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Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior

Megan S Chesin, Hanga Galfavy, Cemile Ceren Sonmez, Amanda Wong, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Barbara Stanley
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) prior to age 18 was evaluated as a risk factor for adulthood suicide attempt (SA). Archival data from 222 mood-disordered participants were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Participants with a youth SA were excluded. The hazards of SA among adult participants with a history of youth NSSI were twice than those of mood-disordered participants without youth NSSI (hazard ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.16-3.44, p = .01). Moreover, participants who had both youth and adult NSSI attempted suicide significantly earlier than participants who began NSSI as an adult...
February 17, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Julia E Marver, Hanga C Galfalvy, Ainsley K Burke, M Elizabeth Sublette, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Michael F Grunebaum
Social support is thought to protect against the risk of suicidal behavior in young people and late life, but less is known about the role of friendship in adults. We explored the effect of friendship on suicide attempt risk during 1-year follow-up of 132 adults presenting with major depressive episode (MDE). Items from the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report were used as an index of frequency and quality of recent friendship contacts. Survival methods tested associations of friendship with risk of suicide attempt, recurrent MDE, and related outcomes during follow-up...
February 17, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Brooke A Ammerman, Ross Jacobucci, Evan M Kleiman, Lauren L Uyeji, Michael S McCloskey
This study examined how age of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) onset relates to NSSI severity and suicidality using decision tree analyses (nonparametric regression models that recursively partition predictor variables to create groupings). Those with an earlier age of NSSI onset reported greater NSSI frequency, NSSI methods, and NSSI-related hospital visits. No significant splits were found for suicide ideation or attempts, although those with an earlier onset were more likely to have a suicide plan. Overall, findings suggest that onset of NSSI before age 12 is associated with more severe NSSI and may be a crucial age for prevention efforts...
February 3, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Tianyou Qiu, E David Klonsky, Daniel N Klein
Hopelessness is one of the most commonly cited risk factors for suicidal behaviors. However, several retrospective studies suggest that hopelessness, while strongly correlated with suicide ideation, does not distinguish attempters from ideators without attempts. This study is the first to utilize a prospective design to disambiguate the relationship of hopelessness to ideation versus attempts. Participants were 142 depressed patients followed up over 10 years. Hopelessness and suicidality (ideation and attempts) were assessed using validated questionnaires and structured interviews...
February 2, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Julie Cerel, Myfanwy Maple, Judy van de Venne, Melissa Brown, Melinda Moore, Chris Flaherty
Recent studies of people exposed to suicide point to a continuum of effects moderated by a perception of closeness to the deceased. We investigated the importance of perception of impact of the death on mental health outcomes of those exposed to suicide. Female sex, younger age, and multiple exposures to suicide were associated with greater risk for poorer outcomes. Suicide exposed with high impact was more likely to have depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, prolonged grief, and suicide ideation...
February 2, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Bridget B Matarazzo, Samantha A Farro, Melodi Billera, Jeri E Forster, Janet E Kemp, Lisa A Brenner
The Home-Based Mental Health Evaluation (HOME) program, which engages veterans in care following psychiatric hospitalization, was evaluated. Thirty-four veterans who participated in the HOME program were compared to 34 veterans from a matched archival control group on treatment engagement and implementation outcomes. Veterans who participated in the HOME program were significantly more likely to engage in care, engaged in care more quickly, and attended significantly more individual mental health appointments...
February 2, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Christopher M Bell, Josephine A Ridley, James C Overholser, Kevin Young, Alison Athey, Jennifer Lehmann, Kristie Phillips
In a sample of 114 military veterans with depression histories, perceived burden was related to depression symptoms and suicide attempt history. After accounting for perceived burden, sense of belonging was negatively related to depression. Among the areas of social support, family support was inversely related to both depression and suicide history. After accounting for family support, personal meaning from relationships and friend support were related to depression. The results of this study suggest that perceived burdensomeness may be a stronger determinant of suicidality than sense of belonging or social support...
January 17, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Chelsey M Hartley, Jeremy W Pettit, Daniel Castellanos
The empirical literature on the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents was reviewed. A narrative review of seven studies that met inclusion/exclusion criteria is followed by a preliminary meta-analysis to provide insight into the strength of the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors. Each of the seven studies reported a statistically significant association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors, including suicide, nonfatal suicide attempt, and suicide ideation...
January 3, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Michelle Torok, Alison Calear, Fiona Shand, Helen Christensen
Mass media campaigns are increasingly seen as an important part of suicide prevention; however, despite their popularity, their efficacy is not well understood. The current review aimed to address key knowledge gaps regarding how mass media campaigns can be optimized to prevent suicide, by looking at their global efficacy, and mechanisms related to successful outcomes. A systematic review of the international literature examined studies which evaluated mass media campaigns targeted at suicide prevention, where suicide behaviors (mortality, attempts) or suicide literacy (knowledge, attitudes, help-seeking) was identified as a primary outcome...
January 3, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Minoru Sawa, Hiraki Koishikawa, Yoneatsu Osaki
Suicide has a great impact on the individual whose life is lost and the bereaved family members. The risk of a suicide reattempt is particularly high during the first 12 months after a suicide attempt. In this cohort study, risk factors for a suicide reattempt were explored among 291 patients at suicide risk. Clinical and demographic data were collected from a Japanese primary care hospital. Past psychiatric history and multiple diagnoses were associated with suicide reattempts in both genders. Drug overdose, past psychiatric history, and the summer season were linked to suicide reattempts among males...
December 28, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Mark A Reger, Greg M Reger, Christina Krieg, Larry Pruitt, Derek J Smolenski, Nancy A Skopp, Nigel Bush
US Army suicide rates increased significantly in the last decade and have remained high. To inform future research hypotheses, Army suicide surveillance data (2012-2014) were compared to similar Army data for suicides from 1975 to 1982. Preliminary data suggest that suicide rates increased across most demographic groups, but may have decreased among divorced soldiers. Mental health utilization increased over time. Legal problems and physical health problems were identified in a higher percentage of cases in the recent data relative to the 1975-1982 era...
December 28, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Steven Stack, Ian R H Rockett
While suicide notes can offer insights into the causes of suicide and clues for prevention, there is disagreement regarding the degree to which note leavers are representative of the general population of suicides. Previous relevant research on the United States is marked by a series of limitations: small local samples, an over focus on demographic constructs, and lack of multivariable analysis. This study uses a large national sample, a wide range of predictor variables, and multivariable statistical techniques to estimate more reliable similarities and differences between note leavers and other suicides...
December 16, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Stephanie M Pennings, Joseph Finn, Claire Houtsma, Bradley A Green, Michael D Anestis
Prior studies examining posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters and the components of the interpersonal theory of suicide (ITS) have yielded mixed results, likely stemming in part from the use of divergent samples and measurement techniques. This study aimed to expand on these findings by utilizing a large military sample, gold standard ITS measures, and multiple PTSD factor structures. Utilizing a sample of 935 military personnel, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test the association between PTSD symptom clusters and the ITS variables...
December 16, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Lauren N Forrest, April R Smith
The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that combinations of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability lead to suicide ideation, planning, and attempting. We compared individuals with and without suicidality on thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, and compared a combined group of planners and attempters to ideators on fearlessness about death (one component of acquired capability). Individuals with suicidality had higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness than individuals without suicidality...
December 16, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Lucas Godoy Garraza, Simone Peart Boyce, Christine Walrath, David B Goldston, Richard McKeon
For more than a decade, the Garrett Lee Smith Youth Suicide Prevention Program has provided funding for community-based suicide prevention programs to states, tribes, and colleges across the United States. Recent studies provided evidence of the program's effectiveness in reducing suicide mortality and suicide attempts among youth. This study compares the cost of implementing the program with the estimated savings resulting from avoided hospitalization and emergency department visits associated with the averted suicide attempts...
December 16, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Steven D Vannoy, Bonnie K Andrews, David C Atkins, Katherine A Dondanville, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Alan L Peterson
Previous research in US Army Soldiers shows rates of mental health concerns as two to four times higher on anonymous surveys than on postdeployment health assessments. In this study, Soldiers presenting for health reassessment completed two questionnaires on suicide risk factors: one linked to the health assessment and one anonymous. About 5.1% of respondents reported suicide ideation on the anonymous questionnaire, 3.0% on the linked questionnaire, and 0.9% on the health reassessment. About 56.4% who reported suicide ideation anonymously told nobody of their thoughts...
December 15, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Kathy A Rasmussen, Deborah A King, Madelyn S Gould, Wendi Cross, Wan Tang, Kimberly Kaukeinen, Xin Tu, Kerry L Knox
When the Veterans Crisis Line (VCL) was implemented, it was uncertain if veterans, and particularly older male veterans, would utilize the service. We examined VCL use by a growing group of veterans at increased risk for suicide: those aged 60 and older. Real-time clinical data were gathered from a weekly random sampling of calls. Approximately 25% of calls were from veterans aged 60 or older; over 80% reported benefit from the call. Several significant differences in presenting concerns between older and younger callers were found...
December 9, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Murray B Stein, James A Naifeh, Matthew K Nock, Pablo A Aliaga, Carol S Fullerton, Gary H Wynn, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Hieu M Dinh, Nancy A Sampson, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Michael Schoenbaum, James E McCarroll, Kenneth L Cox, Steven G Heeringa
We used administrative data to examine predictors of medically documented suicide ideation (SI) among Regular Army soldiers from 2006 through 2009 (N = 10,466 ideators, 124,959 control person-months). Enlisted ideators (97.8% of all cases) were more likely than controls to be female, younger, older when entering service, less educated, never or previously deployed, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Officer ideators were more likely than controls to be female, younger, younger when entering service, never married, and have a recent mental health diagnosis...
November 29, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Kai-Cheng Huang, Dong-Sheng Tzeng, Chi-Hung Lin, Wei-Ching Chung
This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events...
November 24, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Victor Buitron, Ryan M Hill, Jeremy W Pettit
A conceptual model in which the associations between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation, and between thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation, are moderated by mindfulness was examined. Participants were 218 undergraduates (mean age = 20.81) with moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Mindfulness significantly moderated the association between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation; participants with thoughts of burdensomeness experienced lower levels of suicide ideation if they were high, as opposed to low, in mindfulness...
November 24, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
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