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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224233/decrease-in-small-pulmonary-vessels-on-chest-computed-tomography-in-light-smokers-without-copd-an-early-change-but-correlated-with-smoking-index
#1
Shinji Saruya, Tsuneo Yamashiro, Shin Matsuoka, Shoichiro Matsushita, Kunihiro Yagihashi, Yasuo Nakajima
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the amount of smoking and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels in light smokers without a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, which waived the need for informed consent from patients. The study included 34 current smokers without COPD, who were defined as light smokers based on their smoking history (≤25 pack years)...
February 21, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220305/homeobox-wnt-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-signaling-is-augmented-during-alveogenesis-in-mice-lacking-superoxide-dismutase-3-extracellular
#2
Tania A Thimraj, Rahel L Birru, Ankita Mitra, Holger Schulz, George D Leikauf, Koustav Ganguly
Superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular (SOD3) polymorphisms have been implicated in reduced pulmonary function development and altered risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We previously reported that gene-targeted Sod3-/- mice have impaired lung function and human SOD3 variants are associated with reduced pulmonary function in children. Reduced lung SOD3 levels were reported in mice with lower lung function with the greatest difference occurring during alveogenesis phase [postnatal (P) days 14-28]...
February 20, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210808/change-in-oxygen-consumption-following-inhalation-of-albuterol-in-comparison-with-levalbuterol-in-healthy-adult-volunteers
#3
Manpreet K Virk, Justin Hotz, Robinder G Khemani, Christopher J L Newth, Patrick A Ross
BACKGROUND: Albuterol is the most commonly used β agonist to treat reversible lower airway obstruction. Albuterol contains a racemic mixture of two enantiomers. Levalbuterol contains the single R form enantiomer. Levalbuterol is frequently prescribed to limit cardiovascular toxicity. OBJECTIVE: We examined changes in oxygen consumption (V'O2) and heart rate (HR) following administration of albuterol and levalbuterol. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, controlled study of healthy adult volunteers...
February 16, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204876/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-adherence-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-symptomatic-bph
#4
Ramesh V V S Metta, Awais Zaka, Vincent C Lee, M Jeffery Mador
Purpose To determine the short-term and long-term adherence rates with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in sleep apnea patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) compared to matched controls. Methods A case-control retrospective analysis was performed in a veterans affairs hospital. All symptomatic patients with BPH (n = 107) ever started on CPAP therapy between 2006 and 2012 were compared with controls matched for severity of sleep apnea (AHI). Adherence measures were obtained at the third and twelfth month visits...
February 16, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184994/prevalence-and-impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-among-patients-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-south-korea
#5
Eun Hye Lee, Jung Mo Lee, Young Ae Kang, Ah Young Leem, Eun Young Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Song Yee Kim
OBJECTIVE: South Korea has an increasing prevalence of diabetes and a relatively high burden of tuberculosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and examine the effect of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes. SETTING AND DESIGN: Data from patients ≥30 years diagnosed with and treated for PTB between January 2010 and December 2012 at Severance Hospital, a 2000-bed tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea, were analyzed and compared with data from a contemporaneous general population sample extracted from KNHANES V...
February 9, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154994/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-outcome-in-limited-disease-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Lukas Käsmann, Louisa Bolm, Steven E Schild, Stefan Janssen, Dirk Rades
INTRODUCTION: Patients with limited disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) receive radiochemotherapy followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation. The prognosis of these patients remains poor with a median survival of 16-24 months. Systemic inflammation was suggested as an important prognostic factor for outcomes. This study investigated the impact of systemic inflammation measured with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) at first diagnosis in patients with limited disease SCLC for outcomes...
February 2, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138790/community-acquired-pneumonia-and-outcome-is-there-a-sensitivity-link-to-distribution-width-value-of-red-cell
#7
LETTER
Fatma Yıldırım, Alastair J Glossop, Antonio M Esquinas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138789/phrenic-nerve-palsy-secondary-to-parsonage-turner-syndrome-a-diagnosis-commonly-overlooked
#8
Tom McEnery, Ronan Walsh, Conor Burke, Aisling McGowan, John Faul, Liam Cormican
Neuralgic Amyotrophy (NA) or Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an idiopathic neuropathy commonly affecting the brachial plexus. Associated phrenic nerve involvement, though recognised, is thought to be very rare. We present a case series of four patients (all male, mean age 53) presenting with dyspnoea preceded by severe self-limiting upper limb and shoulder pain, with an elevated hemi-diaphragm on clinical examination and chest X-ray. Neurological examination of the upper limb at the time of presentation was normal...
January 30, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116500/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-pulmonary-embolism-diagnostic-accuracy-of-unenhanced-mr-and-influence-in-mortality-rates
#9
Lilian Pasin, Matheus Zanon, Jose Moreira, Ana Luiza Moreira, Guilherme Watte, Edson Marchiori, Bruno Hochhegger
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic value for pulmonary embolism (PE) of the True fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) MRI, a method that allows the visualization of pulmonary vasculature without breath holding or intravenous contrast. METHODS: This is a prospective investigation including 93 patients with suspected PE. All patients underwent TrueFISP MRI after undergoing CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Two independent readers evaluated each MR study, and consensus was obtained...
January 23, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025669/bronchoconstriction-induces-structural-and-functional-airway-alterations-in-non-sensitized-rats
#10
Mehdi Eslami-Behroozi, Saeed Pazhoohan, Ehsan Aref, Leila Zare, Mohammad Javan, Sohrab Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza Raoufy
The impact of mechanical forces on pathogenesis of airway remodeling and the functional consequences in asthma remains to be fully established. In the present study, we investigated the effect of repeated bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine (MCh) on airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in rats with or without sensitization to an external allergen. We provide evidence that repeated bronchoconstriction, using MCh, alone induces airway inflammation and remodeling as well as AHR in non-allergen-sensitized rats...
December 26, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005150/early-trends-in-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-efficacy-parameters
#11
REVIEW
Abhishek Kumar, Rajany Dy, Kanwaljit Singh, M Jeffery Mador
INTRODUCTION: The goal of our systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the therapeutic effectiveness of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), and to compare it with medical management and lung volume reduction surgery. METHODS: Variables of interest were absolute change in FEV1, 6MWT, and SGRQ. Meta-analysis was performed for the BLVR modalities with ≥3 trials. Of the 18 shortlisted publications, only valves (four trials; n = 159) and coils (six trials; n = 194) qualified for meta-analysis...
December 22, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005149/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-may-worsen-the-course-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-cohort-study
#12
Damien Basille, Nathalie Plouvier, Charlotte Trouve, Pierre Duhaut, Claire Andrejak, Vincent Jounieaux
PURPOSE: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently prescribed or used as self-medication in cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Nevertheless, the consequences of such medication on the risk of pleuroparenchymal complications are not well known. The aim was to investigate whether exposure to NSAIDs prior to hospital admission among patients suffering from CAP is associated with the development of pleural complications or a lung abscess. METHODS: All consecutive non-immunocompromised patients with CAP and admitted to a university hospital were prospectively included (2-year period)...
December 22, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004181/the-effect-of-aerosol-saline-on-laboratory-induced-dyspnea
#13
C R O'Donnell, R W Lansing, R M Schwartzstein, Robert Banzett
PURPOSE: In the 'placebo arm' of a recent study, we found that aerosol saline (sham treatment) produced substantial relief of laboratory-induced dyspnea (Breathing discomfort-BD) in nearly half the subjects. The sham intervention included a physiological change, and instructions to subjects could have produced expectation of dyspnea relief. In the present study, we attempted to discover whether the response to sham aerosol was driven by behavioral or physiological aspects of the intervention...
December 21, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900466/overview-of-the-impact-of-depression-and-anxiety-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Josep Montserrat-Capdevila, Pere Godoy, Josep Ramon Marsal, Ferran Barbé, Josep Pifarré, Miquel Alsedà, Marta Ortega
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common entities in patients diagnosed with COPD. However, the impact that they have on the exacerbation of illness is scarcely studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of anxiety and depression is associated with a greater risk of frequent exacerbation (≥2 per year) in patients diagnosed with COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort study that analysed frequent exacerbation and associated factors in 512 patients monitored during 2 years...
November 29, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900465/polymorphisms-in-beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-gene-and-association-with-tuberculosis
#15
Abbas Farzin Azar, Nima Hosseini Jazani, Ahad Bazmani, Ali Vahhabi, Shahram Shahabi
PURPOSE: Genetic susceptibility for tuberculosis in human has been previously demonstrated. Polymorphisms in genes involved in immune responses may alter the susceptibility of individuals to tuberculosis. Polymorphisms of beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene can be possibly an important risk factor in tuberculosis. In this study, the association between rs1042713 (Arg16Gly +46A>G) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu +79C>G) polymorphisms in ADRB2 gene and tuberculosis was evaluated. METHODS: Genotype distributions of the rs1042713 (Arg16Gly +46A>G) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu +79C>G) polymorphisms in ADRB2 gene in 106 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 88 healthy subjects were studied by PCR-RFLP method in an Iranian population...
November 29, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915422/state-of-the-art-review-of-the-right-ventricle-in-copd-patients-it-is-time-to-look-closer
#16
REVIEW
Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus-Silva, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi
Since the first description of pulmonary circulation in the 16th century, the knowledge of the complex interaction between the heart and lungs has greatly improved. Hypoxemia plays a classical role in the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction in patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, more recent results have revealed the presence of RV vascular structural and functional changes even in patients with mild COPD, without hypoxemia or pulmonary hypertension at rest...
February 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709291/influence-of-gender-on-epidemiology-and-clinical-manifestations-of-sarcoidosis-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study-1976-2013
#17
Patompong Ungprasert, Cynthia S Crowson, Eric L Matteson
PURPOSE: The influence of ethnicity on epidemiology and clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis is well recognized. However, data on the role of sex are limited. METHODS: The current study utilized the resource of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, with new diagnosis of sarcoidosis from 1976 to 2013. Diagnosis was verified by medical record and histopathological report review. RESULTS: 345 incident cases of sarcoidosis were identified: 174 (50 %) were female and 171 (50 %) were male...
February 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738828/intermittent-hypoxia-contributes-to-the-lung-damage-by-increased-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-disbalance-in-protease-antiprotease-system
#18
I Tuleta, F Stöckigt, U R Juergens, C Pizarro, J W Schrickel, G Kristiansen, G Nickenig, D Skowasch
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent hypoxia as a surrogate of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with different cardiovascular complications. However, the effects of intermittent hypoxia on the lung tissue are less known. Therefore, the aim of our present study was to investigate if intermittent hypoxia may influence oxidative stress, inflammation, and protease/antiprotease system in the lung. Additionally, potential protective properties of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative drugs have been evaluated...
December 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704259/the-emulsified-pfc-oxycyte-%C3%A2-improved-oxygen-content-and-lung-injury-score-in-a-swine-model-of-oleic-acid-lung-injury-oali
#19
Ashraful Haque, Anke H Scultetus, Francoise Arnaud, Leonora J Dickson, Steve Chun, George McNamee, Charles R Auker, Richard M McCarron, Richard T Mahon
PURPOSE: Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) can transport 50 times more oxygen than human plasma. Their properties may be advantageous in preservation of tissue viability in oxygen-deprived states, such as in acute lung injury. We hypothesized that an intravenous dose of the PFC emulsion Oxycyte(®) would improve tissue oxygenation and thereby mitigate the effects of acute lung injury. METHODS: Intravenous oleic acid (OA) was used to induce lung injury in anesthetized and instrumented Yorkshire swine assigned to three experimental groups: (1) PFC post-OA received Oxycyte(®) (5 ml/kg) 45 min after oleic acid-induced lung injury (OALI); (2) PFC pre-OA received Oxycyte(®) 45 min before OALI; and (3) Controls which received equivalent dose of normal saline...
December 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663257/advances-in-imaging-and-automated-quantification-of-pulmonary-diseases-in-non-neoplastic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Fernanda Balbinot, Álvaro da Costa Batista Guedes, Douglas Zaione Nascimento, Juliana Fischman Zampieri, Giordano Rafael Tronco Alves, Edson Marchiori, Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Bruno Hochhegger
Histological examination has always been the gold standard for the detection and quantification of lung remodeling. However, this method has some limitations regarding the invasiveness of tissue acquisition. Quantitative imaging methods enable the acquisition of valuable information on lung structure and function without the removal of tissue from the body; thus, they are useful for disease identification and follow-up. This article reviews the various quantitative imaging modalities used currently for the non-invasive study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and interstitial lung diseases...
December 2016: Lung
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