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Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

Mst Jannatul Ferdous, Andy M Reynolds, Ken Cheng
Abstract: The correlated random walk paradigm is the dominant conceptual framework for modeling animal movement patterns. Nonetheless, we do not know whether the randomness is apparent or actual. Apparent randomness could result from individuals reacting to environmental cues and their internal states in accordance with some set of behavioral rules. Here, we show how apparent randomness can result from one simple kind of algorithmic response to environmental cues. This results in an exponential step-length distribution in homogeneous environments and in generalized stretched exponential step-length distributions in more complex fractal environments...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Lena Grinsted, Jeremy Field
Abstract: In cooperative breeders, subordinates that have alternative reproductive options are expected to stay and help dominant breeders only as long as they contribute to group productivity, if their fitness is linked with colony success. Female Polistes dominula paper wasps live as cooperative breeders in small groups of typically fewer than 10 females. Subordinates tend to have high-quality outside options, and so could choose alternative breeding tactics if their work efforts increased productivity negligibly...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Andrew Whiten, Erica van de Waal
In recent decades, an accelerating research effort has exploited a substantial diversity of methodologies to garner mounting evidence for social learning and culture in many species of primate. As in humans, the evidence suggests that the juvenile phases of non-human primates' lives represent a period of particular intensity in adaptive learning from others, yet the relevant research remains scattered in the literature. Accordingly, we here offer what we believe to be the first substantial collation and review of this body of work and its implications for the lifetime behavioral ecology of primates...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Brigitte M Weiß, Marlen Kücklich, Ruth Thomsen, Stefanie Henkel, Susann Jänig, Lars Kulik, Claudia Birkemeyer, Anja Widdig
Abstract: Scents play an important role in the life of most terrestrial mammals and may transmit valuable information about conspecifics. Olfaction was long considered of low importance in Old World monkeys due to their relative reduction of olfactory structures and low incidence of scent-marking behavior but has been increasingly recognized for mediating social relationships in recent years. Yet, studies investigating the composition of their chemical cues remain scarce. In the present study, we analyzed the potential information content of chemicals present on the skin of rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta )...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Elina Immonen, Anni Hämäläinen, Wiebke Schuett, Maja Tarka
Sex differences in life history, physiology, and behavior are nearly ubiquitous across taxa, owing to sex-specific selection that arises from different reproductive strategies of the sexes. The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis predicts that most variation in such traits among individuals, populations, and species falls along a slow-fast pace-of-life continuum. As a result of their different reproductive roles and environment, the sexes also commonly differ in pace-of-life, with important consequences for the evolution of POLS...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
P J Davison, J Field
Abstract: Eusociality is characterised by a reproductive division of labour, where some individuals forgo direct reproduction to instead help raise kin. Socially polymorphic sweat bees are ideal models for addressing the mechanisms underlying the transition from solitary living to eusociality, because different individuals in the same species can express either eusocial or solitary behaviour. A key question is whether alternative social phenotypes represent environmentally induced plasticity or predominantly genetic differentiation between populations...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Christoph M Meier, Hakan Karaardıç, Raül Aymí, Strahil G Peev, Erich Bächler, Roger Weber, Willem Witvliet, Felix Liechti
Abstract: Studying individual flight behaviour throughout the year is indispensable to understand the ecology of a bird species. Recent development in technology allows now to track flight behaviour of small long-distance bird migrants throughout its annual cycle. The specific flight behaviour of twilight ascents in birds has been documented in a few studies, but only during a short period of the year, and never quantified on the individual level. It has been suggested that twilight ascents might be a role in orientation and navigation...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
B Irene Tieleman
This article provides a brief historical perspective on the integration of physiology into the concept of the pace of life of birds, evaluates the fit of immune function into this framework, and asks what it will take to fruitfully understand immune functioning of birds in pace of life studies in the future. In the late 1970s, physiology started to seriously enter avian life history ecology, with energy as the main currency of interest, inspired by David Lack's work in the preceding decades emphasizing how food availability explained life history variation...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Hannah A Edwards, Hannah L Dugdale, David S Richardson, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke
Abstract: Why so much variation in extra-pair parentage occurs within and among populations remains unclear. Often the fitness costs and benefits of extra-pair parentage are hypothesised to explain its occurrence; therefore, linking extra-pair parentage with traits such as personality (behavioural traits that can be heritable and affect reproductive behaviour) may help our understanding. Here, we investigate whether reproductive outcomes and success are associated with exploratory behaviour in a natural population of cooperatively breeding Seychelles warblers ( Acrocephalus sechellensis ) on Cousin Island...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
M Rohaa Langenhof, Jan Komdeur
Understanding the ways in which individuals cope with threats, respond to challenges, make use of opportunities and mediate the harmful effects of their surroundings is important for predicting their ability to function in a rapidly changing world. Perhaps one of the most essential drivers of coping behaviour of adults is the environment experienced during their early-life development. Although the study of coping, defined as behaviours displayed in response to environmental challenges, has a long and rich research history in biology, recent literature has repeatedly pointed out that the processes through which coping behaviours develop in individuals are still largely unknown...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Rosalind K Humphreys, Graeme D Ruxton
Abstract: Thanatosis-also known as death-feigning and, we argue more appropriately, tonic immobility (TI)-is an under-reported but fascinating anti-predator strategy adopted by diverse prey late on in the predation sequence, and frequently following physical contact by the predator. TI is thought to inhibit further attack by predators and reduce the perceived need of the predator to subdue prey further. The behaviour is probably present in more taxa than is currently described, but even within well-studied groups the precise taxonomic distribution is unclear for a number of practical and ethical reasons...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Kristin R Duffield, E Keith Bowers, Scott K Sakaluk, Ben M Sadd
Although reproductive strategies can be influenced by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, life history theory provides a rigorous framework for explaining variation in reproductive effort. The terminal investment hypothesis proposes that a decreased expectation of future reproduction (as might arise from a mortality threat) should precipitate increased investment in current reproduction. Terminal investment has been widely studied, and a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic cues that elicit such a response have been identified across an array of taxa...
December 2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Colin M Wright, James L L Lichtenstein, Graham A Montgomery, Lauren P Luscuskie, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Jonathan N Pruitt
Predation is a ubiquitous threat that often plays a central role in determining community dynamics. Predators can impact prey species by directly consuming them, or indirectly causing prey to modify their behavior. Direct consumption has classically been the focus of research on predator-prey interactions, but substantial evidence now demonstrates that the indirect effects of predators on prey populations are at least as strong as, if not stronger than, direct consumption. Social animals, particularly those that live in confined colonies, rely on coordinated actions that may be vulnerable to the presence of a predator, thus impacting the society's productivity and survival...
August 2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Alberto Corral-López, Maddi Garate-Olaizola, Severine D Buechel, Niclas Kolm, Alexander Kotrschal
Abstract: The visual system is highly variable across species, and such variability is a key factor influencing animal behavior. Variation in the visual system, for instance, can influence the outcome of learning tasks when visual stimuli are used. We illustrate this issue in guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) artificially selected for large and small relative brain size with pronounced behavioral differences in learning experiments and mate choice tests. We performed a study of the visual system by quantifying eye size and optomotor response of large-brained and small-brained guppies...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Martha Lucia Borras-Guevara, Carlota Batres, David I Perrett
Abstract: Potential protection from violence has been suggested as an explanation for women's preferences for more masculine partners. Previous studies, however, have not considered that violence may be multi-modal, and hence come from different sources. Therefore, we tested the effect of different fears of violence (i.e. vulnerability to public crime, likelihood of within-partnership violence) on masculinity preferences of women from Colombia, a country known for its high rates of violence...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Theresa Hügel, Vincent van Meir, Amanda Muñoz-Meneses, B-Markus Clarin, Björn M Siemers, Holger R Goerlitz
Abstract: Animals can gain important information by attending to the signals and cues of other animals in their environment, with acoustic information playing a major role in many taxa. Echolocation call sequences of bats contain information about the identity and behaviour of the sender which is perceptible to close-by receivers. Increasing evidence supports the communicative function of echolocation within species, yet data about its role for interspecific information transfer is scarce...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Jan-Åke Nilsson, Andreas Nord
Abstract: At temperate latitudes, altricial birds and their nestlings need to handle night temperatures well below thermoneutrality during the breeding season. Thus, energy costs of thermoregulation might constrain nestling growth, and low nocturnal temperatures might require resources that parents could otherwise have invested into nestlings during the day. To manipulate parental work rate, we performed brood size manipulations in breeding marsh tits ( Poecile palustris ). Nest box temperatures were always well above ambient temperature and increased with increasing brood size...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Fleur Visser, Annebelle C M Kok, Machiel G Oudejans, Lindesay A S Scott-Hayward, Stacy L DeRuiter, Ana C Alves, Ricardo N Antunes, Saana Isojunno, Graham J Pierce, Hans Slabbekoorn, Jef Huisman, Patrick J O Miller
Abstract: Vocalisations form a key component of the social interactions and foraging behaviour of toothed whales. We investigated changes in calling and echolocation behaviour of long-finned pilot whales between foraging and non-foraging periods, by combining acoustic recordings and diving depth data from tagged individuals with concurrent surface observations on social behaviour of their group. The pilot whales showed marked vocal variation, specific to foraging and social context. During periods of foraging, pilot whales showed more vocal activity than during non-foraging periods (rest, travel)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Rosalind K Humphreys, Graeme D Ruxton
Limits to the precision of circular data often cause grouping of data points into discrete categories, but the effects of grouping on tests for circular uniformity have been little explored. The Rayleigh test is often applied to grouped circular data, despite it being designed for continuous data and the statistical literature recommending a suite of alternative tests specifically designed for grouped data. Here, we investigated the performance of the Rayleigh test relative to four alternatives for testing the null hypothesis of uniformity in grouped circular data...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
I Krobath, H Römer, M Hartbauer
Abstract: Males of a trilling species in the Mecopoda complex produce conspicuous calling songs that consist of two motifs: an amplitude-modulated motif with alternating loud and soft segments (AM-motif) and a continuous, high-intensity trill. The function of these song motifs for female attraction and competition between males was investigated. We tested the hypothesis that males modify their signaling behavior depending on the social environment (presence/absence of females or rival males) when they compete for mates...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
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