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Neurochemical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936619/erratum-to-genomics-guided-precise-anti-epileptic-drug-development
#1
Norman Delanty, Gianpiero Cavalleri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932945/necrostatin-1-mitigates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Shuang Wang, Jin Wu, Yu-Zhe Zeng, Song-Song Wu, Guo-Rong Deng, Zhi-Da Chen, Bin Lin
Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) has been shown to inhibit necroptosis and convey a significant protective effect after spinal cord injury (SCI). This small molecule inhibitor may reduce tissue damage and restore neurological function by lessening mitochondrial injury after SCI and preserving energy homeostasis. However, the effects of Nec-1 on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-an important pathological consequence of SCI-are still not clear. The present study investigates the relationship between necroptosis and ERS in a rat model of SCI...
September 20, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929408/yokukansan-reduces-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-in-the-corpus-callosum-through-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-microglia
#3
Taichi Nomura, Yoshio Bando, Hua You, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Shigetaka Yoshida
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The release of inflammatory cytokines and pro-oxidant molecules from microglia has been shown to play a key role in the pathology of MS. Thus, suppression of microglial cell activation is an attractive therapeutic option. Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been shown to suppress microglial activity in the CNS. However, whether or not yokukansan reduces demyelination observed in the CNS during MS remains unknown...
September 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918515/oligodendrocyte-neuron-interactions-impact-on-myelination-and-brain-function
#4
Takeshi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Osanai, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In the past, glial cells were considered to be 'glue' cells whose primary role was thought to be merely filling gaps in neural circuits. However, a growing number of reports have indicated the role of glial cells in higher brain function through their interaction with neurons. Myelin was originally thought to be just a sheath structure surrounding neuronal axons, but recently it has been shown that myelin exerts effects on the conduction velocity of neuronal axons even after myelin formation. Therefore, the investigation of glial cell properties and the neuron-glial interactions is important for understanding higher brain function...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918494/betaine-in-the-brain-characterization-of-betaine-uptake-its-influence-on-other-osmolytes-and-its-potential-role-in-neuroprotection-from-osmotic-stress
#5
Leena S Knight, Quinn Piibe, Ian Lambie, Christopher Perkins, Paul H Yancey
Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specifically in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory and one that is particularly susceptible to damage (e...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913592/chronic-stress-causes-sex-specific-and-structure-specific-alterations-in-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-activity-in-rat-brain
#6
Carina de Souza Mota, Simone Nardin Weis, Roberto Farina Almeida, Carla Dalmaz, Fátima Therezinha Costa Guma, Letícia Ferreira Pettenuzzo
Chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces a variety of changes in brain function, some of which are mediated by glucocorticoids. The response to stress occurs in a sex-specific way, and may include mitochondrial and synaptic alterations. The synapse is highly dependent on mitochondrial energy supply, and when mitochondria become dysfunctional, they orchestrate cell death. This study aimed to investigate the CRS effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, as well as mitochondrial potential and mass in cell body and synapses using hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male and female rats...
September 14, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884396/ginsenoside-re-protects-trimethyltin-induced-neurotoxicity-via-activation-of-il-6-mediated-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-akt-signaling-in-mice
#7
Thu-Hien Thi Tu, Naveen Sharma, Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Yu Jeung Lee, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jung Hwan Jeong, Seung Yeol Nah, Hoang-Yen Phi Tran, Jae Kyung Byun, Sung Kwon Ko, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Ginseng (Panax ginseng), an herbal medicine, has been used to prevent neurodegenerative disorders. Ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, or Rg1) were obtained from Korean mountain cultivated ginseng. The anticonvulsant activity of ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg/day × 3) against trimethyltin (TMT) insult was the most pronounced out of ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, and Rg1). Re itself did not significantly alter tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-ϒ (IFN-ϒ), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression, however, it significantly increases the interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression...
September 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879493/neural-progenitor-cells-undergoing-yap-tead-mediated-enhanced-self-renewal-form-heterotopias-more-easily-in-the-diencephalon-than-in-the-telencephalon
#8
Kanako Saito, Ryotaro Kawasoe, Hiroshi Sasaki, Ayano Kawaguchi, Takaki Miyata
Spatiotemporally ordered production of cells is essential for brain development. Normally, most undifferentiated neural progenitor cells (NPCs) face the apical (ventricular) surface of embryonic brain walls. Pathological detachment of NPCs from the apical surface and their invasion of outer neuronal territories, i.e., formation of NPC heterotopias, can disrupt the overall structure of the brain. Although NPC heterotopias have previously been observed in a variety of experimental contexts, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown...
September 6, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871472/cytochrome-p450-2d6-and-parkinson-s-disease-polymorphism-metabolic-role-risk-and-protection
#9
REVIEW
Mohd Sami Ur Rasheed, Abhishek Kumar Mishra, Mahendra Pratap Singh
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is one of the most highly active, oxidative and polymorphic enzymes known to metabolize Parkinsonian toxins and clinically established anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) drugs. Albeit CYP2D6 gene is not present in rodents, its orthologs perform almost the similar function with imprecise substrate and inhibitor specificity. CYP2D6 expression and catalytic activity are found to be regulated at every stage of the central dogma except replication as well as at the epigenetic level. CYP2D6 gene codes for a set of alternate splice variants that give rise to a range of enzymes possessing variable catalytic activity...
September 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861768/capsaicin-protects-against-oxidative-insults-and-alleviates-behavioral-deficits-in-rats-with-6-ohda-induced-parkinson-s-disease-via-activation-of-trpv1
#10
ZhenXiang Zhao, JianFeng Wang, LingLing Wang, XiaoMei Yao, YiLin Liu, Ye Li, Si Chen, Tao Yue, XiaoTang Wang, WenFei Yu, YiMing Liu
Increasing evidence suggests that capsaicin may play a role in modulating neuronal function and controlling motor behavior. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear and the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) might be involved in. This study investigated the potential neuroprotective role of capsaicin in a rat model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). Capsaicin was treated intraperitoneally for the 6-OHDA induced PD rats and the locomotor activity and abnormal involuntary movements were found alleviated...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861754/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mediated-neuroprotective-efficacy-of-cicer-microphyllum-seed-extract-in-global-hypoxia
#11
Deepti Sharma, Surya Narayan Biswal, Kushal Kumar, Pushpendar Bhardwaj, Kalpana Kumari Barhwal, Ashish Kumar, Sunil Kumar Hota, Om Prakash Chaurasia
Hypoxia induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus has been implicated for memory impairment in conditions like stroke, ischemia and hypobaric hypoxia. The present study, aimed at investigating the potential of ethanolic extract of Cicer microphyllum seeds (CSE) for amelioration of global hypoxia induced neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus. CSE supplementation considerably reduced neurodegeneration and dendritic atrophy in CA1 neurons along with improvement of memory in hypoxic rats...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861673/sod1-mutations-causing-familial-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-induce-toxicity-in-astrocytes-evidence-for-bystander-effects-in-a-continuum-of-astrogliosis
#12
Nicole Wallis, Chew L Lau, Manal A Farg, Julie D Atkin, Philip M Beart, Ross D O'Shea
Astrocytes contribute to the death of motor neurons via non-cell autonomous mechanisms of injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Since mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) underlie the neuropathology of some forms of familial ALS, we explored how expression of mutant SOD1 protein A4V SOD1-EGFP affected the biology of secondary murine astrocytes. A4V SOD1-EGFP expressing astrocytes (72 h after transfection) displayed decreased mitochondrial activity (~45%) and L-glutamate transport (~25%), relative to cells expressing wild-type SOD1-EGFP...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861668/neuroprotective-activities-of-spirulina-platensis-in-the-6-ohda-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-are-related-to-its-anti-inflammatory-effects
#13
Francisco Arnaldo Viana Lima, Ivan Pinheiro Joventino, Francisca Pinheiro Joventino, Aline Cordeiro de Almeida, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Marta Regina do Carmo, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal, Geanne Matos de Andrade, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
Spirulina platensis (SPI) is a cyanobacterium, presenting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. Considering the importance of inflammation and oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease (PD), SPI neuroprotective effects were evaluated in a model of PD. Male Wistar rats were divided into: sham-operated (SO), untreated 6-OHDA and 6-OHDA treated with SPI (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.). The 6-OHDA was injected into the right striata and SPI treatments started 24 h later for 2 weeks. The SO and untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned groups were administered with distilled water, for the same period...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856535/glua4-dependent-plasticity-mechanisms-contribute-to-developmental-synchronization-of-the-ca3-ca1-circuitry-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Tsvetomira Atanasova, Zoya Kharybina, Tiina Kaarela, Johanna Huupponen, Natalia V Luchkina, Tomi Taira, Sari E Lauri
During the course of development, molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic plasticity change considerably. At immature CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, PKA-driven synaptic insertion of GluA4 AMPA receptors is the predominant mechanism for synaptic strengthening. However, the physiological significance of the developmentally restricted GluA4-dependent plasticity mechanisms is poorly understood. Here we have used microelectrode array (MEA) recordings in GluA4 deficient slice cultures to study the role of GluA4 in early development of the hippocampal circuit function...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852940/antioxidative-and-anti-apoptotic-roles-of-silibinin-in-reversing-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-app-ps1-mice
#15
Dafeng Bai, Ge Jin, Shiliang Yin, Dan Zou, Qiwen Zhu, Zhihang Yang, Xuan Liu, Lizheng Ren, Yifeng Sun, Shiming Gan
Silibinin has been widely used to treat liver diseases due to its antioxidant activity. However, the effects of silibinin on the central nervous system have not been thoroughly investigated. The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are the accumulation of amyloid β protein, development of neurofibrillary tangles and increased oxidative stress, which ultimately lead to irreversible neuronal loss and cognitive impairment. Our findings show that silibinin ameliorated memory impairments in APP/PS1 mice in the Morris water maze via suppression of oxidative stress and inhibition of apoptosis...
August 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852934/anti-glioma-activity-of-dapsone-and-its-enhancement-by-synthetic-chemical-modification
#16
Georg Karpel-Massler, Richard E Kast, Markus D Siegelin, Annika Dwucet, Elisabeth Schneider, Mike-Andrew Westhoff, Christian Rainer Wirtz, Xiao Yun Chen, Marc-Eric Halatsch, Carsten Bolm
The sulfone dapsone is an old antibiotic used for the treatment of mycobacterial and protozoal infections. We postulated before that dapsone might possess biological activity exceeding its anti-infectious properties and that it could potentially be repurposed for the treatment of glioma. To test this hypothesis, we treated established and primary cultured glioma cells with dapsone or several dapsone analogues which we previously synthesized (D2-D5) and determined effects on proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and migration...
August 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852933/extracellular-cytosolic-aspartate-aminotransferase-promotes-axonal-growth-and-object-recognition-memory
#17
Ryo Kobayashi, Chihiro Tohda
Previous proteome analysis studies from other groups have shown that cAST might be secreted from neurons and that cAST was detected in human cerebrospinal fluid. However, none of these studies focused on its role or significance. We therefore investigated the role of extracellular cAST for neurons. cAST was detected in conditioned medium from cultured cortical neurons, but not in fresh medium. Recombinant cAST treatment of cortical neurons significantly extended axonal length. Continuous intracerebroventricular administration of recombinant cAST in normal mice for 14 days significantly enhanced object recognition ability...
August 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840582/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-the-increase-in-spontaneous-oxidation-of-dopamine-during-monoamine-oxidase-inhibition-in-pc12-cells
#18
David S Goldstein, Yunden Jinsmaa, Patti Sullivan, Yehonatan Sharabi
The catecholaldehyde hypothesis for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease proposes that the deaminated dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is toxic to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO) should therefore slow the disease progression; however, MAO inhibition increases spontaneous oxidation of dopamine, as indicated by increased 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine (Cys-DA) levels, and the oxidation products may also be toxic. This study examined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of the anti-oxidant glutathione, attenuates the increase in Cys-DA production during MAO inhibition...
August 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836168/the-purine-salvage-pathway-and-the-restoration-of-cerebral-atp-implications-for-brain-slice-physiology-and-brain-injury
#19
Bruno G Frenguelli
Brain slices have been the workhorse for many neuroscience labs since the pioneering work of Henry McIlwain in the 1950s. Their utility is undisputed and their acceptance as appropriate models for the central nervous system is widespread, if not universal. However, the skeleton in the closet is that ATP levels in brain slices are lower than those found in vivo, which may have important implications for cellular physiology and plasticity. Far from this being a disadvantage, the ATP-impoverished slice can serve as a useful and experimentally-tractable surrogate for the injured brain, which experiences similar depletion of cellular ATP...
August 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836128/purinergic-antagonism-prevents-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-behavioral-deficits-associated-with-dopaminergic-toxicity-induced-by-6-ohda-in-rats
#20
Saket Kumar, Akanksha Mishra, Sairam Krishnamurthy
Purinoceptors are present in neurons, microglia and oligodendrocytes and regulate dopamine (DA) release, striatal-related function and striatal neuronal and DA cells damage. Therefore, purinoceptors may be involved in the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and purinergic antagonism may show neuroprotective effect. The study investigated the role of the non-selective purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2('), 4(')-disulfonic acid (PPADS) and a selective purinergic receptor P2X7 receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) against 6-OHDA induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats; while adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was used as a P2X receptor agonist...
August 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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