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Xingjian Liu, Shuren Ma, Gerard Turino, Jerome Cantor
INTRODUCTION: Desmosine and isodesmosine (DID) are unique elastin crosslinks that may serve as biomarkers for elastic fiber degradation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Previously, our laboratory found that the ratio of free to peptide-bound DID in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) showed a significant positive correlation with the extent of airspace enlargement in an elastase model of pulmonary emphysema. To further evaluate this hypothesis, our laboratory measured this ratio in a bleomycin (BLM) model of pulmonary fibrosis, which involved different microarchitectural changes than those associated with pulmonary emphysema...
October 19, 2016: Lung
Zoraida Verde, Jose M Rodríguez González-Moro, Luis M Chicharro, Luis Reinoso-Barbero, Fernando Bandrés, Félix Gómez-Gallego, Catalina Santiago
Reports regarding smoking differences in α-klotho expression have provided conflicting results. In the current study we focused on the influence of smoking intensity to serum levels of the aging molecule α-klotho in healthy smokers. 40 middle aged healthy smokers without airway obstruction or restriction were selected for the analysis. Serum levels of soluble α-klotho were significantly higher in heavy smokers (P < 0.001). These results are in agreement with the possibility that α-klotho acts as anti-inflammatory molecule and strengthen the hypothesis that an increase of serum levels of α-klotho might be a compensatory response to smoking stress in healthy population...
October 17, 2016: Lung
I Tuleta, F Stöckigt, U R Juergens, C Pizarro, J W Schrickel, G Kristiansen, G Nickenig, D Skowasch
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent hypoxia as a surrogate of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with different cardiovascular complications. However, the effects of intermittent hypoxia on the lung tissue are less known. Therefore, the aim of our present study was to investigate if intermittent hypoxia may influence oxidative stress, inflammation, and protease/antiprotease system in the lung. Additionally, potential protective properties of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative drugs have been evaluated...
October 13, 2016: Lung
Giovanni Leuzzi, Filippo Lococo, Gabriele Alessandrini, Isabella Sperduti, Lorenzo Spaggiari, Federico Venuta, Erino A Rendina, Pierluigi M Granone, Cristian Rapicetta, Piero Zannini, Gaetano Di Rienzo, Maurizio Nicolosi, Francesco Facciolo
OBJECTIVE: Although surgery in selected small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients has been proposed as a part of multimodality therapy, so far, the prognostic impact of node-spreading pattern has not been fully elucidated. To investigate this issue, a retrospective analysis was performed. METHODS: From 01/1996 to 12/2012, clinico-pathological, surgical, and oncological features were retrospectively reviewed in a multicentric cohort of 154 surgically treated SCLC patients...
October 13, 2016: Lung
Bonnie Janzen, Chandima Karunanayake, Donna Rennie, William Pickett, Joshua Lawson, Shelley Kirychuk, Louise Hagel, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Niels Koehncke, James Dosman, Punam Pahwa
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the association of individual and contextual exposures with lung function by gender in rural-dwelling Canadians. METHODS: A cross-sectional mail survey obtained completed questionnaires on exposures from 8263 individuals; a sub-sample of 1609 individuals (762 men, 847 women) additionally participated in clinical lung function testing. The three dependent variables were forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio...
October 13, 2016: Lung
Masashi Mikamo, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yoshiyuki Oyama, Masato Kono, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui, Hiromitsu Sumikawa, Takeshi Johkoh, Takafumi Suda
PURPOSE: Small airway disease (SAWD) in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is often assessed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, frequent HRCT examinations result in a high level of radiographic exposure. This study investigated the utility of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) to evaluate SAWD in patients with ILD. METHODS: Broadband FOT using a commercially available device (MostGraph-01) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed in 90 patients with ILD...
October 12, 2016: Lung
Patompong Ungprasert, Cynthia S Crowson, Eric L Matteson
PURPOSE: The influence of ethnicity on epidemiology and clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis is well recognized. However, data on the role of sex are limited. METHODS: The current study utilized the resource of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, with new diagnosis of sarcoidosis from 1976 to 2013. Diagnosis was verified by medical record and histopathological report review. RESULTS: 345 incident cases of sarcoidosis were identified: 174 (50 %) were female and 171 (50 %) were male...
October 5, 2016: Lung
Ashraful Haque, Anke H Scultetus, Francoise Arnaud, Leonora J Dickson, Steve Chun, George McNamee, Charles R Auker, Richard M McCarron, Richard T Mahon
PURPOSE: Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) can transport 50 times more oxygen than human plasma. Their properties may be advantageous in preservation of tissue viability in oxygen-deprived states, such as in acute lung injury. We hypothesized that an intravenous dose of the PFC emulsion Oxycyte(®) would improve tissue oxygenation and thereby mitigate the effects of acute lung injury. METHODS: Intravenous oleic acid (OA) was used to induce lung injury in anesthetized and instrumented Yorkshire swine assigned to three experimental groups: (1) PFC post-OA received Oxycyte(®) (5 ml/kg) 45 min after oleic acid-induced lung injury (OALI); (2) PFC pre-OA received Oxycyte(®) 45 min before OALI; and (3) Controls which received equivalent dose of normal saline...
October 4, 2016: Lung
Maurizio Bernasconi, Alessio Casutt, Angela Koutsokera, Igor Letovanec, Frédéric Tissot, Laurent P Nicod, Alban Lovis
The role of radial-endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) assisted transbronchial biopsy (TBB) for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions is well established. However, no study has addressed its safety and value in hemato-oncological patients presenting with non-resolving infiltrates during persistent febrile neutropenia. To assess safety and feasibility of R-EBUS assisted TBB in severe thrombocytopenic and neutropenic patients. Over a period of 18 months, eight patients were assessed with R-EBUS assisted TBB after adequate platelet transfusion...
October 4, 2016: Lung
Caterina Trevisan, A Vianello, N Veronese, S Carraro, S Pizzato, P Lucato, G Girotti, C Rinaldo, A Coin, E Manzato, G Sergi
PURPOSE: As studies examining the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and airflow limitation (AL) have produced conflicting results, the current one set out to analyze if and to what degree there are any correlations between these variables in a population of fit elderly women. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one non-smoking, fit and healthy women (age ≥ 65 years) underwent anthropometric assessment, laboratory testing (serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, parathormone, and cytokine levels), pulmonary function testing (PFT), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate BMD values of the lumbar and femoral regions...
October 3, 2016: Lung
Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira, Murilo B Dias, Roberta K B Sales, Leila Antonangelo, Vanessa A Alvarenga, Juliana Puka, Evaldo Marchi, Milena Marques Pagliarelli Acencio
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are responsible for the breakdown of the extracellular matrix and play an important role in the inflammatory processes of pleural exudates. The imbalance between MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs) is present in various pathological processes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile of MMPs and TIMPs in pleural effusions of different etiologies correlated with inflammatory markers. METHODS: The patients with pleural effusion due to tuberculosis (TB), cancer (CA) or transudate were prospectively evaluated...
September 27, 2016: Lung
Fernanda Balbinot, Álvaro da Costa Batista Guedes, Douglas Zaione Nascimento, Juliana Fischman Zampieri, Giordano Rafael Tronco Alves, Edson Marchiori, Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Bruno Hochhegger
Histological examination has always been the gold standard for the detection and quantification of lung remodeling. However, this method has some limitations regarding the invasiveness of tissue acquisition. Quantitative imaging methods enable the acquisition of valuable information on lung structure and function without the removal of tissue from the body; thus, they are useful for disease identification and follow-up. This article reviews the various quantitative imaging modalities used currently for the non-invasive study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and interstitial lung diseases...
September 23, 2016: Lung
Oleg Gorelik, Shimon Izhakian, Dana Barchel, Dorit Almoznino-Sarafian, Irma Tzur, Muhareb Swarka, Ilia Beberashvili, Leonid Feldman, Natan Cohen, Miriam Shteinshnaider
PURPOSE: We investigated outcomes of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) according to the changes in red cell distribution width (RDW). METHODS: For 980 adults, clinical characteristics, outcomes during hospitalization for CAP (transfer to the intensive care unit, treatment with mechanical ventilation, prolonged hospital stay, and death), and all-cause mortality following discharge were compared: according to RDW changes versus stable RDW during hospitalization, and according to normal (≤14...
September 20, 2016: Lung
Karlijn J G Schulkes, Cindy Nguyen, Frederiek van den Bos, Leontine J R van Elden, Marije E Hamaker
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly: half of all newly diagnosed patients are over 70 years old. Older patients and those with comorbidities are underrepresented in clinical trials; scientific communities have addressed this issue since the end of the 20th century. We set out to determine the characteristics of the selection of patients in lung cancer trials that are currently recruiting. METHODS: We searched The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) clinical trial registry ( www...
September 20, 2016: Lung
Ewa-Lena Johansson, Ewa Ternesten-Hasséus
INTRODUCTION: Cough is a common symptom for which patients seek medical care and is defined as chronic if it has lasted for more than 8 weeks. The Hull Airway Reflux Questionnaire (HARQ) was developed with the aim of eliciting the major component of chronic cough. It comprises 14 items with a maximum total score of 70. A Swedish version (HARQ-S) has previously been developed but not yet formally validated. The aim of the present study was to validate the HARQ-S in terms of instrumental reliability and concurrent validity...
September 16, 2016: Lung
Sneha K Taylor, Reiko Sakurai, Tokusho Sakurai, Virender K Rehan
INTRODUCTION: The physiologic vitamin D (VD), 1α,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) is a local paracrine/autocrine effecter of fetal lung maturation. By stimulating alveolar type II cell and lipofibroblast proliferation and differentiation, parenterally administered 1,25D has been shown to enhance neonatal lung maturation; but due to the potential systemic side effects of the parenteral route, the translational value of these findings might be limited. To minimize the possibility of systemic toxicity, we examined the effects of VD on neonatal lung maturation, when delivered directly to lungs via nebulization...
September 10, 2016: Lung
Faouzi Alimi, Chighali El Hadj Sidi, Chams Ghannouchi
A 60-year-old woman, with history of a resected uterine benign leiomyoma, is operated for a cystic lesion in the left lung, mimicking an hydatid cyst, and confirmed histologically as Cystic Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma.
September 8, 2016: Lung
Masashi Kawami, Rika Harabayashi, Mioka Miyamoto, Risako Harada, Ryoko Yumoto, Mikihisa Takano
PURPOSE: Methotrexate (MTX) therapy of certain cancers and rheumatoid arthritis often induces serious interstitial lung complications including pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by MTX and by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 in order to develop new strategies for the prevention of EMT. METHODS: First, we examined the effect of TGF-β1 and MTX on cell morphology and the expression of EMT-related mRNAs in A549 cells...
September 7, 2016: Lung
Hui-Mei Wu, Li-Jie Shao, Zi-Feng Jiang, Rong-Yu Liu
PURPOSE: Gemcitabine has been used as a therapeutic drug combined with cisplatin for the treatment of lung cancer patients. However, the prognosis is poor due to acquired resistance. Accumulating studies have revealed that autophagy may contribute to the drug resistance. Therefore, the present study is aimed to clarify the mechanisms underlying gemcitabine-acquired resistance. METHODS: SPC-A1 and A549 cells were incubated with gemcitabine followed by assessment of cell viability with MTT assays...
September 7, 2016: Lung
Michal Gur, Karin Yaacoby-Bianu, Anat Ilivitzki, Ronen Bar-Yoseph, Vered Nir, Fahed Hakim, Yazeed Toukan, Lea Bentur
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic airway disease following an insult to the lower respiratory tract. Lung clearance index (LCI) measures ventilation inhomogeneity and has been studied in cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to evaluate LCI in BO and to compare it to LCI in CF patients. METHODS: LCI was measured in BO patients, compared to CF patients, and correlated with spirometry and CT findings. RESULTS: Twenty BO patients and 26 CF patients (with similar mean age and BMI) underwent evaluation...
August 31, 2016: Lung
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