Read by QxMD icon Read


Dan Yu, Rui Xiao, Jing Huang, Yulong Cai, Xiaohang Bao, Sheng Jing, Zhiyong Du, Tiande Yang, Xiaotang Fan
RATIONALE: Animal studies have shown that early postnatal propofol administration is involved in neurobehavioral alterations in adults. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. METHODS: We used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify activated neurons in brain regions of neonatal mice under propofol exposure and performed behavioral tests to observe the long-term consequences. RESULTS: Exposure to propofol (30g or 60 mg/kg) on P7 produced significant c-Fos expression in the deep layers of the piriform cortex on P8...
November 10, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Natalia V Luchkina, Vadim Y Bolshakov
RATIONALE: The ability to memorize threat-associated cues and subsequently react to them, exhibiting escape or avoidance responses, is an essential, often life-saving behavioral mechanism that can be experimentally studied using the fear (threat) conditioning training paradigm. Presently, there is substantial evidence supporting the Synaptic Plasticity-Memory (SPM) hypothesis in relation to the mechanisms underlying the acquisition, retention, and extinction of conditioned fear memory...
November 10, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Andy C Dean, Erika L Nurmi, Scott J Moeller, Nader Amir, Michelle Rozenman, Dara G Ghahremani, Maritza Johnson, Robert Berberyan, Gerhard Hellemann, Ziwei Zhang, Edythe D London
RATIONALE: Attentional bias toward drug-related stimuli is a feature of drug addiction that is linked to craving and drug-seeking behavior. OBJECTIVES/METHOD: An attentional bias modification (ABM) program was tested in 42 methamphetamine-dependent clients (DSM-IV criteria) receiving residential treatment for their drug use. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups (N = 21 each), receiving 12 sessions of either computerized ABM training (designed to train attention away from methamphetamine stimuli 100% of the time) or an attentional control condition (designed to train attention away from methamphetamine stimuli 50% of the time)...
November 10, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Nnamdi G Nelson, Wen Xuan Law, Michael J Weingarten, Lauren N Carnevale, Aditi Das, Nu-Chu Liang
RATIONALE: Whereas co-use of alcohol and marijuana is prevalent in adolescents, the effects of such drug co-exposure on ingestive and cognitive behaviors remain largely unexplored. We hypothesized that co-exposure to alcohol and ∆9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constitute of marijuana, alters feeding behavior and cognition differently from either drug alone. METHODS: Male rats received daily THC (3-20 mg/kg/day) or oil vehicle through subcutaneous injection or consumption of a cookie with access to saccharin or saccharin-sweetened alcohol during adolescence (P30-45)...
November 10, 2018: Psychopharmacology
David V Gauvin, Zachary J Zimmermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Nadja Freund, Chloe J Jordan, Jodi L Lukkes, Kevin J Norman, Susan L Andersen
RATIONALE: Both methylphenidate (MPH), a catecholamine reuptake blocker, and guanfacine, an alpha2A agonist, are used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Childhood impulsivity, including delay discounting, is associated with increased substance use during adolescence. These effects can be mitigated by juvenile exposure to MPH, but less is known about the long-term effects of developmental exposure to guanfacine in males and females. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine sex differences and dose-dependent effects of juvenile exposure to MPH or guanfacine on delay-discounting and later cocaine self-administration...
November 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Mary M Torregrossa, Matthew MacDonald, Kathryn L Stone, TuKiet T Lam, Angus C Nairn, Jane R Taylor
RATIONALE: Environmental stimuli, or cues, associated with the use of drugs such as cocaine are one of the primary drivers of relapse. Thus, identifying mechanisms to reduce the motivational properties of drug cues is an important research goal. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify cellular signaling events in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) that are induced when a cocaine cue memory is either extinguished through repeated cue presentation in the absence of drug, or when the memory is reactivated and reconsolidated by a brief cue re-exposure...
November 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Matilde Elices, Alba Franquesa, Marta Valle, Enric Alvarez, Jordi Riba
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may improve mindfulness-related capacities (e.g., decentering, non-judging, and non-reacting) and emotion regulation. Previously, our group reported that ayahuasca could be a potential analogue of mindfulness practice. The main aim of the current study was to examine the effects of ayahuasca on emotional regulation and mindfulness-related capacities. Secondarily, we sought to explore the effects of ayahuasca on individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits...
November 7, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Anna B Konova, Rita Z Goldstein
Fear extinction has been extensively studied in both humans and non-human animals, and this work has contributed greatly to our understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet other psychopathologies like addiction might be associated with impairments selectively in extinction of non-fear based, appetitive and drug cue associations, and these processes have been underexplored in clinical translational neuroscience. Important questions regarding similarities and differences in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying aversive and appetitive extinction remain unanswered, particularly those pertaining to cross-species evidence for the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and, to some extent, the striatum...
November 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Amy J Eshleman, Shanthi Nagarajan, Katherine M Wolfrum, John F Reed, Tracy L Swanson, Aaron Nilsen, Aaron Janowsky
RATIONALE: New psychoactive substances (NPSs), including substituted cathinones and other stimulants, are synthesized, sold on the Internet, and ingested without knowledge of their pharmacological activity and/or toxicity. In vitro pharmacology plays a role in therapeutic drug development, drug-protein in silico interaction modeling, and drug scheduling. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this research was to determine mechanisms of action that may indicate NPS abuse liability...
November 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Wen-Hua Zhang, Ke-Xin Cao, Zeng-Bo Ding, Jian-Li Yang, Bing-Xing Pan, Yan-Xue Xue
It has been recognized that drug addiction engages aberrant process of learning and memory, and substantial studies have focused on developing effective treatment to erase the enduring drug memories to reduce the propensity to relapse. Extinction, a behavioral intervention exposing the individuals to the drug-associated cues repeatedly, can weaken the craving and relapse induced by drug-associated cues, but its clinic efficacy is limited. A clear understanding of the neuronal circuitry and molecular mechanism underlying extinction of drug memory will facilitate the successful use of extinction therapy in clinic...
November 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Kathryn M Harper, Darin J Knapp, Hugh E Criswell, George R Breese
BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin (VP) has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders with an emphasis on situations where stress increased the severity of the disorder. Based on this hypothesized role for VP in neuropsychiatric disorders, much research is currently being undertaken in humans and animals to test VP as a target for treatment of a number of these disorders including alcohol abuse. OBJECTIVES: To provide a summary of the literature regarding the role of VP in alcohol- and stress-related behaviors including the use of drugs that target VP in clinical trials...
November 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Nicholas S Haynes, Casey E O'Neill, Benjamin D Hobson, Ryan K Bachtell
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Adenosine signaling through adenosine A2A receptors (A2A Rs) is known to influence cocaine-induced behaviors. These studies sought to elucidate how two A2A R antagonists distinguished by their antagonist effects at presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A R influence cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine seeking. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were used to assess the differential effects of SCH 442416 and istradefylline that antagonize presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A R, respectively...
November 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Catherine A Hartley, Cesar A O Coelho, Emily Boeke, Franchesca Ramirez, Elizabeth A Phelps
RATIONALE: Pavlovian conditioned responses to cues that signal threat are rapidly acquired and tend to persist over time. However, recent research suggests that the ability to actively avoid or exert control over an anticipated threat can diminish the subsequent expression of Pavlovian responses. Studies in animal models suggest that active avoidance behavior and its consequences may be mediated by dopaminergic function. In the present study, we sought to replicate the finding that active control over threat can attenuate subsequent Pavlovian responding in humans and conducted exploratory analyses testing whether individual differences in blink rate, a putative index of dopaminergic function, might modulate this effect...
November 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jacob Peedicayil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Robert C Smith, Lawrence Maayan, Renrong Wu, Mary Youssef, Zhihui Jing, Henry Sershen, Victoria Szabo, Jordan Meyers, Hua Jin, Jinping Zhao, John M Davis
RATIONALE: Weight gain during treatment with antipsychotics is a prominent side-effect, especially with some second-generation antipsychotics, such as olanzapine and clozapine, and pharmacological treatments which ameliorate this side-effect are important to investigate. Decreases in histaminergic transmission in the brain induced by antipsychotics may be one of the mechanisms contributing to weight gain. Since betahistine is a histaminergic agonist, it may potentially counteract the weight gain effects of antipsychotics...
October 31, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Morgane Thomsen, Jens Juul Holst, Anna Molander, Kristian Linnet, Maurice Ptito, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies in rodents have demonstrated inhibitory effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor stimulation on alcohol consumption. The effects of GLP-1 receptor stimulation on alcohol intake in primates have not been investigated. METHODS: We performed placebo-controlled studies on the effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonists exenatide and liraglutide on alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring male African vervet monkeys. Monkeys selected for voluntary alcohol drinking were observed for at least 10 days of baseline drinking and allocated to drug or vehicle (n = 11-12 per group) balanced with respect to alcohol intake...
October 31, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Eldad Yechiam, Daniel Ben-Eliezer, Nathaniel J S Ashby, Mili Bar-Shaked
RATIONALE: Over-the-counter drugs containing Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) have been argued to improve memory and sustained attention. So far, these claims have not been supported in human studies. However, previous studies used rather high dosages, and little is known about the acute effect of small dosages. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether an acute treatment with Remotiv 500 and Remotiv 250 (500 or 250 mg of H. perforatum quantified to either 1 or 0.5 mg of hypericin) improved memory and sustained attention, as well as mood and state anxiety in healthy adults...
October 31, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Nicolas Singewald, Andrew Holmes
The measurement of Pavlovian forms of fear extinction offers a relatively simple behavioral preparation that is nonetheless tractable, from a translational perspective, as an approach to study mechanisms of exposure therapy and biological underpinnings of anxiety and trauma-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Deficient fear extinction is considered a robust clinical endophenotype for these disorders and, as such, has particular significance in the current "age of RDoC (research domain criteria)...
October 31, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Juliana Sorraila de Oliveira, Fátima Husein Abdalla, Guilherme Lopes Dornelles, Taís Vidal Palma, Cristiane Signor, Jamile da Silva Bernardi, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Luana Suéling Lenz, Vitor Antunes de Oliveira, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Vera Maria Melchiors Morsch, Maribel Antonello Rubin, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease. The present study investigated the effects of 50 and 100 mg/kg berberine (BRB) on recognition memory, oxidative stress, and purinergic neurotransmission, in a model of sporadic dementia of the Alzheimer's type induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Rats were submitted to ICV-STZ 3 mg/kg or saline, and 3 days later, were started on a treatment of BRB or saline for 21 days. The results demonstrated that BRB was effective in protecting against memory impairment, increased reactive oxygen species, and the subsequent increase in protein and lipid oxidation in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, as well as δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase inhibition in the cerebral cortex...
October 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"