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Neurochemical Research

Jennifer Ben Salem, Bruno Nkambeu, Dina N Arvanitis, Francis Beaudry
Neuropeptides are derived from large and inactive proteins which require endoproteolytic processing for the biosynthesis of the bioactive peptides. The maturation of pro-neuropeptide to neuropeptide is believed to be performed by ortholog pro-protein convertase EGL-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Furthermore, ortholog of Cathepsin L, CPL-1 are found in C. elegans and can potentially cleave paired basic amino acids at the N-terminal suggesting the presence of both pathways. The objective of this study was to decipher the role of EGL-3 in the proteolysis of FMRF amide-related peptides (FLPs) or neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs) using synthetic surrogate peptides based on a universal enzymatic cleavage pattern published by Schechter and Berger and used widely in enzymology...
September 18, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Meijuan Cheng, Xin Lv, Cuihong Zhang, Wei Du, Yaping Liu, Lin Zhu, Jun Hao
Schwann cells play an important role in maintaining the normal function of peripheral nerves via the secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF). The mTOR signaling pathway is known as a kind of Ser/Thr protein kinase that regulates various cell functions. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is an epigenetic regulator and downstream target of the mTOR pathway. In the present study, we explored the relationship between NGF expression and the mTOR pathway/DNMT1 in RSC96 cells. The results showed that both rapamycin and Torin 1 downregulated NGF expression via the inhibition of phospho-mTOR (Ser 2448) and phospho-S6K1 (Thr 389)...
September 18, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Sonia Sanz Muñoz, Brett Garner, Lezanne Ooi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative diseases. It has been known for decades that the APOE ɛ4 allele is the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset AD and yet its precise role in the disease remains unclear. The APOE gene encodes apolipoprotein E (apoE), a 35 kDa glycoprotein highly expressed in the brain. There are three different isoforms: apoE3 is the most common allele in the population, whilst apoE2 decreases, and apoE4 increases AD risk. ApoE has numerous functions that affect neuronal and non-neuronal cells, thus how it contributes to disease onset and progression is hotly debated...
September 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ashok Kumar, Thomas C Foster
Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in neurons and glia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainate receptors are major ionotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is strongly linked with Ca2+ homeostasis. Research has provided ample evidence that brain aging is associated with altered glutamatergic neurotransmission and Ca2+ dysregulation. Much of the work has focused on the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory, which is particularly susceptible to dysfunction during senescence...
September 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Guangyi Yang, Jing Li, Youli Cai, Zhonghua Yang, Rong Li, Wenjun Fu
Recent researches have shown that autophagy is associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, but there is no paper to investigate the effects of autophagy modulation on Parkinson's disease depression (PDD). In addition, glycyrrhizic acid (GA), the major bioactive ingredient of Radix glycyrrhizae, can induce autophagy and ease rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is also no paper to study the action and molecular mechanisms of GA on PDD. In this research, we built the injury model of SH-SY5Y cells through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and corticosterone (CORT)...
September 11, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Joon Ha Park, YooHun Noh, Sung-Su Kim, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Taek Geun Ohk, Jun Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Hyunjung Kim, Minah Song, Jae-Chul Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Choong-Hyun Lee
Macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α) and its sole receptor, CCR6, play pivotal roles in neuroinflammatory processes induced by brain ischemic insults. In this study, we investigated transient ischemia-induced changes in MIP-3α and CCR6 protein expressions in the hippocampal CA1 area following 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia (tgCI) in gerbils. Both MIP-3α and CCR6 immunoreactivities were very strongly expressed in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 area from 6 h to 1 day after tgCI and were hardly shown 4 days after tgCI...
September 10, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Daisuke Yamada, Koichi Fujikawa, Kenji Kawabe, Takuya Furuta, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Takeshi Takarada
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal form of brain tumor. However, therapeutic strategies against malignant gliomas have not been completely established. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is an essential gene for skeletal development but its regulatory role in the malignant progression of glioma remains unclear. Here we investigated expression levels of RUNX2 in glioma tissues and its regulatory effects on aberrant growth of glioma cells. RUNX2 mRNA levels were higher in GBM tissues than that of normal brains or low-grade gliomas...
September 10, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Wiebke Willmann, Ralf Dringen
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used for various biomedical and therapeutic approaches. To investigate the uptake and the intracellular trafficking of IONPs in neural cells we have performed nanoparticle pulse-chase experiments to visualize the internalization and the fate of fluorescent IONPs in C6 glioma cells and astrocyte cultures. Already a short exposure to IONPs for 10 min at 4 °C (nanoparticle pulse) allowed binding of substantial amounts of nanoparticles to the cells, while internalization of IONPs into the cell was prevented...
September 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
María S Sisti, Carolina N Zanuzzi, Fabián Nishida, Rodolfo J C Cantet, Enrique L Portiansky
Lidocaine effects in the spinal cord have been extensively investigated over the years. Although the intrathecal route is usually used to treat insults occurring in the spinal cord, the local delivery drug via intraparenchymal infusions has gained increasing favor for the treatment of some neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and tissue effects of the intraparenchymal injection of different concentrations of lidocaine into the rat cervical spinal cord. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraparenchymally injected with 0...
September 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Farzaneh Nazari-Serenjeh, Laleh Rezaee, Shahram Zarrabian, Abbas Haghparast
Reward-seeking and relapse to drug use are two characteristics of addiction and reports have indicated the role of hippocampal structures in reward learning. To find the best ways of treatment, the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of reward and its involved factors is a must. For this reason, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors and compared their activities in the CA1 region, focusing on the reinstatement induced by forced swim stress (FSS) or the combination of FSS and a subthreshold dose of morphine in extinguished morphine-CPP in rats...
September 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Nikolett Nánási, Gábor Veres, Edina K Cseh, Márton Szentirmai, Diána Martos, Evelin Sümegi, Levente Hadady, Péter Klivényi, László Vécsei, Dénes Zádori
The aging process clearly increases the demand for antioxidant protection, especially in the brain, involving that provided by α-tocopherol (αT). However, little is known about the age-related changes in brain αT levels and the influencing effect of gender on it, in human or murine samples as well. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to detect age-, gender- and region-specific changes in αT concentrations in mouse brain tissue and to assess the influencing effect of plasma αT levels on it. Female and male C57BL/6 mice at the ages of 6, 16 and 66 weeks (n = 9 in each group) were applied...
September 7, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Hua Yin, Liming Shen, Chao Xu, Jinbo Liu
MicroRNAs as a novel class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs, modulate negative gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Our previous work has demonstrated that miR-29a reduces PTEN expression by directly targeting the 3'-UTRs (untranslated regions) of its mRNA, thus promoting neurite outgrowth. To further confirm the role of miR-29a in the recovery of SCI and its potential mechanisms, a recombinant lentiviral vector was used to promote miR-29a expression in the injured spinal cord. As compared with the LV-eGFP group and normal saline group, a significantly increased level of miR-29a expression and a markedly decreased level of PTEN expression were observed in the LV-miR-29a group...
September 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Soghra Hesam, Baharak Khoshkholgh-Sima, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Vahab Babapour, Morteza Zendedel, Mohammad Sayyah
Five percent of all epilepsy cases are attributed to traumatic brain injury (TBI), which are known as post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Finding preventive strategies for PTE is valuable. Remarkable feature of TBI is activation of microglia and subsequent neuroinflammation, which provokes epileptogenesis. The toll-like receptor agonists monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and tri-palmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (Pam3Cys) are safe, well-tolerated and effective adjuvants existing in prophylactic human vaccines. We examined the impact of early injection of MPL and Pam3Cys to rats, on the rate of kindled seizures acquisition following TBI...
September 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Feng Lai, Rong Jiang, Wenjun Xie, Xinrong Liu, Yong Tang, Hong Xiao, Jieying Gao, Yan Jia, Qunhua Bai
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have non-motor symptoms related to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, such as constipation and delayed gastric emptying, which manifest prior to the motor symptoms of PD. Increasing evidence indicates that changes in the composition of the gut microbiota may be related to the pathogenesis of PD. However, it is unclear how GI dysfunction occurs and how gut microbial dysbiosis is caused. We investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD induced by chronic low doses of MPTP is capable of reproducing the clinical intestinal pathology of PD, as well as whether gut microbial dysbiosis accompanies this pathology...
August 31, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ya-Jie Huang, Yu-Jia Yuan, Yi-Xian Liu, Meng-Yue Zhang, Jing-Ge Zhang, Tian-Ci Wang, Li-Nan Zhang, Yu-Yan Hu, Li Li, Xiao-Hui Xian, Jie Qi, Min Zhang
The order of corresponding author was inadvertently published. Hence, the first and the second corresponding authors should be Min Zhang ( and Jing-Ge Zhang (
August 31, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ying Guo, Li-Ping Wang, Chen Li, Yun-Xia Xiong, Yi-Tian Yan, Li-Qin Zhao, Shu-De Li, Jun Sun, Hai-Yun Luo, Cory J Xian
Artificial abnormal microenvironment caused by microperfusion of L-glutamate (Glu) and Ca2+ in the hippocampus results in neuron damage, which is closely related to cerebral ischemia. Ginsenoside Rb1, a compound from Panax notoginseng, was previously used to counter the artificial abnormal hippocampal environment in a microperfusion model. In addition, while the Akt/mTOR/PTEN signaling pathway has been shown to mediate neuronprotection in cerebral ischemia, whether this pathway is involved in the neuroprotection of ginsenoside Rb1 is unknown...
August 30, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Frédéric Checler, Emer S Ferro
The mechanisms by which peptidergic signals are terminated have been the center of multiple studies leading to the discoveries of novel proteolytic activities. When studying the catabolic fate of neurotensin (NT) in brain and gastrointestinal tract, we detected a novel activity belonging to the metallopeptidases class and apparently distinct from previously known enzymes. Purification and cloning confirmed that this NT-degrading neutral metalloendopeptidase activity was indeed original. It was named endopeptidase 3...
August 29, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Yudong Liu, Peng Zhang, Yabing Zheng, Chunlin Yang, Tong Du, Mengru Ge, Xiaotian Chang, Ruisheng Duan, Guozhao Ma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease. Deposition of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) oligomers plays a crucial role in the disease progression. Previous studies showed that toxicity induced by Aβ oligomers in cultured neurons and adult rat brain was partially mediated by activation of glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Additionally, memantine, a noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist, can significantly improve cognitive functions in some AD patients. However, little is currently known about the potential role of NMDAR antagonist on the regulation of P-MARCKS protein to Aβ1-42 oligomers induced neurotoxicity...
August 28, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Erfan Bahramnjead, Soheil Kazemi Roodsari, Nastaran Rahimi, Payam Etemadi, Iraj Aghaei, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder. Modafinil is an awakening agent approved for narcolepsy. In addition to its clinical uses some reports revealed that modafinil was associated with some alterations in seizure threshold. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of acute administration of modafinil in clonic seizure threshold (CST) induced by pentylenetetrazole in mice and the involvement of glutamate, nitric oxide, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), and serotonin systems in this feature...
August 25, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Karamkolly R Rekha, Ramu Inmozhi Sivakamasundari
Dysfunction of autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are currently considered as major contributing factors in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of oxidatively damaged cytoplasmic organelles and unfolded proteins in the lumen of the ER causes ER stress and it is associated with dopaminergic cell death in PD. Rotenone is a pesticide that selectively kills dopaminergic neurons by a variety of mechanism, has been implicated in PD. Geraniol (GE; 3,7-dimethylocta-trans-2,6-dien-1-ol) is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol occurring in the essential oils of several aromatic plants...
August 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
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