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Yu-Ju Chen, Chin-Ling Lin, Chi-Rong Li, Shih-Ming Huang, James Yi-Hsin Chan, Wen-Hui Fang, Wei-Liang Chen
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported to cause considerable psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) disturbances such as, psychological distress, autonomic nervous imbalance, and impaired immune function. Associations among these psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) factors and their integrated effects with MetS and risk components of MetS necessitate further exploration. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated associations among psychoneuroimmunological factors, their integrated effects with MetS and risk components of MetS...
October 7, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Alessio Soggiu, Cristian Piras, Viviana Greco, Paola Devoto, Andrea Urbani, Luigino Calzetta, Marco Bortolato, Paola Roncada
The enzyme 5α-reductase (5αR) catalyzes the conversion of progesterone and testosterone into neuroactive steroids implicated in a wide array of behavioral functions. The prototypical 5αR inhibitor, finasteride (FIN), is clinically approved for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent evidence has shown that FIN, albeit generally well tolerated, can induce untoward psychological effects in a subset of patients; furthermore, this drug may have therapeutic efficacy for a number of different neuropsychiatric conditions, ranging from Tourette syndrome to schizophrenia...
October 6, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rene Seiger, Andreas Hahn, Allan Hummer, Georg S Kranz, Sebastian Ganger, Michael Woletz, Christoph Kraus, Ronald Sladky, Alexander Kautzky, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Rupert Lanzenberger
Sex-steroid hormones are primarily involved in sexual differentiation and development and are thought to underlie processes related to cognition and emotion. However, divergent results have been reported concerning the effects of hormone administration on brain structure including side effects like brain atrophy and dementia. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender subjects offers a unique model for studying the effects of sex hormones on the living human brain. In this study, 25 Female-to-Male (FtM) and 14 Male-to-Female (MtF) subjects underwent MRI examinations at baseline and after a period of at least 4-months of continuous cross-sex hormone administration...
October 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Nina Smyth, Lisa Thorn, Frank Hucklebridge, Angela Clow, Phil Evans
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is typically measured in the domestic setting. Moderate sample timing inaccuracy has been shown to result in erroneous CAR estimates and such inaccuracy has been shown partially to explain inconsistency in the CAR literature. The need for more reliable measurement of the CAR has recently been highlighted in expert consensus guidelines where it was pointed out that less than 6% of published studies provided electronic-monitoring of saliva sampling time in the post-awakening period...
September 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Brett J Peters, Matthew D Hammond, Harry T Reis, Jeremy P Jamieson
Testosterone reactivity has been conceptualized as a marker of social submission at low levels and social dominance at high levels. However, hormonal fluctuations in response to romantic partners remain largely unknown. Towards this end, 88 couples (N=176) discussed an emotional video. Prior to the conversation, one member of the dyad (the "agent") was instructed to regulate affective displays in a specific way (express or suppress). The other dyad member (the "partner") was given no special instruction and was unaware of regulation instructions given to the agent...
September 29, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Trevor Humby, Ellen S Cross, Lauren Messer, Silvia Guerrero, William Davies
Postpartum psychosis (PP) is a severe psychiatric disorder affecting a small proportion of new mothers shortly after childbirth. The molecular pathophysiology underlying the disorder is currently poorly understood, and there are no amenable animal models for the condition; maternal deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase has been proposed as a potential risk mechanism. Here we show that inhibition of steroid sulfatase with 667-COUMATE (10mg/kg p.o.) in new mouse mothers results in behavioural abnormalities that can be partially alleviated by the administration of the clinically-efficacious antipsychotic ziprasidone (0...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal aversive memories generate a motivational state leading to compulsive drug taking, with plasticity changes in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) being essential in aversive motivational learning. The conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm allows for measuring the negative affective component of drug withdrawal. First, CPA triggers association between negative affective consequences of withdrawal with context (memory consolidation). Afterwards, when the animals are re-exposed to the paired environment, they avoid it due to the association between the context and aversive memories (memory retrieval)...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
P Schüssler, M Kluge, W Gamringer, T C Wetter, A Yassouridis, M Uhr, R Rupprecht, A Steiger
We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jacob D Meyer, Kelli F Koltyn, Aaron J Stegner, Jee-Seon Kim, Dane B Cook
OBJECTIVE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has recently emerged as one potential mechanism with which exercise improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD). This study examined the relationship between changes in serum total BDNF and mood following acute exercise in MDD. It was hypothesized that acute exercise would increase BDNF in an intensity-dependent manner and that changes in BDNF would be significantly related to improvement in depressed mood post-exercise. METHODS: Twenty-four women (age: 38...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Calan Savoy, Mark A Ferro, Louis A Schmidt, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J Van Lieshout
BACKGROUND: Mortality rates among extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants have declined since the advent of antenatal glucocorticoid use. However, the long term neuropsychiatric effects of exposure are not well understood. We utilized the world's oldest longitudinally followed cohort of ELBW survivors to compare psychopathology over two decades in adulthood in those exposed to prenatal betamethasone and those who were not. METHODS: ELBW survivors (n=179) and matched normal birth weight (NBW) controls (n=145) completed the Young Adult Self-Report questionnaire at 22-26 and 29-36 years, and the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories at 29-36 years...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Weam W Ibrahim, Marwa M Safar, Mahmoud M Khattab, Azza M Agha
The prevalence or recurrence of depression is seriously increased in women during the transition to and after menopause. The chronic hypo-estrogenic state of menopause may reduce the response to antidepressants; however the influence of estrogen therapy on their efficacy is still controversial. This study aimed at investigating the effects of combining escitalopram with 17β-estradiol on depression and cognitive impairment induced by ovariectomy, an experimental model of human menopause. Young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to either sham operation or ovariectomy...
September 26, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mariliis Vaht, Triin Kurrikoff, Kariina Laas, Toomas Veidebaum, Jaanus Harro
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is an important regulator of social relationships and has been implicated in development of substance use and addiction. We examined the association of a variance in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576 polymorphism) with alcohol use in a population-representative sample, and potential moderation by social functioning. METHODS: The analysis was carried out on the older birth cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS), a cohort of initially 15 years old children (original n=593) recalled at ages 18 and 25...
September 25, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Merel M Schreuder, Christiaan H Vinkers, Esther Mesman, Stephan Claes, Willem A Nolen, Manon H J Hillegers
Children of a parent with bipolar disorder (bipolar offspring) have an increased risk for mood disorders. While genetic factors play a significant role in this population, susceptibility to environmental stress may also significantly contribute to this vulnerability for mood disorders. Childhood trauma has consistently been found to increase the risk for mood disorders, with persisting consequences for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functionality. However, it is currently unknown whether childhood trauma specifically affects HPA axis activity in individuals with a familial risk for bipolar disorder...
September 24, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Michael H Antoni, Laura C Bouchard, Jamie M Jacobs, Suzanne C Lechner, Devika R Jutagir, Lisa M Gudenkauf, Charles S Carver, Susan Lutgendorf, Steven W Cole, Marc Lippman, Bonnie B Blomberg
PURPOSE: Cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) is an empirically-validated group-based psychosocial intervention. CBSM is related to decreased self-reported indicators of psychological adversity during breast cancer treatment and greater disease-free survival (DFS) vs. a control condition. This study examined relationships between CBSM, DFS, and a potential biobehavioral pathway linking these variables in breast cancer patients through a gene expression composite representing the leukocyte conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA)...
September 24, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ramon Casanova, Satoru Hayasaka, Santiago Saldana, Nick R Bryan, Kathryn E Demos, Lisa Desiderio, Kirk I Erickson, Mark A Espeland, Ilya M Nasrallah, Thomas Wadden, Paul J Laurienti
A number of studies have reported that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with alterations in resting-state activity and connectivity in the brain. There is also evidence that interventions involving physical activity and weight loss may affect brain functional connectivity. In this study, we examined the effects of nearly 10 years of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), designed to induce and sustain weight loss through lower caloric intake and increased physical activity, on resting-state networks in adults with T2DM...
September 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jonathan Cedernaes, Flaminia Fanelli, Alessia Fazzini, Uberto Pagotto, Jan-Erik Broman, Heike Vogel, Suzanne L Dickson, Helgi B Schiöth, Christian Benedict
Following binding to cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids regulate a variety of central nervous system processes including appetite and mood. Recent evidence suggests that the systemic release of these lipid metabolites can be altered by acute exercise and that their levels also vary across the 24-h sleep-wake cycle. The present study utilized a within-subject design (involving 16 normal-weight men) to determine whether daytime circulating endocannabinoid concentrations differ following three nights of partial sleep deprivation (4...
September 22, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Alexa Shull, Stefanie E Mayer, Ellen McGinnis, Elisa Geiss, Ivan Vargas, Nestor L Lopez-Duran
There is a growing realization that cognitive processes associated with stress coping, such as rumination and distraction, can impact the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis). Yet, little is known about what aspects of the HPA-axis stress response (rate of activation, duration of activation, rate of recovery) is impacted by such cognitive processes. This study examines the impact of both ruminative trait tendencies and experimentally induced rumination on salivary cortisol responses to a social evaluative stress task...
September 20, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Krisztina Kovács, Anna Kis, Ákos Pogány, Dóra Koller, József Topál
Dogs have been proven to show several human-analogue social behaviors, and recent research raises the possibility that the oxytocin system is related to these. However, despite dogs' general tendency to excel in the domain of social cognition, there is increasing evidence that dogs' ability to utilize human signals may vary with breed. Moreover, breeds may show differences not only in their 'inborn' communicative abilities, but also in their learning skills related to these. The aim of the present study was to explore breed differences and breed-specific effects of oxytocin administration on different aspects of social responsiveness...
September 20, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Thao Ha, Ellen Wanheung Yeung, Adam A Rogers, Franklin O Poulsen, Olga Kornienko, Douglas A Granger
This study investigated dyadic adrenocortical attunement within adolescent romantic relationships. An ethnically diverse sample (42% Latino) of adolescent heterosexual dating couples (N=91 dyads, Mage=16.5 years, SD=0.99) donated eight saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol) over the course of a 3-h laboratory session. Supportive behaviors were coded during a conflict and jealousy interaction task from video recordings, and participants completed pre-and-post task questionnaires. Parallel process latent growth models revealed a strong positive association between the couples' cortisol intercept, indicating that couples show attunement in initial levels of cortisol...
September 17, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Richelle Vlenterie, Nel Roeleveld, Marleen M H J van Gelder
Mood disorders during pregnancy have been associated with adverse effects on maternal as well as fetal health. Since mood, anxiety, and stress disorders are related with elevated cortisol levels, salivary cortisol may be a useful biomarker. Although multiple samples are generally recommended, a single measurement of awakening salivary cortisol could be a simpler and more cost-effective method to determine whether women have elevated morning cortisol levels during a specific period of pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this validation study among 177 women in the PRIDE Study was to examine whether one awakening salivary cortisol measurement will suffice to classify pregnant women as having normal or elevated cortisol levels compared to awakening salivary cortisol measurements on three consecutive working days...
September 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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