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Psychoneuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898359/motherhood-and-infant-contact-regulate-neuroplasticity-in-the-serotonergic-midbrain-dorsal-raphe
#1
M Allie Holschbach, Joseph S Lonstein
The adult brain shows remarkable neuroplasticity in response to hormones and the socioemotional modifications that they influence. In females with reproductive and maternal experience, this neuroplasticity includes the birth and death of cells in several forebrain regions involved in maternal caregiving and postpartum affective state. Such plasticity in midbrain sites critical for these behavioral and emotional processes has never been examined, though. By visualizing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells, NeuroD for neuronal precursors, and TUNEL to identify dying cells, we found that the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, the source of most ascending serotoninergic projections) exhibited significant neuroplasticity in response to motherhood...
November 19, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898358/the-roles-of-testosterone-and-cortisol-in-friendship-formation
#2
Sarah Ketay, Keith M Welker, Richard B Slatcher
Although research has investigated the neuroendocrine correlates of romantic relationships, the neuroendocrine correlates of friendship formation are largely unexplored. In two conditions, participants' salivary testosterone and cortisol were measured before and after a high versus low closeness activity with another same-sex participant. In the high closeness task, participants took turns answering questions that fostered increases in self-disclosure. The low closeness task fostered low levels of self-disclosure...
November 18, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888771/increased-anxiety-like-behaviors-but-blunted-cortisol-stress-response-after-neonatal-hippocampal-lesions-in-monkeys
#3
Jessica Raper, Mark Wilson, Mar Sanchez, Christa Payne, Jocelyne Bachevalier
The hippocampus is most notably known for its role in cognition and spatial memory; however it also plays an essential role in emotional behaviors and neuroendocrine responses. The current study investigated the long-term effects of neonatal hippocampal lesions (Neo-Hibo) on emotional and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. During infancy, unlike controls, Neo-Hibo monkeys exhibited enhanced expression of emotional behaviors (e.g. freezing, anxiety-like, and self-directed behaviors) when exposed to a human intruder (HI task)...
November 18, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876170/corrigendum-to-determinants-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-umbilical-cord-and-maternal-serum-psychoneuroendocrinology-63-2016-191-197
#4
A Flöck, S K Weber, N Ferrari, C Fietz, C Graf, R Fimmers, U Gembruch, W M Merz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912162/serotonin-2a-receptor-5-ht2a-gene-promoter-variant-interacts-with-chronic-perceived-stress-to-modulate-resting-parasympathetic-activity-in-humans
#5
Chuan-Chia Chang, Wen-Hui Fang, Hsin-An Chang, Tieh-Ching Chang, Jia-Fwa Shyu, San-Yuan Huang
Decreased resting vagal (parasympathetic) tone is implicated in the development of stress-related disorders, including anxiety and depression. Chronic stress elevates the expression of serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2A), while activation of 5-HT2A leads to inhibition of parasympathetic synaptic transmission. The T allele of the promoter variant, rs6311 (C>T), of the 5-HT2A gene has been shown to increase the 5-HT2A expression in vitro and to be associated with anxiety and depressive disorders. We thus hypothesized that the 5-HT2A functional polymorphism may influence resting vagal activity among persons with chronically high levels of perceived stress...
November 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907849/association-between-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-and-attention-in-long-term-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-treated-with-only-chemotherapy
#6
Yin Ting Cheung, Wassim Chemaitilly, Daniel A Mulrooney, Tara M Brinkman, Wei Liu, Pia Banerjee, Deokumar Srivastava, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
Long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, as well as compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal androgen commonly used as a marker of HPA function. In the general population, a low level of DHEAS has been associated with poorer cognition. At ≥2years post-treatment, we examined the association of DHEAS with attention outcomes in 35 male and 34 female long-term survivors of childhood ALL (mean[standard deviation] age at evaluation 14...
November 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865993/fifteen-month-old-infants-cortisol-levels-decrease-after-a-30-min-warm-up-procedure
#7
Norbert Zmyj, Silvia Schneider, Sabine Seehagen
Stress-induction procedures designed to increase cortisol levels in infants have been ineffective in many studies. One reason might be that infants did not have sufficient time to settle into the laboratory environment prior to the start of the stress induction, and thus already had high baseline levels of cortisol. In this study we investigate whether an extended warm-up period reduces infants' (N=22) cortisol levels. Fifteen-month-old infants' saliva cortisol was measured upon arrival at the laboratory. Then, they were allowed to play with their parent...
November 15, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902946/social-regulation-of-the-lymph-node-transcriptome-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#8
K Chun, J P Capitanio, D M Lamkin, E K Sloan, J M G Arevalo, S W Cole
Previous research has shown that adverse social conditions may promote a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) involving up-regulation of proinflammatory gene expression and down-regulation of Type I interferon anti-viral genes in circulating blood cells. However, the impact of social conditions on lymphoid tissue gene regulation remains largely unexplored. This project assessed how social instability in adult male rhesus macaques (N=10, 5 in unstable, and 5 in stable social conditions) might regulate gene expression within secondary lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes; LN)...
November 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889466/lower-cortisol-level-in-response-to-a-psychosocial-stressor-in-young-females-with-self-harm
#9
Paul L Plener, Katrin Zohsel, Erika Hohm, Arlette F Buchmann, T Banaschewski, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Manfred Laucht
BACKGROUND: Self-harm is highly prevalent in adolescence, often serving an emotion regulation function. Social stressors such as bullying are associated with self-harm. The neurobiological background of the relationship between social stressors and self-harm needs to be further understood to inform prevention and therapy. METHODS: Participants were members of an epidemiological cohort study. 130 female participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 19...
November 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914245/perinatal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation-among-women-with-eating-disorders-and-their-infants
#10
A Easter, E Taborelli, A Bye, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante, J Treasure, U Schmidt, N Micali
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illness is associated with heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during pregnancy which may have long term effects on infant stress regulation. HPA axis regulation has not previously been investigated in women with eating disorders (ED) or their infants during the perinatal period. METHODS: Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study in three groups: 1) current or active ED (C-ED=31), 2) past ED (P-ED=29) and healthy control (HC=57)...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871027/trauma-exposure-relates-to-heightened-stress-altered-amygdala-morphology-and-deficient-extinction-learning-implications-for-psychopathology
#11
Raffaele Cacciaglia, Frauke Nees, Oliver Grimm, Stephanie Ridder, Sebastian T Pohlack, Slawomira J Diener, Claudia Liebscher, Herta Flor
Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889465/the-role-of-oxytocin-in-modulating-interpersonal-space-a-pharmacological-fmri-study
#12
Daniela Cohen, Anat Perry, Gadi Gilam, Naama Mayseless, Tal Gonen, Talma Hendler, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
Interpersonal space is a nonverbal indicator of affiliation and closeness. In this study we investigated the effects of oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide known for its social role in humans, on interpersonal space. In a double blind placebo controlled study we measured the effect of intranasal OT on the personal distance preferences of different familiar (friend) and unfamiliar (stranger) protagonists. Behavioral results showed that participants preferred to be closer to a friend than to a stranger. Intranasal OT was associated with an overall distancing effect, but this effect was significant for the stranger and not for the friend...
November 10, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883964/sex-specific-association-between-functional-neuropeptide-s-receptor-gene-npsr1-variants-and-cortisol-and-central-stress-responses
#13
Fabian Streit, Ceren Akdeniz, Leila Haddad, Robert Kumsta, Sonja Entringer, Josef Frank, Ilona S Yim, Sandra Zänkert, Stephanie H Witt, Peter Kirsch, Marcella Rietschel, Stefan Wüst
The brain neuropeptide S (NPS) system has recently generated substantial interest and may be of major relevance for central stress regulation. The NPS receptor (NPSR1) is highly expressed in the limbic system, exogenous NPS exerts pronounced anxiolytic and fear-attenuating effects in rodents and extensive close crosstalk between the NPS system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been demonstrated. In humans, associations between NPSR1 variants and anxiety and panic disorder, as well as amygdala responsiveness to fear- relevant faces and prefrontal cortex activity in a fear conditioning paradigm have been reported...
November 10, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883963/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-and-cognition-in-major-depression-the-role-of-remission-status
#14
Neus Salvat-Pujol, Javier Labad, Mikel Urretavizcaya, Aida de Arriba-Arnau, Cinto Segalàs, Eva Real, Alex Ferrer, José M Crespo, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Carles Soriano-Mas, José M Menchón, Virginia Soria
OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychological deficits and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction have been described in major depressive disorder (MDD). We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the role of remission status in the relationship between HPA axis and cognition in MDD. METHODS: Ninety-seven MDD patients (44 remitted, 53 non-remitted) and 97 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated. We measured verbal and visual memory, working memory, processing speed, attention, and executive function...
November 10, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865992/in-6-to-8-year-old-children-hair-cortisol-is-associated-with-body-mass-index-and-somatic-complaints-but-not-with-stress-health-related-quality-of-life-blood-pressure-retinal-vessel-diameters-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#15
Markus Gerber, Katharina Endes, Serge Brand, Christian Herrmann, Flora Colledge, Lars Donath, Oliver Faude, Uwe Pühse, Henner Hanssen, Lukas Zahner
OBJECTIVES: Hair cortisol measurement has become an increasingly accepted approach in endocrinology and biopsychology. However, while in adult research hair cortisol has been proposed as a relevant biomarker for chronic stress (and its adverse consequences), studies with children are scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present exploratory study was to examine the associations between hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), stress, and a series of health-related outcomes in a sample of Swiss first grade schoolchildren...
November 9, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871026/copeptin-a-potential-endocrine-surrogate-marker-of-cck-4-induced-panic-symptoms
#16
Cüneyt Demiralay, Agorastos Agorastos, Alexander Yassouridis, Holger Jahn, Klaus Wiedemann, Michael Kellner
Intravenous cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) administration reliably and dose-dependently provokes panic anxiety in man, accompanied by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol release. Preclinical findings suggest that behavioral and endocrine effects of CCK-4 are mediated via corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release. Anxiogenic stimulation of the central CCK-receptors in man was shown to increase as well vasopressin (AVP), which acts synergistically with CRH as pituitary-adrenocortical axis stimulator during stress...
November 8, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888772/adrenocortical-sensitivity-moderated-by-ongoing-stress-predicts-drinking-intensity-in-alcohol-dependent-men
#17
Bryon Adinoff, David Leonard, Julianne Price, Martin A Javors, Robrina Walker, E Sherwood Brown, Hong Xiao, Uma Rao
Allostatic load from both environmental stressors and persistent glucocorticoid secretion has been associated with disease severity in alcohol dependence. Heightened relapse risk and/or drinking severity, in particular, may be a reaction to alcohol- and withdrawal-induced changes in physiological stress response systems coupled with ongoing life stress, although their shared contributions upon drinking severity have not been assessed. To investigate the combined contribution of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity and environmental stressors (e...
November 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883962/maternal-care-and-affective-behavior-in-female-offspring-implication-of-the-neurosteroid-gabaergic-system
#18
Amanda P Borrow, Nicole M Cameron
In female rats, the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle is associated with decreased levels of anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior relative to the metestrus phase. Progesterone likely modulate these behaviors, in part through the influence of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (THP) on hippocampal GABAAR subunit expression. As natural variations in maternal care have been found to influence both progesterone levels at proestrus and anxiety-like behavior in female offspring, we sought to investigate the importance of maternal care and the estrous cycle on affective behavior in female rats that had received Low or High levels of licking/grooming (LG) during early life...
November 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728874/associations-among-integrated-psychoneuroimmunological-factors-and-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Yu-Ju Chen, Chin-Ling Lin, Chi-Rong Li, Shih-Ming Huang, James Yi-Hsin Chan, Wen-Hui Fang, Wei-Liang Chen
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported to cause considerable psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) disturbances such as, psychological distress, autonomic nervous imbalance, and impaired immune function. Associations among these psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) factors and their integrated effects with MetS and risk components of MetS necessitate further exploration. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated associations among psychoneuroimmunological factors, their integrated effects with MetS and risk components of MetS...
October 7, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750143/exploring-the-neural-mechanisms-of-finasteride-a-proteomic-analysis-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#20
Alessio Soggiu, Cristian Piras, Viviana Greco, Paola Devoto, Andrea Urbani, Luigino Calzetta, Marco Bortolato, Paola Roncada
The enzyme 5α-reductase (5αR) catalyzes the conversion of progesterone and testosterone into neuroactive steroids implicated in a wide array of behavioral functions. The prototypical 5αR inhibitor, finasteride (FIN), is clinically approved for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent evidence has shown that FIN, albeit generally well tolerated, can induce untoward psychological effects in a subset of patients; furthermore, this drug may have therapeutic efficacy for a number of different neuropsychiatric conditions, ranging from Tourette syndrome to schizophrenia...
October 6, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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