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November 8, 2018: Lung
Bryn Rosser-Stanford, Karianne Backx, Rachel Lord, Edgar Mark Williams
PURPOSE: While the static and dynamic lung volumes of active swimmers is often greater than the predicted volume of similarly active non-swimmers, little is known if their ventilatory response to exercise is also different. METHODS: Three groups of anthropometrically matched male adults were recruited, daily active swimmers (n = 15), daily active in fields sport (Rugby and Football) (n = 15), and recreationally active (n = 15). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) was measured before and after exercise to volitional exhaustion...
November 2, 2018: Lung
Wendong Hao, Manxiang Li, Cailian Zhang, Yunqing Zhang, Yani Xue
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum fractalkine (CX3CL1/FKN) level and the multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) emphysema index in Chinese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: We detected chemokine CX3CL1 in serum from 95 Chinese patients with COPD by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. According to the MSCT emphysema index, the selected cases were divided into an emphysema-dominant group (n = 25) and a non-emphysema-dominant group (n = 70)...
October 31, 2018: Lung
Larissa Martinez, Diego Rodrigues, Leila Donária, Karina C Furlanetto, Felipe Vilaça Cavallari Machado, Lorena Paltanin Schneider, Marcos Ribeiro, Nidia A Hernandes, Fabio Pitta
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between slow and forced vital capacity (SVC-FVC) difference with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) during the 6-min walking test (6MWT) in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-four subjects with COPD (12 males; 67 ± 6 years; forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1 ] 56 ± 18% predicted) performed lung function tests by spirometry and plethysmography. DH was assessed by serial measurements of inspiratory capacity (IC) performed during the 6MWT and defined as ∆IC ≥ 150 mL or 10%...
October 29, 2018: Lung
Tiara Boghanim, Marlène Murris, Tatiana Lamon, Anne Huynh, Julien Mazières, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Alain Didier
We report a case of thoracic air-leak syndrome, an extremely rare complication developed after an episode of organizing pneumonia due to graft-vs-host disease in a 19-year-old male. This unusual non-infectious pulmonary complication occurred 527 days after allogeneic HSCT and led to the patient's death within 1 month due to cardio-respiratory failure. Herein, we highlight chest-imaging aspects which are typical. Early detection by high-resolution chest CT could improve patient management.
October 29, 2018: Lung
Teresa Pitts, Rachel Bordelon, Alyssa Huff, Barry J Byrne, Barbara K Smith
PURPOSE: While factors leading to hypoventilation have been well studied in Pompe disease, cough effectiveness and airway clearance practices are less understood. We aimed to identify significant factors that influence peak cough flow (PCF) in Pompe, and to detect whether pulmonary hygiene practices were reflective of reduced PCF. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of 20 subjects with Pompe disease (infantile-onset: 7, juvenile-onset: 6, adult-onset: 14)...
October 25, 2018: Lung
Ayham Daher, Michael Matthes, András Keszei, Vincent Brandenburg, Tobias Müller, Christian Cornelissen, Michael Dreher
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dyspnea is one of the most disturbing symptoms for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or heart failure (HF). This study investigated dyspnea triggers and factors associated with worsening dyspnea in patients with COPD or HF. METHODS: COPD support group members and HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and no airway obstruction answered a questionnaire describing different weather conditions (rising/falling air pressure, sunny, foggy, rainy, windy, snowy, hazy, high ozone levels, and airborne pollen) and environmental circumstances (cooking, grilling, perfumes, cigarette smoke, gasoline odor, and flower scents) and were asked to estimate the occurrence and severity of dyspnea under these conditions using predefined scales...
October 10, 2018: Lung
Mazen O Al-Qadi, Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba, Rahul Kashyap, Sumanjit Kaur, Steve G Peters
BACKGROUND: Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) have major roles in the evaluation of parenchymal lung diseases in immunocompromised patients. Given the limited evidence, lack of standardized practice, and variable perception of procedural safety, uncertainty still exists on what constitutes the best approach in critically ill patients with immunocompromised state who present with pulmonary infiltrates in the era of prophylactic antimicrobials and the presence of new diagnostic tests...
October 10, 2018: Lung
Bruno Hochhegger, Matheus Zanon, Stephan Altmayer, Gabriel S Pacini, Fernanda Balbinot, Martina Z Francisco, Ruhana Dalla Costa, Guilherme Watte, Marcel Koenigkam Santos, Marcelo C Barros, Diana Penha, Klaus Irion, Edson Marchiori
Quantitative imaging in lung cancer is a rapidly evolving modality in radiology that is changing clinical practice from a qualitative analysis of imaging features to a more dynamic, spatial, and phenotypical characterization of suspected lesions. Some quantitative parameters, such as the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT-derived standard uptake values (SUV), have already been incorporated into current practice as it provides important information for diagnosis, staging, and treatment response of patients with lung cancer...
October 9, 2018: Lung
Eva Bernardi, Carlotta Merlo, Annalisa Cogo
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Endothelial dysfunction may play a role in the onset of cardiovascular event. Previous studies showed an impaired endothelial function (measured by flow-mediated dilation, FMD) in COPD patients compared to healthy subjects. To the best of our knowledge no study has compared FMD in COPD and in cardiac (coronary artery disease, CAD) patients. We aimed to assess FMD in healthy subjects, COPD, CAD, and COPD + CAD...
October 3, 2018: Lung
Marta Íscar-Urrutia, Claudia Janeth Madrid-Carbajal, Gemma Rubinos-Cuadrado, Ramón Fernández-Álvarez, María José Vázquez-López, Cristina Hernández-González, Ana Isabel Enríquez-Rodríguez, Marta García-Clemente
INTRODUCTION: Poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness are common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and both are negatively correlated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The objective of our study was to evaluate subjective and objective sleep quality in adult CF patients and its effect on HRQoL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study of CF patients > 18 years of age. Patients underwent nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) and were administered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI) and the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (CFQR 14 + Spain)...
October 3, 2018: Lung
Chen Zhan, Rong Xu, Jiaxing Liu, Shengfang Zhang, Wei Luo, Ruchong Chen, Kefang Lai
BACKGROUND: Non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) is one common cause of chronic cough which is characterized as airway eosinophilic inflammation like asthma but lack of airway hyper-responsiveness. Previous studies showed that Th2-pathway plays a role in NAEB, but the role of non-Th2 pathway in mechanism of NAEB remains unknown. Recently, IL-17A, a Th17-pathway cytokine, has been demonstrated to be involved in asthma development. However, the relationship between Th17-pathway and NAEB is unknown...
October 1, 2018: Lung
Betina Charvet Machado, Patrícia Santos Jacques, Louise Piva Penteado, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin
BACKGROUND: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is a heterogeneous disease. There are few studies about prognostic factors in these patients. Our study aims to assess mortality rates and related factors in a cohort of patients and test the ability of the BSI and FACED scores in predicting mortality in this cohort. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort analysis of 70 patients with NCFB recruited from May 2008 to August 2010. At baseline, patients underwent clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, 6-min walk test, and quality of life assessment...
September 25, 2018: Lung
Eulogio Pleguezuelos, Lluis Guirao, Eva Moreno, Beatriz Samitier, Pilar Ortega, Xavier Vila, Manuel V Garnacho-Castaño, María Majó, Laura Ovejero, Marc Miravitlles
It is well known that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients present with muscle dysfunction that may not correlate with the degree of severity of airflow obstruction. Historically, the strength deficit of the knee extensor musculature (quadriceps) has been described as an independent factor of mortality in COPD. We present the results of a retrospective study with longitudinal follow-up of 60 patients with severe COPD followed for 7 years. During follow-up 22 patients died, mainly of respiratory cause...
September 21, 2018: Lung
Xia Wei, Qi Ding, Nan Yu, Jiuyun Mi, Jingting Ren, Jie Li, Shudi Xu, Yanzhong Gao, Youmin Guo
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the quantitative chest tomographic features of chronic bronchitis with preserved ratio and impaired spirometry (PRISm), including airway wall area, emphysema index, and lung capacity. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study of 343 patients at the Ninth Hospital of Xi'an Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University between October 2014 and September 2017. The patients were divided into three groups: 77 cases of chronic bronchitis with normal lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity) (FEV1/FVC > 70%, FEV1%pred > 80%), 80 cases of chronic bronchitis with PRISm (FEV1/FVC > 70%, FEV1%pred < 80%), and 186 cases of the early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FEV1/FVC < 70%, FEV1%pred > 50%, that is, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grade 1 + 2)...
September 14, 2018: Lung
Jerome Cantor, Arnulfo Ochoa, Shuren Ma, Xingjian Liu, Gerard Turino
PURPOSE: While the elastin-specific crosslinks, desmosine and isodesmosine (DID), are increased in blood, urine, and sputum of patients with clinically documented pulmonary emphysema, the usefulness of DID in detecting early lung injury remains untested. To this end, our laboratory has measured DID in a hamster model of smoke-induced emphysema, involving only minimal alveolar wall damage. METHODS: Animals were either treated with cigarette smoke for 2 h/day, 5 days/week, or exposed only to room air (controls) for a period of 3 months...
September 14, 2018: Lung
Filippo Patrucco, Francesco Gavelli, Matteo Daverio, Cleto Antonini, Renzo Boldorini, Caterina Casadio, Piero E Balbo
INTRODUCTION: Electromagnetic navigation (ENB) is a guidance tool used in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) and masses. Its diagnostic yield is highly variable (38-71%) and a recent study has put in doubt the role of ENB in sampling SPNs in a real-life setting. The aim of this study is to describe the 5-year experience of our center with ENB, analyzing the population, possible confounding factors, and the diagnostic yield and accuracy of this technique. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study including all consecutive patients who underwent ENB for SPNs and masses from January 2011 to December 2015...
September 12, 2018: Lung
E Radzikowska, K Błasińska-Przerwa, E Wiatr, I Bestry, R Langfort, K Roszkowski-Śliż
INTRODUCTION: Pneumothorax often develops in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH), but some patients take a long time to be correctly diagnosed. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the frequency of pneumothorax in PLCH and analysed the role of chest computed tomography (CT) in the prompt diagnosis. PATIENTS AND MATERIAL: Of the 90 patients with PLCH seen from 2000 to 2015, 29 (32%) had pneumothorax as the initial finding. In this group, 18 (62%) patients were diagnosed within 1 month, whereas the diagnosis was delayed for 4-120 months in 11 (38%) patients...
September 5, 2018: Lung
Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Álvaro A Cruz, Valmar Bião Lima, Rafael Stelmach, Giovanni Viegi
PURPOSE: Long Acting Beta2 Agonists (LABA) prevent COPD exacerbations in strictly standardized clinical trials. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the amount of LABA provided by the government and the trend in COPD hospital admission (HA) rate in Brazil. METHODS: This is a longitudinal large-scale real-life study. We calculated COPD HA rate and the number of subjects per 105 inhabitant who received LABA supplied by the government in each Brazilian municipality, between years 2004 and 2013...
September 5, 2018: Lung
Sun-Hye Lee, Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Jisu Hong, An-Soo Jang
PURPOSE: Annexin A5 (ANXA5) has a potential role in cellular signal transduction, inflammation, and fibrosis. However, the exact role of ANXA5 in asthma remains to be clarified. The aims of the present study were to investigate ANXA5 protein expression in a mouse model of asthma and pollutant exposure and to elucidate the relationships between clinical variables and plasma ANXA5 levels in patients with asthma. METHODS: A murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles has been established using BALB/c mice, and we examined ANXA5 expression and lung fibrosis using this model...
September 4, 2018: Lung
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