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Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior

Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Murray B Stein, James A Naifeh, Matthew K Nock, Pablo A Aliaga, Carol S Fullerton, Gary H Wynn, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Hieu M Dinh, Nancy A Sampson, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Michael Schoenbaum, James E McCarroll, Kenneth L Cox, Steven G Heeringa
We used administrative data to examine predictors of medically documented suicide ideation (SI) among Regular Army soldiers from 2006 through 2009 (N = 10,466 ideators, 124,959 control person-months). Enlisted ideators (97.8% of all cases) were more likely than controls to be female, younger, older when entering service, less educated, never or previously deployed, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Officer ideators were more likely than controls to be female, younger, younger when entering service, never married, and have a recent mental health diagnosis...
November 29, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Kai-Cheng Huang, Dong-Sheng Tzeng, Chi-Hung Lin, Wei-Ching Chung
This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events...
November 24, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Victor Buitron, Ryan M Hill, Jeremy W Pettit
A conceptual model in which the associations between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation, and between thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation, are moderated by mindfulness was examined. Participants were 218 undergraduates (mean age = 20.81) with moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Mindfulness significantly moderated the association between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation; participants with thoughts of burdensomeness experienced lower levels of suicide ideation if they were high, as opposed to low, in mindfulness...
November 24, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Stephanie S Daniel, David B Goldston, Alaattin Erkanli, Nicole Heilbron, Joseph C Franklin
This prospective, naturalistic study examined the association between major loss life experiences, other psychiatric risk factors (depression, hopelessness, and anxiety), and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) among adolescents followed through young adulthood for up to 14 years. Major loss life events were related to subsequent increases in STBs. Major loss life events were primarily related to increases in suicide ideation in the presence of lower levels of other risk factors. There was a bidirectional relationship between major losses and other risk factors...
November 10, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Michael D Anestis, Keyne C Law, Hyejin Jin, Claire Houtsma, Lauren R Khazem, Brittney L Assavedo
Current efforts at suicide prevention center largely on reducing suicidal desire among individuals hospitalized for suicidality or being treated for related psychopathology. Such efforts have yielded evidence-based treatments, and yet the national suicide rate has continued to climb. We propose that this disconnect is heavily influenced by an unmet need to consider population-level interventions aimed at reducing the capability for suicide. Drawing on lessons learned from other public health phenomena that have seen drastic declines in frequency in recent decades (HIV, lung cancer, motor vehicle accidents), we propose that current suicidality treatment efforts trail current suicidality theories in their lack of focus on the extent to which individuals thinking about suicide are capable of transitioning from ideation to attempt...
November 10, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Dan Reidenberg, Alan L Berman
It is axiomatic that the goal of suicide prevention is the prevention of suicide. Yet in spite of significant efforts to this end since the middle of the last century, and most notably in the last decade, the rate of suicide in the U.S. has not declined; rather, it has increased. To address this issue, Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE) brought together leading prevention specialists from other public health problems where successes have been achieved, representatives from countries where suicide rates have declined, and U...
November 10, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Joan Rosenbaum Asarnow, Michele Berk, Lily Zhang, Peter Wang, Lingqi Tang
This prospective study of suicidal emergency department (ED) patients (ages 10-18) examined the timing, cumulative probability, and predictors of suicide attempts through 18 months of follow-up. The cumulative probability of attempts was as follows: .15 at 6 months, .22 at 1 year, and .24 by 18 months. One attempt was fatal, yielding a death rate of .006. Significant predictors of suicide attempt risk included a suicide attempt at ED presentation (vs. suicidal ideation only), nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and low levels of delinquent symptoms...
November 3, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
John P Pestian, Michael Sorter, Brian Connolly, Kevin Bretonnel Cohen, Cheryl McCullumsmith, Jeffry T Gee, Louis-Philippe Morency, Stefan Scherer, Lesley Rohlfs
Death by suicide demonstrates profound personal suffering and societal failure. While basic sciences provide the opportunity to understand biological markers related to suicide, computer science provides opportunities to understand suicide thought markers. In this novel prospective, multimodal, multicenter, mixed demographic study, we used machine learning to measure and fuse two classes of suicidal thought markers: verbal and nonverbal. Machine learning algorithms were used with the subjects' words and vocal characteristics to classify 379 subjects recruited from two academic medical centers and a rural community hospital into one of three groups: suicidal, mentally ill but not suicidal, or controls...
November 3, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Mun Yee Kwan, Kathryn H Gordon, Darren L Carter, Allison M Minnich, Steffanie D Grossman
Suicide attempts and premature mortality due to suicide are elevated in people with eating disorders. Informed by the interpersonal theory of suicide, two studies examined the role of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in explaining the association between eating disorder symptoms and suicide risk. Results indicated that various eating disorder symptoms had an indirect effect on suicide risk through perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Targeting perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness may be useful for decreasing suicide risk among undergraduates with eating disorder symptoms...
November 3, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
James A Naifeh, Matthew K Nock, Robert J Ursano, Patti L Vegella, Pablo A Aliaga, Carol S Fullerton, Ronald C Kessler, Christina L Wryter, Steven G Heeringa, Murray B Stein
This prospective cohort study used administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to examine associations between neurocognitive functioning and subsequent suicidal events among Regular Army enlisted soldiers during the years 2004-2009. Cases were all soldiers who completed the Army's Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) computerized testing battery prior to documented suicide attempt (n = 607), ideation (n = 955), or death (n = 57). Controls were an equal-probability sample of 9,893 person-months from other soldiers...
November 1, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Myfanwy Maple, Julie Cerel, Rebecca Sanford, Tania Pearce, Jack Jordan
Suicide bereavement and postvention literature often espouses risk for subsequent suicidal behavior among those previously exposed to a suicide death. Most often risk is discussed in relation to kin; however, many more individuals are exposed to suicide, and the impact of this exposure is important to understand in relation to targeting postvention. This review examined the research literature (1990-2014) to determine the evidence base for risk among those exposed to suicide. The findings demonstrate that risk of suicidal behaviors among those exposed to the suicide is significantly higher than those unexposed...
October 27, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Michelle E Roley-Roberts, Melissa J Zielinski, Gabriela Hurtado, Joseph D Hovey, Jon D Elhai
Research into factors for suicide has revealed relations between trauma exposure and suicidality (e.g., Bridge, Goldstein, & Brent, ; Joiner, Sachs-Ericson, Wingate, Brown, Anestis, & Selby, ) wherein painful and provocative experiences (e.g., nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) are an important link (e.g., Van Orden, Witte, Cukrowicz, Braithwaite, Selby, & Joiner, ; Smith, ). No prior research has assessed the relationship between functions of NSSI and suicidality among childhood trauma survivors. Participants who endorsed childhood trauma exposure (N = 121; Mage  = 18...
October 21, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Fredrick E Vars, Cheryl B McCullumsmith, Richard C Shelton, Karen L Cropsey
The study goal was to determine whether a significant number of high suicide risk individuals would confidentially put their own names onto a list to prevent future gun purchases. An anonymous written survey was administered in an inpatient psychiatric unit and two outpatient psychiatric clinics at an academic medical center. Two hundred forty individuals were approached to fill out the survey, of whom 200 (83.3%) did so. Forty-six percent of participants stated that they would put their own name onto the list...
October 5, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Hyungjin Myra Kim, Debra Siegel Levine, Paul N Pfeiffer, Adrian J Blow, Christopher Marchiondo, Heather Walters, Marcia Valenstein
National Guard (NG) soldiers returning from deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan were surveyed at 6 and 12 months following their return (N = 970). The overall prevalence of suicide risk at 6 and 12 months following their return was assessed, as were changes in suicide risk among soldiers initially at high or low risk. Factors associated with changes in risk were assessed. The percentage of NG soldiers with high suicide risk increased from 6.8% at 6 months to 9.2% at 12 months (odds ratio = 1.7, p = ...
October 5, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Yeunjoo Chung, Elizabeth L Jeglic
Detecting suicide risk among nonclinical populations is challenging due to low base rates and the help-negation tendency of at-risk individuals. The current longitudinal study investigated the predictive validity of the modified emotional Stroop task (EST) by conducting a follow-up study of 197 students who participated in a study by Chung and Jeglic (2016). The EST latencies for suicide-related cues and past suicidal behaviors were the only significant predictors of suicide risk. The findings of this study provide preliminary support for the use of the EST as part of a suicide risk screening battery that could add to the detection of suicide risk...
September 23, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Elsa Ronningstam, Mark Goldblatt, Mark Schechter, Benjamin Herbstman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Nathan A Kimbrel, Michelle L Pennington, Claire M Cammarata, Frank Leto, William J Ostiguy, Suzy B Gulliver
The association between cumulative exposure to suicide attempts and deaths and suicidal behavior was examined in a sample of 61 professional firefighters. On average, firefighters reported 13.1 (SD = 16.6) exposures over the course of their lifetime. Cumulative exposure to suicide attempts and deaths was positively correlated with suicidal behavior (r = .38, p = .004). Moreover, firefighters with 12+ exposures were more likely to screen positive for risk of suicidal behavior (OR = 7.885, p = .02)...
December 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Ivan W Miller, Brandon A Gaudiano, Lauren M Weinstock
A description of and pilot data for a new adjunctive intervention designed to reduce suicidal behavior among high-risk individuals are presented. The Coping Long Term with Active Suicide Program (CLASP) has three major components: (1) three individual, in-person meetings, (2) one significant other/family meeting, and (3) 11 brief (15-30 minute) phone contacts with the patient and his/her significant other. Open trial and pilot randomized trial data provide preliminary evidence that CLASP is a feasible, acceptable, and efficacious intervention to reduce suicidal behavior...
December 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Rachel L Zelkowitz, David A Cole, Gloria T Han, Andrew J Tomarken
This study assessed the incremental utility of emotion reactivity and emotion regulation in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 379 college students aged 18-22 who completed self-report measures of emotion regulation, emotion reactivity, and NSSI. Emotion regulation was significantly related to NSSI both ignoring and controlling for reactivity, but the reverse was not true. Participants' use of NSSI for affect regulation appeared to moderate this relation. Findings support emotion regulation deficits as a target for intervention over and above heightened emotion reactivity, especially in those who use NSSI to regulate negative affect...
October 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Laura M Thornton, Elisabeth Welch, Melissa A Munn-Chernoff, Paul Lichtenstein, Cynthia M Bulik
The extent to which genetic and environmental factors influenced anorexia nervosa (AN), major depressive disorder (MDD), and suicide attempts (SA) were evaluated. Participants were 6,899 women from the Swedish Twin Study of Adults: Genes and Environment. A Cholesky decomposition assessed independent and overlapping genetic and environmental contributions to AN, MDD, and SA. Genetic factors accounted for a substantial amount of liability to all three traits; unique environmental factors accounted for most of the remaining liability...
October 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
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