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Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior

Christopher R DeCou, Matthew E Schumann
Previous studies have failed to detect an iatrogenic effect of assessing suicidality. However, the perception that asking about suicide may induce suicidality persists. This meta-analysis quantitatively synthesized research concerning the iatrogenic risks of assessing suicidality. This review included studies that explicitly evaluated the iatrogenic effects of assessing suicidality via prospective research methods. Thirteen articles were identified that met inclusion criteria. Evaluation of the pooled effect of assessing suicidality with regard to negative outcomes did not demonstrate significant iatrogenic effects...
July 5, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Fallon B Ringer, Michael D Anestis
Suicide is ranked as the tenth leading cause of death for all ages in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide stated thwarted belongingness-the feeling of being alienated from others-and perceived burdensomeness-the feeling of being a liability to others-are the primary proximal factors leading to suicidal desire. The current study focused on thwarted belongingness and examined its relationship to face-to-face interactions and online interactions in both an undergraduate and community sample...
July 5, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Carl Hogstedt, Yvonne Forsell, Tomas Hemmingsson, Ingvar Lundberg, Andreas Lundin
Mental disorders in the general population are associated with increased risk of suicidality, but less is known about the independent predictive ability of self-reported psychological symptoms. We followed 49,321 screened and interviewed Swedish conscripts through 36-year follow-up to test whether psychological symptoms predicted suicide and hospitalization for suicide attempts. There were 619 suicides and 1,230 suicide attempts during the follow-up period. After excluding subjects with any psychiatric diagnoses (n = 5,691, 12%) and controlling for other psychological symptoms, severe symptoms of anger, trouble falling asleep, and feeling down predicted suicide...
June 26, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Brian Draper, Karolina Krysinska, John Snowdon, Diego De Leo
Based on psychological autopsy data, the study compared awareness of suicide risk in the deceased among next-of-kin (NOK) and health care professionals (HCPs), and communication between these two groups in the month before death. The NOKs had significantly more knowledge about the decedent's suicide warning signs than the HCPs (90.5% vs. 44.6%). Contact between NOK and HCP was initiated more often by the family than the HCPs (29.4% vs. 5.9%). The study found communication gaps between HCPs and NOK and stresses the need for suicide prevention strategies strengthening communication between these two groups...
June 22, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Alexander J Millner, Robert J Ursano, Irving Hwang, Andrew J King, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock
The current report presents data on lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and nonfatal attempts as reported by the large representative sample of U.S. Army soldiers who participated in the Consolidated All-Army Survey of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (N = 29,982). We also examine associations of key Army career characteristics with these outcomes. Prevalence estimates for lifetime suicide ideation are 12.7% among men and 20.1% among women, and for lifetime suicide attempts are 2...
June 20, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Fatemeh Ghorbani, Afsaneh Rahimi, Tayyebeh Farmahini Farahani, Parvane Sadat Vafaei Sani, Terry J Lewin, Gregory L Carter
Social influences on suicidal behaviors may be important but are less frequently studied than the influences of mental illness, physical illness, and demographic variables. Major international sporting events may have an impact on suicidal behaviors at the national and local level, an effect possibly mediated by gender and age. We examined the association of hospital-treated deliberate self-poisoning episodes (by gender and by age) in Tehran: before, during, and after the 2014 FIFA World Cup held in Brazil, in which the Iranian national team participated and was eliminated after the pool games...
June 13, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Craig J Bryan, M David Rudd
Research suggests that multiple suicide attempters experience considerable variability in suicide ideation and longer-duration suicidal crises, which suggests the possibility of two states of stability (one low risk and one high risk). To date, however, few studies have examined nonlinear change processes in suicide ideation among patients. In a sample of 76 active duty U.S. Army soldiers receiving brief cognitive behavioral therapy for acute suicide risk, we examined differences in the ebb and flow of suicide ideation among multiple attempters, first-time attempters, and ideators...
June 9, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Jang-Won Seo, Seok-Man Kwon
The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide proposes that the desire for suicide must be accompanied by the capability to do so in order for an individual to engage in suicidal behavior. The Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale-Fearlessness about Death (ACSS-FAD) measures fearlessness about death, a core component of the capability for suicide. This study aimed to validate a Korean version of the ACSS-FAD in a college student sample. We administered the ACSS-FAD and measures of suicide ideation, fear of suicide, death anxiety, pain anxiety, and depression in a sample of Korean college students (N = 301) and analyzed its reliability, factor structure, invariance across genders, convergent validity, and discriminant validity...
June 7, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Johannes Foss Sigurdson, Anne Mari Undheim, Jan Lance Wallander, Stian Lydersen, Anne Mari Sund
Longitudinal associations between being bullied during adolescence and suicide ideations, self-harm, and suicide attempts into young adulthood were examined. A large representative sample was examined in 1998 (N = 2,464, MA 13.7), 1999/2000, and 2012 to reassess the outcome measures. At all ages, bullied participants showed more suicide ideation, self-harm, and suicide attempts, regardless of gender. Bullied females showed a decrease in suicide ideation from adolescence to adulthood, while bullied males showed an increase in suicide attempts in the same time period...
June 5, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Valerie L Forman-Hoffman, Cristie Glasheen, Ty A Ridenour
This study tests the association between past-year residential transience (RT), substance use disorder (SUD), major depressive episode (MDE), and suicidal outcomes in a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized, civilian, community-dwelling adults who participated in the 2008-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. RT, SUD, and MDE were each significantly associated with suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts in models adjusted for each other and sociodemographic covariates. Because RT is independently associated with each suicidal outcome, even when there is no co-occurring SUD or MDE, assessment of RT should occur when screening for suicide...
May 24, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Chelsey R Wilks, Trevor N Coyle, Maya Krek, Anita Lungu, Kohjiro Andriani
Suicidal individuals are unlikely to engage in face-to-face treatment. The Internet is emerging as an innovative approach for intervention delivery, particularly for those unable or unwilling to attend traditional treatment. Participants (N = 459) were recruited to fill out online questionnaires on suicide ideation and help-seeking modality preference. The majority of participants endorsed preferring face-to-face help over web-based help. Results from multinominal logistic regression indicated that suicide ideation was significantly related to preferring online methods versus face-to-face methods...
May 20, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Caitlin L Williams, Tracy K Witte
We evaluated the effects of exposure to a suicide news article on a variety of outcome variables and whether adhering to one specific media guideline (i.e., including psychoeducational information and preventative resources) buffered any of the negative effects of exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three articles and then asked to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires. Overall, we found no effect of exposure to a suicide news article, regardless of the inclusion of resources and information, with a few minor exceptions...
May 15, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Katrina A Rufino, Thomas E Ellis
Although suicide treatment is an expanding area of research, there is relatively less in the literature with respect to how specific vulnerabilities to suicide are addressed by treatment. Utilizing measures of suicide cognitions, therapeutic alliance, and psychological flexibility, we compared their relative contributions to suicidal ideation during and posttreatment among a group of adult psychiatric inpatients (N = 434). Results revealed that cognitions contributed considerably more unique variance to suicidal ideation than alliance and flexibility at discharge and at 2 weeks postdischarge, and to change in suicidal ideation over the course of treatment...
May 9, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Benjamin Goodfellow, Kairi Kõlves, Diego de Leo
Addressing the lack of comparability of research results around the world, a systematic literature review of existing nomenclatures was conducted. After distinguishing the concepts of nomenclature and classification, 13 contributions to nomenclature of suicidal behavior are described and summarized using outcome and intent as guiding concepts for analysis. The issue of what is being defined in nomenclatures is fundamental and impacts the way intent and outcome are used. The existing confusion between classification and nomenclature stems from conflicting purposes of the nature of definition; that is, to communicate concepts versus to be descriptive of reality...
May 9, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Jan K Mokkenstorm, Merijn Eikelenboom, Annemiek Huisman, Jasper Wiebenga, Renske Gilissen, Ad J F M Kerkhof, Johannes H Smit
Recognizing the importance of digital communication, major suicide prevention helplines have started offering crisis intervention by chat. To date there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of crisis chat services. To evaluate the reach and outcomes of the 113Online volunteer-operated crisis chat service, 526 crisis chat logs were studied, replicating the use of measures that were developed to study telephone crisis calls. Reaching a relatively young population of predominantly females with severe suicidality and (mental) health problems, chat outcomes for this group were found to be comparable to those found for crisis calls to U...
June 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Maria Zetterqvist
Nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) is a condition in need of further study to assess the validity of the potential diagnosis and its suggested criteria. This study examined the NSSID diagnosis and investigated the distress/impairment criterion by comparing community adolescents who met all criteria for NSSID (n = 186) to adolescents with five or more nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) episodes (n = 314), and to a group of adolescents who met all criteria but negated that their NSSI caused them any distress or impairment, thus failing to meet criterion E (n = 29)...
June 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Kevin D Hochard, Nadja Heym, Ellen Townsend
Heightened arousal significantly interacts with acquired capability to predict suicidality. We explore this interaction with insomnia and nightmares independently of waking state arousal symptoms, and test predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS) and Escape Theory in relation to these sleep arousal symptoms. Findings from our e-survey (n = 540) supported the IPTS over models of Suicide as Escape. Sleep-specific measurements of arousal (insomnia and nightmares) showed no main effect, yet interacted with acquired capability to predict increased suicidality...
June 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Alexander J Millner, Michael D Lee, Matthew K Nock
To die by suicide, one must think about suicide, make a plan, and then carry it out. Prior research has examined the presence and predictors of these outcomes; however, virtually no studies have characterized how these steps unfold along the pathway to suicide. A novel instrument was administered to 30 recent suicide attempters. Results revealed that although the median onset for suicidal ideation occurs 1 to 5 years prior to attempting, the median for 6 of the 10 steps measured was within 6 hours of attempting...
June 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Kenneth L Cox, Matthew K Nock, Quinn M Biggs, Jennifer Bornemann, Lisa J Colpe, Catherine L Dempsey, Steven G Heeringa, James E McCarroll, Tsz Hin Ng, Michael Schoenbaum, Robert J Ursano, Bailey G Zhang, David M Benedek
Debate continues about the accuracy of military suicide reporting due to concerns that some suicides may be classified as accidents to minimize stigma and ensure survivor benefits. We systematically reviewed records for 998 active duty Army deaths (510 suicides; 488 accident, homicide, and undetermined deaths; 2005-2009) and, using research criteria, reclassified 8.2% of the nonsuicide cases to definite suicide (1), suicide probable (4), or suicide possible (35). The reclassification rate to definite suicide was only 0...
June 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Tina Podlogar, Janina Žiberna, Vita Poštuvan, David C R Kerr
The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) for assessing thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB) has not been validated with community adolescents. We translated and administered the INQ to 307 Slovenian adolescents twice over 2-3 months and found that the 15-item version (INQ-15) did not fit without modification. TB and PB scales correlated with concurrent and later suicide ideation and lifetime suicide attempt history. The latent PB factor was associated with concurrent and later ideation controlling for TB, age, gender, depressive symptoms, binge drinking, and peer victimization...
June 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
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