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Immunological Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431218/the-controversial-role-of-mast-cells-in-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Peter Bradding, Gunnar Pejler
Fibrosis is a medical condition characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix compounds such as collagen in tissues. Fibrotic lesions are present in many diseases and can affect all organs. The excessive extracellular matrix accumulation in these conditions can often have serious consequences and in many cases be life-threatening. A typical event seen in many fibrotic conditions is a profound accumulation of mast cells (MCs), suggesting that these cells can contribute to the pathology. Indeed, there is now substantialv evidence pointing to an important role of MCs in fibrotic disease...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431217/the-role-of-mast-cells-in-autoinflammation
#2
REVIEW
Hanna Bonnekoh, Jörg Scheffel, Naotomo Kambe, Karoline Krause
The concept of autoinflammation was proposed to define a new class of immune disorders categorized by self-directed inflammation that is driven via activation of innate immune pathways. Within innate immunity, inflammasomes serve as intracellular signaling platforms to endogenous danger molecules and pathogens. Their key function is the cleavage of pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) into its active form to promote inflammation and programmed cell death. A growing number of inflammasome sensors were described, among which NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) is the best-studied sensor...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431216/mast-cell-neural-interactions-contribute-to-pain-and-itch
#3
REVIEW
Kalpna Gupta, Ilkka T Harvima
Mast cells are best recognized for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, but increasing evidence supports their role in neurogenic inflammation leading to pain and itch. Mast cells act as a "power house" by releasing algogenic and pruritogenic mediators, which initiate a reciprocal communication with specific nociceptors on sensory nerve fibers. Consequently, nerve fibers release inflammatory and vasoactive neuropeptides, which in turn activate mast cells in a feedback mechanism, thus promoting a vicious cycle of mast cell and nociceptor activation leading to neurogenic inflammation and pain/pruritus...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431215/human-eosinophils-and-mast-cells-birds-of-a-feather-flock-together
#4
REVIEW
Piper A Robida, Pier Giorgio Puzzovio, Hadas Pahima, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Bruce S Bochner
While the origin of the phrase "birds of a feather flock together" is unclear, it has been in use for centuries and is typically employed to describe the phenomenon that people with similar tastes or interests tend to seek each other out and congregate together. In this review, we have co-opted this phrase to compare innate immune cells of related origin, the eosinophil and mast cell, because they very often accumulate together in tissue sites under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. To highlight overlapping yet distinct features, their hematopoietic development, cell surface phenotype, mediator release profiles and roles in diseases have been compared and contrasted...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431214/human-mast-cells-and-basophils-how-are-they-similar-how-are-they-different
#5
REVIEW
Gilda Varricchi, Ulrike Raap, Felice Rivellese, Gianni Marone, Bernhard F Gibbs
Mast cells and basophils are key contributors to allergies and other inflammatory diseases since they are the most prominent source of histamine as well as numerous additional inflammatory mediators which drive inflammatory responses. However, a closer understanding of their precise roles in allergies and other pathological conditions has been marred by the considerable heterogeneity that these cells display, not only between mast cells and basophils themselves but also across different tissue locations and species...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431213/what-we-know-and-don-t-know-about-the-biology-and-functions-of-mast-cells-and-basophils
#6
Marcus Maurer, Carlo Pucillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431212/mast-cells-as-sources-of-cytokines-chemokines-and-growth-factors
#7
REVIEW
Kaori Mukai, Mindy Tsai, Hirohisa Saito, Stephen J Galli
Mast cells are hematopoietic cells that reside in virtually all vascularized tissues and that represent potential sources of a wide variety of biologically active secreted products, including diverse cytokines and growth factors. There is strong evidence for important non-redundant roles of mast cells in many types of innate or adaptive immune responses, including making important contributions to immediate and chronic IgE-associated allergic disorders and enhancing host resistance to certain venoms and parasites...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431211/the-contribution-of-mast-cells-to-bacterial-and-fungal-infection-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Adrian M Piliponsky, Luigina Romani
Mast cells are hematopoietic progenitor-derived, granule-containing immune cells that are widely distributed in tissues that interact with the external environment, such as the skin and mucosal tissues. It is well-known that mast cells are significantly involved in IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but because of their location, it has also been long hypothesized that mast cells can act as sentinel cells that sense pathogens and initiate protective immune responses. Using mast cell or mast cell protease-deficient murine models, recent studies by our groups and others indicate that mast cells have pleiotropic regulatory roles in immunological responses against pathogens...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431210/corrigendum
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431209/biomarkers-for-evaluation-of-mast-cell-and-basophil-activation
#10
REVIEW
Kenji Kabashima, Chisa Nakashima, Yumi Nonomura, Atsushi Otsuka, Chiara Cardamone, Roberta Parente, Giulia De Feo, Massimo Triggiani
Mast cells and basophils play a pathogenetic role in allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. These cells have different development, anatomical location and life span but share many similarities in mechanisms of activation and type of mediators. Mediators secreted by mast cells and basophils correlate with clinical severity in asthma, chronic urticaria, anaphylaxis, and other diseases. Therefore, effective biomarkers to measure mast cell and basophil activation in vivo could potentially have high diagnostic and prognostic values...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431208/rbl-cells-as-models-for-in-vitro-studies-of-mast-cells-and-basophils
#11
REVIEW
Franco H Falcone, Daniel Wan, Nafal Barwary, Ronit Sagi-Eisenberg
Since their establishment in 1981, RBL-2H3 cells have been widely used as a mast cell (MC) model. Their ability to be easily grown in culture in large amounts, their responsiveness to FcεRI-mediated triggers and the fact that they can be genetically manipulated, have provided advantages over primary MCs, in particular for molecular studies relying on genetic screening. Furthermore, the ability to generate clones that stably express proteins of interest, for example, a human receptor, have marked the RBL cells as an attractive MC model for drug screening...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431207/role-of-mast-cells-and-basophils-in-pruritus
#12
REVIEW
Martin Steinhoff, Jörg Buddenkotte, Ethan A Lerner
To protect our body systems, there is a constant interactive conversation between the skin nervous and immune system. Important elements of this conversation in the skin include mast cells, basophils, and sensory nerve fibers. These cells employ a vast array of sensors that detect danger and react accordingly. This reaction, summarized as neurogenic inflammation, manifests at the conscious level as sensations including pain and itch. Here we provide a perspective on the blossoming knowledge that is illuminating connections between mast cells, basophils, and sensory nerve fibers in the mediation of itch...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431206/imaging-of-mast-cells
#13
REVIEW
Shweta Tikoo, Natasja Barki, Rohit Jain, Nursafwana S Zulkhernain, Sabine Buhner, Michael Schemann, Wolfgang Weninger
Mast cells are a part of the innate immune system implicated in allergic reactions and the regulation of host-pathogen interactions. The distribution, morphology and biochemical composition of mast cells has been studied in detail in vitro and on tissue sections both at the light microscopic and ultrastructural level. More recently, the development of fluorescent reporter strains and intravital imaging modalities has enabled first glimpses of the real-time behavior of mast cells in situ. In this review, we describe commonly used imaging approaches to study mast cells in cell culture as well as within normal and diseased tissues...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431205/non-ige-mediated-mast-cell-activation
#14
REVIEW
Frank A Redegeld, Yingxin Yu, Sangeeta Kumari, Nicolas Charles, Ulrich Blank
Mast cells (MCs) are innate immune cells that are scattered in tissues throughout the organism being particularly abundant at sites exposed to the environment such as the skin and mucosal surfaces. Generally known for their role in IgE-mediated allergies, they have also important functions in the maintenance of tissue integrity by constantly sensing their microenvironment for signals by inflammatory triggers that can comprise infectious agents, toxins, hormones, alarmins, metabolic states, etc. When triggered their main function is to release a whole set of inflammatory mediators, cytokines, chemokines, and lipid products...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431204/is-it-time-for-a-new-classification-of-mast-cells-what-do-we-know-about-mast-cell-heterogeneity
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Frossi, Francesca Mion, Riccardo Sibilano, Luca Danelli, Carlo E M Pucillo
Mast cells (MCs) are derived from committed precursors that leave the hematopoietic tissue, migrate in the blood, and colonize peripheral tissues where they terminally differentiate under microenvironment stimuli. They are distributed in almost all vascularized tissues where they act both as immune effectors and housekeeping cells, contributing to tissue homeostasis. Historically, MCs were classified into 2 subtypes, according to tryptic enzymes expression. However, MCs display a striking heterogeneity that reflects a complex interplay between different microenvironmental signals delivered by various tissues, and a differentiation program that decides their identity...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431203/changing-the-threshold-signals-and-mechanisms-of-mast-cell-priming
#16
REVIEW
Ivana Halova, Elin Rönnberg, Lubica Draberova, Harissios Vliagoftis, Gunnar P Nilsson, Petr Draber
Mast cells play a key role in allergy and other inflammatory diseases involving engagement of multivalent antigen with IgE bound to high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRIs). Aggregation of FcεRIs on mast cells initiates a cascade of signaling events that eventually lead to degranulation, secretion of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, and cytokine and chemokine production contributing to the inflammatory response. Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, bacterial and viral products, as well as some other biological products and drugs, induces mast cell transition from the basal state into a primed one, which leads to enhanced response to IgE-antigen complexes...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431202/the-role-and-relevance-of-mast-cells-in-urticaria
#17
REVIEW
Martin K Church, Pavel Kolkhir, Martin Metz, Marcus Maurer
This review presents evidence that the skin mast cell, in particular the MC TC subtype, is the primary effector cell in urticaria. Mast cells are located in the upper dermis, the ideal situation for wheal formation and sensory nerve stimulation. Increased numbers of mast cells are found in both lesional and non-lesional skin in CSU and inducible urticaria. Mast cell degranulation in the area of wheals has been demonstrated repeatedly by light and electron microscopy. Histamine, PGD 2 and tryptase are found in the venous blood draining wheal formation...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248003/the-role-of-the-interleukin-1-family-in-trained-immunity
#18
REVIEW
Simone J C F M Moorlag, Rutger Jan Röring, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea
Immunological memory was long considered a trait exclusive to cells of the adaptive immune system. However, recent studies have shown that after activation of the innate immune system, innate immune cells may undergo long-term functional reprogramming characterized by the ability to mount either a stronger or attenuated inflammatory response upon reactivation. This phenomenon, which has been termed trained immunity and is a de facto innate immune memory, is regulated by a network of integrated metabolic and epigenetic rewiring...
January 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248002/the-family-of-the-interleukin-1-receptors
#19
REVIEW
Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani, Sabrina Weil, Michael U Martin
The extracellular forms of the IL-1 cytokines are active through binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells. IL-1 ligands bind to the extracellular portion of their ligand-binding receptor chain. For signaling to take place, a non-binding accessory chain is recruited into a heterotrimeric complex. The intracellular approximation of the Toll-IL-1-receptor (TIR) domains of the 2 receptor chains is the event that initiates signaling. The family of IL-1 receptors (IL-1R) includes 10 structurally related members, and the distantly related soluble protein IL-18BP that acts as inhibitor of the cytokine IL-18...
January 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248001/introduction-to-the-interleukin-1-family-of-cytokines-and-receptors-drivers-of-innate-inflammation-and-acquired-immunity
#20
Charles A Dinarello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Immunological Reviews
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