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Cell Structure and Function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962383/a-novel-morphological-marker-for-the-analysis-of-molecular-activities-at-the-single-cell-level
#1
Ayako Imanishi, Tomokazu Murata, Masaya Sato, Kazuhiro Hotta, Itaru Imayoshi, Michiyuki Matsuda, Kenta Terai
For more than a century, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining has been the de-facto standard for histological studies. Consequently, the legacy of histological knowledge is largely based on H&E staining. Due to the recent advent of multi-photon excitation microscopy, the observation of live tissue is increasingly being used in many research fields. Adoption of this technique has been further accelerated by the development of genetically encoded biosensors for ions and signaling molecules. However, H&E-based histology has not yet begun to fully utilize in-vivo imaging due to the lack of proper morphological markers...
June 29, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899178/detailed-analysis-of-the-interaction-of-yeast-cog-complex
#2
Midori Ishii, Vladimir V Lupashin, Akihiko Nakano
The Golgi apparatus is a central station for protein trafficking in eukaryotic cells. A widely accepted model of protein transport within the Golgi apparatus is cisternal maturation. Each cisterna has specific resident proteins, which are thought to be maintained by COPI-mediated transport. However, the mechanisms underlying specific sorting of these Golgi-resident proteins remain elusive. To obtain a clue to understand the selective sorting of vesicles between the Golgi cisterenae, we investigated the molecular arrangements of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) subunits in yeast cells...
June 14, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709890/solo-and-keratin-filaments-regulate-epithelial-tubule-morphology
#3
Ryosuke Nishimura, Kagayaki Kato, Sachiko Fujiwara, Kazumasa Ohashi, Kensaku Mizuno
Epithelial tubules, consisting of the epithelial cell sheet with a central lumen, are the basic structure of many organs. Mechanical forces play an important role in epithelial tubulogenesis; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the mechanical forces during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. Solo (also known as ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine-nucleotide exchange factor that is involved in mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and stress fiber formation. Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) filaments, and this interaction plays a crucial role in mechanotransduction...
June 2, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643274/hidden-peptides-encoded-by-putative-noncoding-rnas
#4
Akinobu Matsumoto, Keiichi I Nakayama
Although the definition of a noncoding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that does not encode a protein, recent evidence has revealed that some ncRNAs are indeed translated to give rise to small polypeptides (usually containing fewer than 100 amino acids). Despite their small size, however, these peptides are often biologically relevant in that they are required for a variety of cellular processes. In this review, we summarize the production and functions of peptides that have been recently identified as translation products of putative ncRNAs...
May 18, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553079/live-cell-imaging-with-genetically-encoded-protein-kinase-activity-reporters
#5
Gembu Maryu, Haruko Miura, Youichi Uda, Akira T Komatsubara, Michiyuki Matsuda, Kazuhiro Aoki
Protein kinases play pivotal roles in intracellular signal transduction, and dysregulation of kinases leads to pathological results such as malignant tumors. Kinase activity has hitherto been measured by biochemical methods such as in vitro phosphorylation assay and western blotting. However, these methods are less useful to explore spatial and temporal changes in kinase activity and its cell-to-cell variation. Recent advances in fluorescent proteins and live-cell imaging techniques enable us to visualize kinase activity in living cells with high spatial and temporal resolutions...
April 25, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445053/spiral2-stabilises-endoplasmic-microtubule-minus-ends-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#6
Shu Yao Leong, Moé Yamada, Naoki Yanagisawa, Gohta Goshima
Stabilisation of minus ends of microtubules (MTs) is critical for organising MT networks in land plant cells, in which all MTs are nucleated independent of centrosomes. Recently, Arabidopsis SPIRAL2 (SPR2) protein was shown to localise to plus and minus ends of cortical MTs, and increase stability of both ends. Here, we report molecular and functional characterisation of SPR2 of the basal land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. In protonemal cells of P. patens, where non-cortical, endoplasmic MT network is organised, we observed SPR2 at minus ends, but not plus ends, of endoplasmic MTs and likely also of phragmoplast MTs...
March 28, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398689/a-missense-mutation-in-the-nsf-gene-causes-abnormal-golgi-morphology-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Sayuri Tanabashi, Keiko Shoda, Chieko Saito, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Tomohiro Uemura, Akihiko Nakano
The Golgi apparatus is a key station of glycosylation and membrane traffic. It consists of stacked cisternae in most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms how the Golgi stacks are formed and maintained are still obscure. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana provides a nice system to observe Golgi structures by light microscopy, because the Golgi in A. thaliana is in the form of mini-stacks that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. To obtain a clue to understand the molecular basis of Golgi morphology, we took a forward-genetic approach to isolate A...
March 27, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311430/flagellar-associated-protein-fap85-is-a-microtubule-inner-protein-that-stabilizes-microtubules
#8
Junya Kirima, Kazuhiro Oiwa
Genomics and proteomics studies in Chlamydomonas have revealed that an axoneme is composed of 200-600 types of proteins, including uncharacterized proteins collectively named flagellar-associated proteins (FAPs). Nine FAPs contain the EF-hand motif; however, they have not yet been well characterized. To find components responsible for Chlamydomonas-specific waveform changes coupled with intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, we focused on FAP85, an EF-hand motif-containing FAP specific to Chlamydomonas and its relatives...
February 16, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343654/intestinal-epithelial-cell-specific-deletion-of-%C3%AE-mannosidase-ii-ameliorates-experimental-colitis
#9
Koichiro Suzuki, Takahiro Yamada, Keiko Yamazaki, Masato Hirota, Narumi Ishihara, Mizuki Sakamoto, Daisuke Takahashi, Hideki Iijima, Koji Hase
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a refractory disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is believed to develop in genetically susceptible individuals. Glycosylation, a type of post-translational modification, is involved in the development of a wide range of diseases, including IBD, by modulating the function of various glycoproteins. To identify novel genes contributing to the development of IBD, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glycosylation-related genes in IBD patients and identified MAN2A1, encoding alpha-mannosidase II (α-MII), as a candidate gene...
January 18, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952340/erratum-takeshi-ito-yoko-hamazaki-akifumi-takaori-kondo-nagahiro-minato-2017-bone-marrow-endothelial-cells-induce-immature-and-mature-b-cell-egress-in-response-to-erythropoietin
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780042/long-term-culture-of-human-ips-cell-derived-telencephalic-neuron-aggregates-on-collagen-gel
#11
Hiroshi Oyama, Koji Takahashi, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Takemoto, Hisashi Haga
It takes several months to form the 3-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain. Therefore, establishing a long-term culture method for neuronal tissues derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is very important for studying human brain development. However, it is difficult to keep primary neurons alive for more than 3 weeks in culture. Moreover, long-term adherent culture to maintain the morphology of telencephalic neuron aggregates induced from human iPS cells is also difficult. Although collagen gel has been widely used to support long-term culture of cells, it is not clear whether human iPS cell-derived neuron aggregates can be cultured for long periods on this substrate...
2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479005/structural-insights-into-the-altering-function-of-crmp2-by-phosphorylation
#12
Takuya Sumi, Tsuyoshi Imasaki, Mari Aoki, Naoki Sakai, Eriko Nitta, Mikako Shirouzu, Ryo Nitta
Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) regulates neuronal polarity by controlling microtubule dynamics. CRMP2 activity is regulated by semaphorin-induced phosphorylation at the C-terminal tail domain. Unphosphorylated CRMP2 induces effective axonal microtubule formation to give the axonal characteristics to a neurite, whereas phosphorylated CRMP2 leads to the apparently opposite effect, growth cone collapse. We have recently characterized the structural detail of CRMP2-induced axonal microtubule formation (Niwa et al...
2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070775/expression-of-ror2-associated-with-fibrosis-of-the-submandibular-gland
#13
Daiki Takahashi, Hiroaki Suzuki, Yasumasa Kakei, Kimi Yamakoshi, Yasuhiro Minami, Takahide Komori, Michiru Nishita
The submandibular gland (SMG) is one of the major salivary glands that play important roles for variety of physiological functions, such as digestion of foods, prevention of infection, and lubrication of the mouth. Dysfunction of the SMG, often associated with a salivary inflammation, adversely influences a person's quality of life. However, the mechanism underlying inflammation-driven dysfunction of the SMG is largely unknown. Here, we used a mouse model in which the main excretory duct of the SMG is ligated unilaterally to induce inflammation of the gland and examined the expression of Wnt5a, Ror1 and Ror2 genes, encoding Wnt5a ligand and its cognate receptors, which have been implicated in tissue damage or inflammatory responses in variety of tissues...
December 20, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070774/bone-marrow-endothelial-cells-induce-immature-and-mature-b-cell-egress-in-response-to-erythropoietin
#14
Takeshi Ito, Yoko Hamazaki, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Nagahiro Minato
Bone marrow stromal cells, including endothelial cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, support the maintenance, differentiation, and retention of hematopoietic stem and precursor cells under steady state conditions. At the onset of an emergency, such as severe blood loss or infection, the status of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow changes rapidly to ensure efficient production of cells of specific lineages; however, the function of stromal cells in emergency hematopoiesis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we unexpectedly found that B precursor, mature B, and T cells were released from the bone marrow into the blood circulation in the early phase of hemorrhagic anemia and phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia...
October 25, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943602/deltamethrin-increases-neurite-outgrowth-in-cortical-neurons-through-endogenous-bdnf-trkb-pathways
#15
Daisuke Ihara, Mamoru Fukuchi, Momoko Katakai, Yo Shinoda, Ritsuko Katoh-Semba, Teiichi Furuichi, Mitsuru Ishikawa, Akiko Tabuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
Deltamethrin (DM), a type II pyrethroid, robustly increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) expression and has a neurotrophic effect in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. In this study, we investigated the effect of DM on neurite morphology in cultured rat cortical neurons. DM significantly increased neurite outgrowth, but this increase was abolished when the BDNF scavenger tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-Fc was added 10 min before the DM treatment. In contrast, the addition of TrkB-Fc 1 h after the treatment did not affect DM-induced neurite outgrowth...
September 23, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701658/drosophila-dock-family-protein-zizimin-involves-in-pigment-cell-differentiation-in-pupal-retinae
#16
Fumito Ozasa, Kazushige Morishita, Ngoc Anh Suong Dang, Seiji Miyata, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins are known as one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), that contribute to cellular signaling processes by activating small G proteins. Although mammalian Zizimin is known to be a GEF for Cdc42 of Rho family small GTPase, its role in vivo is not well understood. Here we studied in vivo function of Drosophila Zizimin (Ziz). Knockdown of Ziz in eye imaginal discs induced the rough eye phenotype accompanied with fusion of ommatidia, loss of bristles and loss of pigments...
July 13, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701634/mitochondria-regulate-the-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth
#17
Hiroki Kato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Yuta Hirofuji, Xu Han, Hiroshi Sato, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are isolated from the dental pulp tissue of primary teeth and can differentiate into neuronal cells. Although SHED are a desirable type of stem cells for transplantation therapy and for the study of neurological diseases, a large part of the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial activity is involved in the differentiation of stem cells. In the present work, we investigated the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED by focusing on mitochondrial activity...
July 11, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552883/sel1l-dependent-substrates-require-derlin2-3-and-herp1-2-for-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-degradation
#18
Takehiro Sugimoto, Satoshi Ninagawa, Shimpei Yamano, Tokiro Ishikawa, Tetsuya Okada, Shunichi Takeda, Kazutoshi Mori
Accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). The ATF6 pathway is one of the three major pathways in vertebrates. Although ATF6, a transmembrane-type glycoprotein in the ER, functions as a UPR sensor/transducer, it is an unstable protein with a half-life of approximately 2 h and is constitutively subjected to the ER-associated degradation system with the location of the misfolded part in the ER lumen (ERAD-L). ERAD-L substrates are delivered to the cytosol through the retrotranslocon, which likely contains HRD1 (E3), gp78 (E3), SEL1L (a partner of HRD1), Derlin1/2/3 and Herp1/2...
July 4, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413178/synthesized-a%C3%AE-42-caused-intracellular-oxidative-damage-leading-to-cell-death-via-lysosome-rupture
#19
Yuki Oku, Kazuma Murakami, Kazuhiro Irie, Jun Hoseki, Yasuyoshi Sakai
Neuronal cellular accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intracellular accumulation of Aβ42, a toxic form of Aβ, was observed as an early event in AD patients. However, its contribution and the cellular mechanism of cell death remained unclear. We herein revealed the mechanism by which Aβ42 incorporated into cells leads to cell death by using chemically synthesized Aβ42 variants. The Aβ42 variant Aβ42 (E22P) which has an increased tendency to oligomerize, accumulated in lysosomes at an earlier stage than wild-type Aβ42, leading to higher ROS production and lysosomal membrane oxidation, and resulting in cell death...
May 23, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321016/4%C3%AE-8c-inhibits-insulin-secretion-independent-of-ire1%C3%AE-rnase-activity
#20
Hitomi Sato, Yoko Shiba, Yuichi Tsuchiya, Michiko Saito, Kenji Kohno
IRE1α plays an important role in the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. 4μ8C, a well-known inhibitor of IRE1α RNase activity, is commonly used to analyze IRE1α function during ER stress in cultured mammalian cells. However, the off-target effects of 4μ8C remain elusive. Pancreatic β-cells synthesize a large amount of insulin in response to high glucose stimulation, and IRE1α plays an important role in insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells...
May 3, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
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