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Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior

Michelle E Roley-Roberts, Melissa J Zielinski, Gabriela Hurtado, Joseph D Hovey, Jon D Elhai
Research into factors for suicide has revealed relations between trauma exposure and suicidality (e.g., Bridge, Goldstein, & Brent, ; Joiner, Sachs-Ericson, Wingate, Brown, Anestis, & Selby, ) wherein painful and provocative experiences (e.g., nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) are an important link (e.g., Van Orden, Witte, Cukrowicz, Braithwaite, Selby, & Joiner, ; Smith, ). No prior research has assessed the relationship between functions of NSSI and suicidality among childhood trauma survivors. Participants who endorsed childhood trauma exposure (N = 121; Mage  = 18...
October 21, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Fredrick E Vars, Cheryl B McCullumsmith, Richard C Shelton, Karen L Cropsey
The study goal was to determine whether a significant number of high suicide risk individuals would confidentially put their own names onto a list to prevent future gun purchases. An anonymous written survey was administered in an inpatient psychiatric unit and two outpatient psychiatric clinics at an academic medical center. Two hundred forty individuals were approached to fill out the survey, of whom 200 (83.3%) did so. Forty-six percent of participants stated that they would put their own name onto the list...
October 5, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Hyungjin Myra Kim, Debra Siegel Levine, Paul N Pfeiffer, Adrian J Blow, Christopher Marchiondo, Heather Walters, Marcia Valenstein
National Guard (NG) soldiers returning from deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan were surveyed at 6 and 12 months following their return (N = 970). The overall prevalence of suicide risk at 6 and 12 months following their return was assessed, as were changes in suicide risk among soldiers initially at high or low risk. Factors associated with changes in risk were assessed. The percentage of NG soldiers with high suicide risk increased from 6.8% at 6 months to 9.2% at 12 months (odds ratio = 1.7, p = ...
October 5, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Yeunjoo Chung, Elizabeth L Jeglic
Detecting suicide risk among nonclinical populations is challenging due to low base rates and the help-negation tendency of at-risk individuals. The current longitudinal study investigated the predictive validity of the modified emotional Stroop task (EST) by conducting a follow-up study of 197 students who participated in a study by Chung and Jeglic (2016). The EST latencies for suicide-related cues and past suicidal behaviors were the only significant predictors of suicide risk. The findings of this study provide preliminary support for the use of the EST as part of a suicide risk screening battery that could add to the detection of suicide risk...
September 23, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Claire M Peterson, Abigail Matthews, Emily Copps-Smith, Lee Ann Conard
Prevalence of suicide attempts, self-injurious behaviors, and associated psychosocial factors were examined in a clinical sample of transgender (TG) adolescents and emerging adults (n = 96). Twenty-seven (30.3%) TG youth reported a history of at least one suicide attempt and 40 (41.8%) reported a history of self-injurious behaviors. There was a higher frequency of suicide attempts in TG youth with a desire for weight change, and more female-to-male youth reported a history of suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors than male-to-female youth...
August 19, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Philip Osteen, Jodi M Frey, MaKenna N Woods, Jungyai Ko, Stacey Shipe
The purpose of this study was to use a longitudinal path analysis to test attitudes toward suicide prevention, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions as mediators/moderators of clinical skill development over time following suicide intervention training. Results support a direct effect of attitudes on practice behaviors and self-efficacy, but no moderating effect. Self-efficacy performed as a mediator of practice behaviors over time. Behavioral intention had a direct effect on practice behaviors and mediated the relationship between attitudes and practice behaviors...
August 19, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Jan K Mokkenstorm, Merijn Eikelenboom, Annemiek Huisman, Jasper Wiebenga, Renske Gilissen, Ad J F M Kerkhof, Johannes H Smit
Recognizing the importance of digital communication, major suicide prevention helplines have started offering crisis intervention by chat. To date there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of crisis chat services. To evaluate the reach and outcomes of the 113Online volunteer-operated crisis chat service, 526 crisis chat logs were studied, replicating the use of measures that were developed to study telephone crisis calls. Reaching a relatively young population of predominantly females with severe suicidality and (mental) health problems, chat outcomes for this group were found to be comparable to those found for crisis calls to U...
August 19, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Mark A Reger, Derek J Smolenski, Nancy A Skopp, Melinda J Metzger-Abamukong, Han K Kang, Tim A Bullman, Gregory A Gahm
The association between suicide and combat injuries sustained during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan was examined. A retrospective population-based cohort design was conducted using official military records to identify combat injuries (October 7, 2001, to December 31, 2007). Those who were injured during combat had higher crude suicide rates than those who deployed and were not injured (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.50; confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 2.12), or never deployed (IRR = 1.46; CI = 1...
August 5, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Maria Zetterqvist
Nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) is a condition in need of further study to assess the validity of the potential diagnosis and its suggested criteria. This study examined the NSSID diagnosis and investigated the distress/impairment criterion by comparing community adolescents who met all criteria for NSSID (n = 186) to adolescents with five or more nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) episodes (n = 314), and to a group of adolescents who met all criteria but negated that their NSSI caused them any distress or impairment, thus failing to meet criterion E (n = 29)...
August 2, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Kevin D Hochard, Nadja Heym, Ellen Townsend
Heightened arousal significantly interacts with acquired capability to predict suicidality. We explore this interaction with insomnia and nightmares independently of waking state arousal symptoms, and test predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS) and Escape Theory in relation to these sleep arousal symptoms. Findings from our e-survey (n = 540) supported the IPTS over models of Suicide as Escape. Sleep-specific measurements of arousal (insomnia and nightmares) showed no main effect, yet interacted with acquired capability to predict increased suicidality...
August 2, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Alexander J Millner, Michael D Lee, Matthew K Nock
To die by suicide, one must think about suicide, make a plan, and then carry it out. Prior research has examined the presence and predictors of these outcomes; however, virtually no studies have characterized how these steps unfold along the pathway to suicide. A novel instrument was administered to 30 recent suicide attempters. Results revealed that although the median onset for suicidal ideation occurs 1 to 5 years prior to attempting, the median for 6 of the 10 steps measured was within 6 hours of attempting...
August 1, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Yuh Ohtaki, Yuichi Oi, Shotaro Doki, Hidetoshi Kaneko, Kazuya Usami, Shinichiro Sasahara, Ichiyo Matsuzaki
Hotline callers do not always have suicidal ideation and previous studies have noted that the rate of such callers is limited. Crisis hotline counselors must be able to identify high-risk callers in order to provide appropriate support. This study investigated the characteristics of Japanese crisis hotline callers in 2012 (N = 541,694) and is the first to analyze crisis hotline data for all parts of Japan over 1 year. About 14% of the callers had suicidal ideation and 6% had a history of attempted suicide...
August 1, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Anna B Flynn, Renee M Johnson, Shay-Lee Bolton, Ramin Mojtabai
Higher rates of attempted suicide have been documented among people who identify themselves as gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) compared with heterosexuals. This study sought to ascertain the association between childhood abuse and neglect and attempted suicide, comparing LGBs and heterosexuals. Childhood sexual abuse among men and childhood sexual and physical abuse among women were found to mediate the association between LGB identity and attempted suicide. The experience of childhood abuse likely plays a significant role in the relationship between LGB identity and attempted suicide, but other factors such as experience of discrimination are also important...
August 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Elizabeth Karras, Naiji Lu, Guoxin Zuo, Xin M Tu, Brady Stephens, John Draper, Caitlin Thompson, Robert M Bossarte
Campaigns have become popular in public health approaches to suicide prevention; however, limited empirical investigation of their impact on behavior has been conducted. To address this gap, utilization patterns of crisis support services associated with the Department of Veterans Affairs' Veterans Crisis Line (VCL) suicide prevention campaign were examined. Daily call data for the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, VCL, and 1-800-SUICIDE were modeled using a novel semi-varying coefficient method. Analyses reveal significant increases in call volume to both targeted and broad resources during the campaign...
August 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Katie Dhingra, Daniel Boduszek, E David Klonsky
Latent class analysis was applied to the sample data to identify homogenous subtypes or classes of self-injurious thoughts and behavior (SITB) based on indicators indexing suicide ideation, suicide gesture, suicide attempt, thoughts of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and NSSI behavior. Analyses were based on a sample of 1,809 healthy adults. Associations between the emergent latent classes and demographic, psychological, and clinical characteristics were assessed. Two clinically relevant subtypes were identified, in addition to a class who reported few SITBs, and were labeled as follows: low SITBs (25...
August 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Neal Doran, Sharon De Peralta, Colin Depp, Ben Dishman, Lindsay Gold, Robert Marshall, Dawn Miller, Shannon Vitale, Maria Tiamson-Kassab
Suicide risk among military veterans is an important and ongoing concern. The Veterans Administration (VA) mandates suicide risk screening of all veterans seen for mental health issues, but little is known about the effectiveness of this screening. A retrospective chart review to examine all suicide risk screens at VA San Diego between October and December 2012 (n = 3,365) was conducted to assess whether results were associated with suicidal behavior over the subsequent 12 months. Patients judged to be at increased risk for suicide were 3 to 16 times more likely to attempt suicide and 7 to 25 times more likely to engage in self-directed violence over the next 12 months compared with others...
August 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Philip Baiden, Esme Fuller-Thomson
The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with complete mental health among Canadians who had ever seriously considered suicide. Data for this study were obtained from Statistics Canada's 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (N = 2,844). The outcome variable examined in this study was complete mental health and was analyzed using binary logistic regression. Of the 2,844 respondents with lifetime suicidal ideation, 1,088 (38.2%) had complete mental health (i.e., had flourishing mental health, no mental illness, and no suicidal ideation in the past 12 months)...
August 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Nancy A Skopp, Derek J Smolenski, Sean C Sheppard, Nigel E Bush, David D Luxton
A clearer understanding of risk factors for suicidal behavior among soldiers is of principal importance to military suicide prevention. It is unclear whether soldiers who attempt suicide and those who die by suicide have different patterns of risk factors. As such, preventive efforts aimed toward reducing suicide attempts and suicides, respectively, may require different strategies. We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to examine classes of risk factors among suicide attempters (n = 1,433) and decedents (n = 424)...
August 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Anthony Fulginiti, Rohini Pahwa, Laura M Frey, Eric Rice, John S Brekke
Nondisclosure of suicidal thoughts limits suicide risk management. Consistent with disclosure models for other stigmatized statuses, understanding suicidal disclosure requires accounting for features of the discloser (individual factors) and the discloser-recipient relationship (relational factors). In a sample of 30 adults with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder (Level 2) who nominated 436 social network members (Level 1), we examined disclosure patterns and identified individual and relational correlates of disclosure intent...
August 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Liat Itzhaky, Golan Shahar, Daniel Stein, Silvana Fennig
We examined the role of depressive traits-self-criticism and dependency-in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation among inpatient adolescents with eating disorders. In two studies (N = 103 and 55), inpatients were assessed for depressive traits, suicidal ideations, and NSSI. In Study 2, motivation for carrying out NSSI was also assessed. In both studies, depression predicted suicidal ideation and self-criticism predicted NSSI. In Study 2, depression and suicidal ideation also predicted NSSI...
August 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
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