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Xia Wei, Qi Ding, Nan Yu, Jiuyun Mi, Jingting Ren, Jie Li, Shudi Xu, Yanzhong Gao, Youmin Guo
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the quantitative chest tomographic features of chronic bronchitis with preserved ratio and impaired spirometry (PRISm), including airway wall area, emphysema index, and lung capacity. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study of 343 patients at the Ninth Hospital of Xi'an Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University between October 2014 and September 2017. The patients were divided into three groups: 77 cases of chronic bronchitis with normal lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity) (FEV1/FVC > 70%, FEV1%pred > 80%), 80 cases of chronic bronchitis with PRISm (FEV1/FVC > 70%, FEV1%pred < 80%), and 186 cases of the early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FEV1/FVC < 70%, FEV1%pred > 50%, that is, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grade 1 + 2)...
September 14, 2018: Lung
Jerome Cantor, Arnulfo Ochoa, Shuren Ma, Xingjian Liu, Gerard Turino
PURPOSE: While the elastin-specific crosslinks, desmosine and isodesmosine (DID), are increased in blood, urine, and sputum of patients with clinically documented pulmonary emphysema, the usefulness of DID in detecting early lung injury remains untested. To this end, our laboratory has measured DID in a hamster model of smoke-induced emphysema, involving only minimal alveolar wall damage. METHODS: Animals were either treated with cigarette smoke for 2 h/day, 5 days/week, or exposed only to room air (controls) for a period of 3 months...
September 14, 2018: Lung
Filippo Patrucco, Francesco Gavelli, Matteo Daverio, Cleto Antonini, Renzo Boldorini, Caterina Casadio, Piero E Balbo
INTRODUCTION: Electromagnetic navigation (ENB) is a guidance tool used in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) and masses. Its diagnostic yield is highly variable (38-71%) and a recent study has put in doubt the role of ENB in sampling SPNs in a real-life setting. The aim of this study is to describe the 5-year experience of our center with ENB, analyzing the population, possible confounding factors, and the diagnostic yield and accuracy of this technique. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study including all consecutive patients who underwent ENB for SPNs and masses from January 2011 to December 2015...
September 12, 2018: Lung
E Radzikowska, K Błasińska-Przerwa, E Wiatr, I Bestry, R Langfort, K Roszkowski-Śliż
INTRODUCTION: Pneumothorax often develops in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH), but some patients take a long time to be correctly diagnosed. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the frequency of pneumothorax in PLCH and analysed the role of chest computed tomography (CT) in the prompt diagnosis. PATIENTS AND MATERIAL: Of the 90 patients with PLCH seen from 2000 to 2015, 29 (32%) had pneumothorax as the initial finding. In this group, 18 (62%) patients were diagnosed within 1 month, whereas the diagnosis was delayed for 4-120 months in 11 (38%) patients...
September 5, 2018: Lung
Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Álvaro A Cruz, Valmar Bião Lima, Rafael Stelmach, Giovanni Viegi
PURPOSE: Long Acting Beta2 Agonists (LABA) prevent COPD exacerbations in strictly standardized clinical trials. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the amount of LABA provided by the government and the trend in COPD hospital admission (HA) rate in Brazil. METHODS: This is a longitudinal large-scale real-life study. We calculated COPD HA rate and the number of subjects per 105 inhabitant who received LABA supplied by the government in each Brazilian municipality, between years 2004 and 2013...
September 5, 2018: Lung
Sun-Hye Lee, Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Jisu Hong, An-Soo Jang
PURPOSE: Annexin A5 (ANXA5) has a potential role in cellular signal transduction, inflammation, and fibrosis. However, the exact role of ANXA5 in asthma remains to be clarified. The aims of the present study were to investigate ANXA5 protein expression in a mouse model of asthma and pollutant exposure and to elucidate the relationships between clinical variables and plasma ANXA5 levels in patients with asthma. METHODS: A murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles has been established using BALB/c mice, and we examined ANXA5 expression and lung fibrosis using this model...
September 4, 2018: Lung
Irina N Taran, Anna A Belevskaya, Marina A Saidova, Tamila V Martynyuk, Irina E Chazova
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of riociguat on World Health Organization functional class (WHO FC), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), right heart remodeling, and right ventricular-pulmonary arterial (RV-PA) coupling in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) who are treatment-naïve or who have failed to achieve treatment goals with sildenafil therapy. METHODS: Twenty patients with IPAH were enrolled: 12 had not previously received PAH-targeted therapy (treatment-naïve subgroup) and 8 had been receiving sildenafil therapy but failed to achieve treatment goals; on entering this pilot study these 8 patients were switched from sildenafil to riociguat therapy (treatment-switch subgroup)...
September 4, 2018: Lung
Wilson Oliveira Ezequiel Neto, Giovana Rodrigues Pereira, Márcia Silva Barbosa, Natan José Dutra Dias, Denise Rossato Silva
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is often carried out empirically, based on clinical and radiological findings. Chest X-ray (CXR) has good sensitivity but poor specificity in TB diagnosis. Xpert MTB/RIF (Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Rifampicin) is increasingly used in many countries as the initial diagnostic test for TB. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of radiological findings with the Xpert MTB/RIF test in patients with suspected pulmonary TB. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in an outpatient TB clinic...
September 3, 2018: Lung
Aliaë A R Mohamed-Hussein, Suzan S Sayed, Heba M Saad Eldien, Azza M Assar, Fatma E Yehia
BACKGROUND: The β2 -adrenergic receptor gene is one of the most extensively studied genes with respect to asthma prevalence and severity. The Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms in the β2 -adrenergic receptor gene cause changes in the amino acids sequence of the receptor which may cause alteration in response to bronchodilators and the risk of asthma. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the association between β2 -adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and asthma risk, severity and response to therapy...
September 3, 2018: Lung
Jenieke R Allen, Lingyin Ge, Ying Huang, Rena Brauer, Tanyalak Parimon, Suzanne L Cassel, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Peter Chen
INTRODUCTION: Influenza infects millions of people each year causing respiratory distress and death in severe cases. On average, 200,000 people annually are hospitalized in the United States for influenza related complications. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), a secreted protein that inhibits MMPs, has been found to be involved in lung inflammation. Here, we evaluated the role of TIMP-1 in the host response to influenza-induced lung injury. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and Timp1-deficient (Timp1-/- ) mice that were 8-12 weeks old were administered A/PR/8/34 (PR8), a murine adapted H1N1 influenza virus, and euthanized 6 days after influenza installation...
August 30, 2018: Lung
Hana Serajeddini, Paola Rogliani, Marco Mura
PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is complex, and its clinical course is difficult to predict. Perceived dyspnea, exercise capacity, and lung physiology have all been associated with mortality outcomes in IPF, but the significance of these relationships is unclear. We sought to investigate the correlation among these variables and their independent predictive capability in determining mortality outcomes. METHODS: Four-hundred-thirty-seven patients diagnosed with IPF from three independent centers were included in the study...
August 27, 2018: Lung
András Bikov, Alpár Horváth, Gábor Tomisa, Liza Bártfai, Zoltán Bártfai
PURPOSE: Comorbidities associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect quality of life and increase mortality. Asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) may express a different profile of comorbidities compared to COPD alone. It is unclear how recent changes in GOLD recommendations affect the profile of comorbidities in COPD and ACO. METHODS: Eight hundred and thirty-four patients with COPD were recruited from 67 Hungarian secondary care outpatient clinics, 469 of them had ACO...
July 14, 2018: Lung
Imran H Iftikhar, Mathew Schimmel, William Bender, Colin Swenson, David Amrol
BACKGROUND: Several new biologics have been studied in patients with eosinophilic asthma with varying degrees of response on clinical outcomes. No head-to-head trial has directly compared the efficacy of these drugs. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize data on the relative efficacy of benralizumab, dupilumab, lebrikizumab, mepolizumab, reslizumab, and tralokinumab using network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed from inception to December 15th, 2017...
October 2018: Lung
Zin W Myint, James McCormick, Aman Chauhan, Elizabeth Behrens, Lowell B Anthony
BACKGROUND: Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare pulmonary condition, characterized by diffuse proliferation of neuroendocrine cells in the respiratory epithelium. DIPNECH lesions are less than 5 mm in size and are limited to the basement membrane with no invasion. There is limited information regarding epidemiology, natural history of disease progression, or the management of this rare entity. We present the experience of a center with extensive expertise in neuroendocrine disease...
October 2018: Lung
Mahesh Manjunath Gouda, Sadiya B Shaikh, Yashodhar Prabhakar Bhandary
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most advanced form of acute lung injury (ALI). This is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and severe hypoxemia. According to Berlin definition of ARDS, this is defined based on the timings, radiographic changes, edema formation, and severity on the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio. During ARDS, the loss of integrity of the epithelium causes the septic shock. The degree of epithelial injury is the major prognostic marker of ARDS. In addition to this, inflammatory cell migration, fibro-proliferation, and activation of apoptosis also play an important role in the pathophysiology of ARDS...
October 2018: Lung
Xihong Hu, Lin Wu
We present a 7.8-month-old girl with recurrent pneumonia, growth retardation, and tachypnea. Computed tomography revealed a particularly unusual esophageal lung, in association with pulmonary vascular anomalies of right pulmonary veins atresia and right pulmonary artery hypoplasia.
October 2018: Lung
Sunkaru Touray, Rahul N Sood, Daniel Lindstrom, Jonathan Holdorf, Sumera Ahmad, Daniel B Knox, Andres F Sosa
PURPOSE: Complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema are a leading cause of morbidity in the United States with over 1 million admissions annually and a mortality rate that remains high in spite of recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. The identification of high risk patients is crucial for improved management and the provision of cost-effective care. The RAPID score is a scoring system comprised of the following variables: renal function, age, purulence, infection source, and dietary factors and has been shown to predict outcomes in patients with pleural space infections...
October 2018: Lung
Jonathan H Chung, Jonathan G Goldin
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD). In this review, we describe the central role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the diagnosis of IPF and discuss how communication between pulmonologists and radiologists might be improved to make the interpretation of HRCT scans more effective. Clinical information is important in the interpretation of HRCT scans, as the likelihood that specific radiologic features reflect IPF is not absolute, but dependent on the clinical context...
October 2018: Lung
Luca Salvatore De Santo, Antonio Esquinas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Lung
Yang Xia, Lexin Xia, Lingyun Lou, Rui Jin, Huahao Shen, Wen Li
Chronic airway inflammatory diseases remain a major problem worldwide, such that there is a need for additional therapeutic targets and novel drugs. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a group of non-selective cation channels expressed throughout the body that are regulated by various stimuli. TRP channels have been identified in numerous cell types in the respiratory tract, including sensory neurons, airway epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. Different types of TRP channels induce cough in sensory neurons via the vagus nerve...
October 2018: Lung
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