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Cell Structure and Function

Shu Yao Leong, Moé Yamada, Naoki Yanagisawa, Gohta Goshima
Stabilisation of minus ends of microtubules (MTs) is critical for organising MT networks in land plant cells, in which all MTs are nucleated independent of centrosomes. Recently, Arabidopsis SPIRAL2 (SPR2) protein was shown to localise to plus and minus ends of cortical MTs, and increase stability of both ends. Here, we report molecular and functional characterisation of SPR2 of the basal land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. In protonemal cells of P. patens, where non-cortical, endoplasmic MT network is organised, we observed SPR2 at minus ends, but not plus ends, of endoplasmic MTs and likely also of phragmoplast MTs...
February 15, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Sayuri Tanabashi, Keiko Shoda, Chieko Saito, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Tomohiro Uemura, Akihiko Nakano
The Golgi apparatus is a key station of glycosylation and membrane traffic. It consists of stacked cisternae in most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms how the Golgi stacks are formed and maintained are still obscure. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana provides a nice system to observe Golgi structures by light microscopy, because the Golgi in A. thaliana is in the form of mini-stacks that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. To obtain a clue to understand the molecular basis of Golgi morphology, we took a forward-genetic approach to isolate A...
February 2, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Koichiro Suzuki, Takahiro Yamada, Keiko Yamazaki, Masato Hirota, Narumi Ishihara, Mizuki Sakamoto, Daisuke Takahashi, Hideki Iijima, Koji Hase
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a refractory disease of the gastrointestinal tract that is believed to develop in genetically susceptible individuals. Glycosylation, a type of post-translational modification, is involved in the development of a wide range of diseases, including IBD, by modulating the function of various glycoproteins. To identify novel genes contributing to the development of IBD, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glycosylation-related genes in IBD patients and identified MAN2A1, encoding alpha-mannosidase II (α-MII), as a candidate gene...
January 18, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Junya Kirima, Kazuhiro Oiwa
Genomics and proteomics studies in Chlamydomonas have revealed that an axoneme is composed of 200-600 types of proteins, including uncharacterized proteins collectively named flagellar-associated proteins (FAPs). Nine FAPs contain the EF-hand motif; however, they have not yet been well characterized. To find components responsible for Chlamydomonas-specific waveform changes coupled with intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, we focused on FAP85, an EF-hand motif-containing FAP specific to Chlamydomonas and its relatives...
December 28, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Takuya Sumi, Tsuyoshi Imasaki, Mari Aoki, Naoki Sakai, Eriko Nitta, Mikako Shirouzu, Ryo Nitta
Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) regulates neuronal polarity by controlling microtubule dynamics. CRMP2 activity is regulated by semaphorin-induced phosphorylation at the C-terminal tail domain. Unphosphorylated CRMP2 induces effective axonal microtubule formation to give the axonal characteristics to a neurite, whereas phosphorylated CRMP2 leads to the apparently opposite effect, growth cone collapse. We have recently characterized the structural detail of CRMP2-induced axonal microtubule formation (Niwa et al...
2018: Cell Structure and Function
Daiki Takahashi, Hiroaki Suzuki, Yasumasa Kakei, Kimi Yamakoshi, Yasuhiro Minami, Takahide Komori, Michiru Nishita
The submandibular gland (SMG) is one of the major salivary glands that play important roles for variety of physiological functions, such as digestion of foods, prevention of infection, and lubrication of the mouth. Dysfunction of the SMG, often associated with a salivary inflammation, adversely influences a person's quality of life. However, the mechanism underlying inflammation-driven dysfunction of the SMG is largely unknown. Here, we used a mouse model in which the main excretory duct of the SMG is ligated unilaterally to induce inflammation of the gland and examined the expression of Wnt5a, Ror1 and Ror2 genes, encoding Wnt5a ligand and its cognate receptors, which have been implicated in tissue damage or inflammatory responses in variety of tissues...
October 25, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Takeshi Ito, Yoko Hamazaki, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Nagahiro Minato
Bone marrow stromal cells, including endothelial cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, support the maintenance, differentiation, and retention of hematopoietic stem and precursor cells under steady state conditions. At the onset of an emergency, such as severe blood loss or infection, the status of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow changes rapidly to ensure efficient production of cells of specific lineages; however, the function of stromal cells in emergency hematopoiesis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we unexpectedly found that B precursor, mature B, and T cells were released from the bone marrow into the blood circulation in the early phase of hemorrhagic anemia and phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia...
October 25, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Daisuke Ihara, Mamoru Fukuchi, Momoko Katakai, Yo Shinoda, Ritsuko Katoh-Semba, Teiichi Furuichi, Mitsuru Ishikawa, Akiko Tabuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
Deltamethrin (DM), a type II pyrethroid, robustly increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) expression and has a neurotrophic effect in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. In this study, we investigated the effect of DM on neurite morphology in cultured rat cortical neurons. DM significantly increased neurite outgrowth, but this increase was abolished when the BDNF scavenger tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-Fc was added 10 min before the DM treatment. In contrast, the addition of TrkB-Fc 1 h after the treatment did not affect DM-induced neurite outgrowth...
September 23, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Fumito Ozasa, Kazushige Morishita, Ngoc Anh Suong Dang, Seiji Miyata, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins are known as one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), that contribute to cellular signaling processes by activating small G proteins. Although mammalian Zizimin is known to be a GEF for Cdc42 of Rho family small GTPase, its role in vivo is not well understood. Here we studied in vivo function of Drosophila Zizimin (Ziz). Knockdown of Ziz in eye imaginal discs induced the rough eye phenotype accompanied with fusion of ommatidia, loss of bristles and loss of pigments...
July 13, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Hiroki Kato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Yuta Hirofuji, Xu Han, Hiroshi Sato, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are isolated from the dental pulp tissue of primary teeth and can differentiate into neuronal cells. Although SHED are a desirable type of stem cells for transplantation therapy and for the study of neurological diseases, a large part of the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial activity is involved in the differentiation of stem cells. In the present work, we investigated the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED by focusing on mitochondrial activity...
July 11, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Takehiro Sugimoto, Satoshi Ninagawa, Shimpei Yamano, Tokiro Ishikawa, Tetsuya Okada, Shunichi Takeda, Kazutoshi Mori
Accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). The ATF6 pathway is one of the three major pathways in vertebrates. Although ATF6, a transmembrane-type glycoprotein in the ER, functions as a UPR sensor/transducer, it is an unstable protein with a half-life of approximately 2 h and is constitutively subjected to the ER-associated degradation system with the location of the misfolded part in the ER lumen (ERAD-L). ERAD-L substrates are delivered to the cytosol through the retrotranslocon, which likely contains HRD1 (E3), gp78 (E3), SEL1L (a partner of HRD1), Derlin1/2/3 and Herp1/2...
July 4, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Hitomi Sato, Yoko Shiba, Yuichi Tsuchiya, Michiko Saito, Kenji Kohno
IRE1α plays an important role in the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. 4μ8C, a well-known inhibitor of IRE1α RNase activity, is commonly used to analyze IRE1α function during ER stress in cultured mammalian cells. However, the off-target effects of 4μ8C remain elusive. Pancreatic β-cells synthesize a large amount of insulin in response to high glucose stimulation, and IRE1α plays an important role in insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells...
May 3, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Junya Hasegawa, Bethany S Strunk, Lois S Weisman
In most eukaryotes, phosphoinositides (PIs) have crucial roles in multiple cellular functions. Although the cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) are extremely low relative to some other PIs, emerging evidence demonstrates that both lipids are crucial for the endocytic pathway, intracellular signaling, and adaptation to stress. Mutations that causes defects in the biosynthesis of PI5P and PI(3,5)P2 are linked to human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders...
May 3, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Yuki Oku, Kazuma Murakami, Kazuhiro Irie, Jun Hoseki, Yasuyoshi Sakai
Neuronal cellular accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Intracellular accumulation of Aβ42, a toxic form of Aβ, was observed as an early event in AD patients. However, its contribution and the cellular mechanism of cell death remained unclear. We herein revealed the mechanism by which Aβ42 incorporated into cells leads to cell death by using chemically synthesized Aβ42 variants. The Aβ42 variant Aβ42 (E22P) which has an increased tendency to oligomerize, accumulated in lysosomes at an earlier stage than wild-type Aβ42, leading to higher ROS production and lysosomal membrane oxidation, and resulting in cell death...
April 12, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Mai Taniguchi, Hiderou Yoshida
The capacity of each organelle in eukaryotic cells is tightly regulated in accordance with cellular demands by specific regulatory systems, which are generically termed organelle autoregulation. The Golgi stress response is one of the systems of organelle autoregulation and it augments the capacity of Golgi function if this becomes insufficient (Golgi stress). Recently, several pathways of the mammalian Golgi stress response have been identified, specifically the TFE3, HSP47, and CREB3 pathways. This review summarizes the essential parts of the Golgi stress response from the perspective of the organelle autoregulation...
April 1, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Mika Horiguchi, Mari Fujioka, Takeshi Kondo, Yoichiro Fujioka, Xinxin Li, Kosui Horiuchi, Aya O Satoh, Prabha Nepal, Shinya Nishide, Asuka Nanbo, Takanori Teshima, Yusuke Ohba
Although the co-development of companion diagnostics with molecular targeted drugs is desirable, truly efficient diagnostics are limited to diseases in which chromosomal translocations or overt mutations are clearly correlated with drug efficacy. Moreover, even for such diseases, few methods are available to predict whether drug administration is effective for each individual patient whose disease is expected to respond to the drug(s). We have previously developed a biosensor based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer to measure the activity of the tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL and its response to drug treatment in patient-derived chronic myeloid leukemia cells...
February 2, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Chunjie Li, Ayako Imanishi, Naoki Komatsu, Kenta Terai, Mutsuki Amano, Kozo Kaibuchi, Michiyuki Matsuda
Genetically-encoded biosensors based on Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are versatile tools for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of signaling molecules within not only the cells but also tissues. Perhaps the hardest task in the development of a FRET biosensor for protein kinases is to identify the kinase-specific substrate peptide to be used in the FRET biosensor. To solve this problem, we took advantage of kinase-interacting substrate screening (KISS) technology, which deduces a consensus substrate sequence for the protein kinase of interest...
January 11, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
Akira Nagasaki, Saku T Kijima, Tenji Yumoto, Miku Imaizumi, Ayana Yamagishi, Hyonchol Kim, Chikashi Nakamura, Taro Q P Uyeda
Actin, a major component of microfilaments, is involved in various eukaryotic cellular functions. Over the past two decades, actin fused with fluorescent protein has been used as a probe to detect the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in living eukaryotic cells. It is generally assumed that the expression of fusion protein of fluorescent protein does not disturb the distribution of endogenous actin throughout the cell, and that the distribution of the fusion protein reflects that of endogenous actin...
2017: Cell Structure and Function
Ji Xuan, Shu-Lin Guo, Ang Huang, Hua-Bing Xu, Mei Shao, Ya Yang, Wei Wen
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is the response of liver diseases that puzzles patients. MiRNAs were involved in the regulating processes of liver fibrosis. This study aims to investigate the effects of ARRB1 mediated by miR-29a and miR-652 on liver fibrosis and its possible mechanism. METHODS: Liver fibrosis of mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Liver function was observed by the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)...
2017: Cell Structure and Function
Ruibin Zhu, Mari Iwabuchi, Keita Ohsumi
Histone chaperones are a group of histone-binding proteins that facilitate the assembly of nucleosomes, the fundamental structural units of chromatin in eukaryotes. In nucleosome assembly, deposition of a histone H3-H4 tetramer onto DNA is the first and critical step, which is mediated by the histone chaperones HIRA and CAF-1. HIRA and CAF-1 are reportedly involved in DNA replication independent (RI) and replication coupled nucleosome assembly, respectively. However, the mechanisms by which they mediate histone deposition remain unclear...
2017: Cell Structure and Function
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