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Current Problems in Cardiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784533/long-qt-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature-and-current-evidence
#1
REVIEW
Syed Raza Shah, Ki Park
Long QT syndrome (LQT) represents a heterogeneous family of cardiac electrophysiologic disorders characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the electrocardiogram. It is commonly associated with syncope, however, sudden cardiac death can occur due to torsades de pointes. LQT is a clinical diagnosis and should be suspected in individuals on the basis of clinical presentation, family history and electrocardiogram characteristics. Management is focused on the prevention of syncope and ultimately sudden death...
May 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731112/degenerative-mitral-stenosis-from-pathophysiology-to-challenging-interventional-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Marko Banovic, Mark DaCosta
Mitral stenosis (MS) is characterized by obstruction of left ventricular inflow as a result of narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. Although its prevalence has declined over the last decade, especially in developed countries, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality.  The most often cause of MS worldwide is still postrheumatic mitral valve disease. However, in developed countries, degenerative or calcific changes cause MS in a siginificant proportion of patients. Although the range of treatment for mitral valve disease has grown over the years in parallel with transcatheter therapies for aortic valve disease, these improvements in mitral valve disease therapy have experienced slower development...
April 6, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576333/enhancing-participation-in-cardiac-rehabilitation-a-question-of-proximity-and-integration-of-outpatient-services
#3
Cemal Ozemek, Shane A Phillips, Bo Fernall, Mark A Williams, Thomas D Stamos, Samantha Bond, Hannah Claeys, Deepika R Laddu, Ross Arena
Numerous investigations have established the strong clinical utility of cardiac rehabilitation, while clinical guidelines continually call for a high level of referral and participation. Historically, medical facilities have faced challenges referring eligible patients to cardiac rehabilitation, enrolling only a small portion of those receiving referral. Consequently, less than ~10% of qualifying patients receive any amount of cardiac rehabilitation. This sobering figure has prompted many efforts to identify barriers to referral as well as enrollment and accordingly propose strategies to bolster participation rates...
March 6, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759117/current-evidence-based-understanding-of-the-epidemiology-prevention-and-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Paul A Rogers, Michael L Bernard, Christopher Madias, Sudarone Thihalolipavan, N A Mark Estes, Daniel P Morin
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common atrial arrhythmia in adults worldwide. As medical advancements continue to contribute to an ever-increasing aging population, the burden of atrial fibrillation on the modern health care system continues to increase. Therapies are also evolving, for treatment of the arrhythmia itself, and stroke risk mitigation. Internists and cardiologists alike are, in most instances, the frontline contact for AF patients, and would benefit from remaining facile in their understanding of care options...
June 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759116/foreword
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555024/foreword
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174585/current-trends-and-future-perspectives-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Sukhdeep Bhogal, Debabrata Mukherjee, Subhash Banerjee, Walter Tan, Timir K Paul
Pulmonary hypertension continues to be a life-threatening illness with debilitating physical and emotional consequences affecting around 1% of global population. The progression of this devastating disease is characterized by increase in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in elevated pulmonary pressure, eventually leading to right heart failure and death. Better understanding of pathophysiology has led to substantial improvements in terms of availability of treatment options. The purpose of this review is to summarize the currently available treatment options along with pertinent trials and possible future therapies of pulmonary arterial hypertension...
May 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530242/let-us-talk-about-moving-reframing-the-exercise-and-physical-activity-discussion
#8
Ross Arena, Amy McNeil, Steven Street, Samantha Bond, Deepika R Laddu, Carl J Lavie, Andrew P Hills
Noncommunicable and chronic disease are interchangeable terms. According to the World Health Organization, "they are of long duration and generally slow progression. The 4 main types of chronic diseases are cardiovascular diseases (ie, heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma), and diabetes." We have known about the benefits of physical activity (PA) for thousands of years. Perhaps our approach, from public health messaging to the individual clinical encounter, as to how PA and exercise are discussed and prescribed can be improved upon, with the ultimate goal of increasing the likelihood that an individual moves more; ultimately moving more should be the goal...
April 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530241/assessing-the-value-of-moving-more-the-integral-role-of-qualified-health-professionals
#9
Ross Arena, Amy McNeil, Carl J Lavie, Cemal Ozemek, Daniel Forman, Jonathan Myers, Deepika R Laddu, Dejana Popovic, Codie R Rouleau, Tavis S Campbell, Andrew P Hills
Being physically active or, in a broader sense, simply moving more throughout each day is one of the most important components of an individual's health plan. In conjunction with regular exercise training, taking more steps in a day and sitting less are also important components of one's movement portfolio. Given this priority, health care professionals must develop enhanced skills for prescribing and guiding individualized movement programs for all their patients. An important component of a health care professional's ability to prescribe movement as medicine is competency in assessing an individual's risk for untoward events if physical exertion was increased...
April 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530240/foreword
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471918/pathophysiology-and-prevention-of-heart-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Ahmet Afşin Oktay, Halis Kaan Akturk, Kerim Esenboğa, Fahad Javed, Nichole M Polin, Eiman Jahangir
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a public health problem worldwide, and it has large implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this article, we discuss the etiology and pathophysiology of CVD in DM including the effects of abnormal glucose homeostasis, genetic factors, epigenetics, apoptosis, common pathophysiological mechanisms shared by both DM and CVD, and contributions of other comorbidities. We then cover the pathogenesis of both atherosclerotic disease and cardiomyopathy in relation to DM. Finally, we discuss the prevention of heart disease in DM with a focus on hypertension and dyslipidemia management, weight loss, lifestyle changes, antiplatelet therapy, and glycemic control...
March 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471917/foreword
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844525/oral-antidiabetic-agents-and-cardiovascular-outcomes
#13
Manan Pareek, Deepak L Bhatt
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes; however, a direct protective effect of tight glycemic control remains unproven. In fact, until 2008, when concerns related to rosiglitazone prompted regulatory agencies to mandate assessment of cardiovascular safety of new antidiabetic agents, little was known about how these medications affected cardiovascular outcomes. Since then, there has been a considerable increase in the number of cardiovascular trials, which employ a noninferiority design and focus on high-risk populations to establish safety in the shortest time possible...
March 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277221/wearable-cardioverter-defibrillator-the-lifevest-device-design-limitations-and-areas-of-improvement
#14
Manyoo Agarwal, Dennis Narcisse, Nader Khouzam, Rami N Khouzam
Sudden cardiac death is a potentially fatal clinical event demanding use of emergent intervention such as defibrillation. Over the last 1 decade, development of devices such as implantable and wearable cardioverter defibrillators (WCD) has provided new avenues in the management of sudden cardiac death. Several clinical studies have commented on the therapeutic and preventive aspect of WCD, however, literature describing the device functioning and limitations is limited. In this review study, we describe the technical aspects and limitations of WCD with a focus on identifying potential areas of improvement and framework for future research studies...
February 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277220/foreword
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397197/accurate-prediction-of-false-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-ready-for-prime-time
#16
Mark R Heckle, Nephertiti Efeovbokhan, Fridjof Thomas, Mary Blumer, Mason Chumpia, Uzoma Ibebuogu, Guy L Reed, Rami N Khouzam
The incidence of inappropriate cardiac catheterization lab activation for treatment of a false ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been reported to be 2.6%-36%. Excessive inappropriate catheterization lab activation may be associated with risks to patients, provider fatigue and improper resource usage. HYPOTHESIS: To derive and validate a prediction score to more accurately classify patients with STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 1144 consecutive patients initially diagnosed with STEMI between September 2008 and January 2013...
January 3, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173805/cardiac-amyloidosis-an-updated-review-with-emphasis-on-diagnosis-and-future-directions
#17
Sukhdeep Bhogal, Vatsal Ladia, Puja Sitwala, Emilie Cook, Kailash Bajaj, Vijay Ramu, Carl J Lavie, Timir K Paul
Cardiac amyloidosis occurs because of abnormal protein (amyloid) deposition in the cardiac tissue. Even with advanced diagnostic techniques and treatments, the prognosis of amyloidosis remains poor. The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis particularly needs to be in the differential in patients presenting with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. This entity remains underdiagnosed due to lack of suspicion on the part of many clinicians. Involvement of cardiac tissue is the utmost determinant factor for available treatment options and prognosis...
January 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153385/foreword
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310997/neurohormonal-imbalance-a-neglected-problem-and-potential-therapeutic-target-in-acute-heart-failure
#19
Steven R Goldsmith, Bradley A Bart, Ileana L Pin A
Decompensated or acute heart failure (AHF) is characterized by increased ventricular and atrial pressures which may lead to and be caused by circulatory congestion. Unless due to a primary decrease in cardiac function, congestion arises from volume expansion or vasoconstriction. In turn, volume expansion and vasoconstriction are due to neurohormonal imbalance since both result from activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and excess secretion of arginine vasopressin...
December 16, 2017: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290389/treatment-strategies-in-symptomatic-intermediate-low-risk-and-asymptomatic-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis
#20
Marko D Banovic, Serge D Nikolic
Survival of symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) is very poor, with an average mortality reaching up to 2% per month. Approach to diagnosis and treatment of patients with AS was conservative; patients were referred to surgery only if the AS-induced symptoms become apparent and significantly limit the quality of patient' life. In the past 15 years, the novel treatment strategy in subgroups of symptomatic patients with AS have been the subject of extensive research, starting from introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implant (TAVI) in inoperable symptomatic patients with severe AS and continuing further to patients with very high and high operative risk...
December 12, 2017: Current Problems in Cardiology
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