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Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058042/chronic-n-acetylcysteine-treatment-alleviates-acute-lipopolysaccharide-induced-working-memory-deficit-through-upregulating-caveolin-1-and-synaptophysin-in-mice
#1
Xianzhi Shen, Yanyun Sun, Mengwei Wang, Hui Shu, Li-Juan Zhu, Pei-Yun Yan, Jun-Fang Zhang, Xinchun Jin
RATIONALE: Working memory (WM) is a dynamic encoding process and an active representation of information over a short time. The ability to guide forthcoming behavior would be disrupted if WM was impaired by various factors including inflammation, stress, free radicals, and disease states such as schizophrenia. However, the mechanism underlying acute working memory impairment remains to be defined. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that decreased caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and synaptophysin (SYP) accounted for the WM impairment challenged with acute intraperitoneally lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimicked neuroinflammation...
October 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058041/dihydromyricetin-exerts-a-rapid-antidepressant-like-effect-in-association-with-enhancement-of-bdnf-expression-and-inhibition-of-neuroinflammation
#2
Zhaoxiang Ren, Pengju Yan, Liushuai Zhu, Huicui Yang, Yafei Zhao, Brian P Kirby, John L Waddington, Xuechu Zhen
RATIONALE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent illness that affects large populations across the world, and increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are closely related to depression. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a kind of flavonoid natural product that has been reported to display multiple pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, and these may contribute to ameliorate MDD...
October 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051997/effect-of-repeated-abstinence-on-chronic-ethanol-self-administration-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#3
Daicia C Allen, Steven W Gonzales, Kathleen A Grant
RATIONALE: Abstinence-based approaches to treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) are highly prevalent, but abstinence from chronic drinking may exacerbate subsequent levels of alcohol intake in relapse. OBJECTIVE: Use a non-human primate model that encompasses a range of chronic voluntary ethanol drinking to isolate biological responses to repeated cycles of imposed abstinence as a function of baseline voluntary alcohol drinking levels. METHODS: Over a 26-month protocol, young adult male rhesus macaques were first induced to drink alcohol and then given continuous access to 4% (w/v) ethanol (n = 8) or water (n = 4) for approximately 14 months, followed by three 28- to 35-day abstinence phases, with 3 months of ethanol access in between...
October 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038824/memantine-add-on-to-clozapine-treatment-for-residual-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia
#4
LETTER
Selene Veerman, Peter Schulte, Lieuwe de Haan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#5
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022071/sex-differences-in-tobacco-withdrawal-and-responses-to-smoking-reduced-nicotine-cigarettes-in-young-smokers
#6
Paul Faulkner, Nicole Petersen, Dara G Ghahremani, Chelsea M Cox, Rachel F Tyndale, Gerhard S Hellemann, Edythe D London
RATIONALE: Policies that establish a standard for reduced nicotine content in cigarettes can decrease the prevalence of smoking in the USA. Cigarettes with nicotine yields as low as 0.05 mg produce substantial occupancy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (26%), but women and men respond differently to these cigarettes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure responses to smoking cigarettes that varied widely in nicotine yields, investigating whether sex differences in the effects on craving, withdrawal, and affect would be observed at even lower nicotine yields than previously studied, and in young smokers...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018896/hypericum-perforatum-extract-modulates-cortical-plasticity-in-humans
#7
Carmen Concerto, Hyunji Boo, Charles Hu, Priam Sandilya, Anita Krish, Eileen Chusid, Diego Coira, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Hypericum perforatum (HYP) extract is one of the most commonly used complementary alternative medicines (CAMs) for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression. Non-invasive brain stimulation protocols can be used to investigate the effect of psychoactive substances on the human brain. In this study, we explored the effect of a single dose of HYP extract (WS 5570) intake on corticospinal excitability and plasticity in humans. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy subjects were required to intake 900 mg of either HYP extract or placebo...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018894/abstinence-induced-withdrawal-severity-among-adolescent-smokers-with-and-without-adhd-disentangling-effects-of-nicotine-and-smoking-reinstatement
#8
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Sara G Balestrieri, Suzanne M Colby, Valerie S Knopik, Jennifer W Tidey
RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) start smoking earlier, are more likely to progress to nicotine dependence, and have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk, particularly at the adolescent stage. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of overnight nicotine abstinence and smoking reinstatement on subjective withdrawal states in adolescent smokers with and without ADHD...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018893/sex-specific-attenuation-of-impulsive-action-by-progesterone-in-a-go-no-go-task-for-cocaine-in-rats
#9
Natashia Swalve, John R Smethells, Rebecca Younk, Jared Mitchell, Ben Dougen, Marilyn E Carroll
RATIONALE: Previous work indicated that progesterone (PRO) reduced impulsive choice for cocaine in female but not male rats (Smethells et al. Psychopharmacology 233:2999-3008, 2016). Impulsive action, typically measured by responding for a reinforcer during a signaled period of nonavailability of natural reinforcers, predicts initiation and escalation of drug use in animals and humans. The present study examined impulsive action for cocaine using PRO in male and female rats trained on a go/no-go task...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988381/response-to-the-letter-from-dr-veerman-and-colleagues
#10
LETTER
Taro Kishi, Toshikazu Ikuta, Yuki Matsuda, Nakao Iwata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986608/opiate-dependence-induces-cell-type-specific-plasticity-of-intrinsic-membrane-properties-in-the-rat-juxtacapsular-bed-nucleus-of-stria-terminalis-jcbnst
#11
Walter Francesconi, Attila Szücs, Fulvia Berton, George F Koob, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Pietro Paolo Sanna
RATIONALE: Drugs of abuse can alter circuit dynamics by modifying synaptic efficacy and/or the intrinsic membrane properties of neurons. The juxtacapsular subdivision of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST) has unique connectivity that positions it to integrate cortical and amygdala inputs and provide feed-forward inhibition to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), among other regions. In this study, we investigated changes in the synaptic and intrinsic properties of neurons in the rat jcBNST during protracted withdrawal from morphine dependence using a combination of conventional electrophysiological methods and the dynamic clamp technique...
October 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971241/effects-of-l-theanine-on-anxiety-like-behavior-cerebrospinal-fluid-amino-acid-profile-and-hippocampal-activity-in-wistar-kyoto-rats
#12
Shintaro Ogawa, Miho Ota, Jun Ogura, Koichi Kato, Hiroshi Kunugi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The amino acid L-theanine (N-ethyl-L-glutamine) has historically been considered a relaxing agent. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated L-theanine administration on behavior, levels of amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal activity in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety and depressive disorders. METHODS: Behavioral tests were performed after 7-10 days of L-theanine (0.4 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or saline administration, followed by CSF sampling for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971233/mapping-trait-like-socio-affective-phenotypes-in-rats-through-50-khz-ultrasonic-vocalizations
#13
K -Alexander Engelhardt, Rainer K W Schwarting, Markus Wöhr
RATIONALE: Fifty-kilohertz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in rats are believed to express inter-individual differences in trait-like positive affective phenotypes. Emission of 50-kHz USV can be induced by amphetamine (AMPH) to model mania-like positive affect, raising the possibility that predispositions for high 50-kHz USV production confer susceptibility to mania-like states. Such 50-kHz USV presumably express the sender's motivation for social contact and elicit social approach behavior in receivers...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971231/effects-of-morphine-on-place-conditioning-and-erk1-2-phosphorylation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-psychogenetically-selected-roman-low-and-high-avoidance-rats
#14
Michela Rosas, Simona Porru, Marta Sabariego, Maria Antonietta Piludu, Osvaldo Giorgi, Maria G Corda, Elio Acquas
RATIONALE: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation is critical for neuronal and behavioural functions; in particular, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) expression in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) of the rat is stimulated by addictive drugs with the exception of morphine, which decreases accumbal ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. The psychogenetically selected Roman low- (RLA) and high-avoidance (RHA) rats differ behaviourally and neurochemically in many responses to addictive drugs...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971230/effects-of-2-bromoterguride-a-dopamine-d2-receptor-partial-agonist-on-cognitive-dysfunction-and-social-aversion-in-rats
#15
Emilia Tarland, Robert T Franke, Heidrun Fink, Heinz H Pertz, Jan Brosda
RATIONALE: 2-Bromoterguride, a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist with antagonist properties at serotonin 5-HT2A receptors and α2C-adrenoceptors, meets the prerequisites of a putative atypical antipsychotic drug (APD). We recently showed that 2-bromoterguride is effective in tests of positive symptoms of schizophrenia in rats without inducing extrapyramidal side effects or metabolic changes. OBJECTIVE: In continuation of our recent work, we now investigated the effect of 2-bromoterguride on apomorphine and phencyclidine (PCP)-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, a measure of sensory gating...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971229/role-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-binding-protein-g%C3%AE-o-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-and-dependence
#16
Jennifer T Lamberts, Lisa D Rosenthal, Emily M Jutkiewicz, John R Traynor
RATIONALE: The use of morphine and other opioids for chronic pain is limited by the development of analgesic tolerance and physical dependence. Morphine produces its effects by activating the μ opioid receptor, which couples to Gαi/o-containing heterotrimeric G proteins. Evidence suggests that the antinociceptive effects of morphine are mediated by Gαo. However, the role of Gαo in the development of morphine tolerance and dependence is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution of Gαo to the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971228/cortical-thickness-and-trait-empathy-in-patients-and-people-at-high-risk-for-alcohol-use-disorders
#17
Tobias Schmidt, Patrik Roser, Oksana Ze, Georg Juckel, Boris Suchan, Patrizia Thoma
RATIONALE: Alcoholism not only affects individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) but also their biological relatives. This high-risk (HR) group has a higher probability to develop AUD. The aim of our study was to compare cortical thickness (CT) in AUD patients relative to participants with (HR) and without (non-HR) familial predisposition for AUD. We focused on empathy-related brain areas as sociocognitive impairment represents a known risk factor for AUD. METHOD: We examined 13 individuals with AUD, 14 HR individuals, and 20 non-HR participants using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3 Tesla) to investigate differences in CT...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971227/reduction-in-delay-discounting-due-to-nicotine-and-its-attenuation-by-cholinergic-antagonists-in-lewis-and-fischer-344-rats
#18
Jenny E Ozga, Karen G Anderson
RATIONALE: Nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist, attenuates effects of nicotine on delay discounting in some rat strains; whether nicotine's attenuation is specific to nAChR antagonism is unknown. OBJECTIVE: During experiment 1, we evaluated dose-dependent effects of nicotine on delay discounting of pair-housed Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats. During experiment 2, we examined the sensitivity of nicotine's effects on delay discounting to pharmacological antagonism of nAChRs or muscarinic AChRs (mAChRs)...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932889/behavioral-economic-analysis-of-the-effects-of-n-substituted-benztropine-analogs-on-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#19
Claudio Zanettini, Derek S Wilkinson, Jonathan L Katz
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Benztropine (BZT) analogs and other atypical dopamine uptake inhibitors selectively decrease cocaine self-administration at doses that do not affect responding maintained by other reinforcers. Those effects were further characterized in the current study using a behavioral economic assessment of how response requirement (price) affects reinforcers obtained (consumption) in rats. METHODS: Two groups of rats were trained to press levers with food (45-mg pellet) or cocaine (0...
September 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921163/discriminative-stimulus-properties-of-the-atypical-antipsychotic-amisulpride-comparison-to-its-isomers-and-to-other-benzamide-derivatives-antipsychotic-antidepressant-and-antianxiety-drugs-in-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Timothy J Donahue, Todd M Hillhouse, Kevin A Webster, Richard Young, Eliseu O De Oliveira, Joseph H Porter
RATIONALE: Racemic (RS)-amisulpride (Solian(®)) is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia and dysthymia. Blockade of dopamine D2/D3 and/or serotonin 5-HT7 receptors is implicated in its pharmacological effects. While the (S)-amisulpride isomer possesses a robust discriminative cue, discriminative stimulus properties of (RS)-amisulpride have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: The present study established (RS)-amisulpride as a discriminative stimulus and assessed amisulpride-like effects of amisulpride stereoisomers, other benzamide derivatives, and antipsychotic, antidepressant, and anxiolytic drugs...
September 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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