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Thrombosis and Haemostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597905/stroke-prevention-in-atrial-fibrillation-past-present-and-future-comparing-the-guidelines-and-practical-decision-making
#1
Gregory Lip, Gregory Y H Lip, Ben Freedman, Raffaele De Caterina, Tatjana S Potpara
Concepts and our approaches to stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) have changed markedly over the last decade. There has been an evolution over the approach to stroke and bleeding risk assessment, as well as new treatment options. An increasing awareness of AF has led to calls to improve the detection of and population screening for AF. Stroke and bleeding risk assessment continues to evolve, and the ongoing debate on balance between simplicity and practicality, against precision medicine will continue...
June 9, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597906/platelet-receptors-as-therapeutic-targets-past-present-and-future
#2
Janina Jamasbi, Keng Ayabe, Shinya Goto, Bernhard Nieswandt, Karlheinz Peter, Wolfgang Siess
Anti-platelet drugs reduce arterial thrombosis after plaque rupture and erosion, prevent stent thrombosis and are used to prevent and treat myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke. Some of them may also be helpful in treating less frequent diseases such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The present concise review aims to cover current and future developments of anti-platelet drugs interfering with the interaction of von Willebrand factor (VWF) with glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, and directed against GPVI, GPIIb/IIIa (integrin αIIbβ3), the thrombin receptor PAR-1, and the ADP receptor P2Y12...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594427/angiogenesis-in-metabolic-vascular-disease
#3
Georg Breier, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Emilio Hirsch
Angiogenesis, literally formation of new blood vessels, is the main process through which the vascular system expands during embryonic and postnatal development. Endothelial cells, which constitute the inner lining of all blood vessels, are typically in a quiescent state in the healthy adult organism. However, in vascular and metabolic diseases, the endothelium becomes unstable and dysfunctional. The resulting tissue hypoxia may thereby induce pathological angiogenesis, which is a hallmark of disease conditions like cancer or diabetic retinopathy...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594426/new-developments-in-anticoagulants-past-present-and-future
#4
Jeffrey I Weitz, Job Harenberg
Thrombosis is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and anticoagulants are the mainstay of its prevention and treatment. Starting with unfractionated heparin (UFH) and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) such as warfarin, the choices of anticoagulants have exploded in the past 20 years. With over 90 % subcutaneous bioavailability, no need for coagulation monitoring and dose adjustment, and a lower risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, low-molecular-weight heparin and fondaparinux have replaced UFH for prevention and initial treatment of venous thromboembolism and for secondary prevention in cancer patients...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594053/therapeutic-strategies-for-atherosclerosis-and-atherothrombosis-past-present-and-future
#5
Christian Weber, Lina Badimon, François Mach, Emiel P C van der Vorst
Even two centuries after they were first described, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades it has become clear that atherosclerosis is not only a lipid-driven disease but also a multifactorial process largely driven by inflammatory mediators, an insight that has instigated additional research and drug development focussing on anti-inflammatory therapies. In this review, we will provide a brief historical overview, followed by a more general synopsis of the range of currently available state-of-the-art therapies for atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594052/coagulation-factor-and-protease-pathways-in-thrombosis-and-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Hugo Ten Cate, Tilman M Hackeng, Pablo García de Frutos
The biochemical characterization of the proteolytic pathways that constitute blood coagulation was one of the most relevant achievements in biomedical research during the second half of the 20th century. Understanding these pathways was of crucial importance for improving global health through application in haemostasis and thrombosis pathologies. Immediately after the cloning of the genes corresponding to these proteins, mutations were discovered in them that were associated with imbalances in haemostasis...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594051/antithrombotic-therapy-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-past-present-and-future
#7
Dirk Sibbing, Dominick J Angiolillo, Kurt Huber
Plaque erosions and ruptures are the histopathological hallmarks of arterial thrombus formation in the coronary arteries. The clinical condition associated with this process is usually referred to as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Importantly, both blood platelets and the coagulation cascade are key players for initiation, amplification and perpetuation of ACS. There has been great progress in ACS treatment in recent decades, both at the technical level of (percutaneous) revascularisation and at the level of antithrombotic treatment...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594050/extracellular-nucleic-acids-in-immunity-and-cardiovascular-responses-between-alert-and-disease
#8
Klaus T Preissner, Heiko Herwald
Severe inflammatory complications are a potential consequence in patients with predetermined conditions of infections, pulmonary diseases, or cardiovascular disorders. Notably, the amplitude of the inflammatory response towards these complications can dictate the disease progression and outcome. During the recent years, evidence from basic research as well as from clinical studies has identified self-extracellular nucleic acids as important players in the crosstalk between immunity and cardiovascular diseases...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594049/venous-thromboembolism-past-present-and-future
#9
Sam Schulman, Walter Ageno, Stavros V Konstantinides
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome, is associated with a considerable disease burden which continues to grow along with the longer life expectancy of the population worldwide. In the past century, parenteral heparin prophylaxis was established for hospitalised patients at elevated risk of VTE. More recently, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with a direct inhibiting effect on factor Xa or thrombin, underwent extensive testing in clinical trials and have been approved for patients undergoing hip or knee replacement...
June 8, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569924/is-a-normal-computed-tomography-pulmonary-angiography-safe-to-rule-out-acute-pulmonary-embolism-in-patients-with-a-likely-clinical-probability-a-patient-level-meta-analysis
#10
Tom van der Hulle, Nick van Es, Paul den Exter, Josien van Es, Inge C M Mos, Renée A Douma, Marieke J H A Kruip, Marcel M C Hovens, Marije Ten Wolde, Mathilde Nijkeuter, Hugo Ten Cate, Pieter W Kamphuisen, Harry R Büller, Menno V Huisman, Erik Klok
A normal computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) remains a controversial criterion for ruling out acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with a likely clinical probability. We set out to determine the risk of VTE and fatal PE after a normal CTPA in this patient category and compare these risk to those after a normal pulmonary angiogram of 1.7 % (95 %CI 1.0-2.7 %) and 0.3 % (95 %CI 0.02-0.7 %). A patient-level meta-analysis from 4 prospective diagnostic management studies that sequentially applied the Wells rule, D-dimer tests and CTPA to consecutive patients with clinically suspected acute PE...
June 1, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569923/interplay-between-elevated-cellular-fibronectin-and-plasma-fibrin-clot-properties-in-type-2-diabetes
#11
Małgorzata Konieczyńska, Agata Hanna Bryk, Krzysztof P Malinowski, Katarzyna Draga, Anetta Undas
Type 2 diabetes is associated with faster formation of poorly lysable, denser fibrin clots and elevated cellular fibronectin (cFn), a marker of vascular injury. We investigated whether cFn affects clot properties in type 2 diabetes. In 200 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes and 100 control subjects matched for age and sex, we determined plasma cFn along with clot formation and degradation using turbidimetric and permeability assays. Diabetic patients had elevated cFn (median, 3.99 [interquartile range, 2...
June 1, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569922/thrombin-is-a-selective-inducer-of-heparanase-release-from-platelets-and-granulocytes-via-protease-activated-receptor-1
#12
Mifleh Tatour, Ma'anit Shapira, Elena Axelman, Shourouk Ghanem, Anat Keren-Politansky, Lilach Bonstein, Benjamin Brenner, Yona Nadir
Heparanase, known to be involved in angiogenesis and metastasis, was shown to form a complex with tissue factor (TF) and to enhance the generation of factor Xa. Platelets and granulocytes contain abundant amounts of heparanase that may enhance the coagulation system upon discharge. It was the aim of this study to identify the inducer and pathway of heparanase release from these cells. Platelets and granulocytes were purified from pooled normal plasma and were incubated with ATP, ADP, epinephrine, collagen, ristocetin, arachidonic acid, serotonin, LPS and thrombin...
June 1, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569921/microvesicles-in-vascular-homeostasis-and-diseases-position-paper-of-the-european-society-of-cardiology-esc-working-group-on-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-biology
#13
Victoria C Ridger, Chantal M Boulanger, Anne Angelillo-Scherrer, Lina Badimon, Olivier Blanc-Brude, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat, Eric Boilard, Edit I Buzas, Andreas Caporali, Françoise Dignat-George, Paul C Evans, Romaric Lacroix, Esther Lutgens, Daniel F J Ketelhuth, Rienk Nieuwland, Florence Toti, Jose Tunon, Christian Weber
Microvesicles are members of the family of extracellular vesicles shed from the plasma membrane of activated or apoptotic cells. Microvesicles were initially characterised by their pro-coagulant activity and described as "microparticles". There is mounting evidence revealing a role for microvesicles in intercellular communication, with particular relevance to hemostasis and vascular biology. Coupled with this, the potential of microvesicles as meaningful biomarkers is under intense investigation. This Position Paper will summarise the current knowledge on the mechanisms of formation and composition of microvesicles of endothelial, platelet, red blood cell and leukocyte origin...
June 1, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569920/recombinant-gpvi-fc-added-to-single-or-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-vitro-prevents-plaque-induced-platelet-thrombus-formation
#14
Ann-Katrin Mojica Muñoz, Janina Jamasbi, Heidrun Degen, Götz Münch, Martin Ungerer, Richard Brandl, Remco Megens, Christian Weber, Reinhard Lorenz, Wolfgang Siess
The efficiency of current dual antiplatelet therapy might be further improved by its combination with a glycoprotein (GP) VI-targeting strategy without increasing bleeding. GPVI-Fc, a recombinant dimeric fusion protein binding to plaque collagen and concealing binding sites for platelet GPVI, acts as a lesion-focused antiplatelet drug, and does not increase bleeding in vivo. We investigated, whether GPVI-Fc added in vitro on top of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), the P2Y12 antagonist ticagrelor, and the fibrinogen receptor antagonist abciximab alone or in combination would increase inhibition of platelet activation by atherosclerotic plaque...
June 1, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569919/elevated-plasma-tfpi-activity-causes-attenuated-tf-dependent-thrombin-generation-in-early-onset-preeclampsia
#15
Karl Egan, Hugh O'Connor, Barry Kevane, Fergal Malone, Aine Lennon, Amani Al Zadjali, Sharon Cooley, Cathy Monteith, Patricia Maguire, Paulina Szklanna, Seamus Allen, Naomi McCallion, Fionnuala Ní Áinle
Early onset preeclampsia (EOP) is a pregnancy-specific proinflammatory disorder that is characterised by competing thrombotic and bleeding risks. It was the aim of this study to characterise thrombin generation, a major determinant of thrombotic and bleeding risk, in order to better understand the haemostatic balance in patients with EOP. Patients with EOP were recruited at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin. Twenty-six cases of EOP were recruited over a 21-month period, out of 15,299 deliveries at the Rotunda. Blood samples were collected into sodium citrate plus corn trypsin inhibitor anticoagulated vacutainers, platelet-poor plasma was prepared, and calibrated automated thrombography was used to assess thrombin generation...
June 1, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536722/apixaban-pharmacodynamic-activity-in-umbilical-cord-paediatric-and-adult-plasma
#16
Robert J Yetman, Yu Chen Barrett, Zhaoqing Wang, Robert Adamczyk, Jessie Wang, Eduardo Ramacciotti, Charles Frost
The objective was to characterise apixaban pharmacodynamic (PD) activity in umbilical cord (UC), paediatric, and adult plasma. Plasma was obtained from blood samples from six UC donors, 70 paediatric (neonates [birth-≤1 month], infants [>1-≤6 months], toddlers [>6 months-≤2 years], young children [>2-≤6 years], children [>6-≤12 years], adolescents [>12-≤18 years]), and six adult (19-45 years) subjects. Plasma spiked with apixaban 0 (baseline), 30, or 110 ng/ml was analysed for anti-factor Xa activity, factor X levels, prothrombin time (PT), and modified PT (mPT)...
May 24, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536721/differential-integrin-activity-mediated-by-platelet-collagen-receptor-engagement-under-flow-conditions
#17
Nicholas Pugh, Ben D Maddox, Dominique Bihan, Kirk A Taylor, Martyn P Mahaut-Smith, Richard W Farndale
The platelet receptors glycoprotein (Gp)VI, integrin α2β1 and GpIb/V/IX mediate platelet adhesion and activation during thrombogenesis. Increases of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) are key signals during platelet activation; however, their relative importance in coupling different collagen receptors to functional responses under shear conditions remains unclear. To study shear-dependent, receptor-specific platelet responses, we used collagen or combinations of receptor-specific collagen-mimetic peptides as substrates for platelet adhesion and activation in whole human blood under arterial flow conditions and compared real-time and endpoint parameters of thrombus formation alongside [Ca(2+)]i measurements using confocal imaging...
May 24, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536720/prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2-deletion-affects-the-natural-trafficking-of-annexin-a2-in-monocytes-and-favours-venous-thrombosis-in-mice
#18
Patrizia Amadio, Eva Tarantino, Leonardo Sandrini, Elena Tremoli, Silvia S Barbieri
Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition that often leads to pulmonary thromboembolism (VTE) and death. The role of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS)2 in arterial thrombosis has been well established, whereas its impact in venous thrombosis remains unclear. Here, we showed that PTGS2 deletion predisposes to venous thrombosis as suggested by greater clot firmness and clot elasticity, by higher plasma levels of functional fibrinogen, factor VIII and PAI-1 activity, and proved by bigger thrombi detected after inferior vena cava ligation (IVCL) compared to WT mice...
May 24, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536718/molecular-and-clinical-profile-of-vwd-in-a-large-cohort-of-chinese-population-application-of-next-generation-sequencing-and-cnvplex-%C3%A2-technique
#19
Qian Liang, Huanhuan Qin, Qiulan Ding, Xiaoling Xie, Runhui Wu, Hongli Wang, Yiqun Hu, Xuefeng Wang
Von Willebrand disease (VWD), the most common inherited bleeding disorder, is characterised by a variable bleeding tendency, heterogeneous laboratory phenotype and race specific distribution of mutations. The present study aimed to determine the correlation of genotype and phenotype in 200 Chinese individuals from 90 unrelated families with VWD. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of the whole coding VWF, copy number analysis of VWF by CNVplex® technique as well as a comprehensive phenotypic assessment were carried out in all index patients (IPs)...
May 24, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536717/increased-risks-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-patients-with-psoriasis-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#20
Wei-Sheng Chung, Cheng-Li Lin
Systemic inflammation and hypercoagulability in psoriasis are related to cardiovascular morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. We identified inpatients aged ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of psoriasis and controls at a 1: 1 ratio of frequency matched by sex, age, frequency of medical visits, length of stay, and comorbidities between 2000 and 2010 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Each patient was traced to the date of VTE occurrence, loss to follow-up, death, or the December 31, 2011, whichever occurred first...
May 24, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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