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Oliver T Wolf
Psychosocial stress influences cognition, affect and behavior. This current review summarizes the impact of acute stress on human long-term memory taking a neuroendocrine perspective. In this respect the stress associated increase in activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are key. A special focus will be placed on findings obtained with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). This paradigm can be used to induce stress before or after a memory task. It was shown repeatedly that stress enhances long-term consolidation but impairs long term memory retrieval...
October 29, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Chen Oren, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
Previous studies demonstrating that women's body odor during ovulation is perceived as more attractive suggest that exposure to women's chemosignals of high fertility increases mating motivation. Building on previous evidence showing that cooperative behaviors are perceived as attractive, in the current study we investigated whether chemosignals of women's fertility affect men's tendency to behave cooperatively. In the first experiment we found that in the presence of women's body odor during ovulation, men increase their tendency to apply a cooperative strategy, while their tendency to apply an individualistic strategy decreases...
October 29, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hee-Ju Kang, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Sung-Wan Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Hye-Ran Kim, Myung-Geun Shin, Young Joon Hong, Youngkeun Ahn, Myung Ho Jeong, Jin-Sang Yoon, Jae-Min Kim
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the longitudinal effects of NR3C1 1 F exon methylation on the risk of depression following ACS and treatment outcomes. METHODS: In total, 969 patients admitted for recent ACS were recruited within 2 weeks of ACS; 711 of these patients were followed up at 1 year. Depressive disorder was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and included prevalent depressive disorder at baseline and incident or persistent depressive disorder at follow-up based on depression status at the two examinations...
October 29, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sandra Zänkert, Silja Bellingrath, Stefan Wüst, Brigitte M Kudielka
Stress is an ubiquitous phenomenon with significant impact on human physiology when it lasts too long, when it is too intense, or when it hits vulnerable individuals. Examining the mechanisms linking stress exposure with health and disease is an important endeavor in psychoneuroendocrine research. Empirical evidence so far revealed large intra- as well as inter-individual variability in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to acute psychosocial stress, showing that the HPA axis is a highly adaptive system...
October 29, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yoon Ju Bae, Janis Reinelt, Jeffrey Netto, Marie Uhlig, Anja Willenberg, Uta Ceglarek, Arno Villringer, Joachim Thiery, Michael Gaebler, Juergen Kratzsch
BACKGROUND: Stress activates the central nervous, the autonomic nervous, and the endocrine system. This study aimed to (1) test the usability of salivary cortisone in a standardized psychosocial stressor, (2) create a comprehensive profile of hormonal responses to determine laboratory parameters with high discriminatory power, and (3) analyze their association with psychometric and autonomic stress measures. METHODS: Healthy young men (18-35 years) completed either the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (n = 33) or a Placebo-TSST (n = 34)...
October 28, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Piotr Tutka, Katarzyna Mróz, Tomasz Mróz, Grzegorz Buszewicz, David Aebisher, Dorota Bartusik-Aebisher, Patrycjusz Kołodziejczyk, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
This study evaluated the effect of androsterone (AND), a metabolite of testosterone, on the ability of selected classical and novel antiepileptic drugs to prevent seizures caused by maximal electroshock (MES), which may serve as an experimental model of human generalized tonic-clonic seizures in mice. Single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of AND (80 mg kg-1 ) significantly raised the threshold for convulsions in the MES seizure threshold test. Lower doses of AND (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1 ) failed to change the threshold...
October 28, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Julian Hellmann-Regen, Carsten Spitzer, Linn K Kuehl, Katharina Schultebraucks, Christian Otte, Katja Wingenfeld
Alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis such as altered glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and increased immune reactivity might contribute to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) precipitates vulnerability to MDD and might be associated with endocrine and immune alterations in the disorder. In order to disentangle the effects of ACE and MDD, we recruited 87 women: n = 23 with MDD and ACE as determined by clinical interview and questionnaires (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Early Trauma Inventory, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), n = 24 with MDD without ACE, n = 21 with ACE but no current or lifetime MDD, and n = 26 healthy women without either MDD or ACE...
October 28, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yuting Ye, Yuan Zhuang, Monique A M Smeets, Wen Zhou
Androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol have previously been shown to communicate opposite sex information that is differently effective to the two sex groups. The current study critically examines if the two human steroids could facilitate interactions with potential mates rather than competitors by acting on the recipients' emotional perception in a sex-appropriate manner. Using dynamic point-light displays that portray the gaits of walkers whose emotional states are digitally morphed along the valence and the arousal axes, we show that smelling androstadienone subconsciously biases heterosexual women, but not men, towards perceiving the male, but not female, walkers as happier and more relaxed...
October 28, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Frauke Nees, Martin Löffler, Katrin Usai, Herta Flor
Pain normally signals a threat to bodily integrity and causes emotional distress. Acute pain serves a protective function, yet, when pain turns chronic, the protective function is lost. A chain of psychophysiological alterations including changes in the stress regulation system, apparent in dysfunctional activity and responsivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, might be an important factor in this context. Moreover, maladaptive responses may be complicated by affective comorbid symptoms such as anxiety and depression, and alter nociceptive processing...
October 26, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jacqueline Woerner, Todd Lucas, Jennifer Pierce, Jenna L Riis, Douglas A Granger
High levels of uric acid are associated with greater risk of stress-related cardiovascular illnesses that occur disproportionately among African Americans. Whether hyperuricemia affects biological response to acute stress remains largely unknown, suggesting a need to clarify this potential connection. The current study examined how salivary uric acid (sUA) is associated with resting and reactive blood pressure - two robust predictors of hypertension and related cardiovascular disease and disparity. Healthy African Americans (N = 107; 32% male; M age = 31...
October 26, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
D S Stenbæk, E Budtz-Jørgensen, A Pinborg, P S Jensen, V G Frokjaer
BACKGROUND: Women show increased risk of depressive symptoms during hormonal transition phases. The risk mechanisms may include changes in mood in response to fluctuating ovarian hormones moderated by predisposing risk factors for mood disorders, such as personality trait Neuroticism. METHODS: A pooled sample of 92 mentally healthy women (28.3 ± 7.1, mean age ± SD) from two independent cohorts run in our lab, using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) experimentally (n = 28) compared to placebo (n = 27) and as part in vitro fertilization (n = 37), were extracted from the Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging database...
October 26, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Nan Li, Tye E Arbuckle, Gina Muckle, Bruce P Lanphear, Michel Boivin, Aimin Chen, Linda Dodds, William D Fraser, Emmanuel Ouellet, Jean R Séguin, Maria P Velez, Kimberly Yolton, Joseph M Braun
Background Adipocytokines may play a role in fetal programming of neurodevelopment. We aimed to investigate the associations between cord blood adipocytokine concentrations and children's intelligence test scores. Methods We used data from two ongoing pregnancy cohorts in North America: the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC, n = 429) and Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME, n = 183) Studies. Umbilical cord blood adipocytokine concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
October 25, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Guanya Li, Gang Ji, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Wenchao Zhang, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Jizheng Zhao, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Yu Han, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Corinde E Wiers, Dardo Tomasi, Lorenzo Leggio, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Yi Zhang, Gene-Jack Wang
The "hunger" hormone ghrelin regulates food-intake and preference for high-calorie (HC) food through modulation of the mesocortico-limbic dopaminergic pathway. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat morbid obesity. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in appetite and total ghrelin levels in blood are associated with reduced prefrontal brain reactivity to food cues. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cue-reactivity task with HC and low-calorie (LC) food pictures was used to investigate brain reactivity in 22 obese participants tested before and one month after bariatric surgery (BS)...
October 25, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lydia G Roos, Johanna Janson, Sarah C Sturmbauer, Jeanette M Bennett, Nicolas Rohleder
Undergoing stress can be advantageous when it leads to adaptation and growth; however, failure of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to habituate (i.e., nonhabituation) involves continuing to become highly activated in response to repeated exposure of the same stimulus and is considered maladaptive. Although 50-75% of individuals assessed in a laboratory exhibit adaptive habituation to repeated stress, variability in habituation suggests psychological processes used in response to stress may play a role, such as emotion regulation (ER)...
October 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
M Kaczmarczyk, C Otte, K Wiedemann, L K Kuehl, K Schultebraucks, C Spitzer, K Wingenfeld
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) exerts anxiolytic effects in animals and humans. Patients with anxiety, trauma-associated and depressive disorders exhibit lower ANP plasma levels compared to healthy individuals. However, the role of ANP in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with and without concomitant adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and in healthy individuals with and without ACE is not clear. We recruited a total of 93 women: 23 women with MDD and ACE, 24 women with MDD without ACE, 22 women with ACE but no current or lifetime MDD, and 24 healthy women without ACE...
October 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Christine F Schubert, Monika Schreckenbach, Thomas Kirmeier, Dominique J Gall-Kleebach, Bastian Wollweber, Dominik R Buell, Manfred Uhr, Rita Rosner, Ulrike Schmidt
Although key to development of tailored drugs for augmentation treatment of psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the biological correlates of PTSD remission are still unknown, probably because pre-post treatment studies searching for them are rare. Not even the feedback sensitivity of the otherwise well-studied hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis nor arterial blood pressure (BP), which was previously reported to be elevated in PTSD patients, have so far been analyzed during PTSD treatment...
October 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mahsa M Amoli, Fatemeh Khatami, Seyed Masoud Arzaghi, Samaneh Enayati, Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immunological pathways play a crucial role in developing and precipitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Although the exact pathogenesis of schizophrenia is unknown, the possible role of genetic and biomarker involvement of the immune system is gaining attention. Here we quantified the mRNA expression of cytokines as a key role player of the immune system from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls to identify the differentially expressed genes...
October 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
D M Ter Horst, A H Schene, C A Figueroa, J Assies, A Lok, C L H Bockting, H G Ruhé, R J T Mocking
BACKGROUND: Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity, fatty acid metabolism, and their relation have been associated with (recurrent) major depressive disorder (MDD), although conflicting findings exist. AIMS: To determine whether alterations in HPA-axis activity and fatty acids in recurrent MDD remain during remission (i.e. reflect a potential trait factor). Furthermore, to test the association between HPA-axis activity and fatty acids in patients versus controls...
October 19, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Barbara L Pitts, Julia M Whealin, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Ronald S Duman, John H Krystal, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
The Met allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is associated with reduced levels of BDNF release, heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and impaired fear extinction. As a result, Met allele carriers may be at risk for greater severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In this study, we examined the relationship between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and PTSD symptoms in two nationally representative samples of European American U.S. military veterans (main sample, n = 1386; replication sample, n = 509)...
October 17, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Leszek Rudzki, Lucyna Ostrowska, Dariusz Pawlak, Aleksandra Małus, Krystyna Pawlak, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Agata Szulc
BACKGROUND: Interactions between the digestive system and the brain functions have become in recent years an important field of psychiatric research. These multidirectional interactions take place in the so called microbiota-gut-brain axis and emerging scientific data indicate to the significant role of microbiota in the modulation of the central nervous system (CNS) including affective and cognitive functions. OBJECTIVE: An assessment of psychobiotic and immunomodulatory effects of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus Plantarum 299v (LP299v) by measuring affective, cognitive functions and biochemical parameters in patients with MDD undergoing treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)...
October 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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