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Neurochemical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909856/metabolic-changes-in-the-bilateral-visual-cortex-of-the-monocular-blind-macaque-a-multi-voxel-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#1
Lingjie Wu, Zuohua Tang, Xiaoyuan Feng, Xinghuai Sun, Wen Qian, Jie Wang, Lixin Jin, Jingxuan Jiang, Yufeng Zhong
The metabolic changes accompanied with adaptive plasticity in the visual cortex after early monocular visual loss were unclear. In this study, we detected the metabolic changes in bilateral visual cortex of normal (group A) and monocular blind macaque (group B) for studying the adaptive plasticity using multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 32 months after right optic nerve transection. Then, we compared the N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/Creatine (Cr), myoinositol (Ins)/Cr, choline (Cho)/Cr and Glx (Glutamate + glutamine)/Cr ratios in the visual cortex between two groups, as well as between the left and right visual cortex of group A and B...
December 1, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900601/rna-seq-expression-analysis-of-enteric-neuron-cells-with-rotenone-treatment-and-prediction-of-regulated-pathways
#2
Qiang Guan, Xijin Wang, Yanyan Jiang, Lijuan Zhao, Zhiyu Nie, Lingjing Jin
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is involved in the initiation and development of the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD). The effect of rotenone on the ENS may trigger the progression of PD through the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to examine differential expression genes (DEGs) and pathways induced by in vitro treatment of rotenone in the enteric nervous cells isolated from rats. We identified 45 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated genes...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900600/antidepressant-like-effect-of-isorhynchophylline-in-mice
#3
Yan-Fang Xian, Ding Fan, Siu-Po Ip, Qing-Qiu Mao, Zhi-Xiu Lin
Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid, has been identified as the main active ingredient responsible for the biological activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Miq ex Havil. (Rubiaceae). Previous studies in our laboratory have revealed that IRN possesses potent neuroprotective effects in different models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the antidepressant-like effects of IRN are remained unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of IRN. The antidepressant-like effects of IRN was determined by using animal models of depression including forced swimming and tail suspension tests...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900599/melatonin-attenuates-manganese-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-activation-of-bv2-microglia
#4
Euteum Park, Hong Sung Chun
Melatonin, a naturally occurring neurohormone in the pineal gland, has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900578/potential-mechanism-of-neurite-outgrowth-enhanced-by-electrical-stimulation-involvement-of-microrna-363-5p-targeting-dclk1-expression-in-rat
#5
Xin Quan, Liangliang Huang, Yafeng Yang, Teng Ma, Zhongyang Liu, Jun Ge, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Electrical stimulation (ES) promotes neurite outgrowth and nerve regeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. In the present study, we investigated the role of micro RNAs (miRNAs) in ES-mediated neurite outgrowth. First, we performed microarray analyses to identify changes in the miRNAs profile of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs) following ES. The expression of 16 known miRNAs was altered by ES. Bioinformatics showed that the potential targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in neurite outgrowth...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900577/neuroleptic-drugs-and-pacap-differentially-affect-the-mrna-expression-of-genes-encoding-pac1-vpac-type-receptors
#6
Marta Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Edward Kowalczyk
Several lines of evidence suggest that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide playing an important role as a neuromodulator. It has been indicated that PACAP is associated with mental diseases, and that regulation of the PACAPergic signals could be a potential target for the treatment of such psychiatric states as schizophrenia. Recent studies have suggested that action of neuroleptic drugs is mediated not only by dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, but also via neuropeptides which may act both as neurotransmitters and as neuromodulators...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900576/time-course-behavioral-safety-and-protective-efficacy-of-centrally-active-reversible-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#7
Lindsey R Hamilton, Steven C Schachter, Todd M Myers
Galantamine hydrobromide and (-)huperzine A, centrally active reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, are potentially superior to the current standard, pyridostigmine bromide, as a pretreatment for organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Galantamine, huperzine, and pyridostigmine were compared for time course of acetylcholinesterase inhibition in 12 cynomolgus macaques. Although both galantamine and huperzine shared a similar time course profile for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, huperzine was 88 times more potent than galantamine...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900598/oxidative-stress-mediated-hippocampal-neuron-apoptosis-participated-in-carbon-disulfide-induced-rats-cognitive-dysfunction
#8
Shuo Wang, Gleniece Irving, Lulu Jiang, Hui Wang, Ming Li, Xujing Wang, Wenting Han, Yongpeng Xu, Yilin Yang, Tao Zeng, Fuyong Song, Xiulan Zhao, Keqin Xie
Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) exhibits central nervous systems toxicity. But the mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the CNS damage and cognitive dysfunction caused by CS2, and eventually reveal the possible oxidative-related mechanism of hippocampus pathological changes in CS2 exposed rats. Male Wistar rats were administrated with CS2 at dosage of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for consecutive 20 days, respectively. Cognitive performances were evaluated by Morris water maze tests...
November 29, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900597/l-pgds-mediates-vagus-nerve-stimulation-induced-neuroprotection-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-stroke-by-suppressing-the-apoptotic-response
#9
Lina Zhang, Jingxi Ma, Xinhao Jin, Gongwei Jia, Ying Jiang, Changqing Li
The role of lipocalin prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-PGDS) in brain ischemia has not been fully clarified to date. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the mechanisms involved need further exploration. This study investigated the role of L-PGDS in cerebral I/R and whether this process was involved in the mechanism of VNS-mediated neuroprotection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with a lentiviral vector (LV) through intracerebroventricular injection, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and VNS treatment...
November 29, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889855/epigallocatechin-gallate-attenuates-%C3%AE-amyloid-generation-and-oxidative-stress-involvement-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-n2a-app695-cells
#10
Zhao-Xu Zhang, Yan-Bing Li, Rui-Ping Zhao
The accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide plaques is a major pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is a cleaved fragment of APP via BACE1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in APP processing and Aβ generation. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is considered to be a potential target for AD treatment, because of its potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on Aβ production by negatively regulating BACE1. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a highly active catechin found in green tea, is known to enhance metabolic activity and cognitive ability in the mice model of AD...
November 26, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888466/the-expression-of-igfbp6-after-spinal-cord-injury-implications-for-neuronal-apoptosis
#11
Song Wang, Yonghua Liu, Chunshuai Wu, Weijuan Zhao, Jinlong Zhang, Guofeng Bao, Guanhua Xu, Yuyu Sun, Jiajia Chen, Zhiming Cui
IGFBP6, a member of the insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins family that contains six high affinity IGFBPs, modulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) activity and also showed an independent effect of IGF, such as growth inhibition and apoptosis. However, the role of IGFBP6 in spinal cord injury (SCI) remains largely elusive. In this study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of IGFBP6 expression in the spinal cord. Our results showed that IGFBP6 was upregulated significantly after SCI, which was paralleled with the levels of apoptotic proteins p53 and active caspase-3...
November 26, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885578/egb-761-attenuates-the-anti-proliferative-activity-of-fluoride-via-ddk1-in-pc-12-cells
#12
Cai-Yi Zhang, Rui Chen, Fen Wang, Chao Ren, Peng Zhang, Qian Li, Hui-Hua Li, Ke-Tai Guo, De-Qin Geng, Chun-Feng Liu
EGb-761 is commonly used as a treatment for ischemic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases and some types of tumors (Christen and Maixent, in Cell Mol Biol 48(6):601-611, 2002). However, it is unclear whether EGb-761 affects the proliferation of cells exposed to fluoride. In this study, the proliferation and apoptosis of PC-12 cells exposed to fluoride were investigated and EGb-761 was used to protect PC-12 cells against the effects of fluoride. We found that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the anti-proliferation of PC-12 cells exposed to fluoride...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885577/distinct-expression-of-various-angiogenesis-factors-in-mice-brain-after-whole-brain-irradiation-by-x-ray
#13
Zhezhi Deng, Haiwei Huang, Xiaohong Wu, Mengmeng Wu, Guoyong He, Junjie Guo
Radiation-induced brain injury (RBI) is the most serious complication after radiotherapy. However, the etiology of RBI remains elusive. In order to evaluate the effect of X-rays on normal brain tissue, adult male BALB/C mice were subjected to whole-brain exposure with a single dose of 10 Gy or sham radiation. The structure and number of mice brain vessels were investigated 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180 days after irradiation by H&E staining and immune-fluorescence staining. Compared with sham control mice, in addition to morphological changes, a significant reduction of microvascular density was detected in irradiated mice brains...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885576/asymmetric-dimethylarginine-and-hepatic-encephalopathy-cause-effect-or-association
#14
Anna Czarnecka, Krzysztof Milewski, Magdalena Zielińska
The methylated derivative of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is synthesized in different mammalian tissues including the brain. ADMA acts as an endogenous, nonselective, competitive inhibitor of all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and may limit L-arginine supply from the plasma to the enzyme via reducing its transport by cationic amino acid transporters. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a relatively frequently diagnosed complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute or chronic liver failure, characterized by symptoms linked with impaired brain function leading to neurological disabilities...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885575/administration-of-huperzia-quadrifariata-extract-a-cholinesterase-inhibitory-alkaloid-mixture-has-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia
#15
F K Odorcyk, E F Sanches, F C Nicola, J Moraes, L F Pettenuzzo, J Kolling, C Siebert, A Longoni, E L Konrath, A Wyse, C A Netto
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an etiologic component of several neurologic pathologies associated to cognitive impairment. The mechanisms involved in HI-induced tissue damage start immediately after HI and extend for days. Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and exerts a protector effect on tissue damage by modulating inflammation, and cholinesterase inhibitors have shown neuroprotective properties and their action are often attributed to inhibition of the immune response...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882448/sirtuins-and-their-roles-in-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#16
Henryk Jęśko, Przemysław Wencel, Robert P Strosznajder, Joanna B Strosznajder
Sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) are unique histone deacetylases (HDACs) whose activity depends on NAD(+) levels and thus on the cellular metabolic status. SIRTs regulate energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. They orchestrate the stress response and damage repair. Through these functions sirtuins modulate the course of aging and affect neurodegenerative diseases. SIRTSs interact with multiple signaling proteins, transcription factors (TFs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) another class of NAD(+)-dependent post-translational protein modifiers...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882447/neonatal-repeated-exposure-to-isoflurane-not-sevoflurane-in-mice-reversibly-impaired-spatial-cognition-at-juvenile-age
#17
Jianhui Liu, Yanhong Zhao, Junjun Yang, Xiaoqing Zhang, Wei Zhang, Peijun Wang
Inhalation anesthetics facilitate surgical procedures in millions of children each year. However, animal studies demonstrate that exposure to the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane may cause neuronal cell death in developing brains. The long-term cytotoxic effects of sevoflurane, the most popular pediatric anesthetic, have not been compared with isoflurane. Thus, this study was designed to compare the effects of equipotent doses of these two anesthetics on neonatal long-term neurotoxicity. Postnatal 7-day-old (P7) C57/BL male mice were exposed to 1...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878659/neural-signaling-metabolites-may-modulate-energy-use-in-hibernation
#18
Kelly L Drew, Carla Frare, Sarah A Rice
Despite an epidemic in obesity and metabolic syndrome limited means exist to effect adiposity or metabolic rate other than life style changes. Here we review evidence that neural signaling metabolites may modulate thermoregulatory pathways and offer novel means to fine tune energy use. We extend prior reviews on mechanisms that regulate thermogenesis and energy use in hibernation by focusing primarily on the neural signaling metabolites adenosine, AMP and glutamate.
November 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878658/role-of-matricellular-proteins-in-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#19
A R Jayakumar, A Apeksha, M D Norenberg
Matricellular proteins (MCPs) are actively expressed non-structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix, which rapidly turnover and possess regulatory roles, as well as mediate cell-cell interactions. MCPs characteristically contain binding sites for other extracellular proteins, cell surface receptors, growth factors, cytokines and proteases, that provide structural support for surrounding cells. MCPs are present in most organs, including brain, and play a major role in cell-cell interactions and tissue repair...
November 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873133/altered-expression-of-cxcl13-and-cxcr5-in-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rats
#20
Ruohan Li, Limin Ma, Hao Huang, Shu Ou, Jinxian Yuan, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Xi Liu, Juan Yang, Yangmei Chen, Xi Peng
The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory processes occurring in the brain are involved in a common and crucial mechanism in epileptogenesis. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its only receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the brain tissues of both patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and a rat model (lithium-pilocarpine) of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to identify possible roles of the CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling pathway in epileptogenesis...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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