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Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989227/smell-or-vision-the-use-of-different-sensory-modalities-in-predator-discrimination
#1
Stefan Fischer, Evelyne Oberhummer, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Nina Gerber, Barbara Taborsky
ABSTRACT: Theory predicts that animals should adjust their escape responses to the perceived predation risk. The information animals obtain about potential predation risk may differ qualitatively depending on the sensory modality by which a cue is perceived. For instance, olfactory cues may reveal better information about the presence or absence of threats, whereas visual information can reliably transmit the position and potential attack distance of a predator. While this suggests a differential use of information perceived through the two sensory channels, the relative importance of visual vs...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959087/multinomial-analysis-of-behavior-statistical-methods
#2
Jeremy Koster, Richard McElreath
Behavioral ecologists frequently use observational methods, such as instantaneous scan sampling, to record the behavior of animals at discrete moments in time. We develop and apply multilevel, multinomial logistic regression models for analyzing such data. These statistical methods correspond to the multinomial character of the response variable while also accounting for the repeated observations of individuals that characterize behavioral datasets. Correlated random effects potentially reveal individual-level trade-offs across behaviors, allowing for models that reveal the extent to which individuals who regularly engage in one behavior also exhibit relatively more or less of another behavior...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860673/sparrowhawk-movement-calling-and-presence-of-dead-conspecifics-differentially-impact-blue-tit-cyanistes-caeruleus-vocal-and-behavioral-mobbing-responses
#3
Nora V Carlson, Helen M Pargeter, Christopher N Templeton
ABSTRACT: Many animals alter their anti-predator behavior in accordance to the threat level of a predator. While much research has examined variation in mobbing responses to different predators, few studies have investigated how anti-predator behavior is affected by changes in a predator's own state or behavior. We examined the effect of sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) behavior on the mobbing response of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) using robotic taxidermy sparrowhawks. We manipulated whether the simulated predator moved its head, produced vocalizations, or held a taxidermy blue tit in its talons...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794579/temporal-and-geographic-patterns-of-kinship-structure-in-common-dolphins-delphinus-delphis-suggest-site-fidelity-and-female-biased-long-distance-dispersal
#4
Laura Ball, Kypher Shreves, Małgorzata Pilot, André E Moura
ABSTRACT: Social structure plays a crucial role in determining a species' dispersal patterns and genetic structure. Cetaceans show a diversity of social and mating systems, but their effects on dispersal and genetic structure are not well known, in part because of technical difficulties in obtaining robust observational data. Here, we combine genetic profiling and GIS analysis to identify patterns of kin distribution over time and space, to infer mating structure and dispersal patterns in short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757679/acoustic-ranging-in-poison-frogs-it-is-not-about-signal-amplitude-alone
#5
Max Ringler, Georgine Szipl, Walter Hödl, Leander Khil, Barbara Kofler, Michael Lonauer, Christina Provin, Eva Ringler
ABSTRACT: Acoustic ranging allows identifying the distance of a sound source and mediates inter-individual spacing and aggression in territorial species. Birds and mammals are known to use more complex cues than only sound pressure level (SPL), which can be influenced by the signaller and signal transmission in non-predictable ways and thus is not reliable by itself. For frogs, only SPL is currently known to mediate inter-individual distances, but we hypothesise that the strong territoriality of Dendrobatids could make the use of complex cues for ranging highly beneficial for this family...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747810/differences-in-social-preference-between-the-sexes-during-ontogeny-drive-segregation-in-a-precocial-species
#6
Mark A Whiteside, Jayden O van Horik, Ellis J G Langley, Christine E Beardsworth, Philippa R Laker, Joah R Madden
ABSTRACT: Hypotheses for why animals sexually segregate typically rely on adult traits, such as differences in sexual roles causing differential habitat preferences, or size dimorphism inducing differences in diet or behaviour. However, segregation can occur in juveniles before such roles or size dimorphism is well established. In young humans, leading hypotheses suggest that (1) sexes differ in their activity and the synchronisation of behaviour causes segregation and (2) sexes separate in order to learn and maximise future reproductive roles...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736477/long-term-exposure-to-elevated-carbon-dioxide-does-not-alter-activity-levels-of-a-coral-reef-fish-in-response-to-predator-chemical-cues
#7
Josefin Sundin, Mirjam Amcoff, Fernando Mateos-González, Graham D Raby, Fredrik Jutfelt, Timothy D Clark
ABSTRACT: Levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) projected to occur in the world's oceans in the near future have been reported to increase swimming activity and impair predator recognition in coral reef fishes. These behavioral alterations would be expected to have dramatic effects on survival and community dynamics in marine ecosystems in the future. To investigate the universality and replicability of these observations, we used juvenile spiny chromis damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to examine the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on routine activity and the behavioral response to the chemical cues of a predator (Cephalopholis urodeta)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725102/the-influence-of-social-relationship-on-food-tolerance-in-wolves-and-dogs
#8
Rachel Dale, Friederike Range, Laura Stott, Kurt Kotrschal, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
ABSTRACT: Food sharing is relatively widespread across the animal kingdom, but research into the socio-ecological factors affecting this activity has predominantly focused on primates. These studies do suggest though that food tolerance is linked to the social relationship with potential partners. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the social factors which influence food tolerance in two canids: wolves and dogs. We presented wolves and dogs with two paradigms: dyadic tolerance tests and group carcass feedings...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706342/punish-the-thief-coevolution-of-defense-and-cautiousness-stabilizes-ownership
#9
Martin Hinsch, Jan Komdeur
ABSTRACT: Ownership of non-controllable resources usually has to be maintained by costly defense against competitors. Whether defense and thus ownership pays in terms of fitness depends on its effectiveness in preventing theft. We show that if the owners' willingness to defend varies in the population and information about it is available to potential thieves then the ability to react to this information and thus avoid being attacked by the owner is selected for. This can lead to a positive evolutionary feedback between cautiousness in intruders and aggressiveness in owners...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706341/conflict-over-non-partitioned-resources-may-explain-between-species-differences-in-declines-the-anthropogenic-competition-hypothesis
#10
Andrew D Higginson
ABSTRACT: Human alterations of habitats are causing declines in many species worldwide. The extent of declines varies greatly among closely related species, for often unknown reasons that must be understood in order to maintain biodiversity. An overlooked factor is that seasonally breeding species compete for nest sites, which are increasingly limited in many anthropogenically degraded environments. I used evolutionary game theory to predict the outcome of competition between individuals that differ in their competitive ability and timing of nesting...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596637/wild-chimpanzees-use-of-single-and-combined-vocal-and-gestural-signals
#11
C Hobaiter, R W Byrne, K Zuberbühler
ABSTRACT: We describe the individual and combined use of vocalizations and gestures in wild chimpanzees. The rate of gesturing peaked in infancy and, with the exception of the alpha male, decreased again in older age groups, while vocal signals showed the opposite pattern. Although gesture-vocal combinations were relatively rare, they were consistently found in all age groups, especially during affiliative and agonistic interactions. Within behavioural contexts rank (excluding alpha-rank) had no effect on the rate of male chimpanzees' use of vocal or gestural signals and only a small effect on their use of combination signals...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450759/sex-in-murky-waters-algal-induced-turbidity-increases-sexual-selection-in-pipefish
#12
Josefin Sundin, Tonje Aronsen, Gunilla Rosenqvist, Anders Berglund
ABSTRACT: Algal-induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects of reproduction and sexual selection. However, while turbidity has been shown to negatively affect reproduction and sexually selected traits in some species, it may instead enhance reproductive success in others, implying that the impact of eutrophication is far more complex than originally believed. In this study, we aimed to provide more insight into these inconsistent findings. We used molecular tools to investigate the impact of algal turbidity on reproductive success and sexual selection on males in controlled laboratory experiments, allowing mate choice, mating competition, and mate encounter rates to affect reproduction...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435180/silence-is-not-golden-the-hissing-calls-of-tits-affect-the-behaviour-of-a-nest-predator
#13
Karol Zub, Dorota Czeszczewik, Ireneusz Ruczyński, Anna Kapusta, Wiesław Walankiewicz
ABSTRACT: Nest predation is one of the most important mortality factors of birds. Field observations showed that tits (Paridae) produce hissing calls and, usually, have lower breeding losses than nesting Ficedula flycatchers, which do not make such calls. We hypothesise that differences in fledgling success can be directly attributed to the vocal reaction of tits. We tested experimentally whether the hissing calls can affect the behaviour of a potential predator, analysing the response of the Yellow-necked Mouse Apodemus flavicollis to playback of calls of three Parid species...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360453/long-term-analysis-on-the-variance-of-extra-group-paternities-in-rhesus-macaques
#14
Angelina V Ruiz-Lambides, Brigitte M Weiß, Lars Kulik, Colleen Stephens, Roger Mundry, Anja Widdig
ABSTRACT: Extra-group paternity (EGP) has been described in various mammalian species; however, little is known about which factors contribute to the variation in EGP, as the majority of studies were restricted in time and the number of groups considered. Using longitudinal demographic and genetic data, we aim to investigate which factors predict rates of EGP in the free-ranging rhesus macaque population of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico (USA). Of the 1649 infants considered which were born into six social groups over 9 years, we identified an average of 16% of infants resulting from EGPs...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356611/predatory-interactions-between-prey-affect-patch-selection-by-predators
#15
Yasuyuki Choh, Maurice W Sabelis, Arne Janssen
ABSTRACT: When predators can use several prey species as food sources, they are known to select prey according to foraging efficiency and food quality. However, interactions between the prey species may also affect prey choice, and this has received limited attention. The effect of one such interaction, intraguild predation between prey, on patch selection by predators was studied here. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus preys on young larvae of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and on all stages of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127116/evidence-against-observational-spatial-memory-for-cache-locations-of-conspecifics-in-marsh-tits-poecile-palustris
#16
A Utku Urhan, Ellen Emilsson, Anders Brodin
ABSTRACT: Many species in the family Paridae, such as marsh tits Poecile palustris, are large-scale scatter hoarders of food that make cryptic caches and disperse these in large year-round territories. The perhaps most well-known species in the family, the great tit Parus major, does not store food itself but is skilled in stealing caches from the other species. We have previously demonstrated that great tits are able to memorise positions of caches they have observed marsh tits make and later return and steal the food...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018027/low-incidence-of-inbreeding-in-a-long-lived-primate-population-isolated-for-75%C3%A2-years
#17
Anja Widdig, Laura Muniz, Mirjam Minkner, Yvonne Barth, Stefanie Bley, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Olaf Junge, Roger Mundry, Lars Kulik
ABSTRACT: When close relatives mate, offspring are expected to suffer fitness consequences due to inbreeding depression. Inbreeding has previously been quantified in two ways: using a sufficiently large panel of markers or deep and complete pedigrees over several generations. However, the application of both approaches is still limited by the challenge of compiling such data for species with long generation times, such as primates. Here, we assess inbreeding in rhesus macaques living on Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico), a population genetically isolated since 1938, but descendant of a large set of presumably unrelated founders...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018026/harnessing-learning-biases-is-essential-for-applying-social-learning-in-conservation
#18
REVIEW
Alison L Greggor, Alex Thornton, Nicola S Clayton
Social learning can influence how animals respond to anthropogenic changes in the environment, determining whether animals survive novel threats and exploit novel resources or produce maladaptive behaviour and contribute to human-wildlife conflict. Predicting where social learning will occur and manipulating its use are, therefore, important in conservation, but doing so is not straightforward. Learning is an inherently biased process that has been shaped by natural selection to prioritize important information and facilitate its efficient uptake...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584393/adult-bacterial-exposure-increases-behavioral-variation-and-drives-higher-repeatability-in-field-crickets
#19
Nicholas DiRienzo, Petri T Niemelä, Ann V Hedrick, Raine Kortet
Among-individual differences in behavior are now a widely studied research-focus within the field of behavioral ecology. Furthermore, elements of an animal's internal state, such as energy or fat reserves, and infection status can have large impacts on behaviors. Despite this, we still know little regarding how state may affect behavioral variation. Recent exposure to pathogens may have a particularly large impact on behavioral expression given that it likely activates costly immune pathways, potentially forcing organism to make behavioral tradeoffs...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042198/age-worksite-location-neuromodulators-and-task-performance-in-the-ant-pheidole-dentata
#20
Ysabel Milton Giraldo, Adina Rusakov, Alexandria Diloreto, Adrianna Kordek, James F A Traniello
Social insect workers modify task performance according to age-related schedules of behavioral development, and/or changing colony labor requirements based on flexible responses that may be independent of age. Using known-age minor workers of the ant Pheidole dentata throughout 68% of their 140-day laboratory lifespan, we asked whether workers found inside or outside the nest differed in task performance and if behaviors were correlated with and/or causally linked to changes in brain serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA)...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
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