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Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770465/expression-of-myxovirus-resistance-protein-a-a-possible-marker-of-muscle-disease-activity-and-autoantibody-specificities-in-juvenile-dermatomyositis
#1
Sirisucha Soponkanaporn, Claire T Deakin, Peter W Schutz, Lucy R Marshall, Shireena A Yasin, Cerise M Johnson, Erdal Sag, Sarah L Tansley, Neil J McHugh, Lucy R Wedderburn, Thomas S Jacques
AIMS: To evaluate the relationship between expression of Myxovirus-resistance protein A (MxA) protein on muscle biopsies by immunohistochemistry and disease activity in JDM patients. Also, another aim was to investigate whether the expression of MxA is related with myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSA) status in JDM patients. METHODS: 103 patients (median aged 6.3, IQR 0.5-15.9) enrolled in the Juvenile Dermatomyositis Cohort and Biomarker Study (JDCBS). Muscle biopsies were stained with MxA and scored...
May 16, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753303/season-of-death-and-nigral-neuronal-density-in-a-high-latitude-region
#2
Lauri Heiskanen, Katri Kivinen, Maria Gardberg, Pia Wahlsten, Valtteri Kaasinen
There is evidence that the neurotransmitter dopamine may be modulated by or be a modulator of circadian rhythms [1] and that brain dopamine function may vary in relation to season of birth [2-5]. A recent study of postmortem neuronal counts from individuals who had died during the summer or winter suggested that there may be significant seasonal differences between the densities of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive (TH+) and immunonegative (TH-) neurons [6]. The difference in the density of TH+ neurons was remarkably large, as individuals who had died during the summer had 6-fold higher densities than individuals who had died during the winter...
May 12, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722054/pathoarchitectonics-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-chorea-acanthocytosis-and-hd
#3
Jia Liu, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg, Eduardo Alho, Edson Amaro, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Udo Rüb, Kay Seidel, Wilfred den Dunnen, Thomas Arzberger, Christoph Schmitz, Maren C Kiessling, Benedikt Bader, Adrian Danek
AIMS: Quantitative estimation of cortical neurone loss in cases with chorea-acanthocytosis and its impact on laminar composition METHODS: We used unbiased stereological tools to estimate the degree of cortical pathology in serial gallocyanin-stained brain sections through the complete hemispheres of three subjects with genetically verified chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and a range of disease durations. We compared these results with our previous data of five Huntington's disease (HD) and five control cases...
May 2, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679510/molecular-characteristics-of-multifocal-brain-histiocytic-sarcoma
#4
Florent Marguet, Nicolas Piton, Homa Adle-Biassette, Florence Renaud, Elodie Bohers, Thomas Boyer, Aline Zarea, Stéphane Derrey, Jean Christophe Sabourin, Annie Laquerrière
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a very uncommon malignant proliferation accounting for less than 1% of all neoplasms of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. According to the 2008 WHO classification of haematological and lymphoid tumours, diagnosis of HS requires histological and immunohistochemical evidence of histiocytic differentiation [1]. The 2016 Central nervous system (CNS) WHO classification parallels the categories of the corresponding WHO classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. By definition, diagnosis of HS relies on the expression of at least two of the histiocytic markers, e...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679389/down-regulation-of-nramp1-is-associated-with-mptp-mpp-induced-%C3%AE-synuclein-accumulation-and-neurotoxicity
#5
Kuo-Chen Wu, Horng-Huei Liou, Chih-Yu Lee, Chun-Jung Lin
AIMS: The accumulation of α-synuclein is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein-1 (Nramp1) was previously shown to contribute to the degradation of extracellular α-synuclein in microglia under conditions of iron overload. This study was aimed at investigating the role of Nramp1 in α-synuclein pathology in the neuron under MPTP/MPP+ treatment. METHODS: The expression of Nramp1 and pathological features (including iron and α-synuclein accumulation) were examined in the dopaminergic neurons of humans (with and without PD) and of mice (with and without receiving chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication)...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679382/comprehensive-microrna-expression-profiling-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-distinguishes-between-neurological-disease-classes
#6
LETTER
Sarah Grasedieck, Medhanie Mulaw, Nadine Sperb, Katja Wessinger, Arefeh Rouhi, Martin Bommer, Jacoline E C Bromberg, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani, Christine A F von Arnim, Daniel Mertens, Florian Kuchenbauer
Early detection and monitoring of a disease remain the cornerstones of effective treatment and require specific and sensitive biomarkers. In particular, identification of pathological conditions in poorly accessible regions of the body, such as the central nervous system (CNS), will advance clinical diagnostics and facilitate personalized treatment. As miRNA expression and cellular release are known to be altered in brain diseases [1], we asked whether it is possible to build an atlas comprising four major CNS pathology classes: inflammatory, malignant, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases, in comparison to neurological controls (non-inflammatory and non-degenerative), exclusively based on miRNAs isolated from patient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF This article is protected by copyright...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679378/prominent-microglial-activation-in-cortical-white-matter-is-selectively-associated-with-cortical-atrophy-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#7
Daniel T Ohm, Garam Kim, Tamar Gefen, Alfred Rademaker, Sandra Weintraub, Eileen Bigio, M-Marsel Mesulam, Emily Rogalski, Changiz Geula
AIMS: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by selective language impairments associated with focal cortical atrophy favouring the language dominant hemisphere. PPA is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and significant accumulation of activated microglia. Activated microglia can initiate an inflammatory cascade that may contribute to neurodegeneration, but their quantitative distribution in cortical white matter and their relationship with cortical atrophy are unknown...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679372/paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration-yo-antibody-alters-mitochondrial-calcium-buffering-capacity
#8
Debabrata Panja, Christian A Vedeler, Manja Schubert
AIM: Neurodegeneration is associated with dysfunction of calcium buffering capacity and thereby sustained cellular and mitochondrial calcium overload. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD), characterized by progressive Purkinje neuron degeneration following paraneoplastic Yo antibody internalisation and binding to cerebellar degeneration-related protein CDR2 and CDR2L, has been linked to intracellular calcium homeostasis imbalance due to calbindin D28k malfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that Yo antibody internalisation affects not only calbindin calcium binding capacity but also calcium-sensitive mitochondrial-associated signalling, causing mitochondrial calcium overload and thereby Purkinje neuron death...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679380/a-non-myeloablative-chimeric-mouse-model-accurately-defines-microglia-and-macrophage-contribution-in-glioma
#9
Kenny Yu, A Saam Youshani, Fiona L Wilkinson, Claire O'Leary, Peter Cook, Liisi Laaniste, Aiyin Liao, Dominic Mosses, Christopher Waugh, Hannah Shorrock, Omar Pathmanaban, Andrew Macdonald, Ian Kamaly-Asl, Federico Roncaroli, Brian W Bigger
AIMS: Resident and peripherally-derived glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMM) play a key role in driving tumour progression, angiogenesis, invasion, and attenuating host immune responses. Differentiating these cells' origins is challenging and current pre-clinical models such as irradiation-based adoptive transfer, parabiosis and transgenic mice have limitations. We aimed to develop a novel non-myeloablative transplantation (NMT) mouse model that permits high levels of peripheral chimerism without blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage or brain infiltration prior to tumour implantation...
April 20, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679371/fitting-the-epigenome-into-the-picture-methylation-classification-for-paediatric-brain-tumours
#10
EDITORIAL
J A Cotter, A R Judkins
Meaningful classification of paediatric brain tumours has been a topic of revived discussion in the current era of molecular analysis. In recent years, we have seen the practice of diagnostic neuropathology not only incorporate routine biomarker interpretation (e.g. INI1/SMARCB1 and BRAF V600E immunohistochemistry), but also extend its reach into the molecular pathology laboratory. Next-generation sequencing, fusion analysis, and copy number profiling are now commonly-employed diagnostic tools, particularly in histologically challenging or clinically difficult cases...
April 20, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676021/detection-of-alpha-synuclein-conformational-variants-from-gastro-intestinal-biopsy-tissue-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Claudio Ruffmann, Nora Bengoa-Vergniory, Ilaria Poggiolini, Diane Ritchie, Michele T Hu, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Laura Parkkinen
AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) α-synuclein (aSyn) detection as a potential biomarker of Parkinson's disease (PD) is challenged by conflicting results of recent studies. To increase sensitivity and specificity, we applied three techniques to detect different conformations of aSyn in GI biopsies obtained from a longitudinal, clinically well-characterized cohort of PD patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: With immunohistochemistry (IHC), we used antibodies reactive for total, phosphorylated and oligomeric aSyn; with aSyn proximity ligation assay (AS-PLA), we targeted oligomeric aSyn species specifically; and with paraffin-embedded tissue blot (AS-PET-blot) we aimed to detect fibrillary, synaptic aSyn...
April 19, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675951/genomic-profiling-of-anaplastic-meningioma-identifies-recurrent-genetic-alterations-with-relevance-to-lower-grade-meningioma
#12
Patrick J Cimino, Rebecca A Yoda, Hans-Georg Wirsching, Joshua I Warrick, Michael O Dorschner, Manuel Ferriera
Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor in adults [1]. The majority of meningiomas are histologically and clinically benign and can be cured by gross total surgical resection [2]. Current histopathology-based grading does not account for a subset of meningiomas with benign histology, but nonetheless aggressive clinical behavior and a need for additional treatment [3]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 19, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660838/tdp-43-pathology-in-multiple-system-atrophy-colocalization-of-tdp-43-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-glial-cytoplasmic-inclusions
#13
Shunsuke Koga, Wen-Lang Lin, Ronald L Walton, Owen A Ross, Dennis W Dickson
AIMS: This study aimed to assess clinicopathologic features of transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology and its risk factors in multiple system atrophy (MSA). METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections of the amygdala and basal forebrain from 186 autopsy-confirmed MSA cases were screened with immunohistochemistry for phospho-TDP-43. In cases having TDP-43 pathology, additional brain regions were assessed. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence double-staining and immunogold electron microscopy (IEM) were performed to evaluate colocalization of TDP-43 and α-synuclein...
April 16, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575052/expression-profile-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-skeletal-muscle-of-sod1-g93a-als-mice-and-sporadic-als-patients
#14
Sonja Lehmann, Eliza Esch, Philipp Hartmann, Anand Goswami, Stefan Nikolin, Joachim Weis, Cordian Beyer, Sonja Johann
AIMS: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by degeneration of motoneurons and progressive muscle wasting. Inflammatory processes, mediated by non-neuronal cells, such as glial cells, are known to contribute to disease progression. Inflammasomes consist of pattern recognition receptors (PPRs), ASC and caspase 1 and are essential for interleukin (IL) processing and a rapid immune response after tissue damage. Recently, we described inflammasome activation in the spinal cord of ALS patients and in SOD1(G93A) ALS mice...
March 25, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533475/british-neuropathological-society-and-international-society-of-forensic-radiology-and-imaging-expert-consensus-statement-for-post-mortem-neurological-imaging
#15
Susan C Shelmerdine, John Ciaran Hutchinson, Safa Al-Sarraj, Nat Cary, Tim Dawson, Daniel Du Plessis, Paul G Ince, Siobhan McLaughlin, Liina Palm, Colin Smith, Neil Stoodley, Rick van Rijn, Owen J Arthurs, Thomas S Jacques
AIMS: To develop an expert consensus statement regarding appropriate clinical and forensic post-mortem neurological imaging. METHODS: An expert panel of clinicians were recruited from registered members of the British Neuropathological Society (BNS) and the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging (ISFRI) with post-mortem expertise. Following a focus group meeting, 16 core statements were incorporated into an online modified Delphi survey and each panellist was asked to score their level of agreement...
March 13, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495087/non-meningothelial-meningeal-tumours-with-meningioangiomatosis-like-pattern-of-spread
#16
J B Iorgulescu, S Ferris, A Agarwal, S Casavilca Zambrano, D A Hill, R Schmidt, A Perry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486067/the-fine-anatomy-of-the-perivascular-compartment-in-the-human-brain-relevance-to-dilated-perivascular-spaces-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#17
Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Diederik Bulters, Sebastian Brandner, Janice Holton, Ajay Verma, David J Werring, Roxana O Carare
Aβ, amyloid beta, CAA, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CT, computed tomographic scanning, IPAD, intramural periarterial drainage, ISF, interstitial fluid, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, PVS, perivascular spaces, WMH, white matter hyperintensities.Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or low attenuation on computed tomographic scanning (CT), are the most frequent brain imaging finding in patients with small vessel disease or dementia. It has been assumed that WMH are due to arteriosclerosis or blood-brain barrier breakdown, though recently it was demonstrated that WMH have distinct molecular signatures in Alzheimer's disease (AD) where markers of Wallerian degeneration are present, compared to normal ageing [1]...
February 27, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478280/the-mir-139-5p-regulates-proliferation-of-supratentorial-paediatric-low-grade-gliomas-by-targeting-the-pi3k-akt-mtorc1-signalling
#18
G Catanzaro, Z M Besharat, E Miele, M Chiacchiarini, A Po, A Carai, C E Marras, M Antonelli, M Badiali, A Raso, S Mascelli, D Schrimpf, D Stichel, M Tartaglia, D Capper, A von Deimling, F Giangaspero, A Mastronuzzi, F Locatelli, E Ferretti
AIMS: Paediatric low-grade gliomas (pLGGs) are a heterogeneous group of brain tumours associated with a high overall survival: however, they are prone to recur and supratentorial lesions are difficult to resect, being associated with high percentage of disease recurrence. Our aim was to shed light on the biology of pLGGs. METHODS: We performed microRNA profiling on 45 fresh-frozen grade I tumour samples of various histological classes, resected from patients aged ≤16 years...
February 25, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380913/review-vascular-dementia-clinicopathologic-and-genetic-considerations
#19
REVIEW
H V Vinters, C Zarow, E Borys, J D Whitman, S Tung, W G Ellis, L Zheng, H C Chui
The incidence and severity of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) increase with advancing age, as does the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Not surprisingly, heterogeneous forms of CVD may coexist with AD changes in the 'ageing brain'. These include angiopathies (affecting both large and small arteries) that result from 'classical' risk factors (hypertension, smoking and diabetes) and others (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) that are biochemically closely linked to AD. The morphologic consequences of these various vascular diseases are infarcts and/or haemorrhages of varying sizes within the brain, which lead to neurocognitive decline that may mimic AD - though the vascular abnormalities are usually detectable by neuroimaging...
April 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495124/119th-meeting-of-the-british-neuropathological-society-institute-of-child-health-epilepsy-neuropathology-symposium-28th-february-2018
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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