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Neurochemical Research

Ivana Pilchova, Katarina Klacanova, Katarina Dibdiakova, Simona Saksonova, Andrea Stefanikova, Eva Vidomanova, Lucia Lichardusova, Jozef Hatok, Peter Racay
Overload or dysfunction of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is implicated in mechanisms of neurodegeneration associated with neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between viability of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and glioblastoma T98G cells treated with bortezomib, inhibitor of 26S proteasome, and accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins with respect to direct cytotoxicity of aggregates of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins...
July 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Zhonghua Yang, Yuanyuan Geng, Zhiya Yao, Huimin Jia, Yuzuo Bai, Weilin Wang
Fecal incontinence and constipation still remain the major complications after procedures for anorectal malformations (ARMs). Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease of neural cell in lumbosacral spinal cord of ARMs patients and rat models. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, the neural cell apoptosis and Bcl-2/Bax expression were explored during lumbosacral spinal cord development in normal and ARMs fetuses. ARMs rat fetuses were induced by treating pregnant rats with ethylenethiourea on embryonic day 10...
July 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Fen Wan, Songsong Zang, Guoqing Yu, Hang Xiao, Jun Wang, Jinrong Tang
Accumulating evidence suggests that microglial cells have altered morphology and proliferation in different brain regions of methamphetamine (Meth) abusers and Meth-abusing animal models. However, the possible mechanisms underlying Meth-induced microglial activation remain poorly understood. Meanwhile, Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) is closely associated with inflammation. Therefore the aim of the present study was to assess whether Meth treatment affects TLR4 expression; in addition, we evaluated the effects of ginkgolide B (GB), a diterpene lactone extracted from Ginkgo biloba, on Meth-mediated inflammation...
July 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Anja Scheller, Xianshu Bai, Frank Kirchhoff
An acute brain injury is commonly characterized by an extended cellular damage. The post-injury process of scar formation is largely determined by responses of various local glial cells and blood-derived immune cells. The role of astrocytes and microglia have been frequently reviewed in the traumatic sequelae. Here, we summarize the diverse contributions of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and their precursor cells (OPCs) in acute injuries. OLs at the lesion site are highly sensitive to a damaging insult, provoked by Ca(2+) overload after hyperexcitation originating from increased levels of transmitters...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Dorota Nieoczym, Katarzyna Socała, Piotr Wlaź
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders which is diagnosed in around 65 million people worldwide. Clinically available antiepileptic drugs fail to control epileptic activity in about 30% of patients and they are merely symptomatic treatments and cannot cure or prevent epilepsy. There remains a need for searching new therapeutic strategies for epileptic disorders. The P2X7 receptor has been recently investigated as a new target in epilepsy treatment. Preclinical studies revealed that P2X7 receptor antagonists have anticonvulsant properties in some models of epilepsy...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Xirong Hu, Benhong Xu, Wei Ge
Lipid bodies (LBs) have long been considered to be organelles merely for the storage of neutral lipids. However, recent studies have shown the significance of LBs in signal transduction, especially in glial cells, including microglia. Microglial cells are the resident mononuclear phagocytes in the central nervous system and have a close relationship with the aging process and neurodegenerative diseases. Evidence suggests that LBs accumulate and are remodeled during the aging process and the development of neuroinflammatory conditions...
July 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Takahiro Ishimoto, Noritaka Nakamichi, Hikari Nishijima, Yusuke Masuo, Yukio Kato
Brain immune cells, i.e., microglia, play an important role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis, whereas chronic overactivation of microglia is involved in the development of various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the regulation of microglial activation may contribute to their treatment. The aim of the present study was to clarify the functional expression of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN1/SLC22A4, which recognizes the naturally occurring food-derived antioxidant ergothioneine (ERGO) as a substrate in vivo, in microglia and its role in regulation of microglial activation...
July 8, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Eva-Maria Blumrich, Ralf Dringen
Metformin is the most frequently used drug for the treatment of type-II diabetes. As metformin has been reported to cross the blood-brain barrier, brain cells will encounter this drug. To test whether metformin may affect the metabolism of neurons, we exposed cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons to metformin. Treatment with metformin caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in glycolytic lactate release from viable neurons as demonstrated by the three-to fivefold increase in extracellular lactate concentration determined after exposure to metformin...
July 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Xian-Hua Deng, Xiao Zhang, Jing Wang, Peng-Sheng Ma, Lin Ma, Yang Niu, Tao Sun, Ru Zhou, Jian-Qiang Yu
Epilepsy is one of the common and major neurological disorders, approximately a third of the individuals with epilepsy suffer from seizures and not able to successfully respond to available medications. Current study was designed to investigate whether Swertiamarin (Swe) had anticonvulsant activity in the pilocarpine (PILO)-treated mice. Thirty minutes prior to the PILO (280 mg/kg) injection, the mice were administrated with Swe (50, 150, and 450 mg/kg) and valproate sodium (VPA, 200 mg/kg) once. Seizures and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed, and then the mice were killed for Nissl, Fluoro-jade B (FJB) staining...
July 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Yifen Shen, Li Zhang, Donglin Wang, Yifeng Bao, Chao Liu, Zhiwei Xu, Wei Huang, Chun Cheng
Dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2), a protein kinase that phosphorylates its substrates on serine/threonine, is expressed in numerous human tumors, but little is known about its role in the pathophysiology of glioma. In this study, we made an effort to explore the expression and function in human glioma. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to investigate the expression of DYRK2 protein in glioma tissues in 84 patients. Wound healing and transwell assay were carried out to determine the cell migration ability...
July 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Tomoya Kitayama
The pain sensory system normally functions under a fine balance between excitation and inhibition. When this balance is perturbed for some reason, it leads to neuropathic pain. There is accumulating evidence that attributes this pain generation to specific dysfunctions of the inhibitory system in the spinal cord. One possible mechanism leading to the induction of these dysfunctions is the down-regulation of K(+)-Cl(-)-cotransporter-2 (KCC2) expression. In fact, various neuropathic pain models indicate a decrease of KCC2 expression in the spinal cord...
July 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Qidi He, Guan Huang, Yixin Chen, Xiaoqin Wang, Zhishu Huang, Zuanguang Chen
Cerebral deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), a fundamental feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), damages the neurocytes and impairs the cognition functions and associative learning memory of AD patients. A series of novel 2-arylethenylquinoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in our previous study, which inhibited Aβ aggregation in vitro effectively at the concentration of 20 μmol/L and exhibited high antioxidant activity. In order to verify the capacity of anti-AD in vivo, the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
July 1, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Chao Shen, Yingjuan Ma, Ziling Zeng, Qingqing Yin, Yan Hong, Xunyao Hou, Xueping Liu
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) enhance microglial activation and intensify the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the brain. This process may occur due to direct cytotoxicity or interacting with AGEs receptors (RAGE), which are expressed on the surface of microglia. FPS-ZM1 is a high-affinity but nontoxic RAGE-specific inhibitor that has been recently shown to attenuate the Aβ-induced inflammatory response by blocking the ligation of Aβ to RAGE. In this study, we further investigated the effect of FPS-ZM1 on the AGEs/RAGE interaction and downstream elevation of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in primary microglia cells...
June 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
M Ibrahim Hossain, Masao Horie, Hirohide Takebayashi
Dystonia musculorum (dt) mice show sensory neurodegeneration and movement disorder, such as dystonia and cerebellar ataxia. The causative gene Dystonin (Dst) encodes a cytoskeleton linker protein. Although sensory neurodegeneration has been well studied, glial cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated cell proliferation in the CNS of Dst (Gt) homozygous mice using newly generated in situ hybridization (ISH) probes-Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) probes-both of which effectively detect proliferating cells...
June 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Brian A MacVicar, Hyun Beom Choi
It is an honour to have this opportunity write an article in recognition of the immense contributions of Bruce Ransom to the field of glial research. For me (BAM) personally there are many highlights both as a colleague and a friend that come to mind when I reflect on the many years that I have known Bruce. My own entry into the glial field was inspired by the early work by Ransom and his lab showing the sensitivity of astrocytes to neuronal activity. During my PhD and postdoctoral research I read these early papers and was inspired to ask the question when I first set up my independent lab in 1983: what if astrocytes also express some of the multitude of ion channels or transmitter receptors that were beginning to be described in neurons? Could they modify neuronal excitability during seizures or behaviour? As it turned out this was not only true but glial-neuronal interactions continues to be a growing and exciting field that I am still working in...
June 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Boxiang Qi, Libao Hu, Lei Zhu, Lei Shang, Xuecheng Wang, Na Liu, Nana Wen, Yao Hong, Daihua Fang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can lead to brain damage and even death, and there is lack of effective therapeutic methods for treating ICH. Although recent studies have focused on the administration of metformin in treating stroke, there is no literature to support whether it can be used to treat ICH. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of metformin on ICH and the underlying mechanisms of those effects. An ICH model was established in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, ICH group, and ICH+metformin group...
June 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Bruna Bellaver, Carla de Oliveira, Isabel Cristina de Macedo, Joice Soares de Freitas, Eugenio Horacio Grevet, Wolnei Caumo, Luis Augusto Rohde, André Quincozes-Santos, Iraci L S Torres
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous disorder characterized by impairing levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Oxidative and inflammatory parameters have been recognized among its multiple predisposing pathways, and clinical studies indicate that ADHD patients have increased oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidative (DCFH oxidation, glutathione levels, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities) and inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10) parameters in the most widely accepted animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
June 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Liping Xia, Xin Xie, Yang Liu, Xiaoguang Luo
Neuroinflammation is an important pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The peripheral immune system could produce profound effects on central immunities. The peripheral blood monocyte (PBM) immune tolerance is the refractoriness of immune system to avoid overactive peripheral inflammation. The PBM are also actively involved in central immune activities. There is evidence implying the probable failure of immune tolerance and impairment of CD200/CD200R signaling in PD patients. Here we aimed to explore the effects of PBM tolerance in peripheral LPS-induced neuroinflammation as well as the specific roles of CD200/CD200R pathway in PBM tolerance...
June 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Craig M Smith, Andrew J Lawrence
Due to the biological importance of sodium and its relative scarcity within many natural environments, 'salt appetite' has evolved whereby dietary salt is highly sought after and palatable when tasted. In addition to peripheral responses, salt depletion is detected within the brain via circumventricular organs and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) neurons to increase salt appetite. Salt appetite is comprised of two main components. One component is the incentive salience or motivation for salt (i...
June 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Úrzula Franco-Enzástiga, Ricardo A Santana-Martínez, Carlos A Silva-Islas, Diana Barrera-Oviedo, María Elena Chánez-Cárdenas, Perla D Maldonado
Oxidative stress plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. The cellular defense mechanisms to deal with oxidative damage involve the activation of transcription factor related to NF-E2 (Nrf2), which enhances the transcription of antioxidant and phase II enzyme genes. S-allylcysteine (SAC) is an antioxidant with neuroprotective properties, and the main organosulfur compound in aged garlic extract. The ability of SAC to activate the Nrf2 factor has been previously reported in hepatic cells; however this effect has not been studied in normal brain...
June 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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