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Neurochemical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101749/twenty-seven-years-of-cerebral-pyruvate-recycling
#1
Sebastián Cerdán
Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase, as well as of those transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane exchanging the corresponding intermediates...
January 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097466/trachyspermum-ammi-seeds-supplementation-helps-reverse-scopolamine-alprazolam-and-electroshock-induced-amnesia
#2
Kapil Soni, Milind Parle
The present study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of successive 10 days administration of Trachyspermum ammi seed's powder (TASP) along with diet (at the dose of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w) on learning and memory of mice. A total of 306 mice divided in 51 equal groups were employed in the study. Passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and Object recognition Task (ORT) were employed as exteroceptive models. The brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), serum cholesterol, brain monoaldehyde (MDA), brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and brain nitrite were estimated and Alprazolam, Scopolamine and Electroshock induced amnesia was employed to describe the actions...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097465/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-improves-motor-dysfunction-in-the-rotenone-induced-mice-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Tian Wang, Lijie Wang, Cuiting Li, Bing Han, Zhenhua Wang, Ji Li, Yan Lv, Shuyun Wang, Fenghua Fu
Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) is diminished in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is responsible for regulating expression of the DRD3 in the brain. Our previous study showed that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could increase BDNF content in the striatum of PD mice. This experiment aimed to evaluate whether HSYA can improve the motor dysfunction induced by rotenone through regulating the BDNF/TrkB/DRD3 signaling pathway in mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with HSYA...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097464/cdc42-promotes-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-migration-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-after-sciatic-nerve-injury
#4
Bin Han, Jun-Ying Zhao, Wu-Tao Wang, Zheng-Wei Li, Ai-Ping He, Xiao-Yang Song
Schwann cells (SCs) are unique glial cells in the peripheral nerve and may secrete multiple neurotrophic factors, adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix molecules to form the microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration, guiding and supporting nerve proliferation and migration. Cdc42 plays an important regulatory role in dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton. However, there is a little study referred to regulation and mechanism of Cdc42 on glial cells after peripheral nerve injury. The present study investigated the role of Cdc42 in the proliferation and migration of SCs after sciatic nerve injury...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097463/neurokinin-1-receptor-immunopositive-neurons-in-the-medullary-dorsal-horn-provide-collateral-axons-to-both-the-thalamus-and-parabrachial-nucleus-in-rats
#5
Xu Li, Shun-Nan Ge, Yang Li, Han-Tao Wang
It has been suggested that the trigemino-thalamic and trigemino-parabrachial projection neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) are highly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and emotional/affective aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. In previous studies, some neurons were reported to send projections to both the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus by way of collaterals in the MDH. However, little is known about the chemoarchitecture of this group of neurons. Thus, in the present study, we determined whether the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, which is crucial for primary orofacial pain signaling, was expressed in MDH neurons co-innervating the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083850/glycogen-supercompensation-in-the-rat-brain-after-acute-hypoglycemia-is-independent-of-glucose-levels-during-recovery
#6
João M N Duarte, Florence D Morgenthaler, Rolf Gruetter
Patients with diabetes display a progressive decay in the physiological counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia, resulting in hypoglycemia unawareness. The mechanism through which the brain adapts to hypoglycemia may involve brain glycogen. We tested the hypothesis that brain glycogen supercompensation following hypoglycemia depends on blood glucose levels during recovery. Conscious rats were submitted to hypoglycemia of 2 mmol/L for 90 min and allowed to recover at different glycemia, controlled by means of i...
January 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083849/erythropoietin-rescues-primary-rat-cortical-neurons-by-altering-the-nrf2-bach1-ratio-roles-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2
#7
Li-Min Zhang, Dong-Xue Zhang, Xiao-Chun Zhao, Wenbo Sun
While inhalation anesthetics are indispensable, and generally considered safe and effective, there is growing concern about the selective neurotoxicity of these agents, especially sevoflurane. Erythropoetin (EPO)-induced protection against sevoflurane-induced neuronal death is an effective intervention, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Extracellular signal-related kinases (Erk) 1/2 plays a pivotal role in cell growth and proliferation. Alteration of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/BTB-to-CNC homology 1 (Bach1) ratio by Erk1/2 ameliorates the oxidative stress which occurs in human macrophages...
January 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083848/effect-of-physical-and-social-components-of-enriched-environment-on-astrocytes-proliferation-in-rats-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Xiuping Chen, Xin Zhang, Weijing Liao, Qi Wan
Treatment of enriched environment (EE) exerts neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, how the component of EE contributes to the functional recovery after brain ischemia remains unclear. Here we examined the effect of physical and social components of EE on poststroke astrocytes proliferation using an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. Rats were divided into five groups: physical enrichment group (PE), social enrichment group (SE), physical and social enrichment group (PSE), ischemia + standard group (IS) and sham-operated + standard group (SS)...
January 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083847/influence-of-ivabradine-on-the-anticonvulsant-action-of-four-classical-antiepileptic-drugs-against-maximal-electroshock-induced-seizures-in-mice
#9
Katarzyna M Sawicka, Agnieszka Wawryniuk, Agnieszka Zwolak, Jadwiga Daniluk, Monika Szpringer, Magdalena Florek-Luszczki, Bartlomiej Drop, Dorota Zolkowska, Jarogniew J Luszczki
Although the role of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission is still unclear, it is postulated that the HCN channels may be involved in seizure activity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ivabradine (an HCN channel inhibitor) on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate) against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Tonic seizures (maximal electroconvulsions) were evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by an electric current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 0...
January 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078615/enthusiasm-scientifically-oriented-the-preface-for-the-special-issue-dedicated-to-jan-albrecht
#10
EDITORIAL
Magdalena Zielińska, Michael Aschner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078614/resistance-exercise-reduces-seizure-occurrence-attenuates-memory-deficits-and-restores-bdnf-signaling-in-rats-with-chronic-epilepsy
#11
Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Diego Vannucci Campos, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ricardo Mario Arida
Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078613/l-f001-a-multifunction-rock-inhibitor-prevents-6-ohda-induced-cell-death-through-activating-akt-gsk-3beta-and-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathway-in-pc12-cells-and-attenuates-mptp-induced-dopamine-neuron-toxicity-in-mice
#12
Liting Luo, Jingkao Chen, Dan Su, Meihui Chen, Bingling Luo, Rongbiao Pi, Lan Wang, Wei Shen, Rikang Wang
Amounting evidences demonstrated that Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) might be a novel target for the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we synthesized L-F001 and revealed it was a potent ROCK inhibitor with multifunctional effects. Here we investigated the effects of L-F001 in PD models. We found that L-F001 potently attenuated 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells and significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevented the 6-OHDA-induced decline of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular GSH levels...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078612/ameliorative-effect-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-role-of-cholinergic-system
#13
Yang Jin, Jian Peng, Xiaona Wang, Dong Zhang, Tianyin Wang
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078611/hyperbaric-oxygen-prevents-cognitive-impairments-in-mice-induced-by-d-galactose-by-improving-cholinergic-and-anti-apoptotic-functions
#14
Chunxia Chen, Luying Huang, Zhihuan Nong, Yaoxuan Li, Wan Chen, Jianping Huang, Xiaorong Pan, Guangwei Wu, Yingzhong Lin
Our previous study demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) improved cognitive impairments mainly by regulating oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and aging-related gene expression. However, a method for preventing cognitive dysfunction has yet to be developed. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of HBO on the cholinergic system and apoptosis in D-galactose (D-gal)-treated mice. A model of aging was established via systemic intraperitoneal injection of D-gal daily for 8 weeks. HBO was administered during the last 2 weeks of D-gal injection...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066856/preface-for-the-mary-c-mckenna-honorary-issue-of-neurochemical-research
#15
EDITORIAL
Arne Schousboe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062998/high-glucose-enhances-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-by-regulating-trpc-dependent-calcium-influx
#16
ZhongJie Liu, ChangQing Ma, Wei Zhao, QingGuo Zhang, Rui Xu, HongFei Zhang, HongYi Lei, ShiYuan Xu
Isoflurane is a commonly used inhalational anesthetic that can induce neurotoxicity via elevating cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)). High glucose regulates the expression of a family of non-selective cation channels termed transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels that may contribute to Ca(2+) influx. In the present study, we investigated whether high glucose enhances isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by regulating TRPC-dependent Ca(2+) influx. First, we evaluated toxic damage in mice primary cultured hippocampal neurons and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) after hyperglycemia and isoflurane exposure...
January 6, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058526/citrate-a-ubiquitous-key-metabolite-with-regulatory-function-in-the-cns
#17
Niels Westergaard, Helle S Waagepetersen, Bo Belhage, Arne Schousboe
Citrate is key constituent of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, serves as substrate for fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis, and functions as a key regulator of intermediary energy metabolism. Ursula Sonnewald had initiated studies using for the first time both proton- and (13)C-NMR to investigate metabolic processes in cultured neurons and astrocytes resulting in the important observation that citrate was specifically synthesized in and released from astrocytes in large amounts which is in keeping with the high concentration found in the CSF...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044241/in-memoriam-dr-eugene-roberts-1920-2016
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039593/early-and-late-pathomechanisms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-zinc-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-neurotoxicity
#19
Andrzej Szutowicz, Hanna Bielarczyk, Marlena Zyśk, Aleksandra Dyś, Anna Ronowska, Sylwia Gul-Hinc, Joanna Klimaszewska-Łata
There are several systemic and intracerebral pathologic conditions, which limit provision and utilization of energy precursor metabolites in neuronal cells. Energy deficits cause excessive depolarization of neuronal cells triggering glutamate-zinc evoked excitotoxic cascade. The intracellular zinc excess hits several intraneuronal targets yielding collapse of energy balance and impairment functional and structural impairments cholinergic neurons. Disturbances in metabolism of acetyl-CoA, which is a direct precursor for energy, acetylcholine, N-acetyl-L-aspartate and acetylated proteins synthesis, play an important role in these pathomechanisms...
December 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039592/loss-or-mislocalization-of-aquaporin-4-affects-diffusion-properties-and-intermediary-metabolism-in-gray-matter-of-mice
#20
T Pavlin, E A Nagelhus, C Brekken, E M Eyjolfsson, A Thoren, O Haraldseth, U Sonnewald, O P Ottersen, A K Håberg
The first aim of this study was to determine how complete or perivascular loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels affects membrane permeability for water in the mouse brain grey matter in the steady state. Time-dependent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed on global Aqp4 knock out (KO) and α-syntrophin (α-syn) KO mice, in the latter perivascular AQP4 are mislocalized, but still functioning. Control animals were corresponding wild type (WT) mice. By combining in vivo diffusion measurements with the effective medium theory and previously measured extra-cellular volume fractions, the effects of membrane permeability and extracellular volume fraction were uncoupled for Aqp4 and α-syn KO...
December 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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