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Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

C Hobaiter, R W Byrne, K Zuberbühler
ABSTRACT: We describe the individual and combined use of vocalizations and gestures in wild chimpanzees. The rate of gesturing peaked in infancy and, with the exception of the alpha male, decreased again in older age groups, while vocal signals showed the opposite pattern. Although gesture-vocal combinations were relatively rare, they were consistently found in all age groups, especially during affiliative and agonistic interactions. Within behavioural contexts rank (excluding alpha-rank) had no effect on the rate of male chimpanzees' use of vocal or gestural signals and only a small effect on their use of combination signals...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Josefin Sundin, Tonje Aronsen, Gunilla Rosenqvist, Anders Berglund
ABSTRACT: Algal-induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects of reproduction and sexual selection. However, while turbidity has been shown to negatively affect reproduction and sexually selected traits in some species, it may instead enhance reproductive success in others, implying that the impact of eutrophication is far more complex than originally believed. In this study, we aimed to provide more insight into these inconsistent findings. We used molecular tools to investigate the impact of algal turbidity on reproductive success and sexual selection on males in controlled laboratory experiments, allowing mate choice, mating competition, and mate encounter rates to affect reproduction...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Karol Zub, Dorota Czeszczewik, Ireneusz Ruczyński, Anna Kapusta, Wiesław Walankiewicz
ABSTRACT: Nest predation is one of the most important mortality factors of birds. Field observations showed that tits (Paridae) produce hissing calls and, usually, have lower breeding losses than nesting Ficedula flycatchers, which do not make such calls. We hypothesise that differences in fledgling success can be directly attributed to the vocal reaction of tits. We tested experimentally whether the hissing calls can affect the behaviour of a potential predator, analysing the response of the Yellow-necked Mouse Apodemus flavicollis to playback of calls of three Parid species...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Angelina V Ruiz-Lambides, Brigitte M Weiß, Lars Kulik, Colleen Stephens, Roger Mundry, Anja Widdig
ABSTRACT: Extra-group paternity (EGP) has been described in various mammalian species; however, little is known about which factors contribute to the variation in EGP, as the majority of studies were restricted in time and the number of groups considered. Using longitudinal demographic and genetic data, we aim to investigate which factors predict rates of EGP in the free-ranging rhesus macaque population of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico (USA). Of the 1649 infants considered which were born into six social groups over 9 years, we identified an average of 16% of infants resulting from EGPs...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Yasuyuki Choh, Maurice W Sabelis, Arne Janssen
ABSTRACT: When predators can use several prey species as food sources, they are known to select prey according to foraging efficiency and food quality. However, interactions between the prey species may also affect prey choice, and this has received limited attention. The effect of one such interaction, intraguild predation between prey, on patch selection by predators was studied here. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus preys on young larvae of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and on all stages of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
A Utku Urhan, Ellen Emilsson, Anders Brodin
ABSTRACT: Many species in the family Paridae, such as marsh tits Poecile palustris, are large-scale scatter hoarders of food that make cryptic caches and disperse these in large year-round territories. The perhaps most well-known species in the family, the great tit Parus major, does not store food itself but is skilled in stealing caches from the other species. We have previously demonstrated that great tits are able to memorise positions of caches they have observed marsh tits make and later return and steal the food...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Anja Widdig, Laura Muniz, Mirjam Minkner, Yvonne Barth, Stefanie Bley, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Olaf Junge, Roger Mundry, Lars Kulik
ABSTRACT: When close relatives mate, offspring are expected to suffer fitness consequences due to inbreeding depression. Inbreeding has previously been quantified in two ways: using a sufficiently large panel of markers or deep and complete pedigrees over several generations. However, the application of both approaches is still limited by the challenge of compiling such data for species with long generation times, such as primates. Here, we assess inbreeding in rhesus macaques living on Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico), a population genetically isolated since 1938, but descendant of a large set of presumably unrelated founders...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Alison L Greggor, Alex Thornton, Nicola S Clayton
Social learning can influence how animals respond to anthropogenic changes in the environment, determining whether animals survive novel threats and exploit novel resources or produce maladaptive behaviour and contribute to human-wildlife conflict. Predicting where social learning will occur and manipulating its use are, therefore, important in conservation, but doing so is not straightforward. Learning is an inherently biased process that has been shaped by natural selection to prioritize important information and facilitate its efficient uptake...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Nicholas DiRienzo, Petri T Niemelä, Ann V Hedrick, Raine Kortet
Among-individual differences in behavior are now a widely studied research-focus within the field of behavioral ecology. Furthermore, elements of an animal's internal state, such as energy or fat reserves, and infection status can have large impacts on behaviors. Despite this, we still know little regarding how state may affect behavioral variation. Recent exposure to pathogens may have a particularly large impact on behavioral expression given that it likely activates costly immune pathways, potentially forcing organism to make behavioral tradeoffs...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Ysabel Milton Giraldo, Adina Rusakov, Alexandria Diloreto, Adrianna Kordek, James F A Traniello
Social insect workers modify task performance according to age-related schedules of behavioral development, and/or changing colony labor requirements based on flexible responses that may be independent of age. Using known-age minor workers of the ant Pheidole dentata throughout 68% of their 140-day laboratory lifespan, we asked whether workers found inside or outside the nest differed in task performance and if behaviors were correlated with and/or causally linked to changes in brain serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA)...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Yuko Ulrich, Dominic Burns, Romain Libbrecht, Daniel J C Kronauer
Division of labor in insect societies relies on simple behavioral rules, whereby individual colony members respond to dynamic signals indicating the need for certain tasks to be performed. This in turn gives rise to colony-level phenotypes. However, empirical studies quantifying colony-level signal-response dynamics are lacking. Here, we make use of the unusual biology and experimental amenability of the queenless clonal raider ant Cerapachys biroi, to jointly quantify the behavioral and physiological responses of workers to a social signal emitted by larvae...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Pawel Fedurek, Katie E Slocombe, Drew K Enigk, Melissa Emery Thompson, Richard W Wrangham, Martin N Muller
Long-distance calling is a common behaviour in animals that has various important social functions. At a physiological level, calling is often mediated by gonadal hormones such as testosterone (T), particularly when its function is linked to intra-sexual competition for mates or territory. T also plays an important role in the development of vocal characteristics associated with dominance in humans. However, the few available studies of T and vocal behaviour in non-human primates suggest that in primates T has less influence on call production than in other animals...
May 2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Joanna Sudyka, Giulia Casasole, Joanna Rutkowska, Mariusz Cichoń
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and telomere dynamics are considered to be powerful biomarkers quantifying a potential trade-off between current reproduction and self-maintenance. Recent studies confirmed the negative impact of elevated reproduction on telomeres, but the evidence for the cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress remains equivocal. In order to induce reproductive costs, we experimentally manipulated reproductive effort by increasing brood size in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and additionally challenged all birds by a low ambient temperature to facilitate detection of these costs...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Gordon D Hastie, Deborah J F Russell, Steven Benjamins, Simon Moss, Ben Wilson, Dave Thompson
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have found that predators utilise habitat corridors to ambush prey moving through them. In the marine environment, coastal channels effectively act as habitat corridors for prey movements, and sightings of predators in such areas suggest that they may target these for foraging. Unlike terrestrial systems where the underlying habitat structure is generally static, corridors in marine systems are in episodic flux due to water movements created by tidal processes...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Joacim Näslund, Jörgen I Johnsson
ABSTRACT: Animals generally adjust their behavior in response to bodily state (e.g., size and energy reserves) to optimize energy intake in relation to mortality risk, weighing predation probability against the risk of starvation. Here, we investigated whether brown trout Salmo trutta adjust their behavior in relation to energetic status and body size during a major early-life selection bottleneck, when fast growth is important. Over two consecutive time periods (P1 and P2; 12 and 23 days, respectively), food availability was manipulated, using four different combinations of high (H) and low (L) rations (i...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Christopher D Watkins, Benedict C Jones
ABSTRACT: Alliance formation is a critical dimension of social intelligence in political, social and biological systems. As some allies may provide greater "leverage" than others during social conflict, the cognitive architecture that supports alliance formation in humans may be shaped by recent experience, for example in light of the outcomes of violent or non-violent forms intrasexual competition. Here we used experimental priming techniques to explore this issue. Consistent with our predictions, while men's preferences for dominant allies strengthened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests, women's preferences for dominant allies weakened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir, Kit Magellan
ABSTRACT: Boldness, the tendency to be explorative, risk prone and proactive, often varies consistently between individuals. An individual's position on the boldness-shyness continuum has many implications. Bold individuals may outperform shyer conspecifics during foraging as they cover more ground, accumulate information more rapidly and make more frequent food discoveries. Individual variation in boldness may also affect behavioural plasticity across environmental contexts, as the time to process new information, the ability to locate and memorise resources and the time and ability to apply prior information in a novel context all differ between individuals...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
R I'Anson Price, C Grüter, W O H Hughes, S E F Evison
ABSTRACT: The communication involved in the foraging behaviour of social insects is integral to their success. Many ant species use trail pheromones to make decisions about where to forage. The strong positive feedback caused by the trail pheromone is thought to create a decision between two or more options. When the two options are of identical quality, this is known as symmetry breaking, and is important because it helps colonies to monopolise food sources in a competitive environment...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Seyed Mehdi Amininasab, Sjouke A Kingma, Martje Birker, Hanno Hildenbrandt, Jan Komdeur
ABSTRACT: Incubation is an important aspect of avian life history. The behaviour is energetically costly, and investment in incubation strategies within species, like female nest attentiveness and the feeding by the non-incubating partner during incubation, can therefore vary depending on environmental and individual characteristics. However, little is known about the combined effect of these characteristics. We investigated the importance of ambient temperature, habitat quality, and bird age on female incubation behaviour and male feeding of the incubating female (incubation feeding) in blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, a socially monogamous songbird...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Roger Schürch, Christopher Accleton, Jeremy Field
ABSTRACT: The progression from solitary living to caste-based sociality is commonly regarded as a major evolutionary transition. However, it has recently been shown that in some taxa, sociality may be plastic and dependent on local conditions. If sociality can be environmentally driven, the question arises as to how projected climate change will influence features of social organisation that were previously thought to be of macroevolutionary proportions. Depending on the time available in spring during which a foundress can produce worker offspring, the sweat bee Halictus rubicundus is either social or solitary...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
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