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Disasters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513972/stigma-in-science-the-case-of-earthquake-prediction
#1
Helene Joffe, Tiziana Rossetto, Caroline Bradley, Cliodhna O'Connor
This paper explores how earthquake scientists conceptualise earthquake prediction, particularly given the conviction of six earthquake scientists for manslaughter (subsequently overturned) on 22 October 2012 for having given inappropriate advice to the public prior to the L'Aquila earthquake of 6 April 2009. In the first study of its kind, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 earthquake scientists and the transcribed interviews were analysed thematically. The scientists primarily denigrated earthquake prediction, showing strong emotive responses and distancing themselves from earthquake 'prediction' in favour of 'forecasting'...
May 17, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452181/the-1970-bhola-cyclone-nationalist-politics-and-the-subsistence-crisis-contract-in-bangladesh
#2
Naomi Hossain
The devastating Bhola cyclone in November 1970 is credited with having triggered the political events that led to the division of Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh in 1971. A callous response to the disaster by the Pakistani regime resulted in a landslide electoral victory for Bengali nationalists, followed by a bitter and bloody civil war. Yet, despite its political momentousness, the Bhola cyclone has been the subject of little political analysis. This paper examines the events, arguing that its extraordinary political significance put disaster management on the nationalist agenda; the famine of 1974 confirmed its centrality, producing a social contract to protect the population against disasters and subsistence crises on which the country's acclaimed resilience to the effects of climate change rests...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452162/bridging-international-relations-and-disaster-studies-the-case-of-disaster-conflict-scholarship
#3
Simon Hollis
International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this shortfall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intra-national and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452150/the-moral-sense-of-humanitarian-actors-an-empirical-exploration
#4
Anaïs Rességuier
This paper examines humanitarianism's moral positioning above private and political interests to save lives and alleviate suffering. It does not aim to assess the legitimacy of this stance, but rather to probe the way in which humanitarian actors relate to this moral dimension in their everyday work. It investigates empirically humanitarian ethics from the perspective of humanitarian actors, drawing on interviews conducted in Beirut, Lebanon, in 2014. As it is exploratory, three key conceptual innovations were required...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452144/special-needs-hurricane-shelters-and-the-ageing-population-development-of-a-methodology-and-a-case-study-application
#5
Mark W Horner, Eren Erman Ozguven, Jean Michael Marcelin, Ayberk Kocatepe
Recent experience of hurricanes, particularly in the southeast United States, has heightened awareness of the multifaceted nature of and the challenges to effective disaster relief planning. One key element of this planning is providing adequate shelter at secure locations for people who evacuate. Some of these individuals will have 'special needs', yet there is little research on the relationship with shelter space. This study designed a geographic information systems-based network optimisation methodology for the siting of special needs hurricane relief shelters, with a focus on the transportation component...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452127/from-disaster-to-development-a-systematic-review-of-community-driven-humanitarian-logistics
#6
Jennifer Bealt, S Afshin Mansouri
A plethora of untapped resources exist within disaster-affected communities that can be used to address relief and development concerns. A systematic review of the literature relating to community participation in humanitarian logistics activities revealed that communities are able to form ad hoc networks that have the ability to meet a wide range of disaster management needs. These structures, characterised as Collaborative Aid Networks (CANs), have demonstrated efficient logistical capabilities exclusive of humanitarian organisations...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440595/remittances-as-aid-following-major-sudden-onset-natural-disasters
#7
Catherine Bragg, Glenn Gibson, Haleigh King, Ashley A Lefler, Faustin Ntoubandi
There is a general assumption, based on macroeconomic studies, that remittances will rise following major sudden-onset natural disasters. This is confirmed by a few assessments involving country-specific research, and usually short-term data. This study, questioning conventional wisdom, reviewed and graphed annual and quarterly remittance flows using International Monetary Fund and World Bank data from 2000-14 for 12 countries that confronted 18 major natural disasters. It found that, regardless of event type, annual remittances rose steadily from 2000-14 except for after the 2008-09 financial crisis...
April 25, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440584/flood-risk-and-inequalities-between-ethnic-groups-in-the-floodplains-of-england-and-wales
#8
Jane L Fielding
Previous research has shown that many vulnerable communities experience disproportional exposure to flood risk. This paper, though, is the first to look at broad ethnic/racial group differences in the United Kingdom. It contends that differences in culture and language, especially those of new immigrants, bestow vulnerabilities on such communities, resulting in a lack of knowledge that enables people to be aware, to be prepared, or to recover expediently after a flood emergency. Using UK 2011 Census data and Environment Agency flood maps, the paper demonstrates that it is the non-white communities in Wales that confront the most disproportionate level of flood risk: 23 per cent as compared to 11...
April 25, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440550/political-drivers-of-epidemic-response-foreign-healthcare-workers-and-the-2014-ebola-outbreak
#9
Daniel Nohrstedt, Erik Baekkeskov
This study demonstrates that countries responded quite differently to calls for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014. Using a new dataset on the scale and timing of national pledges and the deployment of HCWs to states experiencing outbreaks of the virus disease (principally, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), it shows that few foreign nations deployed HCWs early, some made pledges but then fulfilled them slowly, and most sent no HCWs at all. To aid understanding of such national responses, the paper reviews five theoretical perspectives that offer potentially competing or complementary explanations of foreign government medical assistance for international public health emergencies...
April 25, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429462/kinship-nomadism-and-humanitarian-aid-among-somalis-in-ethiopia
#10
Lauren Carruth
This paper draws on extended ethnographic and health policy research in eastern Ethiopia to reconsider kinship and nomadism among Somalis, as both of these cultural features transform in the contexts of recurrent humanitarian crises and episodic relief operations. The emergence and importance of new patterns of travel and migration among Somalis in Ethiopia reveal significant changes in the configurations and enactments of Somali kinship, on which many Somalis' mobility depends. Conversely, an analysis of Somalis' dynamic sub-clan groupings and geographically dispersed kinship networks also highlights emergent patterns of mobility and migration that enable access to training opportunities and employment with relief organisations, as well as to distributions of humanitarian aid...
April 21, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194817/need-for-adaptation-transformation-of-temporary-houses
#11
Elizabeth Wagemann
Building permanent accommodation after a disaster takes time for reasons including the removal of debris, the lack of available land, and the procurement of resources. In the period in-between, affected communities find shelter in different ways. Temporary houses or transitional shelters are used when families cannot return to their pre-disaster homes and no other alternative can be provided. In practice, families stay in a standard interim solution for months or even years while trying to return to their routines...
February 14, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133782/superstorm-sandy-and-the-academic-achievement-of-university-students
#12
Matthew D Doyle, Brian Lockwood, John G Comiskey
Much of the literature on the consequences of natural disasters has focused on their physical and psychological ramifications. Few researchers have considered how the impacts of a natural disaster can influence academic achievement. This study analyses data collected from nearly 300 students at a mid-sized, private university in the northeast United States to determine if the effects of Cyclone Sandy in 2012 are associated with measures of academic achievement. The findings reveal that experiencing headaches after the event resulted in a higher likelihood of students suffering a loss of academic motivation...
January 30, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133779/factors-affecting-the-united-nations-response-to-natural-disasters-what-determines-the-allocation-of-the-central-emergency-response-fund
#13
Tyler D Robinson, Thiago M Oliveira, Stephanie Kayden
Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries...
January 30, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133773/emotions-and-beliefs-after-a-disaster-a-comparative-analysis-of-haiti-and-indonesia
#14
Erin O'Connell, Roger P Abbott, Robert S White
A number of studies have examined emotional and belief responses following a disaster, yet there has been limited comparative analysis of responses to disasters in different places. This paper reviews the results of 366 questionnaires that evaluated key emotional and belief concepts in Haiti after the earthquake on 12 January 2010 (n=212) and in Indonesia after the earthquake in Yogyakarta on 27 May 2006 (n=154). The results indicate significant differences between the responses in the two settings, particularly in relation to feelings of impunity, self-blame for the disaster, regret about pre-earthquake behaviour, and a sense of justice in the world...
January 30, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093798/the-student-volunteer-army-a-repeat-emergent-emergency-response-organisation
#15
Sally Carlton, Colleen E Mills
This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication...
January 17, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059447/the-crisis-map-of-the-czech-republic-the-nationwide-deployment-of-an-ushahidi-application-for-disasters
#16
Jiří Pánek, Lukáš Marek, Vít Pászto, Jaroslav Valůch
Crisis mapping is a legitimate component of both crisis informatics and disaster risk management. It has become an effective tool for humanitarian workers, especially after the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Ushahidi is among the many mapping platforms on offer in the growing field of crisis mapping, and involves the application of crowdsourcing to create online and interactive maps of areas in turmoil. This paper presents the Crisis Map of the Czech Republic, which is the first such instrument to be deployed nationwide in Central Europe...
January 6, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989002/organisational-challenges-in-the-united-kingdom-s-post-disaster-crisis-support-work
#17
Howard Davis
Local authorities in the United Kingdom are required to 'lead' multi-agency humanitarian responses to major disasters. Concerns mounted in the late twentieth century that responses to people bereaved in the immediate aftermath of such events at best failed to meet their needs and at worst compounded their distress. Subsequent reviews and reforms reframed some victim needs as 'rights' and established legal, administrative, and practice frameworks to improve matters. Local authority 'crisis support', provided in partnership with other actors, lies at the heart of the UK's contemporary emergency response to the bereaved...
January 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988896/attitudes-towards-relocation-following-hurricane-sandy-should-we-stay-or-should-we-go
#18
Anamaria Bukvic, Graham Owen
This study explores the dilemma of whether to rebuild or relocate from the areas devastated by Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Since disasters represent the discernible manifestation of other complex coastal hazards, they offer a window of opportunity to engage residents in the dialogue on relocation as sometimes the most effective risk reduction strategy. The following research evaluates attitudes towards relocation and willingness to consider buyout among 46 surveyed households located in highly-affected communities five months after Sandy...
January 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988726/the-cultural-politics-of-mining-and-natural-disaster-in-indonesia-by-fire-and-sword
#19
Jeff Lewis, Belinda Lewis
Natural disasters are inevitably the outcome of cultural agonisms. The cultural politics of natural disasters are shaped by competing claims and conceptions of 'nature'. Recent disasters in Indonesia are directly linked to these contending conceptions and the ways in which different social groups imagine risk and reward. The Sidoarjo volcanic mudflow of 2006 represents a volatile and violent exemplar of contending cultural and economic claims. Like other disasters in Indonesia and elsewhere in the developing world, this 'natural' disaster is characterised by differing conceptions of 'nature' as cultural tradition, divine force, and natural resource...
January 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988599/deconstruction-of-destruction-stories-narrative-inequality-and-disasters
#20
Ashleigh Elain McKinzie
A commonly-held belief is that natural disasters do not discriminate. This paper, though, poses the following theoretical question: what does the elision of race, class, and gender in the news media say about disasters in the neoliberal era? It draws on the author's analysis of two prominent newspapers-The New York Times and USA Today-and their coverage of the recovery process after devastating tornadoes in two towns in the United States (Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri) in 2011. The study asserts that the narrative of the news media is one with which people are familiar and that it fits into larger 'formula stories'...
January 2017: Disasters
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