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Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455292/effects-of-the-nicotinic-agonist-varenicline-nicotinic-antagonist-r-bpidi-and-dat-inhibitor-r-modafinil-on-co-use-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-in-female-p-rats
#1
Sarah E Maggio, Meredith A Saunders, Thomas A Baxter, Kimberly Nixon, Mark A Prendergast, Guangrong Zheng, Peter Crooks, Linda P Dwoskin, Rachel D Slack, Amy H Newman, Richard L Bell, Michael T Bardo
RATIONALE: Co-users of alcohol and nicotine are the largest group of polysubstance users worldwide. Commonalities in mechanisms of action for ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine proposes the possibility of developing a single pharmacotherapeutic to treat co-use. OBJECTIVES: Toward developing a preclinical model of co-use, female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained for voluntary EtOH drinking and i.v. nicotine self-administration in three phases: (1) EtOH alone (0 vs...
February 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455291/the-role-of-jackpot-stimuli-in-maladaptive-decision-making-dissociable-effects-of-d1-d2-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists
#2
Aaron P Smith, Rebecca S Hofford, Thomas R Zentall, Joshua S Beckmann
RATIONALE: Laboratory experiments often model risk through a choice between a large, uncertain (LU) reward against a small, certain (SC) reward as an index of an individual's risk tolerance. An important factor generally lacking from these procedures are reward-associated cues that may modulate risk preferences. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the addition of cues signaling 'jackpot' wins to LU choices would modulate risk preferences and if these cue effects were mediated by dopaminergic signaling...
February 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441422/mapping-brain-functional-alterations-in-betel-quid-chewers-using-resting-state-fmri-and-network-analysis
#3
Jun-Cheng Weng, Yu-Syuan Chou, Guo-Joe Huang, Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Ming-Chou Ho
RATIONALE: The World Health Organization regards betel quid (BQ) as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with its heavy use. BQ's possible effects of an enhanced reward system and disrupted inhibitory control may increase the likelihood of habitual substance use. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to employ resting-state fMRI to examine the hypothesized enhanced reward system (e.g., the basal forebrain system) and disrupted inhibitory control (e...
February 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427081/effects-of-tolcapone-and-bromocriptine-on-cognitive-stability-and-flexibility
#4
Ian G M Cameron, Deanna L Wallace, Ahmad Al-Zughoul, Andrew S Kayser, Mark D'Esposito
RATIONALE: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basal ganglia (BG) have been associated with cognitive stability and cognitive flexibility, respectively. We hypothesized that increasing PFC dopamine tone by administering tolcapone (a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor) to human subjects should promote stability; conversely, increasing BG dopamine tone by administering bromocriptine (a D2 receptor agonist) should promote flexibility. OBJECTIVE: We assessed these hypotheses by administering tolcapone, bromocriptine, and a placebo to healthy subjects who performed a saccadic eye movement task requiring stability and flexibility...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427080/amphetamine-primes-enhanced-motivation-toward-uncertain-choices-in-rats-with-genetic-alcohol-preference
#5
Ville Oinio, Mikko Sundström, Pia Bäckström, Johanna Uhari-Väänänen, Kalervo Kiianmaa, Atso Raasmaja, Petteri Piepponen
RATIONALE: Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. METHODS: In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427079/dopamine-and-response-selection-an-acute-phenylalanine-tyrosine-depletion-study
#6
Céline Ramdani, Franck Vidal, Alain Dagher, Laurence Carbonnell, Thierry Hasbroucq
The role of dopaminergic system in decision-making is well documented, and evidence suggests that it could play a significant role in response selection processes. The N-40 is a fronto-central event-related potential, generated by the supplementary motor areas (SMAs) and a physiological index of response selection processes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether infraclinical effects of dopamine depletion on response selection processes could be evidenced via alterations of the N-40. We obtained a dopamine depletion in healthy volunteers with the acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD) method which consists in decreasing the availability of dopamine precursors...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411070/saccharin-fading-is-not-required-for-the-acquisition-of-alcohol-self-administration-and-can-alter-the-dynamics-of-cue-alcohol-memory-reconsolidation
#7
Mickaël Puaud, Zofia Ossowska, Jordan Barnard, Amy L Milton
RATIONALE: Animal models of alcohol-seeking are useful for understanding alcohol addiction and for treatment development, but throughput in these models is limited by the extensive pretraining required to overcome the aversive taste of ethanol. Work by Augier et al. (Psychopharmacology 231: 4561-4568, 2014) indicates that Wistar rats will self-administer alcohol without water deprivation, exposure to sweetened ethanol solutions or intermittent access to ethanol. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We sought to replicate and extend the work of Augier et al...
February 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404643/baicalin-reverses-the-impairment-of-synaptogenesis-induced-by-dopamine-burden-via-the-stimulation-of-gabaar-trkb-interaction-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#8
Saidan Ding, Weishan Zhuge, Jiangnan Hu, Jianjing Yang, Xuebao Wang, Fangfang Wen, Chengde Wang, Qichuan Zhuge
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that D1 receptor (D1R) activation reduces GABAA receptor (GABAAR) current, and baicalin (BAI) displays therapeutic efficacy in diseases involving cognitive impairment. METHODS: We investigated the mechanisms by which BAI could improve DA-induced minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and co-immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: BAI did not induce toxicity on the primary cultured neurons...
February 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396617/resistance-exercise-decreases-heroin-self-administration-and-alters-gene-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-heroin-exposed-rats
#9
Mark A Smith, Gaylen E Fronk, Jean M Abel, Ryan T Lacy, Sarah E Bills, Wendy J Lynch
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies consistently report that aerobic exercise decreases drug self-administration and other forms of drug-seeking behavior; however, relatively few studies have examined other types of physical activity. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resistance exercise (i.e., strength training) on heroin self-administration and mRNA expression of genes known to mediate opioid reinforcement and addictive behavior in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of heroin-exposed rats...
February 2, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392373/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-as-a-biomarker-for-cognitive-recovery-in-acute-schizophrenia-12-week-results-from-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#10
Yi Zhang, Xinyu Fang, Weixing Fan, Wei Tang, Jun Cai, Lisheng Song, Chen Zhang
RATIONALE: It is generally accepted that impaired cognitive function is a core feature of schizophrenia. There is evidence for the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cognitive function. Olanzapine was reported to yield cognitive improvement in patients with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we performed a prospective, open-label, 12-week observation trial to investigate whether peripheral BDNF may represent a potential biomarker for the effect of cognitive improvement induced by olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia...
February 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392372/inhibiting-automatic-negative-social-responses-in-alcohol-intoxication-interactions-with-theory-of-mind-ability-and-level-of-task-guidance
#11
Emma G Johnson, Sarah Skromanis, Raimondo Bruno, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia A Honan
RATIONALE: Alcohol intoxication is associated with socially disinhibited behaviours that may reflect impaired social cognitive abilities that guide social behaviour. The effects of alcohol on social cognition and how this may contribute to disinhibited behaviour are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether intoxicated individuals could inhibit automatic negative responses to negative social information, whether these difficulties were reliant on theory of mind (ToM) ability and whether intoxicated individuals were able to adjust verbal responses when provided with guidelines about how to respond...
February 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392371/effect-of-intranasal-esketamine-on-cognitive-functioning-in-healthy-participants-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#12
Randall L Morrison, Maggie Fedgchin, Jaskaran Singh, Joop Van Gerven, Rob Zuiker, Kyoung Soo Lim, Peter van der Ark, Ewa Wajs, Liwen Xi, Peter Zannikos, Wayne C Drevets
BACKGROUND: The effect of intranasal esketamine on cognitive functioning in healthy participants is assessed in this study. METHODS: Twenty-four participants (19-49 years) were randomized to one of two treatment sequences in which either esketamine 84 mg or placebo was intranasally administered in a double-blind, two-period crossover design. Primary measures included five tests of Cogstate® computerized test battery assessed at 1 h predose and 40 min, 2, 4, and 6 h postdose...
February 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383396/differential-effects-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-receptor-antagonists-and-partial-agonists-on-contextual-fear-extinction-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#13
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Jessica M Tumolo, Courtney Cann, Thomas J Gould
RATIONALE: Numerous studies have attributed the psychopathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to maladaptive behavioral responses such as an inability to extinguish fear. While exposure therapies are mostly effective in treating these disorders by enhancing extinction learning, relapse of PTSD symptoms is common. Although several studies indicated a role for cholinergic transmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in anxiety and stress disorder symptomatology, very little is known about the specific contribution of nAChRs to fear extinction OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we examined the effects of inhibition and desensitization of α4β2 nAChRs via a full antagonist (Dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DhβE)) and two α4β2 nAChR partial-agonists (varenicline and sazetidine-A) on contextual fear extinction, locomotor activity, and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear in mice...
January 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423710/intravenous-cocaine-self-administration-in-a-panel-of-inbred-mouse-strains-differing-in-acute-locomotor-sensitivity-to-cocaine
#14
Amanda J Roberts, Linzy Casal, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Trey Thompson, Lisa M Tarantino
RATIONALE: Initial sensitivity to drugs of abuse often predicts subsequent use and abuse, but this relationship is not always observed in human studies. Moreover, studies examining the relationship between initial locomotor sensitivity and the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs in animal models have also been equivocal. Understanding the relationship between initial drug effects and propensity to continue use, potentially resulting in the development of a substance use disorder, may help to identify key targets for prevention and treatment...
January 29, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374305/effects-of-nicotine-self-administration-on-incentive-salience-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Paula F Overby, Carter W Daniels, Armani Del Franco, Julianna Goenaga, Gregory L Powell, Cassandra D Gipson, Federico Sanabria
RATIONALE: Prolonged use of nicotine appears to enhance incentive salience, a motivational-cognitive process that transforms an otherwise neutral stimulus into a "wanted" stimulus. It has been suggested that nicotinic enhancement of incentive salience contributes to the potential of relapse in individuals with tobacco addiction. However, there are two main limitations of prior research that caution this claim: (a) the use of passive experimentally delivered nicotine and (b) the use of sign-tracking as an index of incentive salience, without acknowledging the competing nature of goal- and sign-tracking responses...
January 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374304/differences-in-trait-impulsivity-do-not-bias-the-response-to-pharmacological-drug-challenge-in-the-rat-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#16
Rebecca L Barlow, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
RATIONALE: Maladaptive impulsivity is symptomatic of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance abuse disorders; paradigms designed to assess the underlying neurobiology of this behavior are essential for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Various models may be used to assess impulsivity as measured by the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), including variable inter-trial interval (ITI) sessions, the selection of extreme high and low impulsivity phenotypes from a large outbred population of rats, as well as pharmacological challenges...
January 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374303/negative-allosteric-modulation-of-alpha-5-containing-gabaa-receptors-engenders-antidepressant-like-effects-and-selectively-prevents-age-associated-hyperactivity-in-tau-depositing-mice
#17
Nina Z Xu, Margot Ernst, Marco Treven, Rok Cerne, Mark Wakulchik, Xia Li, Timothy M Jones, Scott D Gleason, Denise Morrow, Jeffrey M Schkeryantz, Md Toufiqur Rahman, Guanguan Li, Michael M Poe, James M Cook, Jeffrey M Witkin
RATIONALE: Associated with frank neuropathology, patients with Alzheimer's disease suffer from a host of neuropsychiatric symptoms that include depression, apathy, agitation, and aggression. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of α5-containing GABAA receptors have been suggested to be a novel target for antidepressant action. We hypothesized that pharmacological modulation of this target would engender increased motivation in stressful environments. METHODS: We utilized electrophysiological recordings from Xenopus oocytes and behavioral measures in mice to address this hypothesis...
January 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354872/self-administered-nicotine-increases-fat-metabolism-and-suppresses-weight-gain-in-male-rats
#18
Laura E Rupprecht, Alison D Kreisler, Samantha R Spierling, Giordano de Guglielmo, Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George, Eric C Donny, Eric P Zorrilla, Alan F Sved
RATIONALE: The ability of nicotine to suppress body weight is cited as a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit. Self-administered nicotine in male rats suppresses weight independent of food intake, suggesting that nicotine increases energy expenditure. OBJECTIVE: The current experiment evaluated the impact of self-administered nicotine on metabolism in rats using indirect calorimetry and body composition analysis. METHODS: Adult male rats with ad libitum access to powdered standard rodent chow self-administered intravenous infusions of nicotine (60 μg/kg/infusion or saline control) in daily 1-h sessions in the last hour of the light cycle...
January 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332256/dopamine-dependent-social-information-processing-in-non-human-primates
#19
Young-A Lee, Sarah Lionnet, Akemi Kato, Yukiori Goto
RATIONALE: Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter whose roles have been suggested in various aspects of brain functions. Recent studies in rodents have reported its roles in social function. However, how DA is involved in social information processing in primates has largely remained unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated prefrontal cortical (PFC) activities associated with social vs. nonsocial visual stimulus processing. METHODS: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to Japanese macaques, along with pharmacological manipulations of DA transmission, while they were gazing at social and nonsocial visual stimuli...
January 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332255/profiling-attention-and-cognition-enhancing-drugs-in-a-rat-touchscreen-based-continuous-performance-test
#20
Zhiyong Ding, Jordan W Brown, Lynne E Rueter, Eric G Mohler
RATIONALE: A novel rodent continuous performance test (CPT) was developed as one of the goals of the NEWMEDS (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia) consortium to improve its translatability to the CPT test used in human subjects. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of attention and cognition enhancing drugs in rodent CPT. METHODS: A single cohort of rats were trained to asymptotic performance in the test...
January 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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