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Immunological Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294971/metabolic-regulation-of-innate-and-adaptive-lymphocyte-effector-responses
#1
REVIEW
Ann M Joseph, Laurel A Monticelli, Gregory F Sonnenberg
Innate and adaptive lymphocytes employ diverse effector programs that provide optimal immunity to pathogens and orchestrate tissue homeostasis, or conversely can become dysregulated to drive progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that CD4+ T helper cell subsets and their innate counterparts, the innate lymphoid cell family, accomplish these complex biological roles by selectively programming their cellular metabolism in order to instruct distinct modules of lymphocyte differentiation, proliferation, and cytokine production...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294970/spatial-and-temporal-coordination-of-antiviral-responses-by-group-1-ilcs
#2
REVIEW
Nicholas M Adams, Joseph C Sun
Group 1 innate lymphocytes consist of a phenotypically, spatially, and functionally heterogeneous population of NK cells and ILC1s that are engaged during pathogen invasion. We are only beginning to understand the context-dependent roles that different subsets of group 1 innate lymphocytes play during homeostatic perturbations. With a focus on viral infection, this review highlights the organization and regulation of spatially and temporally distinct waves of NK cell and ILC1 responses that collectively serve to achieve optimal viral control...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294969/new-insights-into-the-function-development-and-plasticity-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#3
REVIEW
Lisette Krabbendam, Suzanne M Bal, Hergen Spits, Korneliusz Golebski
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the most well defined group of ILCs. ILC2 development is controlled by the GATA-3 transcription factor and these cells produce archetypal type 2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13. These cytokines mediate parasite expulsion and tissue repair, but also contribute to type 2 inflammatory diseases, including allergy, asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. In response to tightly regulated local environmental cues ILCs can generate characteristics of other subtypes, a process known as plasticity...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294968/thinking-differently-about-ilcs-not-just-tissue-resident-and-not-just-the-same-as-cd4-t-cell-effectors
#4
REVIEW
Yuefeng Huang, Kairui Mao, Ronald N Germain
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) resemble adaptive T lymphocytes based on transcription factor expression, cytokine production, and their presumptive roles in immunity, but are activated for effector function through cytokine signaling and not antigen-specific receptors. The prevailing view is that ILCs adapt to specific microenvironments during development and operate as tissue-resident cells in co-operation with antigen-specific T cells to provide host protection and contribute to tissue maintenance. In particular, conventional models equate the activity of different ILC subsets with CD4+ effector T-cell types based on corresponding transcription factor expression and a potential for comparable cytokine production...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294967/introduction-basic-and-emerging-concepts-in-ilc-biology
#5
Marco Colonna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294966/deconstructing-deployment-of-the-innate-immune-lymphocyte-army-for-barrier-homeostasis-and-protection
#6
REVIEW
Francisca F Almeida, Nicolas Jacquelot, Gabrielle T Belz
The study of the immune system has shifted from a purely dichotomous separation between the innate and adaptive arms to one that is now highly complex and reshaping our ideas of how steady-state health is assured. It is now clear that immune cells do not neatly fit into these two streams and immune homeostasis depends on continual dialogue between multiple lineages of the innate (including dendritic cells, innate lymphoid cells, and unconventional lymphocytes) and adaptive (T and B lymphocytes) arms together with a finely tuned synergy between the host and microbes which is essential to ensure immune homeostasis...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294965/jak-stat-signaling-in-regulation-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-the-gods-before-the-guardians
#7
REVIEW
Helena Stabile, Gianluca Scarno, Cinzia Fionda, Angela Gismondi, Angela Santoni, Massimo Gadina, Giuseppe Sciumè
Immunity to pathogens is ensured through integration of early responses mediated by innate cells and late effector functions taking place after terminal differentiation of adaptive lymphocytes. In this context, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and adaptive T cells represent a clear example of how prototypical effector functions, including polarized expression of cytokines and/or cytotoxic activity, can occur with overlapping modalities but different timing. The ability of ILCs to provide early protection relies on their poised epigenetic state, which determines their propensity to quickly respond to cytokines and to activate specific patterns of signal-dependent transcription factors...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294964/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-lung-infection-and-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Christina Stehle, Daniela C Hernández, Chiara Romagnani
In recent years, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as key mediators of protection and repair of mucosal surfaces during infection. The lung, a dynamic mucosal tissue that is exposed to a plethora of microbes, is a playground for respiratory infection-causing pathogens which are not only a major cause of fatalities worldwide, but are also associated with comorbidities and decreased quality of life. The lung provides a rich microenvironment to study ILCs in the context of innate protection mechanisms within the airways, unraveling their distinct functions not only in health but also in disease...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294963/the-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-ilc2-regulatory-network-and-its-underlying-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Hiroki Kabata, Kazuyo Moro, Shigeo Koyasu
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play critical roles in the induction of type 2 inflammation, response to parasite infection, metabolic homeostasis, and tissue repair. These multifunctional roles of ILC2s are tightly controlled by complex regulatory systems in the local microenvironment, the disruption of which may cause various health problems. This review summarizes up-to-date knowledge regarding positive and negative regulators for ILC2s based on their function and signaling pathways, including activating cytokines (IL-33, IL-25; MAPK, NF-κB pathways), co-stimulatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, IL-9, TSLP; STAT5, IL-4; STAT6, TNF superfamily; MAPK, NF-κB pathways), suppressive cytokines (type1 IFNs, IFN-γ, IL-27; STAT1, IL-10, TGF-β), transdifferentiation cytokines (IL-12; STAT4, IL-1β, IL-18), lipid mediators (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, PGD2; Ca2+ -NFAT pathways, PGE2, PGI2; AC/cAMP/PKA pathways, LXA4, LTB4), neuropeptides (NMU; Ca2+ -NFAT, MAPK pathways, VIP, CGRP, catecholamine, acetylcholine), sex hormones (androgen, estrogen), nutrients (butyrate; HDAC inhibitors, vitamins), and cell-to-cell interactions (ICOSL-ICOS; STAT5, B7-H6-NKp30, E-cadherin-KLRG1)...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294962/type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-the-induction-and-resolution-of-tissue-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Antonia Wallrapp, Samantha J Riesenfeld, Patrick R Burkett, Vijay K Kuchroo
Type 2 immunity against pathogens is tightly regulated to ensure appropriate inflammatory responses that clear infection and prevent excessive tissue damage. Recent research has shown that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) contribute to steady-state tissue integrity and exert tissue-specific functions. However, upon exposure to inflammatory stimuli, they also initiate and amplify type 2 inflammation by inducing mucus production, eosinophilia, and Th2 differentiation. In this review, we discuss the regulation of ILC2 activation by transcription factors and metabolic pathways, as well as by extrinsic signals such as cytokines, lipid mediators, hormones, and neuropeptides...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294961/innate-lymphoid-cells-mediators-of-tissue-homeostasis-adaptation-and-disease-tolerance
#11
REVIEW
Nora Branzk, Konrad Gronke, Andreas Diefenbach
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a recently identified group of tissue-resident innate lymphocytes. Available data support the view that ILC or their progenitors are deposited and retained in tissues early during ontogeny. Thereby, ILC become an integral cellular component of tissues and organs. Here, we will review the intriguing relationships between ILC and basic developmental and homeostatic processes within tissues. Studying ILC has already led to the appreciation of the integral roles of immune cells in tissue homeostasis, morphogenesis, metabolism, regeneration, and growth...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294960/neuroendocrine-regulation-of-innate-lymphoid-cells
#12
REVIEW
Linda Quatrini, Eric Vivier, Sophie Ugolini
The activities of the immune system in repairing tissue injury and combating pathogens were long thought to be independent of the nervous system. However, a major regulatory role of immunomodulatory molecules released locally or systemically by the neuroendocrine system has recently emerged. A number of observations and discoveries support indeed the notion of the nervous system as an immunoregulatory system involved in immune responses. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including natural killer (NK) cells and tissue-resident ILCs, form a family of effector cells present in organs and mucosal barriers...
November 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129209/dynamic-balance-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-signals-controls-disease-and-limits-pathology
#13
Joseph M Cicchese, Stephanie Evans, Caitlin Hult, Louis R Joslyn, Timothy Wessler, Jess A Millar, Simeone Marino, Nicholas A Cilfone, Joshua T Mattila, Jennifer J Linderman, Denise E Kirschner
Immune responses to pathogens are complex and not well understood in many diseases, and this is especially true for infections by persistent pathogens. One mechanism that allows for long-term control of infection while also preventing an over-zealous inflammatory response from causing extensive tissue damage is for the immune system to balance pro- and anti-inflammatory cells and signals. This balance is dynamic and the immune system responds to cues from both host and pathogen, maintaining a steady state across multiple scales through continuous feedback...
September 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129208/insight-into-treatment-of-hiv-infection-from-viral-dynamics-models
#14
Alison L Hill, Daniel I S Rosenbloom, Martin A Nowak, Robert F Siliciano
The odds of living a long and healthy life with HIV infection have dramatically improved with the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy. Along with the early development and clinical trials of these drugs, and new field of research emerged called viral dynamics, which uses mathematical models to interpret and predict the time-course of viral levels during infection and how they are altered by treatment. In this review, we summarize the contributions that virus dynamics models have made to understanding the pathophysiology of infection and to designing effective therapies...
September 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129207/mathematical-modeling-of-within-host-zika-virus-dynamics
#15
Katharine Best, Alan S Perelson
Recent Zika virus outbreaks have been associated with severe outcomes, especially during pregnancy. A great deal of effort has been put toward understanding this virus, particularly the immune mechanisms responsible for rapid viral control in the majority of infections. Identifying and understanding the key mechanisms of immune control will provide the foundation for the development of effective vaccines and antiviral therapy. Here, we outline a mathematical modeling approach for analyzing the within-host dynamics of Zika virus, and we describe how these models can be used to understand key aspects of the viral life cycle and to predict antiviral efficacy...
September 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129206/the-natural-history-of-naive-t-cells-from-birth-to-maturity
#16
Benedict Seddon, Andrew J Yates
Generating and maintaining a diverse repertoire of naive T cells is essential for protection against pathogens, and developing a mechanistic and quantitative description of the processes involved lies at the heart of our understanding of vertebrate immunity. Here, we review the biology of naive T cells from birth to maturity and outline how the integration of mathematical models and experiments has helped us to develop a full picture of their life histories.
September 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129205/herpes-simplex-virus-2-dynamics-as-a-probe-to-measure-the-extremely-rapid-and-spatially-localized-tissue-resident-t-cell-response
#17
Joshua T Schiffer, David A Swan, Martin Prlic, Jennifer M Lund
Herpes simplex virus-2 infection is characterized by frequent episodic shedding in the genital tract. Expansion in HSV-2 viral load early during episodes is extremely rapid. However, the virus invariably peaks within 18 hours and is eliminated nearly as quickly. A critical feature of HSV-2 shedding episodes is their heterogeneity. Some episodes peak at 108 HSV DNA copies, last for weeks due to frequent viral re-expansion, and lead to painful ulcers, while others only reach 103 HSV DNA copies and are eliminated within hours and without symptoms...
September 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129204/molecular-mechanisms-of-t-cell-sensitivity-to-antigen
#18
Jesús A Siller-Farfán, Omer Dushek
T cells initiate and regulate adaptive immune responses that can clear infections. To do this, they use their T cell receptors (TCRs) to continually scan the surfaces of other cells for cognate peptide antigens presented on major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). Experimental work has established that as few 1-10 pMHCs are sufficient to activate T cells. This sensitivity is remarkable in light of a number of factors, including the observation that the TCR and pMHC are short molecules relative to highly abundant long surface molecules, such as CD45, that can hinder initial binding, and moreover, the TCR/pMHC interaction is of weak affinity with solution lifetimes of approximately 1 second...
September 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129203/antiviral-interferon-response-at-single-cell-resolution
#19
Soheil Rastgou Talemi, Thomas Höfer
Experimental studies of the innate immune response of mammalian cells to viruses reveal pervasive heterogeneity at the level of single cells. Interferons are induced only in a fraction of virus-infected cells; subsequently a fraction of cells exposed to interferons upregulate interferon-stimulated genes. Nevertheless, quantitative experiments and linked mathematical models show that the interferon response can be effective in curbing viral spread through two distinct mechanisms. First, paracrine interferon signals from scattered source cells can protect many uninfected cells, and the self-amplification of interferon production might serve to calibrate response amplitude to strength of viral infection...
September 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129202/virus-dynamics-and-phyloanatomy-merging-population-dynamic-and-phylogenetic-approaches
#20
Eva Bons, Roland R Regoes
In evolutionary biology and epidemiology, phylodynamic methods are widely used to infer population biological characteristics, such as the rates of replication, death, migration, or, in the epidemiological context, pathogen spread. More recently, these methods have been used to elucidate the dynamics of viruses within their hosts. Especially the application of phylogeographic approaches has the potential to shed light on anatomical colonization pathways and the exchange of viruses between distinct anatomical compartments...
September 2018: Immunological Reviews
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