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Journal of Medicine and Philosophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475734/biological-criteria-of-disease-four-ways-of-going-wrong
#1
John Matthewson, Paul E Griffiths
We defend a view of the distinction between the normal and the pathological according to which that distinction has an objective, biological component. We accept that there is a normative component to the concept of disease, especially as applied to human beings. Nevertheless, an organism cannot be in a pathological state unless something has gone wrong for that organism from a purely biological point of view. Biology, we argue, recognises two sources of biological normativity, which jointly generate four "ways of going wrong" from a biological perspective...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444342/harm-and-the-boundaries-of-disease
#2
Patrick McGivern, Sarah Sorial
What is the relationship between harm and disease? Discussions of the relationship between harm and disease typically suffer from two shortcomings. First, they offer relatively little analysis of the concept of harm itself, focusing instead on examples of clear cases of harm such as death and dismemberment. This makes it difficult to evaluate such accounts in borderline cases, where the putative harms are less severe. Second, they assume that harm-based accounts of disease must be understood normatively rather than naturalistically, in the sense that they are inherently value based...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444298/the-line-drawing-problem-in-disease-definition
#3
Wendy A Rogers, Mary Jean Walker
Biological dysfunction is regarded, in many accounts, as necessary and perhaps sufficient for disease. But although disease is conceptualized as all-or-nothing, biological functions often differ by degree. A tension is created by attempting to use a continuous variable as the basis for a categorical definition, raising questions about how we are to pinpoint the boundary between health and disease. This is the line-drawing problem. In this paper, we show how the line-drawing problem arises within "dysfunction-requiring" accounts of disease, such as those of Christopher Boorse and Jerome Wakefield...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444218/current-dilemmas-in-defining-the-boundaries-of-disease
#4
Jenny Doust, Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A Rogers
Boorse's biostatistical theory states that diseases should be defined in ways that reflect disturbances of biological function and that are objective and value free. We use three examples from contemporary medicine that demonstrate the complex issues that arise when defining the boundaries of disease: polycystic ovary syndrome, chronic kidney disease, and myocardial infarction. We argue that the biostatistical theory fails to provide sufficient guidance on where the boundaries of disease should be drawn, contains ambiguities relating to choice of reference class, and is out of step with medical processes for identifying disease boundaries...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419307/truth-or-spin-disease-definition-in-cancer-screening
#5
Lynette Reid
Are the small and indolent cancers found in abundance in cancer screening normal variations, risk factors, or disease? Naturalists in philosophy of medicine turn to pathophysiological findings to decide such questions objectively. To understand the role of pathophysiological findings in disease definition, we must understand how they mislead in diagnostic reasoning. Participants on all sides of the definition of disease debate attempt to secure objectivity via reductionism. These reductivist routes to objectivity are inconsistent with the Bayesian nature of clinical reasoning; when they appeal to the sciences, they are inconsistent with what philosophy of biology tells us about its natural kinds...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499043/bioethics-and-transhumanism
#6
Allen Porter
Transhumanism is a "technoprogressive" socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming "posthuman." To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those "bioconservatives" who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common ground with a number of esteemed thinkers and traditions, from the ancient philosophy of Plato and Aristotle to the postmodern philosophy of Nietzsche...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444334/antiquity-s-missive-to-transhumanism1
#7
Susan B Levin
To reassure those concerned about wholesale discontinuity between human existence and posthumanity, transhumanists assert shared ground with antiquity on vital challenges and aspirations. Because their claims reflect key misconceptions, there is no shared vision for transhumanists to invoke. Having exposed their misuses of Prometheus, Plato, and Aristotle, I show that not only do transhumanists and antiquity crucially diverge on our relation to ideals, contrast-dependent aspiration, and worthy endeavors but that illumining this divide exposes central weaknesses in transhumanist argumentation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430994/personhood-and-natural-kinds-why-cognitive-status-need-not-affect-moral-status
#8
Joseph Vukov
Lockean accounts of personhood propose that an individual is a person just in case that individual is characterized by some advanced cognitive capacity. On these accounts, human beings with severe cognitive impairment are not persons. Some accept this result-I do not. In this paper, I therefore advance and defend an account of personhood that secures personhood for human beings who are cognitively impaired. On the account for which I argue, an individual is a person just in case that individual belongs to a natural kind that is normally characterized by advanced cognitive capacities...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419342/future-generations-and-the-justifiability-of-germline-engineering
#9
Ioana Petre
The possibility of performing germline modifications on currently living individuals targets future generations' health and well-being by reducing the diversity of the human gene pool. This can have two negative repercussions: (1) reduction of heterozygosity, the latter being associated with a health or performance advantage; (2) uniformization of the genes involved in reproductive recombination, which may lead to the health risks involved in asexual reproduction. I argue that germline interventions aimed at modifying the genomes of future people cannot be ethically justifiable if there is no possibility of controlling the intervention either by reversing or altering it, whenever need demands it...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419302/the-posthuman-as-hollow-idol-a-nietzschean-critique-of-human-enhancement
#10
Ciano Aydin
In this paper, the author aims to show that transhumanists are confused about their own conception of the posthuman: transhumanists anticipate radical transformation of the human through technology and at the same time assume that the criteria to determine what is "normal" and what is "enhanced" are univocal, both in our present time and in the future. Inspired by Nietzsche's notion of the Overhuman, the author argues that the slightest "historical and phenomenological sense" discloses copious variations of criteria, both diachronic and synchronic, for what can be considered "normal" and "enhanced...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201749/the-ethical-principles-of-the-portuguese-psychologists-a-universal-dimension
#11
Miguel Ricou, Eduardo Sá, Rui Nunes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201684/why-is-coerced-consent-worse-than-no-consent-and-deceived-consent
#12
David Wendler, Alan Wertheimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186557/defining-the-boundaries-of-a-right-to-adequate-protection-a-new-lens-on-pediatric-research-ethics
#13
David DeGrazia, Michelle Groman, Lisa M Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186531/what-does-the-patient-say-levinas-and-medical-ethics
#14
Lawrence Burns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186529/defining-research-risk-in-standard-of-care-trials-lessons-from-support
#15
Joel K Press, Caryn J Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180274/harms-to-others-and-the-selection-against-disability-view
#16
Nicola Jane Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064256/subscriptions-page
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064254/table-of-contents
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064253/the-ethics-of-clinical-care-and-the-ethics-of-clinical-research-yin-and-yang
#19
Charles J Kowalski, Raymond J Hutchinson, Adam J Mrdjenovich
The Belmont Report's distinction between research and the practice of accepted therapy has led various authors to suggest that these purportedly distinct activities should be governed by different ethical principles. We consider some of the ethical consequences of attempts to separate the two and conclude that separation fails along ontological, ethical, and epistemological dimensions. Clinical practice and clinical research, as with yin and yang, can be thought of as complementary forces interacting to form a dynamic system in which the whole exceeds the sum of its parts...
February 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064252/philosophical-provocation-the-lifeblood-of-clinical-ethics
#20
Laurence B McCullough
The daily work of the clinical ethics teacher and clinical ethics consultant falls into the routine of classifying clinical cases by ethical type and proposing ethically justified alternatives for the professionally responsible management of a specific type of case. Settling too far into this routine creates the risk of philosophical inertia, which is not good either for the clinical ethicist or for the field of clinical ethics. The antidote to this philosophical inertia and resultant blinkered vision of clinical ethics is sustained, willing exposure to philosophical provocation...
February 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
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