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Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213179/on-the-role-of-body-size-brain-size-and-eye-size-in-visual-acuity
#1
Alberto Corral-López, Maddi Garate-Olaizola, Severine D Buechel, Niclas Kolm, Alexander Kotrschal
Abstract: The visual system is highly variable across species, and such variability is a key factor influencing animal behavior. Variation in the visual system, for instance, can influence the outcome of learning tasks when visual stimuli are used. We illustrate this issue in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) artificially selected for large and small relative brain size with pronounced behavioral differences in learning experiments and mate choice tests. We performed a study of the visual system by quantifying eye size and optomotor response of large-brained and small-brained guppies...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200603/domestic-violence-shapes-colombian-women-s-partner-choices
#2
Martha Lucia Borras-Guevara, Carlota Batres, David I Perrett
Abstract: Potential protection from violence has been suggested as an explanation for women's preferences for more masculine partners. Previous studies, however, have not considered that violence may be multi-modal, and hence come from different sources. Therefore, we tested the effect of different fears of violence (i.e. vulnerability to public crime, likelihood of within-partnership violence) on masculinity preferences of women from Colombia, a country known for its high rates of violence...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200602/does-similarity-in-call-structure-or-foraging-ecology-explain-interspecific-information-transfer-in-wild-myotis-bats
#3
Theresa Hügel, Vincent van Meir, Amanda Muñoz-Meneses, B-Markus Clarin, Björn M Siemers, Holger R Goerlitz
Abstract: Animals can gain important information by attending to the signals and cues of other animals in their environment, with acoustic information playing a major role in many taxa. Echolocation call sequences of bats contain information about the identity and behaviour of the sender which is perceptible to close-by receivers. Increasing evidence supports the communicative function of echolocation within species, yet data about its role for interspecific information transfer is scarce...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170593/the-use-of-the-nest-for-parental-roosting-and-thermal-consequences-of-the-nest-for-nestlings-and-parents
#4
Jan-Åke Nilsson, Andreas Nord
Abstract: At temperate latitudes, altricial birds and their nestlings need to handle night temperatures well below thermoneutrality during the breeding season. Thus, energy costs of thermoregulation might constrain nestling growth, and low nocturnal temperatures might require resources that parents could otherwise have invested into nestlings during the day. To manipulate parental work rate, we performed brood size manipulations in breeding marsh tits (Poecile palustris). Nest box temperatures were always well above ambient temperature and increased with increasing brood size...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167596/vocal-foragers-and-silent-crowds-context-dependent-vocal-variation-in-northeast-atlantic-long-finned-pilot-whales
#5
Fleur Visser, Annebelle C M Kok, Machiel G Oudejans, Lindesay A S Scott-Hayward, Stacy L DeRuiter, Ana C Alves, Ricardo N Antunes, Saana Isojunno, Graham J Pierce, Hans Slabbekoorn, Jef Huisman, Patrick J O Miller
Abstract: Vocalisations form a key component of the social interactions and foraging behaviour of toothed whales. We investigated changes in calling and echolocation behaviour of long-finned pilot whales between foraging and non-foraging periods, by combining acoustic recordings and diving depth data from tagged individuals with concurrent surface observations on social behaviour of their group. The pilot whales showed marked vocal variation, specific to foraging and social context. During periods of foraging, pilot whales showed more vocal activity than during non-foraging periods (rest, travel)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142337/consequences-of-grouped-data-for-testing-for-departure-from-circular-uniformity
#6
Rosalind K Humphreys, Graeme D Ruxton
Limits to the precision of circular data often cause grouping of data points into discrete categories, but the effects of grouping on tests for circular uniformity have been little explored. The Rayleigh test is often applied to grouped circular data, despite it being designed for continuous data and the statistical literature recommending a suite of alternative tests specifically designed for grouped data. Here, we investigated the performance of the Rayleigh test relative to four alternatives for testing the null hypothesis of uniformity in grouped circular data...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104348/plasticity-of-signaling-and-mate-choice-in-a-trilling-species-of-the-mecopoda-complex-orthoptera-tettigoniidae
#7
I Krobath, H Römer, M Hartbauer
Abstract: Males of a trilling species in the Mecopoda complex produce conspicuous calling songs that consist of two motifs: an amplitude-modulated motif with alternating loud and soft segments (AM-motif) and a continuous, high-intensity trill. The function of these song motifs for female attraction and competition between males was investigated. We tested the hypothesis that males modify their signaling behavior depending on the social environment (presence/absence of females or rival males) when they compete for mates...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081573/turn-taking-in-cooperative-offspring-care-by-product-of-individual-provisioning-behavior-or-active-response-rule
#8
James L Savage, Lucy E Browning, Andrea Manica, Andrew F Russell, Rufus A Johnstone
ABSTRACT: For individuals collaborating to rear offspring, effective organization of resource delivery is difficult because each carer benefits when the others provide a greater share of the total investment required. When investment is provided in discrete events, one possible solution is to adopt a turn-taking strategy whereby each individual reduces its contribution rate after investing, only increasing its rate again once another carer contributes. To test whether turn-taking occurs in a natural cooperative care system, here we use a continuous time Markov model to deduce the provisioning behavior of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a cooperatively breeding Australian bird with variable number of carers...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989227/smell-or-vision-the-use-of-different-sensory-modalities-in-predator-discrimination
#9
Stefan Fischer, Evelyne Oberhummer, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Nina Gerber, Barbara Taborsky
ABSTRACT: Theory predicts that animals should adjust their escape responses to the perceived predation risk. The information animals obtain about potential predation risk may differ qualitatively depending on the sensory modality by which a cue is perceived. For instance, olfactory cues may reveal better information about the presence or absence of threats, whereas visual information can reliably transmit the position and potential attack distance of a predator. While this suggests a differential use of information perceived through the two sensory channels, the relative importance of visual vs...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959087/multinomial-analysis-of-behavior-statistical-methods
#10
Jeremy Koster, Richard McElreath
Behavioral ecologists frequently use observational methods, such as instantaneous scan sampling, to record the behavior of animals at discrete moments in time. We develop and apply multilevel, multinomial logistic regression models for analyzing such data. These statistical methods correspond to the multinomial character of the response variable while also accounting for the repeated observations of individuals that characterize behavioral datasets. Correlated random effects potentially reveal individual-level trade-offs across behaviors, allowing for models that reveal the extent to which individuals who regularly engage in one behavior also exhibit relatively more or less of another behavior...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860673/sparrowhawk-movement-calling-and-presence-of-dead-conspecifics-differentially-impact-blue-tit-cyanistes-caeruleus-vocal-and-behavioral-mobbing-responses
#11
Nora V Carlson, Helen M Pargeter, Christopher N Templeton
ABSTRACT: Many animals alter their anti-predator behavior in accordance to the threat level of a predator. While much research has examined variation in mobbing responses to different predators, few studies have investigated how anti-predator behavior is affected by changes in a predator's own state or behavior. We examined the effect of sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) behavior on the mobbing response of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) using robotic taxidermy sparrowhawks. We manipulated whether the simulated predator moved its head, produced vocalizations, or held a taxidermy blue tit in its talons...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794579/temporal-and-geographic-patterns-of-kinship-structure-in-common-dolphins-delphinus-delphis-suggest-site-fidelity-and-female-biased-long-distance-dispersal
#12
Laura Ball, Kypher Shreves, Małgorzata Pilot, André E Moura
ABSTRACT: Social structure plays a crucial role in determining a species' dispersal patterns and genetic structure. Cetaceans show a diversity of social and mating systems, but their effects on dispersal and genetic structure are not well known, in part because of technical difficulties in obtaining robust observational data. Here, we combine genetic profiling and GIS analysis to identify patterns of kin distribution over time and space, to infer mating structure and dispersal patterns in short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757679/acoustic-ranging-in-poison-frogs-it-is-not-about-signal-amplitude-alone
#13
Max Ringler, Georgine Szipl, Walter Hödl, Leander Khil, Barbara Kofler, Michael Lonauer, Christina Provin, Eva Ringler
ABSTRACT: Acoustic ranging allows identifying the distance of a sound source and mediates inter-individual spacing and aggression in territorial species. Birds and mammals are known to use more complex cues than only sound pressure level (SPL), which can be influenced by the signaller and signal transmission in non-predictable ways and thus is not reliable by itself. For frogs, only SPL is currently known to mediate inter-individual distances, but we hypothesise that the strong territoriality of Dendrobatids could make the use of complex cues for ranging highly beneficial for this family...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747810/differences-in-social-preference-between-the-sexes-during-ontogeny-drive-segregation-in-a-precocial-species
#14
Mark A Whiteside, Jayden O van Horik, Ellis J G Langley, Christine E Beardsworth, Philippa R Laker, Joah R Madden
ABSTRACT: Hypotheses for why animals sexually segregate typically rely on adult traits, such as differences in sexual roles causing differential habitat preferences, or size dimorphism inducing differences in diet or behaviour. However, segregation can occur in juveniles before such roles or size dimorphism is well established. In young humans, leading hypotheses suggest that (1) sexes differ in their activity and the synchronisation of behaviour causes segregation and (2) sexes separate in order to learn and maximise future reproductive roles...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736477/long-term-exposure-to-elevated-carbon-dioxide-does-not-alter-activity-levels-of-a-coral-reef-fish-in-response-to-predator-chemical-cues
#15
Josefin Sundin, Mirjam Amcoff, Fernando Mateos-González, Graham D Raby, Fredrik Jutfelt, Timothy D Clark
ABSTRACT: Levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) projected to occur in the world's oceans in the near future have been reported to increase swimming activity and impair predator recognition in coral reef fishes. These behavioral alterations would be expected to have dramatic effects on survival and community dynamics in marine ecosystems in the future. To investigate the universality and replicability of these observations, we used juvenile spiny chromis damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to examine the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on routine activity and the behavioral response to the chemical cues of a predator (Cephalopholis urodeta)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725102/the-influence-of-social-relationship-on-food-tolerance-in-wolves-and-dogs
#16
Rachel Dale, Friederike Range, Laura Stott, Kurt Kotrschal, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
ABSTRACT: Food sharing is relatively widespread across the animal kingdom, but research into the socio-ecological factors affecting this activity has predominantly focused on primates. These studies do suggest though that food tolerance is linked to the social relationship with potential partners. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the social factors which influence food tolerance in two canids: wolves and dogs. We presented wolves and dogs with two paradigms: dyadic tolerance tests and group carcass feedings...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706342/punish-the-thief-coevolution-of-defense-and-cautiousness-stabilizes-ownership
#17
Martin Hinsch, Jan Komdeur
ABSTRACT: Ownership of non-controllable resources usually has to be maintained by costly defense against competitors. Whether defense and thus ownership pays in terms of fitness depends on its effectiveness in preventing theft. We show that if the owners' willingness to defend varies in the population and information about it is available to potential thieves then the ability to react to this information and thus avoid being attacked by the owner is selected for. This can lead to a positive evolutionary feedback between cautiousness in intruders and aggressiveness in owners...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706341/conflict-over-non-partitioned-resources-may-explain-between-species-differences-in-declines-the-anthropogenic-competition-hypothesis
#18
Andrew D Higginson
ABSTRACT: Human alterations of habitats are causing declines in many species worldwide. The extent of declines varies greatly among closely related species, for often unknown reasons that must be understood in order to maintain biodiversity. An overlooked factor is that seasonally breeding species compete for nest sites, which are increasingly limited in many anthropogenically degraded environments. I used evolutionary game theory to predict the outcome of competition between individuals that differ in their competitive ability and timing of nesting...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596637/wild-chimpanzees-use-of-single-and-combined-vocal-and-gestural-signals
#19
C Hobaiter, R W Byrne, K Zuberbühler
ABSTRACT: We describe the individual and combined use of vocalizations and gestures in wild chimpanzees. The rate of gesturing peaked in infancy and, with the exception of the alpha male, decreased again in older age groups, while vocal signals showed the opposite pattern. Although gesture-vocal combinations were relatively rare, they were consistently found in all age groups, especially during affiliative and agonistic interactions. Within behavioural contexts rank (excluding alpha-rank) had no effect on the rate of male chimpanzees' use of vocal or gestural signals and only a small effect on their use of combination signals...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450759/sex-in-murky-waters-algal-induced-turbidity-increases-sexual-selection-in-pipefish
#20
Josefin Sundin, Tonje Aronsen, Gunilla Rosenqvist, Anders Berglund
ABSTRACT: Algal-induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects of reproduction and sexual selection. However, while turbidity has been shown to negatively affect reproduction and sexually selected traits in some species, it may instead enhance reproductive success in others, implying that the impact of eutrophication is far more complex than originally believed. In this study, we aimed to provide more insight into these inconsistent findings. We used molecular tools to investigate the impact of algal turbidity on reproductive success and sexual selection on males in controlled laboratory experiments, allowing mate choice, mating competition, and mate encounter rates to affect reproduction...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
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