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Adriana Cezaretto, Bianca de Almeida-Pititto, Gizelton Pereira Alencar, Claudia K Suemoto, Isabela Bensenor, Paulo A Lotufo, Sandra R G Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation are pathophysiological mechanisms shared by type 2 diabetes and dementia. A cluster of biomarkers that could help diagnosing cognitive dysfunction prior to the installation of insulin resistance is desirable. This ELSA sub-study examined whether a cluster of selected inflammatory biomarkers was associated with worse cognitive scores in non-diabetic participants. METHODS: A sample of 998 non-diabetic participants of ELSA-Brasil had their cognitive function assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD), a verbal fluency test and a trail making test...
January 9, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jennie R Stevenson, Elyse K McMahon, Winnie Boner, Mark F Haussmann
Chronic stressors, such as chronic isolation in social mammals, can elevate glucocorticoids, which can affect cellular mechanisms of aging, including increased levels of oxidative stress and shortened telomere lengths. Recent work in the selectively social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) suggests that oxytocin and social support may mitigate some of the negative consequences of social isolation, possibly by reducing glucocorticoid levels. We investigated the influences of isolation, social support, and daily oxytocin injections in female prairie voles...
January 8, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Carmine M Pariante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jing Zhao, Yafang Yang, Xiaohan Li, Linfeng Zheng, Mengying Xue, Mengfei Zhang, Chunlan Wang, Rongjun Yu, Pingyuan Gong
Polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene have been shown to be related to individual differences in social skills that are important for building and maintaining social relationships, such as the capability to efficiently process social information and regulate emotions. However, what remains unclear is the potential roles of OXTR polymorphisms in interpersonal adaptability, namely the ability to cope with the situational demands of interpersonal interactions. In this study, we examined the roles of OXTR rs53576 polymorphism in interpersonal adaptability, empathic perception, and dispositional forgiveness in a cohort of 573 college freshmen...
December 28, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Robin Ortiz, Bjoern Kluwe, James B Odei, Justin B Echouffo Tcheugui, Mario Sims, Rita R Kalyani, Alain G Bertoni, Sherita H Golden, Joshua J Joseph
BACKGROUND: Serum cortisol levels have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the role of cortisol in glycemia and T2D is not fully elucidated among African Americans (AAs). We hypothesized that among AAs morning serum cortisol would be positively associated with glycemic measures and prevalent T2D. METHODS: We examined the cross-sectional association of baseline morning serum cortisol with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-β), and prevalent T2D in the Jackson Heart Study...
December 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lai-Fu Li, Wei Yuan, Zhi-Xiong He, Li-Min Wang, Xiao-Yuan Jing, Jing Zhang, Yang Yang, Qian-Qian Guo, Xue-Ni Zhang, Wen-Qi Cai, Wen-Juan Hou, Rui Jia, Fa-Dao Tai
Consolation, which entails comforting contact directed toward a distressed party, is a common empathetic response in humans and other species with advanced cognition. Here, using the social defeat paradigm, we provide empirical evidence that highly social and monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) increased grooming toward a socially defeated partner but not toward a partner who underwent only separation. This selective behavioral response existed in both males and females. Accompanied with these behavioral changes, c-Fos expression was elevated in many of the brain regions relevant for emotional processing, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), basal/basolateral and central nucleus of the amygdala, and lateral habenular nucleus in both sexes; in the medial preoptic area, the increase in c-Fos expression was found only in females, whereas in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, this increase was found only in males...
December 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Zhaoyu Gan, Xiuhua Wu, Yingtao Liao, Yingdong Wu, Zimeng He, Zhihua Yang, Qi Zhang
Variety of evidence suggests that low-grade inflammation may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the conclusion regarding the relationship between inflammation and BD has been inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to survey the prevalence of low-grade inflammation in a large Han Chinese population with BD and assess its impact on the clinical features of BD. 430 eligible cases were drawn from patients who were admitted or had ever been admitted for BD to the inpatient service of the psychiatric department of the Third Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University...
December 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Christina Y Cantave, Stephanie Langevin, Marie-France Marin, Mara Brendgen, Sonia Lupien, Isabelle Ouellet-Morin
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests that maltreated children suffer from depression at an early age and experience recurrent episodes of depression that persist over longer periods of time. However, the stress-related mechanisms hypothesized to be implicated in these associations remain to be specified. The present study tested the mediating and moderating roles of acute cortisol response to stress and coping strategies in the association between child maltreatment and depressive symptoms in early adulthood...
December 24, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Robert Miller, Clemens Kirschbaum
Acute cortisol changes are physiological indicators (i.e., biomarkers) of psychosocial stress that have been repeatedly assessed using standardized laboratory protocols like the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Despite this methodological standardization, however, cortisol stress responses vary considerably across different studies. Based on multilevel meta-analyses of 237 TSST studies (n = 8487 individuals), we demonstrate that ∼25% of this variability is actually attributable to systematic differences between countries...
December 24, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Karen M Ryan, Declan M McLoughlin
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis is commonly observed in patients with depression. The delayed feedback system that mediates inhibition of HPA-axis activation is regulated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) found in stress-responsive areas of the brain. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a key molecule in glucocorticoid biology and is thought to mediate the downstream anti-inflammatory effects of GRs. Previous reports suggest that GILZ levels are altered in the blood and brains of patients with, and animal models of, depression...
December 24, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Koen Bolhuis, Henning Tiemeier, Philip R Jansen, Ryan L Muetzel, Alexander Neumann, Manon H J Hillegers, Erica T L van den Akker, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Meike W Vernooij, Tonya White, Steven A Kushner
The etiology of schizophrenia is multi-factorial with early neurodevelopmental antecedents, likely to result from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental risk. However, few studies have examined how schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) are moderated by environmental factors in shaping neurodevelopmental brain structure, prior to the onset of psychotic symptoms. Here, we examined whether hair cortisol, a quantitative metric of chronic stress, moderated the association between genetic risk for schizophrenia and pre-adolescent brain structure...
December 24, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Valeria Ruzzi, Francesca Pellegrino, Giuseppina Patriciello, Giammarco Cascino, Chiara Del Giorno, Palmiero Monteleone, Mario Maj
BACKGROUND: Vulnerability to interpersonal stress is an important risk factor for Eating Disorders (EDs). Adult insecure attachment involves different emotional, biological and behavioural strategies to cope with social stressors. However, although attachment has proved to play a pivotal role in EDs, no study has yet explored the effects of attachment on the emotional and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a psychosocial stressor in EDs. METHODS: Fifty-two ED women (29 with anorexia nervosa, 23 with bulimia nervosa) underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)...
December 24, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Stuart Innes, Carmine M Pariante, Alessandra Borsini
Recent data gathered from both in vitro and in vivo models of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have indicated that microglia play an active role in modifying some of the most important sources for neuronal plasticity, specifically long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In addition, microglia have been implicated in neuro-immune interaction dysregulations, which are considered a core constituent of MDD pathology. While prior studies have investigated the diverse effects activated microglia can have in the context of depression, including regulation of inflammatory cytokine production and structural changes, recent evidence has revealed a more direct relationship between microglial activation and changes in synaptic function and plasticity, including LTP and LTD...
December 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Xiao Tan, Jonathan Cedernaes, Ulf Risérus, Christian Benedict
Insomnia-related sleep disruptions, such as short and disturbed sleep, have been tied to systemic insulin resistance in young adult populations. We therefore sought to confirm these findings in a cohort of elderly men. To this aim, we utilized variables from 980 men who participated in the investigation at age 70 of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. Self-reported insomnia symptoms were assessed by questions about difficulty initiating sleep, early final awakening, and regular use of hypnotics. All participants also underwent the gold-standard hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique to assess the insulin sensitivity index (M/I)...
December 20, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Monika Sadlonova, Thomas Meyer, Lutz Binder, Rolf Wachter, Frank Edelmann, Christoph Herrmann-Lingen
AIM: Using data from the multicenter, observational Diast-CHF (Diagnostic Trial on Prevalence and Clinical Course of Diastolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure) study, this post-hoc analysis aimed at assessing the association between serum concentrations of C-terminal pro-arginine vasopressin (CT-proAVP) and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. BACKGROUND: Animal studies have demonstrated that centrally released AVP is involved in the development of anxiety-like behaviors, however, it is unknown whether, also in humans, CT-proAVP used as a proxy for the co-secreted AVP is associated with self-reported anxiety...
December 20, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jee In Kang, Tae Yong Kim, Jin Hee Choi, Hyung Seok So, Se Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) binds to glucocorticoid receptors and modulates glucocorticoid sensitivity. The FKBP5 gene has been implicated in the dysregulation of human stress responses, contributing to the risk and treatment response of stress-related disorders. The present study examined whether epigenetic changes in FKBP5 are associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status in the context of FKBP5 genetic variation (rs1360780 polymorphism) among male veterans exposed to combat trauma...
December 19, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Annika Benz, Maria Meier, Mara Mankin, Eva Unternaehrer, Jens C Pruessner
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a well-established biomarker for the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in healthy as well as clinical samples. Cortisol rise during the first 60 min after awakening is often used as a proxy of HPA axis regulation in health and disease. Ultradian pulsatility of cortisol is known to superimpose its circadian rhythmicity with the CAR being the first rise after awakening. However, the exact length of the complete first pulse (rise and fall) after awakening, as well as the association between the CAR, the complete first pulse, and successive ultradian pulses, has not yet been studied systematically...
December 19, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Eva R Kimonis, Georgette E Fleming, Rhonda R Wilbur, Maureen W Groer, Douglas A Granger
This study examined whether DHEA and its ratio to cortisol moderated risk for psychopathology among incarcerated youth exposed to childhood maltreatment. Resistance to stress-related psychopathology under adversity was also examined in relation to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a personality construct characterized by resistance to pathological anxiety and blunted reactivity to threatening stimuli. Participants were 201 ethnically heterogeneous (41.8% White, 35.3% Black, 17.2% Hispanic) adolescent boys (M age = 16...
December 19, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Daria Kolmogorova, Catherine Paré, Sarah Kostuck, Ella Christine Hudson, Nicholas Lebel, Elizabeth Houlding, James Gardner Gregory, Nafissa Ismail
Pubertal immune challenge can permanently alter hippocampus-dependent memory processes in a sex-specific manner. Although gonadal hormones can influence various cognitive processes, their role in regulating the cognitive sequelae to pubertal immune challenge has not been thoroughly assessed. We examined whether a pubertal immune challenge could affect hippocampus-dependent memory functions in adulthood and whether these effects are regulated by gonadal steroid hormones. We hypothesized that exposure to an immune challenge during puberty would induce sex-specific deficits in the behavioral and cellular correlates of hippocampus-dependent memory during adulthood...
December 18, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Amy L D'Agata, Mary B Roberts, Terri Ashmeade, Samia Valeria Ozorio Dutra, Bradley Kane, Maureen W Groer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infants who begin life in the medicalized environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) do so under stressful conditions. Environmental exposures are often abrasive to vulnerable infants, while invasive and noninvasive lifesaving interventions provide additional pain and/or stress. The most commonly selected biomarker to measure stress is cortisol. The skin is the barrier between the external environment and communicates with our neurological, endocrine and immune regulatory networks...
December 18, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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