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Cell Structure and Function

Kojiro Ishibashi, Riku Egami, Kazuki Nakai, Shunsuke Kon
The Warburg effect is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, characterized by enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Despite intense research efforts, its functional relevance or biological significance to facilitate tumor progression is still debatable. Hence the question persists when and how the Warburg effect contributes to carcinogenesis. Especially, the role of metabolic changes at a very early stage of tumorigenesis has received relatively little attention, and how aerobic glycolysis impacts tumor incidence remains largely unknown...
September 1, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Haruki Inoue, Katsuyuki Kunida, Naoki Matsuda, Daisuke Hoshino, Takumi Wada, Hiromi Imamura, Hiroyuki Noji, Shinya Kuroda
Automatic cell segmentation is a powerful method for quantifying signaling dynamics at single-cell resolution in live cell fluorescence imaging. Segmentation methods for mononuclear and round shape cells have been developed extensively. However, a segmentation method for elongated polynuclear cells, such as differentiated C2C12 myotubes, has yet to be developed. In addition, myotubes are surrounded by undifferentiated reserve cells, making it difficult to identify background regions and subsequent quantification...
August 31, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Mai Handa-Narumi, Takeshi Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Konishi, Yuko Fukata, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Katsunori Tanaka, Guang-Ming Bao, Hiroshi Kiyama, Koichi Fukase, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Proper N-glycosylation of proteins is important for normal brain development and nervous system function. Identification of the localization, carrier proteins and interacting partners of N-glycans is essential for understanding the roles of glycoproteins. The present study examined the N-glycan A2G'2F (Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ1-2Manα1-6[Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ1-2Manα1-3]Manβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4[Fucα1-6]GlcNAc-). A2G'2F has a branched sialic acid structural feature, and branched sialylated A2G'2F is a major N-glycan in the mouse brain...
August 25, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Ayako Imanishi, Tomokazu Murata, Masaya Sato, Kazuhiro Hotta, Itaru Imayoshi, Michiyuki Matsuda, Kenta Terai
For more than a century, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining has been the de facto standard for histological studies. Consequently, the legacy of histological knowledge is largely based on H&E staining. Due to the recent advent of multi-photon excitation microscopy, the observation of live tissue is increasingly being used in many research fields. Adoption of this technique has been further accelerated by the development of genetically encoded biosensors for ions and signaling molecules. However, H&E-based histology has not yet begun to fully utilize in vivo imaging due to the lack of proper morphological markers...
August 10, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Midori Ishii, Vladimir V Lupashin, Akihiko Nakano
The Golgi apparatus is a central station for protein trafficking in eukaryotic cells. A widely accepted model of protein transport within the Golgi apparatus is cisternal maturation. Each cisterna has specific resident proteins, which are thought to be maintained by COPI-mediated transport. However, the mechanisms underlying specific sorting of these Golgi-resident proteins remain elusive. To obtain a clue to understand the selective sorting of vesicles between the Golgi cisterenae, we investigated the molecular arrangements of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) subunits in yeast cells...
July 19, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Ryosuke Nishimura, Kagayaki Kato, Sachiko Fujiwara, Kazumasa Ohashi, Kensaku Mizuno
Epithelial tubules, consisting of the epithelial cell sheet with a central lumen, are the basic structure of many organs. Mechanical forces play an important role in epithelial tubulogenesis; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the mechanical forces during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. Solo (also known as ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine-nucleotide exchange factor that is involved in mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and stress fiber formation. Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) filaments, and this interaction plays a crucial role in mechanotransduction...
June 2, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Akinobu Matsumoto, Keiichi I Nakayama
Although the definition of a noncoding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that does not encode a protein, recent evidence has revealed that some ncRNAs are indeed translated to give rise to small polypeptides (usually containing fewer than 100 amino acids). Despite their small size, however, these peptides are often biologically relevant in that they are required for a variety of cellular processes. In this review, we summarize the production and functions of peptides that have been recently identified as translation products of putative ncRNAs...
May 18, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Gembu Maryu, Haruko Miura, Youichi Uda, Akira T Komatsubara, Michiyuki Matsuda, Kazuhiro Aoki
Protein kinases play pivotal roles in intracellular signal transduction, and dysregulation of kinases leads to pathological results such as malignant tumors. Kinase activity has hitherto been measured by biochemical methods such as in vitro phosphorylation assay and western blotting. However, these methods are less useful to explore spatial and temporal changes in kinase activity and its cell-to-cell variation. Recent advances in fluorescent proteins and live-cell imaging techniques enable us to visualize kinase activity in living cells with high spatial and temporal resolutions...
April 25, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Shu Yao Leong, Moé Yamada, Naoki Yanagisawa, Gohta Goshima
Stabilisation of minus ends of microtubules (MTs) is critical for organising MT networks in land plant cells, in which all MTs are nucleated independent of centrosomes. Recently, Arabidopsis SPIRAL2 (SPR2) protein was shown to localise to plus and minus ends of cortical MTs, and increase stability of both ends. Here, we report molecular and functional characterisation of SPR2 of the basal land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. In protonemal cells of P. patens, where non-cortical, endoplasmic MT network is organised, we observed SPR2 at minus ends, but not plus ends, of endoplasmic MTs and likely also of phragmoplast MTs...
March 28, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Sayuri Tanabashi, Keiko Shoda, Chieko Saito, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Tomohiro Uemura, Akihiko Nakano
The Golgi apparatus is a key station of glycosylation and membrane traffic. It consists of stacked cisternae in most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms how the Golgi stacks are formed and maintained are still obscure. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana provides a nice system to observe Golgi structures by light microscopy, because the Golgi in A. thaliana is in the form of mini-stacks that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. To obtain a clue to understand the molecular basis of Golgi morphology, we took a forward-genetic approach to isolate A...
March 27, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Koichiro Suzuki, Takahiro Yamada, Keiko Yamazaki, Masato Hirota, Narumi Ishihara, Mizuki Sakamoto, Daisuke Takahashi, Hideki Iijima, Koji Hase
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a refractory disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is believed to develop in genetically susceptible individuals. Glycosylation, a type of post-translational modification, is involved in the development of a wide range of diseases, including IBD, by modulating the function of various glycoproteins. To identify novel genes contributing to the development of IBD, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glycosylation-related genes in IBD patients and identified MAN2A1, encoding alpha-mannosidase II (α-MII), as a candidate gene...
March 16, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Junya Kirima, Kazuhiro Oiwa
Genomics and proteomics studies in Chlamydomonas have revealed that an axoneme is composed of 200-600 types of proteins, including uncharacterized proteins collectively named flagellar-associated proteins (FAPs). Nine FAPs contain the EF-hand motif; however, they have not yet been well characterized. To find components responsible for Chlamydomonas-specific waveform changes coupled with intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, we focused on FAP85, an EF-hand motif-containing FAP specific to Chlamydomonas and its relatives...
February 16, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Seiichiro Ishihara, Kei Aoki, Takeomi Mizutani, Maho Amano, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura, Hisashi Haga
Glycans, including glycosphingolipids, are broadly expressed in plasma membranes and play important roles in cell-cell interactions. Recently, it has been revealed that glycans participate in the regulation of malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, e.g. growth and invasion. However, their roles in irradiation-tolerant cancer cells have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that specific glycosphingolipids are highly expressed in invasive, irradiation-tolerant lung cancer cells. Particularly, the glycosphingolipid GM2 contributes to the development of an invasive phenotype in these lung cancer cells...
2018: Cell Structure and Function
Mingming Ren, Tao Wang, Lei Huang, Xiaoqiang Ye, Zhen Han
The anti-oxidative property of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) has been proposed previously, which prompted us to investigate the potential protective effect of MSNs on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) against oxidative stress. To this purpose, the cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining method. The intracellular glutathione, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were measured with commercial assay kits...
2018: Cell Structure and Function
Hiroshi Oyama, Koji Takahashi, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Takemoto, Hisashi Haga
It takes several months to form the 3-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain. Therefore, establishing a long-term culture method for neuronal tissues derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is very important for studying human brain development. However, it is difficult to keep primary neurons alive for more than 3 weeks in culture. Moreover, long-term adherent culture to maintain the morphology of telencephalic neuron aggregates induced from human iPS cells is also difficult. Although collagen gel has been widely used to support long-term culture of cells, it is not clear whether human iPS cell-derived neuron aggregates can be cultured for long periods on this substrate...
2018: Cell Structure and Function
Takuya Sumi, Tsuyoshi Imasaki, Mari Aoki, Naoki Sakai, Eriko Nitta, Mikako Shirouzu, Ryo Nitta
Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) regulates neuronal polarity by controlling microtubule dynamics. CRMP2 activity is regulated by semaphorin-induced phosphorylation at the C-terminal tail domain. Unphosphorylated CRMP2 induces effective axonal microtubule formation to give the axonal characteristics to a neurite, whereas phosphorylated CRMP2 leads to the apparently opposite effect, growth cone collapse. We have recently characterized the structural detail of CRMP2-induced axonal microtubule formation (Niwa et al...
2018: Cell Structure and Function
Daiki Takahashi, Hiroaki Suzuki, Yasumasa Kakei, Kimi Yamakoshi, Yasuhiro Minami, Takahide Komori, Michiru Nishita
The submandibular gland (SMG) is one of the major salivary glands that play important roles for variety of physiological functions, such as digestion of foods, prevention of infection, and lubrication of the mouth. Dysfunction of the SMG, often associated with a salivary inflammation, adversely influences a person's quality of life. However, the mechanism underlying inflammation-driven dysfunction of the SMG is largely unknown. Here, we used a mouse model in which the main excretory duct of the SMG is ligated unilaterally to induce inflammation of the gland and examined the expression of Wnt5a, Ror1 and Ror2 genes, encoding Wnt5a ligand and its cognate receptors, which have been implicated in tissue damage or inflammatory responses in variety of tissues...
December 20, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Takeshi Ito, Yoko Hamazaki, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Nagahiro Minato
Bone marrow stromal cells, including endothelial cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, support the maintenance, differentiation, and retention of hematopoietic stem and precursor cells under steady state conditions. At the onset of an emergency, such as severe blood loss or infection, the status of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow changes rapidly to ensure efficient production of cells of specific lineages; however, the function of stromal cells in emergency hematopoiesis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we unexpectedly found that B precursor, mature B, and T cells were released from the bone marrow into the blood circulation in the early phase of hemorrhagic anemia and phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia...
December 12, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Daisuke Ihara, Mamoru Fukuchi, Momoko Katakai, Yo Shinoda, Ritsuko Katoh-Semba, Teiichi Furuichi, Mitsuru Ishikawa, Akiko Tabuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
Deltamethrin (DM), a type II pyrethroid, robustly increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) expression and has a neurotrophic effect in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. In this study, we investigated the effect of DM on neurite morphology in cultured rat cortical neurons. DM significantly increased neurite outgrowth, but this increase was abolished when the BDNF scavenger tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-Fc was added 10 min before the DM treatment. In contrast, the addition of TrkB-Fc 1 h after the treatment did not affect DM-induced neurite outgrowth...
October 28, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
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