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Neurochemical Research

Maria Kovalska, Barbara Tothova, Libusa Kovalska, Zuzana Tatarkova, Dagmar Kalenska, Anna Tomascova, Marian Adamkov, Jan Lehotsky
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that results in massive hippocampal and neocortical neuronal loss leading to dementia and eventual death. The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is not fully explored, although a number of risk factors have been recognized, including high plasma concentration of homocysteine (Hcy). Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) is considered a strong, independent risk factor for stroke and dementia. However, the molecular background underlying these mechanisms linked with hHcy and ischemic stroke is not fully understood...
July 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Chengyan Chu, Yue Gao, Xiaoyan Lan, Aline Thomas, Shen Li
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system via homophilic (NCAM-NCAM) and heterophilic (NCAM-other molecules) interactions. Many synthetic peptides have been engineered to mimic these interactions and induce NCAM-downstream signaling pathways. Such NCAM mimetics have displayed neuritogenic and neuroprotective properties, as well as synaptic modulation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they have been used successfully in preclinical studies to treat neurological disorders including stroke, traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease...
July 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ya-Jie Huang, Yu-Jia Yuan, Yi-Xian Liu, Meng-Yue Zhang, Jing-Ge Zhang, Tian-Ci Wang, Li-Nan Zhang, Yu-Yan Hu, Li Li, Xiao-Hui Xian, Jie Qi, Min Zhang
Previous studies have shown that intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH) preconditioning protected neurons survival from brain ischemia. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study explored the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the process by measuring the expression of NO synthase (NOS) and NO levels. Male Wistar rats (100) were randomly assigned into four groups: sham group, IH + sham group, ischemia group and IH + ischemia group. Rats for IH preconditioning were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia mimicking 5000 m high-altitude (PB  = 404 mmHg, PO2  = 84 mmHg) 6 h/day, once daily for 28 days...
July 11, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Guoxiang Fang, Ying Wang
Depression is a common mental disorder in adolescents, with a prevalence rate of 5.6%. Current anti-depressive options for adolescents are limited: psychological intervention and conventional antidepressants have low efficacy, a delayed onset of action and increased possibility of suicidal risk. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an effective and noninvasive physical therapy for adult depression has been investigated in recent years. However, whether it also produces similar effects on juvenile depression and the underlying mechanism are not clearly understood...
July 9, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Shu Jia, Baoman Li, Jingyang Huang, Alexei Verkhratsky, Liang Peng
Here we present the data indicating that chronic treatment with three antibipolar drugs, lithium, carbamazepine and valproic acid regulates Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signalling pathway and glycogen content in primary cultured astrocytes. All three drugs down-regulate gene expression of Caveoline 1 (Cav-1), decrease membrane content of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), increase activity of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and serine-threonine kinase (AKT), and elevate glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation thus suppressing its activity...
July 2, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Jijun Wang, Yingchun Yuan, Peng Zhang, Huixian Zhang, Xiaomei Liu, Yuelin Zhang
A growing body of literature has established a link between the cerebral ischaemic injury and pathological state of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this correlation indicated that the preventive agent for ischaemia might improve the pathology of AD. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Neohesperidin (NH) exhibited neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia via the down-regulation of Bcl-2, Akt/PI3K and Nrf2 pathways. In the present study, we first confirmed the protective effects of NH on Aβ25-35 -induced neurotoxicity on primary cultured hippocampal neurons...
June 30, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Tao Yang, Sujuan Du, Xianguo Liu, Xijiu Ye, Xuhong Wei
It is well known that remifentanil, a widely used intravenous anesthesia drug, can paradoxically induce hyperalgesia. The underlying mechanisms are still not clear despite the wide investigations. The present study demonstrated that withdrawal from spinal application of remifentanil could dose-dependently induce long term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber evoked field potentials. Remifentanil withdrawal could activate Src family kinases (SFKs) in microglia, and upregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in spinal dorsal horn...
June 29, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Benneth Ben-Azu, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Aya-Ebi Okubo Eneni, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Solomon Umukoro, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
Previous studies have revealed that morin (MOR), a neuroactive bioflavonoid, with proven psychotropic and neuroprotective properties reduced schizophrenic-like behaviors in mice. This study further evaluated the ability of MOR to prevent and reverse ketamine-induced schizophrenic-like behaviors and the underlying neurochemical changes and increased oxidative/nitrergic stress in mice. In the preventive protocol, mice received intraperitoneal injection of MOR (100 mg/kg), reference antipsychotic drugs [haloperidol (1 mg/kg), risperidone (0...
June 28, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Zhengkai Shao, Pei Wu, Xuefeng Wang, Meishan Jin, Shuang Liu, Xudong Ma, Huaizhang Shi
Neuronal apoptosis is a potentially fatal pathological process that occurs in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). There is an urgent need to identify effective therapeutics to alleviate neuronal apoptosis. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), as an important component of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Ligusticum wallichii, has been widely used in China to treat cerebral ischemic injury and confer neuroprotection. In the present work, we investigate whether TMP can reduce EBI following SAH in rats, specifically via inactivating the PERK/Akt signaling cascade...
June 27, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Yasunori Nishimura, Mitsuaki Moriyama, Kenji Kawabe, Hideyo Satoh, Katsura Takano, Yasu-Taka Azuma, Yoichi Nakamura
In several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), microglia are hyperactivated and release nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines, resulting its neuropathology. Mounting evidence indicates that dietary supplementation with coconut oil (CNO) reduces the cognitive deficits associated with AD; however, the precise mechanism(s) underlying the beneficial effect of CNO are unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of lauric acid (LA), a major constituent of CNO, on microglia activated experimentally by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), using primary cultured rat microglia and the mouse microglial cell line, BV-2...
June 26, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Lambros Mathioudakis, Mara Bourbouli, Elisavet Daklada, Sofia Kargatzi, Kleita Michaelidou, Ioannis Zaganas
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia. In mammals, GDH contributes to important processes such as amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, energy production, ammonia management, neurotransmitter recycling and insulin secretion. In humans, two isoforms of GDH are found, namely hGDH1 and hGDH2, with the former being ubiquitously expressed and the latter found mainly in brain, testis and kidney. These two iso-enzymes display highly divergent allosteric properties, especially concerning their basal activity, ADP activation and GTP inhibition...
June 25, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Wenyan Cao, Ying Dou, Aiping Li
Cognitive decline is among the most devastating age-related conditions and is rapidly becoming an important cause of disease burdens worldwide. New strategies for the prevention and management of cognitive decline are needed. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, has been found to enhance brain health through multiple signaling pathways. Optimal SIRT1 activation is the most crucial step in the neuroprotection provided by resveratrol against cognitive impairment. This review discusses several recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms by which resveratrol delay age-related cognitive decline through SIRT1...
June 25, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Dmitry S Vasilev, Natalia L Tumanova, Kira Kh Kim, Valeria V Lavrentyeva, Nera Y Lukomskaya, Igor A Zhuravin, Lev G Magazanik, Aleksey V Zaitsev
The relationships between seizures, neuronal death, and epilepsy remain one of the most disputed questions in translational neuroscience. Although it is broadly accepted that prolonged and repeated seizures cause neuronal death and epileptogenesis, whether brief seizures can produce a mild but similar effect is controversial. In the present work, using a rat pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model of seizures, we evaluated how a single episode of clonic-tonic seizures affected the viability of neurons in the hippocampus, the area of the brain most vulnerable to seizures, and morphological changes in the hippocampus up to 1 week after PTZ treatment (recovery period)...
June 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Jeremy S Lum, Samuel J Millard, Elisabeth Frank, Natalie Matosin, Xu-Feng Huang, Lezanne Ooi, Kelly A Newell
Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system is believed to underlie many neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) positive allosteric modulators (PAM) potentiate glutamatergic signaling, particularly indirectly via the NMDA receptor. Preclinical studies report mGluR5 PAMs can improve schizophrenia-relevant behaviours. Furthermore, adolescent administration has shown to prevent cognitive induced deficits in adult rodents. However, there is limited understanding of the short- and long-term neurochemical effects of mGluR5 PAMs, which may underlie their therapeutic effects...
June 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Wei Xie, Shang-You Yang, Qianqian Zhang, Yadong Zhou, Yi Wang, Ronghan Liu, Wenzhao Wang, Jixue Shi, Bin Ning, Tanghong Jia
To assess the therapeutic effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) knockdown (KD) for acute thoracic spinal cord contusion using a mouse model. Forty C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: mice in the sham-operated (Sham) group received surgical procedure without spinal cord contusion; the spinal cord injury (SCI) group mice underwent spinal cord contusion without treatment; mice in the miR-21 KD group underwent spinal cord contusion followed by a single dose subdural injection of miR-21 KD vectors (1 × 107 TU); and the negative control (NC) group mice were given subdural injection of comparable amount of NC vectors (1 × 107 TU) after spinal cord contusion...
June 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Pengfei Xue, Xiaojuan Liu, Yiming Shen, Yuanyuan Ju, Xiongsong Lu, Jinlong Zhang, Guanhua Xu, Yuyu Sun, Jiajia Chen, Haiyan Gu, Zhiming Cui, Guofeng Bao
E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Caritas B cell lymphoma (c-cbl) is associated with negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, signal transduction of antigens and cytokine receptors, and immune response. However, the expression and function of c-cbl in the regulation of neuropathic pain after chronic constriction injury (CCI) are unknown. In rat CCI model, c-cbl inhibited the activation of spinal cord microglia and the release of pro-inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which alleviated mechanical and heat pain through down-regulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway...
June 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Fawad-Ali Shah, Dong-Ju Park, Phil-Ok Koh
Cerebral ischemia is a major cause of death and neurological disability. It also leads to severe brain tissue damage by excessive generation of oxidative stress. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid substance that acts an antioxidant agent and exerts a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to detect specific proteins that are differentially expressed in response to quercetin treatment in focal cerebral ischemia. Adult male rats were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or quercetin (10 mg/kg) 30 min prior to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
June 20, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ran Shi, Sishuo Zhang, Guangqing Cheng, Xiaoni Yang, Ningning Zhao, Chao Chen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) severely threatens human health in their old age, however the potential etiology underlying it is still unclear. Both Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) and Acori graminei Rhizoma (AGR) are the traditional Chinese herbal drug, while their potential role in AD remains need further identification. Both SAMP1 and SAMP8 mice were employed as the control and AD mice. Morris water maze method was used to detect the cognitive function of the mice, TUNEL assay was performed to determine cell apoptosis...
June 20, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Minghang Li, Xiaocui Tian, Ruidi An, Mei Yang, Qian Zhang, Fei Xiang, Hailin Liu, Yuchun Wang, Lu Xu, Zhi Dong
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The affiliation of the author Lu Xu has been submitted and published incorrectly and has been corrected with the erratum.
June 20, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Li Wang, Peng Wang, He Dong, Shiduan Wang, Haichen Chu, Wei Yan, Xue Zhang
Cell autophagy and cell apoptosis are both observed in the process of hypoxia-induced ischemic cerebral infarction (ICI). Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (Ulk1) and FUN14 Domain-containing Protein 1 (FUNDC1) are both involved in the regulation of cell autophagy. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of Ulk1 and FUNDC1 on hypoxia-induced nerve cell autophagy and apoptosis. Cell viability was measured using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-PE/7-ADD staining assay...
June 19, 2018: Neurochemical Research
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