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Cell Structure and Function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943602/deltamethrin-increases-neurite-outgrowth-in-cortical-neurons-through-endogenous-bdnf-trkb-pathways
#1
Daisuke Ihara, Mamoru Fukuchi, Momoko Katakai, Yo Shinoda, Ritsuko Katoh-Semba, Teiichi Furuichi, Mitsuru Ishikawa, Akiko Tabuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
Deltamethrin (DM), a type II pyrethroid, robustly increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) expression and has a neurotrophic effect in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. In this study, we investigated the effect of DM on neurite morphology in cultured rat cortical neurons. DM significantly increased neurite outgrowth, but this increase was abolished when the BDNF scavenger tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-Fc was added 10 min before the DM treatment. In contrast, the addition of TrkB-Fc 1 h after the treatment did not affect DM-induced neurite outgrowth...
September 23, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701658/drosophila-dock-family-protein-zizimin-involves-in-pigment-cell-differentiation-in-pupal-retinae
#2
Fumito Ozasa, Kazushige Morishita, Ngoc Anh Suong Dang, Seiji Miyata, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins are known as one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), that contribute to cellular signaling processes by activating small G proteins. Although mammalian Zizimin is known to be a GEF for Cdc42 of Rho family small GTPase, its role in vivo is not well understood. Here we studied in vivo function of Drosophila Zizimin (Ziz). Knockdown of Ziz in eye imaginal discs induced the rough eye phenotype accompanied with fusion of ommatidia, loss of bristles and loss of pigments...
July 13, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701634/mitochondria-regulate-the-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth
#3
Hiroki Kato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Yuta Hirofuji, Xu Han, Hiroshi Sato, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are isolated from the dental pulp tissue of primary teeth and can differentiate into neuronal cells. Although SHED are a desirable type of stem cells for transplantation therapy and for the study of neurological diseases, a large part of the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial activity is involved in the differentiation of stem cells. In the present work, we investigated the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED by focusing on mitochondrial activity...
July 11, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552883/sel1l-dependent-substrates-require-derlin2-3-and-herp1-2-for-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-degradation
#4
Takehiro Sugimoto, Satoshi Ninagawa, Shimpei Yamano, Tokiro Ishikawa, Tetsuya Okada, Shunichi Takeda, Kazutoshi Mori
Accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). The ATF6 pathway is one of the three major pathways in vertebrates. Although ATF6, a transmembrane-type glycoprotein in the ER, functions as a UPR sensor/transducer, it is an unstable protein with a half-life of approximately 2 h and is constitutively subjected to the ER-associated degradation system with the location of the misfolded part in the ER lumen (ERAD-L). ERAD-L substrates are delivered to the cytosol through the retrotranslocon, which likely contains HRD1 (E3), gp78 (E3), SEL1L (a partner of HRD1), Derlin1/2/3 and Herp1/2...
July 4, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321016/4%C3%AE-8c-inhibits-insulin-secretion-independent-of-ire1%C3%AE-rnase-activity
#5
Hitomi Sato, Yoko Shiba, Yuichi Tsuchiya, Michiko Saito, Kenji Kohno
IRE1α plays an important role in the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. 4μ8C, a well-known inhibitor of IRE1α RNase activity, is commonly used to analyze IRE1α function during ER stress in cultured mammalian cells. However, the off-target effects of 4μ8C remain elusive. Pancreatic β-cells synthesize a large amount of insulin in response to high glucose stimulation, and IRE1α plays an important role in insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells...
May 3, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302928/pi5p-and-pi-3-5-p2-minor-but-essential-phosphoinositides
#6
Junya Hasegawa, Bethany S Strunk, Lois S Weisman
In most eukaryotes, phosphoinositides (PIs) have crucial roles in multiple cellular functions. Although the cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) are extremely low relative to some other PIs, emerging evidence demonstrates that both lipids are crucial for the endocytic pathway, intracellular signaling, and adaptation to stress. Mutations that causes defects in the biosynthesis of PI5P and PI(3,5)P2 are linked to human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders...
May 3, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413178/synthesized-a%C3%AE-42-caused-intracellular-oxidative-damage-leading-to-cell-death-via-lysosome-rupture
#7
Yuki Oku, Kazuma Murakami, Kazuhiro Irie, Jun Hoseki, Yasuyoshi Sakai
Neuronal cellular accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Intracellular accumulation of Aβ42, a toxic form of Aβ, was observed as an early event in AD patients. However, its contribution and the cellular mechanism of cell death remained unclear. We herein revealed the mechanism by which Aβ42 incorporated into cells leads to cell death by using chemically synthesized Aβ42 variants. The Aβ42 variant Aβ42 (E22P) which has an increased tendency to oligomerize, accumulated in lysosomes at an earlier stage than wild-type Aβ42, leading to higher ROS production and lysosomal membrane oxidation, and resulting in cell death...
April 12, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179603/tfe3-hsp47-and-creb3-pathways-of-the-mammalian-golgi-stress-response
#8
REVIEW
Mai Taniguchi, Hiderou Yoshida
The capacity of each organelle in eukaryotic cells is tightly regulated in accordance with cellular demands by specific regulatory systems, which are generically termed organelle autoregulation. The Golgi stress response is one of the systems of organelle autoregulation and it augments the capacity of Golgi function if this becomes insufficient (Golgi stress). Recently, several pathways of the mammalian Golgi stress response have been identified, specifically the TFE3, HSP47, and CREB3 pathways. This review summarizes the essential parts of the Golgi stress response from the perspective of the organelle autoregulation...
April 1, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928132/improved-fret-biosensor-for-the-measurement-of-bcr-abl-activity-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#9
Mika Horiguchi, Mari Fujioka, Takeshi Kondo, Yoichiro Fujioka, Xinxin Li, Kosui Horiuchi, Aya O Satoh, Prabha Nepal, Shinya Nishide, Asuka Nanbo, Takanori Teshima, Yusuke Ohba
Although the co-development of companion diagnostics with molecular targeted drugs is desirable, truly efficient diagnostics are limited to diseases in which chromosomal translocations or overt mutations are clearly correlated with drug efficacy. Moreover, even for such diseases, few methods are available to predict whether drug administration is effective for each individual patient whose disease is expected to respond to the drug(s). We have previously developed a biosensor based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer to measure the activity of the tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL and its response to drug treatment in patient-derived chronic myeloid leukemia cells...
February 2, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885213/a-fret-biosensor-for-rock-based-on-a-consensus-substrate-sequence-identified-by-kiss-technology
#10
Chunjie Li, Ayako Imanishi, Naoki Komatsu, Kenta Terai, Mutsuki Amano, Kozo Kaibuchi, Michiyuki Matsuda
Genetically-encoded biosensors based on Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are versatile tools for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of signaling molecules within not only the cells but also tissues. Perhaps the hardest task in the development of a FRET biosensor for protein kinases is to identify the kinase-specific substrate peptide to be used in the FRET biosensor. To solve this problem, we took advantage of kinase-interacting substrate screening (KISS) technology, which deduces a consensus substrate sequence for the protein kinase of interest...
January 11, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855440/the-position-of-the-gfp-tag-on-actin-affects-the-filament-formation-in-mammalian-cells
#11
Akira Nagasaki, Saku T Kijima, Tenji Yumoto, Miku Imaizumi, Ayana Yamagishi, Hyonchol Kim, Chikashi Nakamura, Taro Q P Uyeda
Actin, a major component of microfilaments, is involved in various eukaryotic cellular functions. Over the past two decades, actin fused with fluorescent protein has been used as a probe to detect the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in living eukaryotic cells. It is generally assumed that the expression of fusion protein of fluorescent protein does not disturb the distribution of endogenous actin throughout the cell, and that the distribution of the fusion protein reflects that of endogenous actin...
2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768954/mir-29a-and-mir-652-attenuate-liver-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-the-differentiation-of-cd4-t-cells
#12
Ji Xuan, Shu-Lin Guo, Ang Huang, Hua-Bing Xu, Mei Shao, Ya Yang, Wei Wen
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is the response of liver diseases that puzzles patients. MiRNAs were involved in the regulating processes of liver fibrosis. This study aims to investigate the effects of ARRB1 mediated by miR-29a and miR-652 on liver fibrosis and its possible mechanism. METHODS: Liver fibrosis of mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Liver function was observed by the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)...
2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381790/the-wd40-domain-of-hira-is-essential-for-ri-nucleosome-assembly-in-xenopus-egg-extracts
#13
Ruibin Zhu, Mari Iwabuchi, Keita Ohsumi
Histone chaperones are a group of histone-binding proteins that facilitate the assembly of nucleosomes, the fundamental structural units of chromatin in eukaryotes. In nucleosome assembly, deposition of a histone H3-H4 tetramer onto DNA is the first and critical step, which is mediated by the histone chaperones HIRA and CAF-1. HIRA and CAF-1 are reportedly involved in DNA replication independent (RI) and replication coupled nucleosome assembly, respectively. However, the mechanisms by which they mediate histone deposition remain unclear...
2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733730/pericentric-h3k9me3-formation-by-hp1-interaction-defective-histone-methyltransferase-suv39h1
#14
Daisuke Muramatsu, Hiroshi Kimura, Kaoru Kotoshiba, Makoto Tachibana, Yoichi Shinkai
Pericentric regions form epigenetically organized, silent heterochromatin structures that accumulate histone H3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a methylated H3K9-binding protein. At pericentric regions, Suv39h is the major enzyme that generates H3K9me3. Suv39h also interacts directly with HP1. However, the importance of HP1 interaction for Suv39h-mediated H3K9me3 formation at the pericentromere is not well characterized. To address this question, we introduced HP1 binding-defective, N-terminally truncated mouse Suv39h1 (ΔN) into Suv39h-deficient cells...
December 3, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679938/significance-of-extracellular-vesicles-pathobiological-roles-in-disease
#15
REVIEW
Seiji Yamamoto, Erika Azuma, Masashi Muramatsu, Takeru Hamashima, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara
Over the past decade, many studies have been conducted on extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the fields of basic and clinical research. EVs are small sized membranous vesicles generated from many type of cells upon activation by environmental stresses such as heat, hypoxia, and irradiation. EVs theoretically consist of microparticles/microvesicles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies by different productive mechanisms. Clinically, EVs are observed in the blood stream of patients suffering from acute and chronic inflammation evoked by various diseases, and number of EVs in blood flow is often dependent on the inflammatory status and severity of the diseases...
November 25, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615606/organization-of-non-centrosomal-microtubules-in-epithelial-cells
#16
REVIEW
Mika Toya, Masatoshi Takeichi
Polarized epithelial cells contain a characteristic array of microtubules in which non-centrosomal microtubules are aligned along the apical-to-basal axis of the cell with their minus ends oriented towards the apical pole. Although this unique orientation of microtubules was discovered in the late 1980s, how this orientation is established remains unresolved partly because of limited information about molecular factors that regulate the minus ends of non-centrosomal microtubules. Recent studies, however, identified novel minus end-associated proteins, revealing mechanisms by which the polarized arrays of microtubules are established in epithelial cells...
October 15, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374417/fertilization-independent-cell-fusion-between-the-synergid-and-central-cell-in-the-polycomb-mutant
#17
Kazuki Motomura, Frédéric Berger, Tomokazu Kawashima, Tetsu Kinoshita, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Daisuke Maruyama
In flowering plants, fertilization of the central cell gives rise to an embryo-nourishing endosperm. Recently, we reported that the endosperm absorbs the adjacent synergid cell through a cell-fusion, terminating the pollen tube guidance by a rapid inactivation of the synergid cell. Although this synergid-endosperm fusion (SE fusion) initiates soon after fertilization, it was still unknown whether the triggers of SE fusion are stimuli during fertilization or other seed developmental processes. To further dissect out the SE fusion process, we investigated the SE fusion in an Arabidopsis mutant defective for MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1), a subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)...
August 23, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334702/focused-proteomics-revealed-a-novel-rho-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-the-heart
#18
Yoshimitsu Yura, Mutsuki Amano, Mikito Takefuji, Tomohiro Bando, Kou Suzuki, Katsuhiro Kato, Tomonari Hamaguchi, Md Hasanuzzaman Shohag, Tetsuya Takano, Yasuhiro Funahashi, Shinichi Nakamuta, Keisuke Kuroda, Tomoki Nishioka, Toyoaki Murohara, Kozo Kaibuchi
Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in the physiological regulation of cardiac function. Myocardial contraction and pathogenesis of cardiac diseases have been reported to be associated with adaptive or maladaptive protein phosphorylation; however, phosphorylation signaling in the heart is not fully elucidated. We recently developed a novel kinase-interacting substrate screening (KISS) method for exhaustive screening of protein kinase substrates, using mass spectrometry and affinity chromatography...
August 23, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251850/mlx-is-a-transcriptional-repressor-of-the-mammalian-golgi-stress-response
#19
Mai Taniguchi, Kanae Sasaki-Osugi, Masaya Oku, Shogo Sawaguchi, Soichiro Tanakura, Yumeto Kawai, Sadao Wakabayashi, Hiderou Yoshida
The Golgi stress response is a homeostatic mechanism that controls the capacity of the Golgi apparatus in accordance with cellular demands. When the capacity of the Golgi apparatus becomes insufficient (Golgi stress), transcription levels of Golgi-related genes encoding glycosylation enzymes, a Golgi structural protein, and components of vesicular transport are upregulated through a common cis-acting enhancer-the Golgi apparatus stress response element (GASE). Here, we identified the transcription factor MLX as a GASE-binding protein...
July 30, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247077/multiplexed-fluorescence-imaging-of-erk-and-akt-activities-and-cell-cycle-progression
#20
Gembu Maryu, Michiyuki Matsuda, Kazuhiro Aoki
The Ras-ERK pathway controls cell proliferation and differentiation, whereas the PI3K-Akt pathway plays a role in the process of cell-cycle progression and cell survival. Both pathways are activated by many stimuli such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), and coordinately regulate each other through cross-talk. However, it remains unclear how cells accommodate the dynamics and interplay between the Ras-ERK and PI3K-Akt pathways to regulate cell-fate decisions, mainly because of the lack of good tools to visualize ERK and Akt activities simultaneously in live cells...
July 22, 2016: Cell Structure and Function
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