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Disasters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691738/examining-the-impacts-of-disaster-resettlement-from-a-livelihood-perspective-a-case-study-of-qinling-mountains-china
#1
Xuesong Guo, Naim Kapucu
Disaster resettlement, as a mitigation and preparedness measure, entails significant economic, physical, and social impacts, which continue to challenge understanding of recovery from major events, especially regarding the extent of the context and environmental efforts to rebuild livelihoods. Based on a case study of Qinling Mountains, China, this research investigates the effects of disaster resettlement from a livelihoods perspective. Methodologically, it proposes a framework that combines the pressure-state-response framework and the sustainable livelihoods approach, and it employs a structural equation model to examine how specific factors affect disaster resettlement...
July 10, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682497/an-overdue-alignment-of-risk-and-resilience-a-conceptual-contribution-to-community-resilience
#2
Junko Mochizuki, Adriana Keating, Wei Liu, Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler, Reinhard Mechler
A systematic review of literature on community resilience measurement published between 2005 and 2014 revealed that the profound lack of clarity on risk and resilience is one of the main reasons why confusion about terms such as adaptive capacity, resilience, and vulnerability persists, despite the effort spared to operationalise these concepts. Resilience is measured in isolation in some cases, where a shock is perceived to arise external to the system of interest. Problematically, this contradicts the way in which the climate change and disaster communities perceive risk as manifesting itself endogenously as a function of exposure, hazard, and vulnerability...
July 6, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543429/earthquake-insurance-pricing-a-risk-based-approach
#3
Jeng-Hsiang Lin
Flat earthquake premiums are 'uniformly' set for a variety of buildings in many countries, neglecting the fact that the risk of damage to buildings by earthquakes is based on a wide range of factors. How these factors influence the insurance premiums is worth being studied further. Proposed herein is a risk-based approach to estimate the earthquake insurance rates of buildings. Examples of application of the approach to buildings located in Taipei city of Taiwan were examined. Then, the earthquake insurance rates for the buildings investigated were calculated and tabulated...
May 23, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513972/stigma-in-science-the-case-of-earthquake-prediction
#4
Helene Joffe, Tiziana Rossetto, Caroline Bradley, Cliodhna O'Connor
This paper explores how earthquake scientists conceptualise earthquake prediction, particularly given the conviction of six earthquake scientists for manslaughter (subsequently overturned) on 22 October 2012 for having given inappropriate advice to the public prior to the L'Aquila earthquake of 6 April 2009. In the first study of its kind, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 earthquake scientists and the transcribed interviews were analysed thematically. The scientists primarily denigrated earthquake prediction, showing strong emotive responses and distancing themselves from earthquake 'prediction' in favour of 'forecasting'...
May 17, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655013/human-rights-and-proactive-displacement-determining-the-appropriate-balance-between-the-duty-to-protect-and-the-right-to-remain
#5
Ronan McDermott, Pat Gibbons
The proactive displacement by public authorities of populations from areas perceived to be exposed to a high risk of disaster presents complex human rights challenges. Provided that no ulterior motive is at play, the use of compulsory evacuations and relocations as policy responses to such risk is mandated by the duty to protect the right to life. However, proactive displacement in the interest of saving lives can be problematic as such measures can lead to the limitation of other human rights, resulting in an intricate assessment of whether compulsory evacuation or permanent relocation is proportional in any given circumstance...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654958/household-adjustment-to-flood-risk-a-survey-of-coastal-residents-in-texas-and-florida-united-states
#6
Samuel D Brody, Yoonjeong Lee, Wesley E Highfield
Individual households have increasingly borne responsibility for reducing the adverse impacts of flooding on their property. Little observational research has been conducted, however, at the household level to examine the major factors contributing to the selection of a particular household adjustment. This study addresses the issue by evaluating statistically the factors influencing the adoption of various household flood hazard adjustments. The results indicate that respondents with higher-value homes or longer housing tenure are more likely to adopt structural and expensive techniques...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654905/the-evolving-local-social-contract-for-managing-climate-and-disaster-risk-in-vietnam
#7
Ian Christoplos, Le Duc Ngoan, Le Thi Hoa Sen, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, Lily Salloum Lindegaard
How do disasters shape local government legitimacy in relation to managing climate- and disaster-related risks? This paper looks at how local authorities in Central Vietnam perceive their social contract for risk reduction, including the partial merging of responsibilities for disaster risk management with new plans for and investments in climate change adaptation and broader socioeconomic development. The findings indicate that extreme floods and storms constitute critical junctures that stimulate genuine institutional change...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654847/cyclone-aila-livelihood-stress-and-migration-empirical-evidence-from-coastal-bangladesh
#8
Sebak Kumar Saha
This paper investigates why households migrated as a unit to Khulna City from the affected Upazilas of Dacope and Koyra in Khulna District, Bangladesh, following Cyclone Aila on 25 May 2009. The study reveals that households migrated primarily because of the livelihood stress that resulted from the failure to derive a secure income like before the event from the impacted areas-other push and pull factors also played a part in their migration decision. Despite all of the Aila-induced losses and problems, all households wanted to avoid migration, but they were unable to do so for this principal reason...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654660/investigating-the-key-indicators-for-evaluating-post-disaster-shelter
#9
REVIEW
Ronita Nath, Harry Shannon, Conrad Kabali, Mark Oremus
This study sought to identify the primary indicators for evaluating shelter assistance following natural disasters and then to develop a shelter evaluation instrument based on these indicators. Electronic databases and the 'grey' literature were scoured for publications with a relation to post-disaster shelter assistance. Indicators for evaluating such assistance were extracted from these publications. In total, 1,525 indicators were extracted from 181 publications. A preliminary evaluation instrument was designed from these 1,525 indicators...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654488/assessing-non-metro-recovery-across-two-continents-issues-and-limitations
#10
Edward J Blakely, Peter M J Fisher
Rural and remote areas of countries such as Australia and the United States are less well-resourced and often poorer than their city counterparts. When a disaster strikes, therefore, their long-term recovery can be impeded by being situated 'over the horizon'. Nonetheless, they are likely to enjoy higher social capital, with 'locals' banding together to help restore economic and social life in the wake of a calamitous incident. At the same time, a repeat of extreme events, springing in part from alteration to the landscape through intense human occupation, threatens to derail sustainable recovery processes everywhere, suggesting that renewed emphasis needs to be placed on preparedness...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654318/patterns-of-preference-and-practice-bridging-actors-in-wildfire-response-networks-in-the-american-northwest
#11
A J Faas, Anne-Lise K Velez, Clare FitzGerald, Branda L Nowell, Toddi A Steelman
The roles of bridging actors in emergency response networks can be important to disaster response outcomes. This paper is based on an evaluation of wildfire preparedness and response networks in 21 large-scale wildfire events in the wildland-urban interface near national forests in the American Northwest. The study investigated how key individuals in responder networks anticipated seeking out specific people in perceived bridging roles prior to the occurrence of wildfires, and then captured who in fact assumed these roles during actual large-scale events...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654130/social-network-characteristics-and-resource-access-among-formerly-displaced-households-in-lira-uganda
#12
Bernard B Obaa, Robert E Mazur
In rural African communities, the support of extended family, friends, and neighbours is essential in borrowing or leveraging land, labour, food, and money, especially at times of social and financial turmoil. Little is known, though, about the nature of the networks and the conditions under which they may generate greater support in post-conflict communities. This study, conducted in the Lira district of northern Uganda, examined the composition, proximity, and size of the networks that households utilise to gain access to resources during and after resettlement...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654026/beyond-men-and-women-a-critical-perspective-on-gender-and-disaster
#13
J C Gaillard, Kristinne Sanz, Benigno C Balgos, Soledad Natalia M Dalisay, Andrew Gorman-Murray, Fagalua Smith, Vaito'a Toelupe
Consideration of gender in the disaster sphere has centred almost exclusively on the vulnerability and capacities of women. This trend stems from a polarised Western understanding of gender as a binary concept of man-woman. Such an approach also mirrors the dominant framing of disasters and disaster risk reduction (DRR), emphasising Western standards and practices to the detriment of local, non-Western identities and experiences. This paper argues that the man-woman dichotomy is an insufficient construct with which to address the gendered dimensions of a disaster as it fails to capture the realities of diverse gender minorities in non-Western contexts...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652523/trust-but-verify-social-media-models-for-disaster-management
#14
Amisha M Mehta, Axel Bruns, Judith Newton
A lack of trust in the information exchanged via social media may significantly hinder decisionmaking by community members and emergency services during disasters. The need for timely information at such times, though, challenges traditional ways of establishing trust. This paper, building on a multi-year research project that combined social media data analysis and participant observation within an emergency management organisation and in-depth engagement with stakeholders across the sector, pinpoints and examines assumptions governing trust and trusting relationships in social media disaster management...
July 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452181/the-1970-bhola-cyclone-nationalist-politics-and-the-subsistence-crisis-contract-in-bangladesh
#15
Naomi Hossain
The devastating Bhola cyclone in November 1970 is credited with having triggered the political events that led to the division of Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh in 1971. A callous response to the disaster by the Pakistani regime resulted in a landslide electoral victory for Bengali nationalists, followed by a bitter and bloody civil war. Yet, despite its political momentousness, the Bhola cyclone has been the subject of little political analysis. This paper examines the events, arguing that its extraordinary political significance put disaster management on the nationalist agenda; the famine of 1974 confirmed its centrality, producing a social contract to protect the population against disasters and subsistence crises on which the country's acclaimed resilience to the effects of climate change rests...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452162/bridging-international-relations-and-disaster-studies-the-case-of-disaster-conflict-scholarship
#16
Simon Hollis
International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this shortfall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intra-national and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452150/the-moral-sense-of-humanitarian-actors-an-empirical-exploration
#17
Anaïs Rességuier
This paper examines humanitarianism's moral positioning above private and political interests to save lives and alleviate suffering. It does not aim to assess the legitimacy of this stance, but rather to probe the way in which humanitarian actors relate to this moral dimension in their everyday work. It investigates empirically humanitarian ethics from the perspective of humanitarian actors, drawing on interviews conducted in Beirut, Lebanon, in 2014. As it is exploratory, three key conceptual innovations were required...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452144/special-needs-hurricane-shelters-and-the-ageing-population-development-of-a-methodology-and-a-case-study-application
#18
Mark W Horner, Eren Erman Ozguven, Jean Michael Marcelin, Ayberk Kocatepe
Recent experience of hurricanes, particularly in the southeast United States, has heightened awareness of the multifaceted nature of and the challenges to effective disaster relief planning. One key element of this planning is providing adequate shelter at secure locations for people who evacuate. Some of these individuals will have 'special needs', yet there is little research on the relationship with shelter space. This study designed a geographic information systems-based network optimisation methodology for the siting of special needs hurricane relief shelters, with a focus on the transportation component...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452127/from-disaster-to-development-a-systematic-review-of-community-driven-humanitarian-logistics
#19
Jennifer Bealt, S Afshin Mansouri
A plethora of untapped resources exist within disaster-affected communities that can be used to address relief and development concerns. A systematic review of the literature relating to community participation in humanitarian logistics activities revealed that communities are able to form ad hoc networks that have the ability to meet a wide range of disaster management needs. These structures, characterised as Collaborative Aid Networks (CANs), have demonstrated efficient logistical capabilities exclusive of humanitarian organisations...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440595/remittances-as-aid-following-major-sudden-onset-natural-disasters
#20
Catherine Bragg, Glenn Gibson, Haleigh King, Ashley A Lefler, Faustin Ntoubandi
There is a general assumption, based on macroeconomic studies, that remittances will rise following major sudden-onset natural disasters. This is confirmed by a few assessments involving country-specific research, and usually short-term data. This study, questioning conventional wisdom, reviewed and graphed annual and quarterly remittance flows using International Monetary Fund and World Bank data from 2000-14 for 12 countries that confronted 18 major natural disasters. It found that, regardless of event type, annual remittances rose steadily from 2000-14 except for after the 2008-09 financial crisis...
April 25, 2017: Disasters
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