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Neurochemical Research

Malabendu Jana, Supurna Ghosh, Kalipada Pahan
An increase in central nervous system (CNS) remyelination and a decrease in CNS inflammation are important steps to halt the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we describe promyelinating property of RNS60. RNS60, but not normal saline (NS), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) or PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), stimulated the expression of myelin-specific genes and proteins (myelin basic protein, MBP; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, MOG and proteolipid protein, PLP) in primary mouse oligodendroglia and mixed glial cells...
November 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Daiane Fátima Engel, Jade de Oliveira, Vicente Lieberknecht, Ana Lucia Severo Rodrigues, Andreza Fabro de Bem, Nelson Horácio Gabilan
The contribution of oxidative stress to the pathophysiology of depression has been described in numerous studies. Particularly, an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to neuronal cell death. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the antidepressant duloxetine against rotenone-induced oxidative stress. SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with duloxetine (1-5 µM) for 24 h followed by a 24-h rotenone exposure (10 µM)...
November 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Jingdong Long, Xiaolu Lei, Meiyun Chen, Shulei Yang, Tao Sun, Junwei Zeng, Deqian Yu, Hong Tian, Xiaohong Liu
Spinal cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and purinergic P2X receptors (P2XR) play a critical role in the process of pathological pain. Both CB1R and P2XR are expressed in spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons. It is not clear whether CB1 receptor activation modulates the function of P2X receptor channels within dorsal horn. For this reason, we observed the effect of CP55940 (cannabinoid receptor agonist) on ATP-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in cultured rat DH neurons. The changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-4/AM as a calcium fluorescent indicator...
November 10, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Shannon L Zandy, Rueben A Gonzales
Inhibitory signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the mechanism of action for many drugs of abuse. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to alter extracellular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the VTA, knowledge on how uptake mechanisms are regulated in vivo is limited. Quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis is commonly used to examine the extracellular concentration and clearance of monoamine neurotransmitters, however it is unclear whether this method is sensitive to changes in clearance for amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA...
November 10, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Mitsuaki Moriyama, Shunsuke Fujitsuka, Kenji Kawabe, Katsura Takano, Yoichi Nakamura
Zn(2+) plays a crucial role in the CNS where it accumulates in synaptic vesicles and is released during neurotransmission. Synaptically released Zn(2+) is taken up by neurons and astrocytes. The majority of previous work has focused on neuronal damage caused by excess Zn(2+). However, its effect on astrocyte function is not well understood. We examined the effect of extracellularly applied Zn(2+) on nitric oxide (NO) production in primary cultured rat astrocytes, which were experimentally activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
November 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Dongdong Guo, Xingang Lu, Xiaoli Xu, Haixin Gou, Zhiqian Wang, Yi Cao, Xingjing Luo
Vinorine is a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, a type of natural alkaloids. Growing reports exhibited the numerous pharmacology activities of vinorine such as anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial and anti-tumor. In this study, the effect of vinorine injection (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg) on motor function, sensation and nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury rat was investigated. The results of behavioral analysis, electrophysiological analysis and muscle histological analysis suggested that vinorine promoted the motor function recovery after sciatic nerve injury...
November 8, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Miao Fang, Junkui Li, Daoqi Zhu, Chaohua Luo, Chan Li, Chen Zhu, Menglin Fan, Ken Kin-Lam Yung, Zhixian Mo
Evidence suggests that the dopamine receptor rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the glutamate receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B), contribute to morphine dependence. Previous studies show that chronic exposure to morphine changes the expression of opioid receptors. In this study, we focus on the effects of sinomenine on morphine-dependent mice and its related neural mechanisms. Conditioned place preference (CPP) mouse model was established using morphine (9 mg/kg, s.c.), and their expression levels of TH and NR2B were observed by immunohistochemistry...
November 8, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Akira Terashima, Young Ho Suh, John T R Isaac
AMPA receptors mediate the majority of excitatory glutamatergic transmission in the mammalian brain and are heterotetramers composed of GluA1-4 subunits. Despite genetic studies, the roles of the subunits in synaptic transmission and plasticity remain controversial. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of cell-specific removal of GluA1 in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons using virally-expressed GluA1 shRNA in organotypic slice culture. We show that this shRNA approach produces a rapid, efficient and selective loss of GluA1, and removed > 80% of surface GluA1 from synapses...
November 3, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Zhi-Peng Xu, Guo-Sheng Gan, Yu-Min Liu, Jin-Song Xiao, Han-Xing Liu, Bin Mei, Jun-Jian Zhang
Clinical studies have demonstrated that decreased adiponectin is associated with the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We focused on determining the neuroprotective effect offered by adiponectin against streptozotocin-induced brain damage in ICV-STZ rat model. We found that adiponectin supplements significantly restored the cognitive deficits in ICV-STZ rat model including shorter escape latency, more crossing times and increased time spent in the target quadrant. Adiponectin supplements also increased number of dendritic branches and mushroom percentage...
November 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Yang Hui, Tang Chengyong, Luo Cheng, He Haixia, Zhou Yuanda, Yu Weihua
Oxidative stress and cytotoxic damage induced by amyloid beta (Aβ) have been considered pivotal in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may represent a target for treatment. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway elicits a survival signal to protect against multiple injuries, and the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt pathway, can bind to HO-1. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol derived from grapes, has been widely reported to have diverse antioxidative effects against AD, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated...
October 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Catherine A S Deane, Ian R Brown
Heat shock proteins are involved in cellular repair and protective mechanisms that counter characteristic features of neurodegenerative diseases such as protein misfolding and aggregation. The HSPA (Hsp70) multigene family includes the widely studied HSPA1A (Hsp70-1) and the little studied HSPA6 (Hsp70B') which is present in the human genome and not in mouse and rat. The effect of knockdown of HSPA6 and HSPA1A expression was examined in relation to the ability of differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells to tolerate thermal stress...
October 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Yoshihide Yamaguchi, Hiroko Baba
Myelin protein zero (P0, MPZ) is the main cell adhesion molecule in peripheral myelin, the sequence of which is evolutionarily highly conserved. Large myelin protein zero (L-MPZ) is a novel translational readthrough molecule in mammals in a physiological status and is encoded by the P0 mRNA with an extra domain. The sequence similarities in the L-MPZ-specific region are found in humans and frogs but not in fish P0 cDNA. Actual synthesis of L-MPZ has been detected in rat and mouse sciatic nerve but not yet evaluated in frogs and humans...
October 28, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Anri Kuroda, Takahiro Fuchigami, Satoshi Fuke, Natsu Koyama, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Seiji Hitoshi
Minocycline not only has antibacterial action but also produces a variety of pharmacological effects. It has drawn considerable attention as a therapeutic agent for symptoms caused by inflammation in many neurological disorders, leading to several clinical trials. Although some of these effects are mediated through its function of suppressing microglial activation, it is not clear whether minocycline acts on other cell types in the adult brain. In this study, we utilized a colony-forming neurosphere assay, in which neural stem cells (NSCs) clonally proliferate to form floating colonies, called neurospheres...
October 28, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Hong Q Smith, Changhong Li, Charles A Stanley, Thomas James Smith
In-vitro, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). GDH is found in all organisms, but in animals is allosterically regulated by a wide array of metabolites. For many years, it was not at all clear why animals required such complex control. Further, in both standard textbooks and some research publications, there has been some controversy as to the directionality of the reaction. Here we review recent work demonstrating that GDH operates mainly in the catabolic direction in-vivo and that the finely tuned network of allosteric regulators allows GDH to meet the varied needs in a wide range of tissues in animals...
October 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Hyopil Kim, Somi Kim, Ja Eun Choi, DaeHee Han, Soo Min Koh, Hyun-Seok Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang
The sirtuin family of proteins consists of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that are involved in the response to calorie restriction and various physiological phenomena, such as aging and cognition. One of these proteins, sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), is localized in the mitochondria and protects the cell against oxidative or metabolic stress. Sirtuin protein deficiencies have been shown to accelerate neurodegeneration in neurotoxic conditions. The mechanisms underlying the involvement of SIRT3 in cognition remain unclear...
October 26, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Bruno G Frenguelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Qinru Sun, Ning Jia, Jie Yang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that elevated circulating corticosteroids or chronic stress contributes to neuronal cell death, cognitive and mental disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Taurine is considered to protect neuronal cells from apoptotic cell death in neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, the protective effects of taurine against corticosterone (CORT)-induced oxidative damage in SK-N-SH neuronal cells were investigated. The results showed that CORT significantly induced cell death, which was blocked by pretreatment with taurine...
October 23, 2017: Neurochemical Research
An Liu, Ying Zhang, Lifang Han, Guiqin He, Wei Xie, Zikai Zhou, Zhengping Jia
Abnormal processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and aggregation of the Aβ peptide are known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, but the function of endogenous APP under normal physiological conditions remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated presynaptic changes in APP knockout (KO) mice. We demonstrate that both sucrose-induced neurotransmission and synaptic depletion in response to high frequency stimulation are significantly enhanced in APP KO compared to wild type littermates...
October 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Binbin Wang, Bingbing Fan, Qijun Dai, Xingguo Xu, Peipei Jiang, Lin Zhu, Haifeng Dai, Zhigang Yao, Zhongling Xu, Xiaojuan Liu
Neuropathic pain is a complicated clinical syndrome caused by heterogeneous etiology. Despite the fact that the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, it is well accepted that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of neuropathic pain. Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein, has been proved to be involved in the processing of diverse biological events including cellular development, immunity, and tumor invasion etc. Recent studies have shown that Fascin-1 participates in antigen presentation and the regulation of pro-inflammatory agents...
October 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Arne Schousboe, Karsten K Madsen
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In Fig. 1 two chemical structures are incorrect, namely exo-THPO and N-methyl-exo-THPO. The hydroxyl group (-OH) in the isoxazole ring is missing. The corrected Fig. 1 is given below.
October 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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