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Trends in Biochemical Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802547/good-ol-fat-links-between-lipid-signaling-and-longevity
#1
REVIEW
Victor Bustos, Linda Partridge
Aging is the single greatest risk factor for the development of disease. Understanding the biological molecules and mechanisms that modulate aging is therefore critical for the development of health-maximizing interventions for older people. The effect of fats on longevity has traditionally been disregarded as purely detrimental. However, new studies are starting to uncover the possible beneficial effects of lipids working as signaling molecules on health and longevity. These studies highlight the complex links between aging and lipid signaling...
August 9, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801047/the-ribosome-holds-the-rna-polymerase-on-track-in-bacteria
#2
Bruno P Klaholz
The central dogma of molecular biology comprises two fundamental mechanistic steps of gene expression (transcription and translation), which, in bacteria, are coupled. A recent study provides structural insights into a supercomplex between the RNA polymerase and the ribosome, thus highlighting the synergy between two key macromolecular machineries in the cell.
August 8, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784328/how-hsp90-and-cdc37-lubricate-kinase-molecular-switches
#3
REVIEW
Kliment A Verba, David A Agard
The Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone system interacts with and supports 60% of the human kinome. Not only are Hsp90 and Cdc37 generally required for initial folding, but many kinases rely on the Hsp90/Cdc37 throughout their lifetimes. A large fraction of these 'client' kinases are key oncoproteins, and their interactions with the Hsp90/Cdc37 machinery are crucial for both their normal and malignant activity. Recently, advances in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and biochemical strategies have provided the first key molecular insights into kinase-chaperone interactions...
August 4, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780273/shahaf-peleg-delaying-the-appointment-in-samarra
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764927/d-tyrosyl-trna-deacylase-a-new-function
#5
Richard Calendar
d-Aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase (DTD) hydrolyzes d-amino acids mistakenly attached to tRNAs and, thus, has been implicated in perpetuating protein homochirality. Fifty years after the discovery of DTD, it has now been shown that its function extends beyond 'chiral proofreading' because it also eliminates glycine that has been erroneously coupled to tRNA(Ala).
July 29, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739276/a-process-of-resection-dependent-nonhomologous-end-joining-involving-the-goddess-artemis
#6
REVIEW
Markus Löbrich, Penny Jeggo
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a hazardous form of damage that can potentially cause cell death or genomic rearrangements. In mammalian G1- and G2-phase cells, DSBs are repaired with two-component kinetics. In both phases, a fast process uses canonical nonhomologous end joining (c-NHEJ) to repair the majority of DSBs. In G2, slow repair occurs by homologous recombination. The slow repair process in G1 also involves c-NHEJ proteins but additionally requires the nuclease Artemis and DNA end resection. Here, we consider the nature of slow DSB repair in G1 and evaluate factors determining whether DSBs are repaired with fast or slow kinetics...
July 21, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734578/phosphatidylserine-is-the-signal-for-tam-receptors-and-their-ligands
#7
REVIEW
Greg Lemke
Nature repeatedly repurposes, in that molecules that serve as metabolites, energy depots, or polymer subunits are at the same time used to deliver signals within and between cells. The preeminent example of this repurposing is ATP, which functions as a building block for nucleic acids, an energy source for enzymatic reactions, a phosphate donor to regulate intracellular signaling, and a neurotransmitter to control the activity of neurons. A series of recent studies now consolidates the view that phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), a common phospholipid constituent of membrane bilayers, is similarly repurposed for use as a signal between cells and that the ligands and receptors of the Tyro3/Axl/Mer (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are prominent transducers of this signal...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733116/a-bright-future-for-serial-femtosecond-crystallography-with-xfels
#8
REVIEW
Linda C Johansson, Benjamin Stauch, Andrii Ishchenko, Vadim Cherezov
X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) have the potential to revolutionize macromolecular structural biology due to the unique combination of spatial coherence, extreme peak brilliance, and short duration of X-ray pulses. A recently emerged serial femtosecond (fs) crystallography (SFX) approach using XFEL radiation overcomes some of the biggest hurdles of traditional crystallography related to radiation damage through the diffraction-before-destruction principle. Intense fs XFEL pulses enable high-resolution room-temperature structure determination of difficult-to-crystallize biological macromolecules, while simultaneously opening a new era of time-resolved structural studies...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716332/shaping-and-reshaping-transcriptome-plasticity-during-evolution
#9
Shobbir Hussain
Transcriptome plasticity, usually associated with alternative isoform generation, is recognised as a key mechanism driving proteomic diversity and biological complexity. Recent findings of Liscovitch-Brauer et al. and Ma et al. suggest that RNA base modifications are an additional central mode of transcriptome malleability that have the potential to determine evolutionary outcomes.
July 14, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684008/ribosomal-chamber-music-toward-an-understanding-of-ires-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yamamoto, Anett Unbehaun, Christian M T Spahn
Internal initiation is a 5'-end-independent mode of translation initiation engaged by many virus- and putatively some cell-encoded templates. Internal initiation is facilitated by specific RNA tertiary folds, called internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs), in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the respective transcripts. In this review we discuss recent structural insight into how established IRESs first capture and then manipulate the eukaryotic translation machinery through non-canonical interactions and by guiding the intrinsic conformational flexibility of the eukaryotic ribosome...
July 3, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669456/biphasic-modeling-of-mitochondrial-metabolism-dysregulation-during-aging
#11
REVIEW
Darren J Baker, Shahaf Peleg
Organismal aging is classically viewed as a gradual decline of cellular functions and a systemic deterioration of tissues that leads to an increased mortality rate in older individuals. According to the prevailing theory, aging is accompanied by a continuous and progressive decline in mitochondrial metabolic activity in cells. However, the most robust approaches to extending healthy lifespan are frequently linked with reduced energy intake or with lowering of mitochondrial activity. While these observations appear contradictory, recent work and technological advances demonstrate that metabolic deregulation during aging is potentially biphasic...
June 29, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669455/breaking-the-silos-of-protein-synthesis
#12
Maria K Mateyak, Terri Goss Kinzy
Protein synthesis requires factors that are proposed to enhance discrete steps. Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5A was initially thought to affect initiation; however, it was later shown to facilitate translation elongation at polyproline. Recent work by Schuller et al. demonstrates that eIF5A facilitates both general elongation and termination in yeast, challenging these steps as silos.
June 29, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668327/an-updated-translation
#13
EDITORIAL
Nicole Neuman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633974/ribosomes-dance-to-a-daily-rhythm
#14
Aishwarya Iyer, Ingrid Grummt
Sinturel et al. demonstrate that feeding-fasting rhythms and light-dark cycles direct daily changes in liver mass and cell size. These feeding-fasting- and light-dark-driven diurnal fluctuations are controlled by an unconventional mechanism that affects ribosome assembly and protein levels during the active phase.
June 17, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629612/structural-basis-for-ribosome-rescue-in-bacteria
#15
REVIEW
Paul Huter, Claudia Müller, Stefan Arenz, Bertrand Beckert, Daniel N Wilson
Ribosomes that translate mRNAs lacking stop codons become stalled at the 3' end of the mRNA. Recycling of these stalled ribosomes is essential for cell viability. In bacteria three ribosome rescue systems have been identified so far, with the most ubiquitous and best characterized being the trans-translation system mediated by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and small protein B (SmpB). The two additional rescue systems present in some bacteria employ alternative rescue factor (Arf) A and release factor (RF) 2 or ArfB...
June 16, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602500/dynamic-protein-acylation-new-substrates-mechanisms-and-drug-targets
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Lanyon-Hogg, Monica Faronato, Remigiusz A Serwa, Edward W Tate
Post-translational attachment of lipids to proteins is found in all organisms, and is important for many biological processes. Acylation with myristic and palmitic acids are among the most common lipid modifications, and understanding reversible protein palmitoylation dynamics has become a particularly important goal. Linking acyltransferase enzymes to disease states can be challenging due to a paucity of robust models, compounded by functional redundancy between many palmitoyl transferases; however, in cases such as Wnt or Hedgehog signalling, small molecule inhibitors have been identified, with some progressing to clinical trials...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592378/no-fad-no-cry-redox-and-circadian-rhythms
#17
David Pritchett, Akhilesh B Reddy
There is growing evidence of reciprocal interactions between the endogenous circadian clock and subcellular redox pathways. Recently, researchers at the University of California unearthed another possible link between redox metabolism and the mammalian circadian clock: the redox cofactor FAD stabilises the clock protein cryptochrome (CRY), modifying rhythmic clock gene expression.
June 4, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579196/a-puzzle-of-life-crafting-ribosomal-subunits
#18
REVIEW
Dieter Kressler, Ed Hurt, Jochen Baßler
The biogenesis of eukaryotic ribosomes is a complicated process during which the transcription, modification, folding, and processing of the rRNA is coupled with the ordered assembly of ∼80 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). Ribosome synthesis is catalyzed and coordinated by more than 200 biogenesis factors as the preribosomal subunits acquire maturity on their path from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. Several biogenesis factors also interconnect the progression of ribosome assembly with quality control of important domains, ensuring that only functional subunits engage in translation...
June 1, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579074/cytosolic-proteostasis-networks-of-the-mitochondrial-stress-response
#19
REVIEW
Davide D'Amico, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Johan Auwerx
Mitochondrial stress requires timely intervention to prevent mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction. Re-establishing the correct protein homeostasis is crucial for coping with mitochondrial stress and maintaining cellular homeostasis. The best-characterized adaptive pathways for mitochondrial stress involve a signal originating from stressed mitochondria that triggers a nuclear response. However, recent findings have shown that mitochondrial stress also affects a complex network of protein homeostasis pathways in the cytosol...
June 1, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566215/close-encounters-probing-proximal-proteins-in-live-or-fixed-cells
#20
REVIEW
Peter Lönn, Ulf Landegren
The well-oiled machinery of the cellular proteome operates via variable expression, modifications, and interactions of proteins, relaying genomic and transcriptomic information to coordinate cellular functions. In recent years, a number of techniques have emerged that serve to identify sets of proteins acting in close proximity in the course of orchestrating cellular activities. These proximity-dependent assays, including BiFC, BioID, APEX, FRET, and isPLA, have opened up new avenues to examine protein interactions in live or fixed cells...
May 28, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
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