immunoglobulin class switching from IgM, which dominates primary antibody responses, to other immunoglobulin isoforms is a hallmark of immune memory. Hence, humoral immunological memory is characterized by the presence of serum immunoglobulins of IgG subtypes known as the γ-globulin fraction of blood plasma proteins. These antibodies reflect the antigen experience of B lymphocytes and their repeated triggering. In fact, efficient protection against a previously encountered pathogen is critically linked to the production of pathogen-specific IgG molecules even in those cases where the primary immune response required cellular immunity, for example, T cell-mediated clearance of intracellular pathogens such as viruses...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664566/generation-of-memory-b-cells-and-their-reactivation
#13
REVIEW
Takeshi Inoue, Imogen Moran, Ryo Shinnakasu, Tri Giang Phan, Tomohiro Kurosaki
The successful establishment of humoral memory response depends on at least two layers of defense. Pre-existing protective antibodies secreted by long-lived plasma cells act as a first line of defense against reinfection ("constitutive humoral memory"). Previously, a second line of defense in which pathogen-experienced memory B cells are rapidly reactivated to produce antibodies ("reactive humoral memory"), was considered as simply a back-up system for the first line (particularly for re-infection with homologous viruses)...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664565/memory-cd8-t-cell-inflation-vs-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-same-patrollers-same-controllers
#14
REVIEW
Suzanne P M Welten, Ioana Sandu, Nicolas S Baumann, Annette Oxenius
The induction of long-lived populations of memory T cells residing in peripheral tissues is of considerable interest for T cell-based vaccines, as they can execute immediate effector functions and thus provide protection in case of pathogen encounter at mucosal and barrier sites. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines support the induction and accumulation of a large population of effector memory CD8 T cells in peripheral tissues, in a process called memory inflation. Tissue-resident memory (TRM ) T cells, induced by various infections and vaccination regimens, constitute another subset of memory cells that take long-term residence in peripheral tissues...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664564/immunological-memories-of-the-bone-marrow
#15
REVIEW
Hyun-Dong Chang, Koji Tokoyoda, Andreas Radbruch
Memory for antigens once encountered is a hallmark of the immune system of vertebrates, providing us with an immunity adapted to pathogens of our environment. Despite its fundamental relevance, the cells and genes representing immunological memory are still poorly understood. Here we discuss the concept of a circulating, proliferating, and ubiquitous population of effector lymphocytes vs concepts of resting and dormant populations of dedicated memory lymphocytes, distinct from effector lymphocytes and residing in defined tissues, particularly in barrier tissues and in the bone marrow...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664563/immunological-memory-what-s-in-a-name
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Pradeu, Louis Du Pasquier
Immunological memory is one of the core topics of contemporary immunology. Yet there are many discussions about what this concept precisely means, which components of the immune system display it, and in which phyla it exists. Recent years have seen the multiplication of claims that immunological memory can be found in "innate" immune cells and in many phyla beyond vertebrates (including invertebrates, plants, but also bacteria and archaea), as well as the multiplication of concepts to account for these phenomena, such as "innate immune memory" or "trained immunity"...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664562/stromal-cell-networks-coordinate-immune-response-generation-and-maintenance
#17
REVIEW
Yannick O Alexandre, Scott N Mueller
Secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), including the spleen and lymph nodes (LN) are a meeting place for immune cells to initiate adaptive immune responses. Lymphocytes constantly circulate between SLO through the blood and lymph in search of their cognate antigen and are activated within the organized microarchitecture of SLO. Lymphoid stromal cells (LSC) of mesenchymal and endothelial origin construct and support the microarchitecture of SLO by defining distinct compartments and providing signals that can either promote or inhibit immune responses...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664561/the-function-and-dysfunction-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-tumor-immunity
#18
REVIEW
James L Reading, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Charles Swanton, Alvaro Lladser, Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada
The generation and maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory is crucial to long-term host survival, yet the basic tenets of CD8+ T cell immunity are still being established. Recent work has led to the discovery of tissue-resident memory cells and refined our understanding of the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of CD8+ T cell differentiation and dysregulation. In parallel, the unprecedented clinical success of immunotherapy has galvanized an intense, global research effort to decipher and de-repress the anti-tumor response...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431218/the-controversial-role-of-mast-cells-in-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Peter Bradding, Gunnar Pejler
Fibrosis is a medical condition characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix compounds such as collagen in tissues. Fibrotic lesions are present in many diseases and can affect all organs. The excessive extracellular matrix accumulation in these conditions can often have serious consequences and in many cases be life-threatening. A typical event seen in many fibrotic conditions is a profound accumulation of mast cells (MCs), suggesting that these cells can contribute to the pathology. Indeed, there is now substantialv evidence pointing to an important role of MCs in fibrotic disease...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431217/the-role-of-mast-cells-in-autoinflammation
#20
REVIEW
Hanna Bonnekoh, Jörg Scheffel, Naotomo Kambe, Karoline Krause
The concept of autoinflammation was proposed to define a new class of immune disorders categorized by self-directed inflammation that is driven via activation of innate immune pathways. Within innate immunity, inflammasomes serve as intracellular signaling platforms to endogenous danger molecules and pathogens. Their key function is the cleavage of pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) into its active form to promote inflammation and programmed cell death. A growing number of inflammasome sensors were described, among which NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) is the best-studied sensor...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
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