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Kenji Sakuma, Shinji Matsunaga, Ikuo Nomura, Makoto Okuya, Taro Kishi, Nakao Iwata
RATIONALE: This study aims to examine whether folate/folic acid/methylfolate/folinic acid supplemented to antipsychotics (FA + AP) is beneficial in schizophrenia treatment. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of FA + AP for schizophrenia. METHODS: The primary outcome was an improvement in total symptoms. Other outcomes were psychopathology subscales (positive, negative, general, and depressive symptoms), discontinuation due to all-cause and adverse events, and individual adverse events...
May 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Vanessa Minervini, Hannah Y Lu, Jahnavi Padarti, Daniela C Osteicoechea, Charles P France
RATIONALE: Pain is the leading reason for seeking health care, and mu opioid receptor agonists continue to be prescribed despite well-documented adverse effects. Kappa opioid receptor agonists have antinociceptive effects with little to no abuse liability and might be useful for treating pain in mixtures. Kappa:mu opioid mixtures might be useful if therapeutic effects of each drug can be selectively increased while reducing or avoiding the adverse effects that occur with larger doses of each drug alone...
May 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Joshua L Karelitz, Kenneth A Perkins
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of nonconsummatory reinforcers habituate, as their ability to maintain reinforced responding declines over repeated presentations. Preclinical research has shown that nicotine can delay habituation of reinforcer effectiveness, but this effect has not been directly demonstrated in humans. OBJECTIVE: In preliminary translational research, we assessed effects of nicotine from tobacco smoking (vs. a no smoking control) on within-session patterns of responding for a brief visual reinforcer...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jorge Mendoza, Hester C van Diepen, Rob Rodrigues Pereira, Johanna H Meijer
People suffering of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) show sleep-wake cycle and daily rhythm alterations despite the beneficial effects of MPH on behavioral symptoms (i.e., hyperactivity, attention). In nocturnal rodents (i.e., mice), chronic exposure to MPH alters the neural activity of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), behavioral rhythms, and the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we studied the effects of MPH on daily rhythms of behavior and body temperature of the diurnal rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jian-Wen Xiong, Bo Wei, Yan-Kun Li, Jin-Qiong Zhan, Shu-Zhen Jiang, Hai-Bo Chen, Kun Yan, Bin Yu, Yuan-Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter that regulates NMDAR function. The current study investigated the relationship between plasma H2 S levels and both psychopathological and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy control subjects were recruited in present study...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
A Waterreus, P Di Prinzio, J C Badcock, M Martin-Iverson, A Jablensky, V A Morgan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether recent cannabis use by men and women with psychotic disorders was associated with increased risk of suicide attempt, and to determine associated factors, stratified by sex. METHODS: Data from 1065 men and 725 women interviewed in the Australian national survey of psychosis were analysed to model separately, for each sex, the impact of daily, casual or no past-year cannabis use and other risk factors including age, on a past-year suicide attempt...
May 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jing-Jing Chen, Fei Han, Chuan Pan, Ting-Ting Zhuang, Ya-Fei Cai, Ya-Ping Lu
RATIONALE: Increasing evidence has suggested that major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, dendrites atrophy, and loss of dendritic spines, especially in emotion-associated brain regions including the hippocampus. Paeonol is a kind of polyphenols natural product with a variety of therapeutic effects. Recent studies have reported its antidepressant effects. However, it is unclear what signaling pathways contribute to improve MDD...
May 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Lee Hogarth, Lorna Hardy
RATIONALE: Alcohol dependence is characterised by persistent drinking despite health, social and economic costs. Behavioural economics has proposed two explanations for the persistence of alcohol use despite costs. Dependent individuals may (a) ascribe excessively high value to alcohol, such that costs associated with alcohol are exceeded, and/or (b) they may discount (neglect) the costs associated with alcohol. METHODS: To test these predictions, the current study recruited 127 student drinkers who reported varied alcohol use disorder symptom severity in the Alcohol Use Disorders Inventory Test (AUDIT; mean = 11...
May 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
David Nguyen, Victoria Fugariu, Suzanne Erb, Rutsuko Ito
RATIONALE: Approach and avoidance decisions are made when an animal experiences a state of motivational conflict inflicted by stimuli imbued with both positive and negative valences. The nucleus accumbens (NAc), a site where valenced information and action selection converge, has recently been found to be critically involved in the resolution of approach-avoidance conflict. However, the individual roles of the region's dopamine receptor D1 (D1R)- and D2 (D2R)-expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in regulating conflict resolution have not been well established...
May 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Philipp T Neukam, Nils B Kroemer, Yacila I Deza Araujo, Lydia Hellrung, Shakoor Pooseh, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Uwe Schwarzenbolz, Thomas Henle, Michael N Smolka
RATIONALE: Serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in different aspects of value-based decision-making. A recent framework proposed that tonic 5-HT (together with dopamine, DA) codes future average reward expectations, providing a baseline against which possible choice outcomes are compared to guide decision-making. OBJECTIVES: To test whether high 5-HT levels decrease loss aversion, risk-seeking for gains, and risk-seeking for losses. METHODS: In a first session, 611 participants were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and performed a mixed gambles (MGA) task and two probability discounting tasks for gains and losses, respectively (PDG/PDL)...
May 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Mitchell F Stiles, Leanne R Campbell, Tao Jin, Donald W Graff, Reginald V Fant, Jack E Henningfield
RATIONALE: We previously reported that following a short-term product use period, use of non-menthol Vuse Solo electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted in product effect-related subjective responses and nicotine uptake between those of combustible cigarettes (high-abuse liability comparator) and nicotine gum (low-abuse liability comparator); the results were generally closer to those of nicotine gum. OBJECTIVE: Using a similar design to the previous study, we evaluated the abuse liability of three menthol-flavored Vuse Solo ECs with the same nicotine contents (14, 29, and 36 mg) in a group of EC-naïve, menthol cigarette smokers, relative to comparator products...
May 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Mairi Koulentaki, Elias Kouroumalis
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic, relapsing, neuro-psychiatric illness of high prevalence and with a serious public health impact worldwide. It is complex and polygenic, with a heritability of about 50%, and influenced by environmental causal heterogeneity. Risk factors associated with its etiology have a genetic component. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. GABAA receptors are believed to mediate some of the physiological and behavioral actions of alcohol...
May 2, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Tanja Veselinović, Ingo Vernaleken, Hildegard Janouschek, Paul Cumming, Michael Paulzen, Felix M Mottaghy, Gerhard Gründer
OBJECTIVE: A considerable body of research links cognitive function to dopaminergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex, but less is known about cognition in relation to striatal dopamine D2/3 receptors in unmedicated patients with psychosis. METHODS: We investigated this association by obtaining PET recordings with the high-affinity D2/3 antagonist ligand [18 F] fallypride in 15 medication-free patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. On the day of PET scanning, we undertook comprehensive neuropsychological testing and assessment of psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
May 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Mejda Wahab, Leigh V Panlilio, Marcello Solinas
RATIONALE: Delay-discounting procedures involving choice between small immediate rewards and large delayed rewards are used to study impulsivity in rodents. Improving existing procedures may provide new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying decision-making processes. OBJECTIVES: To develop a novel delay-discounting procedure that adjusts the delay value within individual sessions based on the rat's most recent choices. METHODS: Compared to previously developed procedure, we required a more consistent demonstration of preference, five consecutive choices of the large or small reward, a criterion that is more likely to reflect deliberate choice by the animal, as opposed to two consecutive choices...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Christa A Houck, Nicholas J Grahame
RATIONALE: Drug reward plays a central role in acquiring drug-seeking behavior. However, subjects may continue using drugs despite negative consequences because self-administration becomes habitual, and divorced from outcome values. Although a history of drug and alcohol use expedite habit acquisition, and in spite of the fact that self-administration leads to intoxication, the acute effects of drugs on habitual responding are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to observe how acute ethanol and amphetamine affect the balance between habitual and goal-directed behavior, as measured by a fluid-reinforced operant conditioning task...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Liang-Jen Wang, Chih-Ken Chen, Shih-Ku Lin, Yi-Chih Chen, Ke Xu, Ming-Chyi Huang
BACKGROUND: Ketamine has emerged as a major substance of abuse worldwide and has been listed with methamphetamine (METH) as two of the most widely available illicit substances in Taiwan. Only a few studies have examined the long-term consequences of chronic and heavy ketamine abuse. We compared the cognitive function of ketamine-dependent patients with that of METH-dependent patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We recruited 165 participants (58 ketamine-dependent and 49 METH-dependent patients who sought treatment and 58 healthy controls) and evaluated them by using a cognitive test battery, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, with scores being estimated in reference to normative data in general population...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jérôme Jeanblanc, Erika Bourguet, Diana Sketriené, Céline Gonzalez, Gautier Moroy, Rémi Legastelois, Mathieu Létévé, Aurélie Trussardi-Régnier, Mickaël Naassila
RATIONALE: Recent preclinical research suggested that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) and specifically class I HDAC selective inhibitors might be useful to treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to find a new inhibitor of the HDAC-1 isoenzyme and to test its efficacy in an animal model of AUDs. METHODS: In the present study, we prepared new derivatives bearing sulfonylhydrazide-type zinc-binding group (ZBG) and evaluated these compounds in vitro on HDAC-1 isoenzyme...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Agata Faron-Górecka, Maciej Kuśmider, Joanna Solich, Magdalena Kolasa, Paulina Pabian, Piotr Gruca, Irena Romańska, Dariusz Żurawek, Marta Szlachta, Mariusz Papp, Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska
RATIONALE: The role of somatostatin and its receptors for the stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders has been widely raised. Recently, we have also demonstrated the involvement of somatostatin receptor type 2-sst2R and dopamine receptor type 2-D2R in stress. OBJECTIVE: In this context, we decided to find if these receptors are involved in response to antidepressant treatment in animal model of depression-chronic mild stress (CMS). METHODS: Here, we report data obtained following 7-week CMS procedure...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Courtney A Motschman, Lisa J Germeroth, Stephen T Tiffany
RATIONALE: Current research on factors that predict smoking lapse behavior is limited in its ability to fully characterize the critical moments leading up to decisions to smoke. OBJECTIVES: We used a validated and widely used experimental analogue for smoking lapse to assess how moment-to-moment dynamics of craving relate to decisions to smoke. METHODS: Heavy smokers (N = 128, M age = 35.9) participated in a 50-min laboratory delay to smoking task on 2 consecutive days, earning money for each 5 min they remained abstinent or ending the task by choosing to smoke...
April 27, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Youna Vandaele, Emilie Noe, Martine Cador, Françoise Dellu-Hagedorn, Stephanie Caille
RATIONALE: Nicotine can enhance attention and attribution of incentive salience to nicotine-associated stimuli. However, it is not clear whether inter-individual differences in attentional capacities prior to any exposure could play a role in vulnerability to nicotine self-administration. We further explored this vulnerability through pre-existing inter-individual differences in attention to a reward-predictive cue in drug-free animals. METHODS: A cued version of the Fixed Consecutive Number schedule (FCN16cue ) of reinforcement task was used to assess attention...
April 27, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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