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Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior

Sean M Barnes, Lindsey L Monteith, Jeri E Forster, Sarra Nazem, Lauren M Borges, Kelly A Stearns-Yoder, Nazanin H Bahraini
The limitations of self-report confine clinicians' ability to accurately predict suicides and suicide attempts (SAs). Behavioral assessments (e.g., Death Implicit Association Test [IAT]) may be a means of supplementing self-report and clinician prediction. OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to build and test a predictive model of SAs that included established risk factors and measures of suicide risk, and Death IAT scores. The authors also sought to test the predictive validity of the SA model among subgroups of Veterans with and without PTSD...
September 11, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Colin Palmer, Charlotte Connor, Sunita Channa, Anna Lavis, Newman Leung, Nick Parsons, Max Birchwood
OBJECTIVE: Self-harm remains a serious public health concern; however, identifying adolescents at risk is challenging. While self-harm has been linked with difficulties in emotional regulation postinjury, comparatively little is known about how such difficulties may impact on the future development of self-harm behavior. METHODS: A total of 318 pupils aged 14-15 years completed measures on history of direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB), emotional regulation, depression, and anxiety at two time points across a six-month period...
September 3, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Sarah E Victor, Lori N Scott, Stephanie D Stepp, Tina R Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: To investigate near-term risk for self-injurious urges, we evaluated how within-person changes in internalizing and externalizing negative affect, as well as interpersonal rejection and criticism, impact subsequent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide urges in daily life. METHOD: Young adult women (N = 62) from an ongoing community cohort study with past-year self-injurious thoughts completed a 21-day ecological momentary assessment protocol. We used multilevel path analyses to model within-person effects of negative affect and interpersonal stress on subsequent suicide and NSSI urges within several hours...
August 29, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Brianna J Turner, J Sebastian Baglole, Alexander L Chapman, Kim L Gratz
OBJECTIVE: We used a daily diary to examine (1) the frequency of three types of NSSI thoughts and urges (fleeting thoughts, persistent thoughts, and intense urges), (2) the correlates of NSSI thought and urges within and across days, (3) strategies that aid in resisting NSSI thoughts and urges, and (4) the prospective association of daily NSSI thoughts and urges with NSSI behavior over 12 months. METHOD: Sixty adults (aged 18-35) completed a two-week daily diary and follow-ups every 3 months for one year...
August 26, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Elizabeth A Velkoff, April R Smith
OBJECTIVE: Several models of suicidal behavior posit that, to transition from suicidal ideation to attempting suicide, individuals must have an acquired capability for suicide (ACS), comprised of fearlessness about death (FAD) and pain tolerance. ACS is hypothesized to increase monotonically through exposure to painful and provocative experiences. However, recent research suggests that ACS can decrease, bringing into question the hypothesis of monotonic increase. This study examined the nature of change in ACS over time within a sample of patients with eating disorder (ED)...
August 20, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Gideon Becker, Israel Orbach, Mario Mikulincer, Maya Iohan, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman, Ariella Grossman-Giron
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we reexamine the mental pain-suicidality link in adolescence, by focusing on mental pain tolerance as a critical factor in explaining youth suicidal behavior. METHOD: In a series of three studies, participants completed measures of mental pain (tolerance and intensity), emotional regulation, depression, and suicidality. Study 1 included a nonclinical sample of 183 Israeli adolescents. Study 2 included a nonclinical sample of 139 Israeli adolescents, who completed additional measures of self-esteem, optimism, mindfulness, meaning in life, positive affectivity, and life satisfaction...
August 20, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Michael D Anestis, Samantha Daruwala, Daniel W Capron
OBJECTIVE: Means safety interventions are effective at reducing suicide rates. This study examined beliefs about firearm ownership or storage and suicide risk, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and openness to means safety. METHOD: A community sample of 107 American adult firearm owners (51.4% male; 82.2% White; m age = 37.46) completed a series of self-report questionnaires via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. RESULTS: Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that beliefs regarding firearm ownership or storage were associated with openness to means safety measures to prevent a suicide attempt by someone else, but not to prevent one's own suicide attempt...
August 17, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Lennart Reifels, Brian L Mishara, Luc Dargis, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Michael R Phillips, Jane Pirkis
OBJECTIVE: Pesticide ingestion is among the most commonly utilized means of suicide worldwide. Restricting access to pesticides at a local level is one strategy to address this major public health problem, but little is known about its effectiveness. We therefore conducted a systematic literature review to identify effective community-based suicide prevention approaches that involve restricting access to pesticides. METHOD: We searched Embase, Scopus, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PubMed for well-designed studies that reported on suicide-related outcomes (i...
August 13, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Adam G Horwitz, Ewa K Czyz, Johnny Berona, Cheryl A King
OBJECTIVE: Rumination is often cited as a risk factor for suicide, yet few studies of rumination have utilized clinical samples, and no studies have examined its prospective association with suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent and prospective associations of brooding and reflection (the two components of rumination) with suicide ideation and suicide attempts among a high-risk clinical sample. METHOD: Participants were 286 adolescents and young adults (77% Caucasian, 59% female) aged 13-25 seeking psychiatric emergency services...
August 11, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Kathryn M Roeder, David A Cole
OBJECTIVE: Based on Beck's hopelessness model (Beck, Kovacs, & Weissman, Journal of the American Medical Association, 234, 1975, 1146) and Joiner's (Why people die by suicide, 2005, Harvard University Press, Boston, MA) interpersonal theory of suicide, this study simultaneously examined three cognitive risk factors (hopelessness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness) as predictors of suicide ideation. METHOD: The study focused on high school and college students (ns = 192 and 142, respectively), assessed twice 4 months apart...
August 11, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Brian W Bauer, Rachel L Martin, Nicholas P Allan, Erin L Fink-Miller, Daniel W Capron
OBJECTIVE: The acquired capability for suicide (ACS) is one of the most important breakthroughs in suicide research. ACS refers to an individual's increased fearlessness about death over time from experiencing painful and provocative events (PPE) and is based on opponent-process theory-a habituation model. Few studies have investigated how ACS develops and found that ACS remained relatively stagnant. METHOD: This study sought to expand these findings by observing how ACS develops in two cross-sectional data sets involving high-risk nonclinical samples of physicians (n = 419) and veterinary students (n = 124)...
August 8, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Matt Drabenstott
OBJECTIVE: This paper advocates for a more robust sense of mattering into the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) constructs of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. According to IPTS, suicide is precipitated in part by the presence of these twin constructs. IPTS theorists rely on mattering, or feeling significant to others, to undergird theoretical constructs. This is not surprising, as mattering theorists herald "significance to others" as essential to one's will to live...
August 8, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Taylor Groth, Dana E Boccio
OBJECTIVE: This study examined psychologists' willingness to accept a new client into their private practice as a function of the client's clinical presentation (with or without overt suicidality). Psychologists' openness to working with a client at risk of suicide was evaluated in the context of potential barriers to treatment provision, such as practitioners' endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes, concerns over liability and inadequate training, and limited access to community resources...
August 8, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Nicole Streeb, Kotaro Shoji, Charles C Benight
OBJECTIVE: Suicide among firefighters is a critical mental health concern that remains under studied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) states that, to engage in lethal suicidal behaviors, an individual must possess thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and fearlessness about death (IPTS factors). Social cognitive theory may assist IPTS in explaining suicidal behavior. METHOD: Participants for the study were 216 volunteers and career firefighters...
August 6, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Edwin D Boudreaux, Derek P De Beurs, Tam H Nguyen, Brianna L Haskins, Celine Larkin, Bruce Barton
OBJECTIVE: Combine test theory with technology to develop brief, reliable suicide risk measures in the emergency department. METHODS: A computer adaptive test for suicide risk was built using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation and tested among the emergency department population. Data were analyzed from a sample of 1,350 patients in several Massachusetts emergency departments. The test was built as outlined by the National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System...
August 6, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Philip J Batterham, Jin Han, Alison L Calear, Josephine Anderson, Helen Christensen
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to (1) investigate levels and correlates of suicide stigma and suicide literacy in a sample of individuals attending a tertiary depression clinic in Australia (N = 287), with comparison to a community-based Australian sample (N = 1,410), and (2) validate measures of suicide stigma and literacy in a clinical sample. METHOD: Australian adults (N = 287) aged 18-78 years referred by their general practitioners for assessment at a psychiatric clinic for patients with difficult-to-treat mood disorders were recruited to complete a survey, including measures of suicide literacy, suicide stigma, mental health symptoms, and demographics...
August 6, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Ching-En Lin, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Li-Fen Chen, Wu-Chien Chien
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the risk of inpatient suicide in patients with schizophrenia during 2007-2013 and to determine putative risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a national population-based cohort study of 2,038 psychiatric inpatients in their first compulsory admission, matched with 8,152 controls who were voluntary inpatients. Only patients with schizophrenia were included in the study. We used data derived from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Database 2005, comprising 1 million beneficiaries randomly selected from the entire population of Taiwan...
August 6, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Devon LoParo, Ivonne Andrea Florez, Nakia Valentine, Dorian A Lamis
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether (1) behavioral health providers were more likely to implement best practices when they were more confident in their abilities, (2) number of suicide prevention trainings was positively associated with perceived confidence in abilities and implementation of evidence-based practices, and (3) specific trainings were more impactful than others on increasing providers' level of confidence and/or practices. METHOD: Providers (N = 137) at three rural community behavioral health centers who had opportunities to attend multiple suicide prevention trainings completed the Zero Suicide Workforce Survey, a measure to evaluate staff knowledge, practices, and confidence in caring for patients at risk of suicide...
August 2, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Eric Clapham, Robert Bodén, Lena Brandt, Erik G Jönsson, Shahram Bahmanyar, Anders Ekbom, Urban Ösby, Johan Reutfors
OBJECTIVE: To investigate suicide ideation and behavior as risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia during varying time periods. METHOD: Cases were 84 patients who died by suicide within 5 years from diagnosis in a source population of patients discharged for the first time from psychiatric hospitals in Stockholm County, Sweden, with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis. One control was individually matched with each suicide case. Data were retrieved from clinical records in a blind fashion...
August 2, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Christopher R DeCou, Jin Wang, Fredrick P Rivara, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar
OBJECTIVE: Trauma patients are at increased risk of suicidal behavior. The association between assault injury and subsequent suicidal behavior relative to unintentional injury remains under-studied. This study hypothesized that trauma patients with assault injuries would demonstrate greater risk of subsequent suicide attempt hospitalization compared to patients with unintentional injury. METHOD: Trauma patients hospitalized in Washington State were identified via administrative records...
August 2, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
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