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Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior

Christopher M Bell, Josephine A Ridley, James C Overholser, Kevin Young, Alison Athey, Jennifer Lehmann, Kristie Phillips
In a sample of 114 military veterans with depression histories, perceived burden was related to depression symptoms and suicide attempt history. After accounting for perceived burden, sense of belonging was negatively related to depression. Among the areas of social support, family support was inversely related to both depression and suicide history. After accounting for family support, personal meaning from relationships and friend support were related to depression. The results of this study suggest that perceived burdensomeness may be a stronger determinant of suicidality than sense of belonging or social support...
January 17, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Chelsey M Hartley, Jeremy W Pettit, Daniel Castellanos
The empirical literature on the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents was reviewed. A narrative review of seven studies that met inclusion/exclusion criteria is followed by a preliminary meta-analysis to provide insight into the strength of the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors. Each of the seven studies reported a statistically significant association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors, including suicide, nonfatal suicide attempt, and suicide ideation...
January 3, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Michelle Torok, Alison Calear, Fiona Shand, Helen Christensen
Mass media campaigns are increasingly seen as an important part of suicide prevention; however, despite their popularity, their efficacy is not well understood. The current review aimed to address key knowledge gaps regarding how mass media campaigns can be optimized to prevent suicide, by looking at their global efficacy, and mechanisms related to successful outcomes. A systematic review of the international literature examined studies which evaluated mass media campaigns targeted at suicide prevention, where suicide behaviors (mortality, attempts) or suicide literacy (knowledge, attitudes, help-seeking) was identified as a primary outcome...
January 3, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Minoru Sawa, Hiraki Koishikawa, Yoneatsu Osaki
Suicide has a great impact on the individual whose life is lost and the bereaved family members. The risk of a suicide reattempt is particularly high during the first 12 months after a suicide attempt. In this cohort study, risk factors for a suicide reattempt were explored among 291 patients at suicide risk. Clinical and demographic data were collected from a Japanese primary care hospital. Past psychiatric history and multiple diagnoses were associated with suicide reattempts in both genders. Drug overdose, past psychiatric history, and the summer season were linked to suicide reattempts among males...
December 28, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Mark A Reger, Greg M Reger, Christina Krieg, Larry Pruitt, Derek J Smolenski, Nancy A Skopp, Nigel Bush
US Army suicide rates increased significantly in the last decade and have remained high. To inform future research hypotheses, Army suicide surveillance data (2012-2014) were compared to similar Army data for suicides from 1975 to 1982. Preliminary data suggest that suicide rates increased across most demographic groups, but may have decreased among divorced soldiers. Mental health utilization increased over time. Legal problems and physical health problems were identified in a higher percentage of cases in the recent data relative to the 1975-1982 era...
December 28, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Steven Stack, Ian R H Rockett
While suicide notes can offer insights into the causes of suicide and clues for prevention, there is disagreement regarding the degree to which note leavers are representative of the general population of suicides. Previous relevant research on the United States is marked by a series of limitations: small local samples, an over focus on demographic constructs, and lack of multivariable analysis. This study uses a large national sample, a wide range of predictor variables, and multivariable statistical techniques to estimate more reliable similarities and differences between note leavers and other suicides...
December 16, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Stephanie M Pennings, Joseph Finn, Claire Houtsma, Bradley A Green, Michael D Anestis
Prior studies examining posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters and the components of the interpersonal theory of suicide (ITS) have yielded mixed results, likely stemming in part from the use of divergent samples and measurement techniques. This study aimed to expand on these findings by utilizing a large military sample, gold standard ITS measures, and multiple PTSD factor structures. Utilizing a sample of 935 military personnel, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test the association between PTSD symptom clusters and the ITS variables...
December 16, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Lauren N Forrest, April R Smith
The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that combinations of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability lead to suicide ideation, planning, and attempting. We compared individuals with and without suicidality on thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, and compared a combined group of planners and attempters to ideators on fearlessness about death (one component of acquired capability). Individuals with suicidality had higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness than individuals without suicidality...
December 16, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Lucas Godoy Garraza, Simone Peart Boyce, Christine Walrath, David B Goldston, Richard McKeon
For more than a decade, the Garrett Lee Smith Youth Suicide Prevention Program has provided funding for community-based suicide prevention programs to states, tribes, and colleges across the United States. Recent studies provided evidence of the program's effectiveness in reducing suicide mortality and suicide attempts among youth. This study compares the cost of implementing the program with the estimated savings resulting from avoided hospitalization and emergency department visits associated with the averted suicide attempts...
December 16, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Steven D Vannoy, Bonnie K Andrews, David C Atkins, Katherine A Dondanville, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Alan L Peterson
Previous research in US Army Soldiers shows rates of mental health concerns as two to four times higher on anonymous surveys than on postdeployment health assessments. In this study, Soldiers presenting for health reassessment completed two questionnaires on suicide risk factors: one linked to the health assessment and one anonymous. About 5.1% of respondents reported suicide ideation on the anonymous questionnaire, 3.0% on the linked questionnaire, and 0.9% on the health reassessment. About 56.4% who reported suicide ideation anonymously told nobody of their thoughts...
December 15, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Kathy A Rasmussen, Deborah A King, Madelyn S Gould, Wendi Cross, Wan Tang, Kimberly Kaukeinen, Xin Tu, Kerry L Knox
When the Veterans Crisis Line (VCL) was implemented, it was uncertain if veterans, and particularly older male veterans, would utilize the service. We examined VCL use by a growing group of veterans at increased risk for suicide: those aged 60 and older. Real-time clinical data were gathered from a weekly random sampling of calls. Approximately 25% of calls were from veterans aged 60 or older; over 80% reported benefit from the call. Several significant differences in presenting concerns between older and younger callers were found...
December 9, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Murray B Stein, James A Naifeh, Matthew K Nock, Pablo A Aliaga, Carol S Fullerton, Gary H Wynn, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Hieu M Dinh, Nancy A Sampson, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Michael Schoenbaum, James E McCarroll, Kenneth L Cox, Steven G Heeringa
We used administrative data to examine predictors of medically documented suicide ideation (SI) among Regular Army soldiers from 2006 through 2009 (N = 10,466 ideators, 124,959 control person-months). Enlisted ideators (97.8% of all cases) were more likely than controls to be female, younger, older when entering service, less educated, never or previously deployed, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Officer ideators were more likely than controls to be female, younger, younger when entering service, never married, and have a recent mental health diagnosis...
November 29, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Kai-Cheng Huang, Dong-Sheng Tzeng, Chi-Hung Lin, Wei-Ching Chung
This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events...
November 24, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Victor Buitron, Ryan M Hill, Jeremy W Pettit
A conceptual model in which the associations between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation, and between thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation, are moderated by mindfulness was examined. Participants were 218 undergraduates (mean age = 20.81) with moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Mindfulness significantly moderated the association between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation; participants with thoughts of burdensomeness experienced lower levels of suicide ideation if they were high, as opposed to low, in mindfulness...
November 24, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Stephanie S Daniel, David B Goldston, Alaattin Erkanli, Nicole Heilbron, Joseph C Franklin
This prospective, naturalistic study examined the association between major loss life experiences, other psychiatric risk factors (depression, hopelessness, and anxiety), and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) among adolescents followed through young adulthood for up to 14 years. Major loss life events were related to subsequent increases in STBs. Major loss life events were primarily related to increases in suicide ideation in the presence of lower levels of other risk factors. There was a bidirectional relationship between major losses and other risk factors...
November 10, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Michael D Anestis, Keyne C Law, Hyejin Jin, Claire Houtsma, Lauren R Khazem, Brittney L Assavedo
Current efforts at suicide prevention center largely on reducing suicidal desire among individuals hospitalized for suicidality or being treated for related psychopathology. Such efforts have yielded evidence-based treatments, and yet the national suicide rate has continued to climb. We propose that this disconnect is heavily influenced by an unmet need to consider population-level interventions aimed at reducing the capability for suicide. Drawing on lessons learned from other public health phenomena that have seen drastic declines in frequency in recent decades (HIV, lung cancer, motor vehicle accidents), we propose that current suicidality treatment efforts trail current suicidality theories in their lack of focus on the extent to which individuals thinking about suicide are capable of transitioning from ideation to attempt...
November 10, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Dan Reidenberg, Alan L Berman
It is axiomatic that the goal of suicide prevention is the prevention of suicide. Yet in spite of significant efforts to this end since the middle of the last century, and most notably in the last decade, the rate of suicide in the U.S. has not declined; rather, it has increased. To address this issue, Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE) brought together leading prevention specialists from other public health problems where successes have been achieved, representatives from countries where suicide rates have declined, and U...
November 10, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Joan Rosenbaum Asarnow, Michele Berk, Lily Zhang, Peter Wang, Lingqi Tang
This prospective study of suicidal emergency department (ED) patients (ages 10-18) examined the timing, cumulative probability, and predictors of suicide attempts through 18 months of follow-up. The cumulative probability of attempts was as follows: .15 at 6 months, .22 at 1 year, and .24 by 18 months. One attempt was fatal, yielding a death rate of .006. Significant predictors of suicide attempt risk included a suicide attempt at ED presentation (vs. suicidal ideation only), nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and low levels of delinquent symptoms...
November 3, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
John P Pestian, Michael Sorter, Brian Connolly, Kevin Bretonnel Cohen, Cheryl McCullumsmith, Jeffry T Gee, Louis-Philippe Morency, Stefan Scherer, Lesley Rohlfs
Death by suicide demonstrates profound personal suffering and societal failure. While basic sciences provide the opportunity to understand biological markers related to suicide, computer science provides opportunities to understand suicide thought markers. In this novel prospective, multimodal, multicenter, mixed demographic study, we used machine learning to measure and fuse two classes of suicidal thought markers: verbal and nonverbal. Machine learning algorithms were used with the subjects' words and vocal characteristics to classify 379 subjects recruited from two academic medical centers and a rural community hospital into one of three groups: suicidal, mentally ill but not suicidal, or controls...
November 3, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Mun Yee Kwan, Kathryn H Gordon, Darren L Carter, Allison M Minnich, Steffanie D Grossman
Suicide attempts and premature mortality due to suicide are elevated in people with eating disorders. Informed by the interpersonal theory of suicide, two studies examined the role of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in explaining the association between eating disorder symptoms and suicide risk. Results indicated that various eating disorder symptoms had an indirect effect on suicide risk through perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Targeting perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness may be useful for decreasing suicide risk among undergraduates with eating disorder symptoms...
November 3, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
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