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Marco Spangaro, Elena Mazza, Sara Poletti, Roberto Cavallaro, Francesco Benedetti
BACKGROUND: White matter (WM) alterations have been consistently described in patients with schizophrenia and correlated with the severity of psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Obesity has been reported in over 40% of patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with cognitive deficits, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic alterations, and overall mortality. Moreover, studies among healthy subjects and subjects at risk for psychosis reported an influence of Body Mass Index (BMI) on structural connectivity...
July 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
S Bryn Austin, Margaret Rosario, Katie A McLaughlin, Andrea L Roberts, Vishnudas Sarda, Kimberly Yu, Stacey Missmer, Laura Anatale-Tardiff, Emily A Scherer
Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of prejudice, discrimination, and violence victimization due to stigma associated with their sexual orientation. These stressors may contribute to physiological stress responses and changes in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To date, no studies have examined the associations among minority sexual orientation, recent stressful events, and diurnal salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) patterns. The present study included 1663 young adults ages 18-32 years (31% men, 69% women) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U...
July 10, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rai Khalid Farooq, Arnaud Tanti, Samia Ainouche, Sébastien Roger, Catherine Belzung, Vincent Camus
A polymorphism in the P2RX7 gene that encodes for the P2X7 ionotropic ATP-gated receptor (P2X7R) protein has been shown to be associated with an increased risk for developing depressive illnesses. However, the role of P2X7R in depression is still unclear. To better understand the role of P2X7R and its subsequent impact on microglial activation, we compared the effect of the P2X7R antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) with that of fluoxetine in an unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model of depression in mice...
July 10, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jonas O Vieira, Josiane O Duarte, Willian Costa-Ferreira, Carlos C Crestani
This study investigated neuroendocrine, autonomic, and cardiovascular changes evoked by daily exposure to the same type of stressor (homotypic) or different aversive stressor stimuli (heterotypic) in 60-days-old female normotensive Wistar rats and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both strains of rats were exposed for 10 consecutive days to either the homotypic stressor repeated restraint stress (RRS) or the heterotypic stressor chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). As expected, SHR had higher baseline blood pressure values and impaired baroreflex activity in relation to normotensive animals...
July 10, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Peter A Bos, Christine Hechler, Roseriet Beijers, Kazuyuki Shinohara, Gianluca Esposito, Carolina de Weerth
Testosterone and cortisol have both been implicated in human parenting behavior. We investigated the relations between observed quality of caregiving during parent-child interactions and pre- and postnatal testosterone and cortisol levels, in both mothers (N = 88) and fathers (N = 57). Testosterone and cortisol were measured before and after interaction with an infant simulator (prenatal) and with their own child (postnatal) to index basal levels as well as steroid reactivity to the interaction. Our findings are that in fathers, interactions between cortisol and testosterone are related to quality of caregiving both pre- and postnatally...
July 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
S E E C Bauduin, M S van Noorden, S J A van der Werff, M de Leeuw, A M van Hemert, N J A van der Wee, E J Giltay
BACKGROUND: Specific Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) biomarkers could help improve our understanding of MDD pathophysiology and aid in the refinement of current MDD criteria. While salivary cortisol (SC) can differentiate between healthy controls and patients with psychiatric disorders, salivary alpha amylase (sAA), may be a putative candidate biomarker for MDD specifically. METHODS: In a naturalistic cohort of consecutive out-patients and healthy controls, sAA and SC were determined in 833 participants (97 MDD patients, 142 patients with other mood, anxiety, and/or somatoform (MAS-) disorders, and 594 healthy controls)...
July 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Makeda K Austin, Edith Chen, Kharah M Ross, Lisa M McEwen, Julia L Maclsaac, Michael S Kobor, Gregory E Miller
Low socioeconomic status (SES) in early-life and adulthood independently contribute to increased risk for aging-related chronic diseases. One mechanistic hypothesis for these associations involves faster cellular aging of immune cells, which could plausibly contribute to chronic disease pathogenesis by compromising host resistance and/or up-regulating inflammation. However, little is known about the association between life-course SES and cellular aging. The present study examines the association of early-life and current SES with a novel biomarker of cellular aging termed the "epigenetic clock," in monocytes...
July 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shannon L Gillespie, Amanda M Mitchell, Jennifer M Kowalsky, Lisa M Christian
INTRODUCTION: Compared to women who have given birth before (i.e., multiparas), those giving birth for the first time (i.e., primiparas) show higher cortisol levels. Psychological factors may play a role; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation is a well-described stress response. Primiparity also predicts greater risk for postpartum depression, which may be related to greater correspondence between cortisol and mood following prenatal cortisol elevations. The current study examined associations among parity, perinatal cortisol adaptation, pregnancy-specific distress, and postpartum mood...
July 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Karson T F Kung, Debra Spencer, Vickie Pasterski, Sharon A S Neufeld, Peter C Hindmarsh, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, Melissa Hines
It has been suggested that atypical hormone environments during early development may contribute to subsequent development of psychopathology. Also, it has been suggested that individuals with the autosomal recessive genetic variant, classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), might be at increased risk of psychopathology. The present study examined emotional and behavioral adjustment in young children with CAH and their unaffected siblings in the United Kingdom. The parent-reported version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was employed to assess adjustment in children aged 4 to 11 years...
July 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Léa Lansade, Aline Foury, Fabrice Reigner, Marianne Vidament, Elodie Guettier, Gwenaelle Bouvet, Delphine Soulet, Céline Parias, Alice Ruet, Nuria Mach, Frédéric Lévy, Marie-Pierre Moisan
Early and definitive separation between offspring and their mothers has negative consequences on behavioral and physiological responses. This study compared sudden and definitive weaning (Sudd group, N = 16) and weaning involving progressive habituation to separation using a fence line during the month preceding definitive separation (Prog group, N = 18). The impact of these two methods was assessed in both foals and their mothers through behavioral and biological parameters, including salivary cortisol, telomere length and blood transcriptomes...
July 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Susan A Everson-Rose, Cari J Clark, Qi Wang, Hongfei Guo, Peter Mancuso, Howard M Kravitz, Joyce T Bromberger
Small clinical studies suggest depression is associated with alterations in adiponectin and leptin, adipocyte-derived secretory proteins involved in metabolic regulation; however, longitudinal data on these association are lacking. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD) with adiponectin and leptin in healthy middle-aged women (mean (SD) age, 45.6 (2.5) years). Cross-sectional analyses included 575 women with baseline adipokine data; longitudinal analyses included 262 women with 2-4 adipokine measurements over 5 years...
July 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas, Cong Wu, Bruce R Southey, Jason C O'Connor, Scott E Nixon, Robmay Garcia, Cynthia Zavala, Marcus Lawson, Robert H McCusker, Elena V Romanova, Jonathan V Sweedler, Keith W Kelley, Robert Dantzer
BACKGROUND: Peripheral immune challenge can elicit microglia activation and depression-related symptoms. The balance of inflammatory signals in the tryptophan pathway can skew the activity of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO1) towards the metabolization of tryptophan into kynurenine (rather than serotonin), and towards neuroprotective or neurotoxic metabolites. The proteome changes that accompany inflammation-associated depression-related behaviors are incompletely understood...
June 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shin-Chang Kuo, Yi-Wei Yeh, Chun-Yen Chen, Chang-Chih Huang, Pei-Shen Ho, Chih-Sung Liang, Chun-Long Lin, Ta-Chuan Yeh, Chang-Chih Tsou, Bao-Zhu Yang, Ru-Band Lu, San-Yuan Huang
Amphetamine exposure impacts on innate and adaptive immunity and DRD3 may modulate the effect of amphetamine on the immune response. We assessed the immune-cytokine markers in 72 female patients with amphetamine dependence (AD) at baseline and after 4-week drug abstinence and in 51 healthy women. Multiplex magnetic bead assay was used to measure the plasma cytokine expression level simultaneously in all participants and DRD3 rs6280 polymorphism was genotyped in patients. We demonstrated an increase of the T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines (IL-2), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) and other cytokines (IL-1β) in the entire AD cohort...
June 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
C Gurvich, E Gavrilidis, R Worsley, A Hudaib, N Thomas, J Kulkarni
Cognitive impairments are a core feature of schizophrenia and contribute significantly to functional complications. Current pharmacological treatments do not ameliorate cognitive dysfunction and the aetiology of cognitive impairments are poorly understood. Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis that regulate reproductive function have multiple effects on the development, maintenance and function of the brain and have been suggested to also influence cognition. The aim of the current study was to investigate how HPG axis hormones effect cognition, specifically exploring the influence of menopause status and menstrual cycle irregularity on cognitive performance in women with schizophrenia...
June 28, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Błażej Misiak, Kamila Kotowicz, Olga Loska, Filip Stramecki, Jan Aleksander Beszłej, Jerzy Samochowiec, Marcin Jabłoński, Piotr Podwalski, Katarzyna Waszczuk, Michał Wroński, Anna Michalczyk, Leszek Sagan, Patryk Piotrowski
Accumulating evidence indicates that stress plays an important role in the development of psychotic disorders. Recent studies have revealed that patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) present systemic biological dysregulations related to stress-exposure in terms of elevated allostatic load (AL) index. However, the mechanisms underlying this observation remain unknown. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the AL index with respect to stress coping strategies in 36 FEP patients and 31 matched controls...
June 28, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jue Lin, Jie Sun, Stephanie Wang, Jeffrey M Milush, Chris A R Baker, Michael Coccia, Rita B Effros, Eli Puterman, Elizabeth Blackburn, Aric A Prather, Elissa Epel
The chronic psychological stress of caregiving leads to higher risks for many diseases. One of the mechanisms through which caregiving is associated with disease risk is chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation may accelerate cellular aging via telomere dysfunction and cell senescence, although this has not been examined in human cells from healthy people. We examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 20 healthy mothers of children with autism (caregivers) and 19 mothers of neurotypical children (controls) in an in vitro culture system where PBMCs were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)...
June 26, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Christopher W Jones, Sarah A O Gray, Katherine P Theall, Stacy S Drury
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of polymorphic variation in the solute carrier family 5 member 7 (SLC5A7) gene on autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR) in infants during a dyadic stressor, as well as maternal report of infant self-regulation. Given evidence of race differences in older individuals, race was specifically examined. METHODS: RSA and HR were collected from 111 infants during the still-face paradigm (SFP)...
June 25, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Vivian Y Y Lam, Charlis Raineki, Linda Ellis, Wayne Yu, Joanne Weinberg
Children and adults prenatally exposed to alcohol show higher rates of mental health problems than unexposed individuals, with depression and anxiety being among the more commonly encountered disorders. Previous studies in rats showed that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can indeed increase depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; however, depression and anxiety are often observed in the context of stress and/or a dysregulated stress response system (the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis)...
June 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Tomasz Pawlowski, Krzysztof Malyszczak, Małgorzata Inglot, Małgorzata Zalewska, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus, Dariusz Pawlak
BACKGROUND: Risk of depression and suicide in patients on interferon remains also after the treatment, the pathogenesis of which is still unclear. We aimed to determine the influence of the PEG-IFN-α2a on tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway during treatment and up to 6 months after the end of treatment. METHODS: We evaluated 101 patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with PEG-IFN-α2a, and 40 controls, so as to determine the activation of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan (TRP) and their metabolites' concentrations/levels: kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA) and anthranilic acid (AA)...
June 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sai Tian, Rong Huang, Jing Han, Rongrong Cai, Dan Guo, Hongyan Lin, Jiaqi Wang, Shaohua Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are both chronic inflammatory diseases. We aimed to investigate the association of plasma Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels with the risk of MCI in T2DM patients. We divided recruited T2DM patients into two groups, MCI group and healthy-cognition controls, according to Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. Demographic characteristics, clinical parameters and neuropsychological tests were examined. We recruited 202 T2DM patients in this study, including 94 MCI and 108 healthy-cognition controls...
June 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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