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Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944505/taxonomy-of-cns-tumours-a-series-of-three-short-reviews-on-the-who-2016-classification-and-beyond
#1
EDITORIAL
Pieter Wesseling, Thomas S Jacques
In May 2016, an update of the 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) was officially released [1]. This revised 4th edition represents a paradigm shift as, for the first time, the definition of multiple CNS tumour entities is now partly based on particular genotypic characteristics. Additionally, compared to the 4th edition (published in 2007), some splitting and lumping of entities occurred because of new insights in the genetic underpinnings of CNS tumours and/or based on more recently published clinico-pathologic studies...
September 25, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880417/neuropathology-and-behavioural-features-of-transgenic-murine-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Kamar E Ameen-Ali, Stephen B Wharton, Julie E Simpson, Paul R Heath, Paul Sharp, Jason Berwick
Our understanding of the underlying biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been steadily progressing; however, this is yet to translate into a successful treatment in humans. The use of transgenic mouse models has helped to develop our understanding of AD, not only in terms of disease pathology, but also with the associated cognitive impairments typical of AD. Plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are often amongst the last pathological changes in AD mouse models, after neuronal loss and gliosis. There is a general consensus that successful treatments need to be applied before the onset of these pathologies and associated cognitive symptoms...
September 7, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880406/incidental-neuronal-intermediate-filament-inclusion-pathology-unexpected-biopsy-findings-in-a-37-year-old-woman-with-epilepsy
#3
Ellen Gelpi, Cristina Carrato, Laia Grau-López, Juan Luis Becerra, Roser Garcia-Armengol, Anna Massuet, Laura Cervera, Jordi Clarimon, Katrin Beyer, Ramiro Álvarez
We present unexpected neuropathological findings in a 37 year old woman who underwent surgery for removal of an epidermoid cyst. A first brain MRI at the age of 27 years (due to hyperprolactinemia) showed a cystic lesion in the right prepontine region involving the cisterna ambiens with supratentorial extension. The lesion remained stable until she was 32 year, when it increased in size causing partial compression of the parahippocampal gyrus, midbrain peduncle and lateral pons (Fig. 1). One year later, the patient started to present weekly seizures in form of partial focal complex seizures...
September 7, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815663/who-2016-classification-of-gliomas
#4
Pieter Wesseling, David Capper
Gliomas are the most frequent intrinsic tumours of the central nervous system and encompass two principle subgroups: diffuse gliomas and gliomas showing a more circumscribed growth pattern ('non-diffuse gliomas'). In the revised 4th edition of the WHO Classification of CNS tumors published in 2016, classification of especially diffuse gliomas has fundamentally changed: for the first time a large subset of these tumours is now defined based on presence/absence of IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. Following this approach, the diagnosis of (anaplastic) oligoastrocytoma can be expected to largely disappear...
August 16, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801956/evidence-of-er-stress-and-upr-activation-in-patients-with-brody-disease-and-brody-syndrome
#5
V Guglielmi, N C Voermans, A Oosterhof, D Nowis, B G van Engelen, G Tomelleri, G Vattemi
Brody disease (BD, OMIM #601003) is an inherited skeletal muscle disease clinically characterized by exercise-induced impairment of muscle relaxation and stiffness due to the delay in the Ca(2+) re-uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)[1, 2]. The delayed muscle relaxation mainly affects legs, harms, hands and eyelids and usually improves after a few minutes rest [1-3]. Patients frequently report myalgia, painless or mildly painful cramps whereas recurrent rhabdomyolysis have been described in a few cases [2, 3]...
August 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793370/prevalence-of-tdp-43-proteinopathy-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Camila Nascimento, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Caroline Bazan Conceição Amaral, Renata Elane Paraizo Leite, Ricardo Nitrini, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Suvi Rosa Kastehelmi Hokkanen, Sally Hunter, Hannah Keage, Gabor G Kovacs, Lea Tenenholz Grinberg, Claudia Kimie Suemoto
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy in cognitively normal older adults. METHODS: We systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis on the prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy in older adults with normal cognition, evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination or the Clinical Dementia Rating. We estimated the overall prevalence of TDP-43 using random-effect models, and stratified by age, sex, sample size, study quality, antibody used to assess TDP-43 aggregates, analyzed brain regions, Braak stage, CERAD score, hippocampal sclerosis, and geographic location...
August 9, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792617/distinctive-cerebral-neuropathology-in-an-adult-case-of-sando-syndrome
#7
Daniel Kirschenbaum, Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Anders Oldfors, Eduard Scherer, Herbert Budka
The syndrome of sensory ataxic neuropathy with dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO), defined genetically by mutations of the gene for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase-γ, POLG, was first described in 1997 (1). Since then, several case reports with various POLG, or more rarely PEO1, mutations have been published (2-4), some specifically addressing muscle and nerve pathology (1, 3), nerve electrophysiology (5), or radiological aspects (4, 6, 7). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 9, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767130/tumor-associated-microglia-macrophages-predict-poor-prognosis-in-high-grade-gliomas-and-correlate-with-an-aggressive-tumor-subtype
#8
Mia D Sørensen, Rikke H Dahlrot, Henning B Boldt, Steinbjørn Hansen, Bjarne W Kristensen
AIMS: Glioblastomas are highly aggressive and treatment-resistant. Increasing evidence suggests that tumor-associated macrophages/microglia (TAMs) facilitate tumor progression by acquiring a M2-like phenotype. Our objective was to investigate the prognostic value of TAMs in gliomas using automated quantitative double immunofluorescence. METHODS: Samples from 240 patients with primary glioma were stained with antibodies against ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA-1) and CD204 to detect TAMs and M2-like TAMs...
August 2, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755467/connexin-43-and-aquaporin-4-are-markers-of-artag-related-astroglial-response
#9
Gabor G Kovacs, Ahmed Yousef, Sabine Kaindl, Virginia M Lee, John Q Trojanowski
AIMS: Ageing-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) appears in subependymal, subpial, perivascular, white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) locations. Physical effects, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, blood- or vessel-related factors have been considered as aetiology. Since Connexin-43 (Cx43) and Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are related to these, we hypothesized that their immunoreactivity varies with ARTAG in a location-specific manner. METHODS: We performed a morphometric immunohistochemical study measuring the densities of immunoreactivity (IR) of Cx43, AQP4, AT8 (phospho-tau), and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)...
July 29, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696566/super-resolution-imaging-of-subcortical-white-matter-using-stochastic-optical-reconstruction-microscopy-storm-and-super-resolution-optical-fluctuation-imaging-sofi
#10
A H Hainsworth, S Lee, P Foot, A Patel, W W Poon, A E Knight
AIMS: The spatial resolution of light microscopy is limited by the wavelength of visible light (the 'diffraction limit', approximately 250 nm). Resolution of sub-cellular structures, smaller than this limit, is possible with super resolution methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). We aimed to resolve subcellular structures (axons, myelin sheaths and astrocytic processes) within intact white matter, using STORM and SOFI...
July 11, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664614/evolving-concepts-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-as-a-neuropathological-entity
#11
Helen Ling, James W Neal, Tamas Revesz
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a long-term neurodegenerative consequence of repetitive head impacts which can only be definitively diagnosed in post-mortem. Recently, the consensus neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of CTE was published requiring the presence of the accumulation of abnormal tau in neurons and astroglia distributed around small blood vessels at the depths of cortical sulci in an irregular pattern as the mandatory features. The clinical diagnosis and antemortem prediction of CTE pathology remain challenging if not impossible due to the common co-existing underlying neurodegenerative pathologies and the lack of specific clinical pointers and reliable biomarkers...
June 30, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901022/in-this-issue-october-2017
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398599/hippocampal-sclerosis-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-chorea-acanthocytosis-a-case-with-clinical-pathologic-and-genetic-evaluation
#13
LETTER
K Mente, S A Kim, C Grunseich, M M Hefti, J F Crary, A Danek, B I Karp, R H Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039950/ageing-causes-prominent-neurovascular-dysfunction-associated-with-loss-of-astrocytic-contacts-and-gliosis
#14
J Duncombe, R J Lennen, M A Jansen, I Marshall, J M Wardlaw, K Horsburgh
AIMS: Normal neurovascular coupling, mediated by the fine interplay and communication of cells within the neurovascular unit, is critical for maintaining normal brain activity and cognitive function. This study investigated whether, with advancing age there is disruption of neurovascular coupling and specific cellular components of the neurovascular unit, and whether the effects of increasing amyloid (a key feature of Alzheimer's disease) would exacerbate these changes. METHODS: Wild-type mice, in which amyloid deposition is absent, were compared to transgenic amyloid precursor protein (APP) littermates (TgSwDI) which develop age-dependent increases in amyloid...
October 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783888/association-of-cortical-microinfarcts-and-cerebral-small-vessel-pathology-in-the-ageing-brain
#15
E Kövari, F R Herrmann, G Gold, P R Hof, A Charidimou
AIMS: Cortical microinfarcts (CMI) are frequently observed in the ageing brain independent of cognitive decline, but their aetiology is not fully elucidated. To examine the potential role of different vessel pathologies, including cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), arteriolosclerosis-hyalinosis and thromboembolism in the development of CMI, we examined 80 autopsy cases with more than one CMI on routine neuropathological examination. METHODS: Pial and intracortical vessels around CMI were assessed for their integrity with haematoxylin-eosin staining and antibodies against amyloid-β protein and fibrinogen using a semiquantitative four-level rating scale (absent to severe) in the hippocampus, and the frontal, temporal and occipital cortex...
October 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543917/brain-iron-accumulation-in-wilson-disease-a-post-mortem-7-tesla-mri-histopathological-study
#16
P Dusek, E Bahn, T Litwin, K Jabłonka-Salach, A Łuciuk, T Huelnhagen, V I Madai, M A Dieringer, E Bulska, M Knauth, T Niendorf, J Sobesky, F Paul, S A Schneider, A Czlonkowska, W Brück, C Wegner, J Wuerfel
AIMS: In Wilson disease (WD), T2/T2*-weighted (T2*w) MRI frequently shows hypointensity in the basal ganglia that is suggestive of paramagnetic deposits. It is currently unknown whether this hypointensity is related to copper or iron deposition. We examined the neuropathological correlates of this MRI pattern, particularly in relation to iron and copper concentrations. METHODS: Brain slices from nine WD and six control cases were investigated using a 7T-MRI system...
October 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543695/systems-proteomic-analysis-reveals-that-clusterin-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinases-3-increase-in-leptomeningeal-arteries-affected-by-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#17
A Manousopoulou, M Gatherer, C Smith, J A R Nicoll, C H Woelk, M Johnson, R Kalaria, J Attems, S D Garbis, R O Carare
AIMS: Amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation in the walls of leptomeningeal arteries as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used global quantitative proteomic analysis to examine the hypothesis that the leptomeningeal arteries derived from patients with CAA have a distinct endophenotypic profile compared to those from young and elderly controls. METHODS: Freshly dissected leptomeningeal arteries from the Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource and Edinburgh Sudden Death Brain Bank from seven elderly (82...
October 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370398/tau-aggregates-where-when-why-and-what-consequences
#18
EDITORIAL
M P Frosch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664944/microinfarcts-in-an-older-population-representative-brain-donor-cohort-mrc-cfas-prevalence-relation-to-dementia-and-mobility-and-implications-for-the-evaluation-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#19
P G Ince, T Minett, G Forster, C Brayne, S B Wharton
INTRODUCTION: Microinfarcts, small ischaemic foci common in ageing brain, are associated with dementia and gait dysfunction. We determined their relationship with dementia, mobility and cerebrovascular disease in an older population-representative brain donor cohort. These data on microinfarcts were evaluated in relation to pathological assessments of clinically significant cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). METHODS: Microinfarcts were assessed in the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (n = 331)...
August 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644906/cholinesterases-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-primary-olfactory-gyrus
#20
Hayam Hamodat, Meghan K Cash, John D Fisk, Sultan Darvesh
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Olfactory abnormalities often precede cognitive symptoms in AD, indicating early involvement of pathology in olfactory structures. The cholinergic system is important not only in cognition but also in modulation of the olfactory system. The primary olfactory gyrus (POG) is comprised of the olfactory tract, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and olfactory area (OA)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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