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Devon Collins, Matthew Randesi, Joel Correa da Rosa, Yong Zhang, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND: OPRM1 A118G, a functional human mu-opioid receptor (MOR) polymorphism, is associated with drug dependence and altered stress responsivity in humans as well as altered MOR signaling. MOR signaling can regulate many cellular processes, including gene expression, and many of the long-term, stable effects of drugs and stress may stem from changes in gene expression in diverse brain regions. A mouse model bearing an equivalent polymorphism (Oprm1 A112G) was previously generated and studied...
July 19, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Simin Afshar, Siamak Shahidi, Ali Haeri Rohani, Alireza Komaki, Sara Soleimani Asl
RATIONALE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function. The serotonergic system via the 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT2A receptor is proposed to affect the cognitive process. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the effects of NAD-299 (5-HT1AR antagonist) and TCB-2 (5-HT2AR agonist) on learning and memory processes, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, neuronal necrosis, and Aβ plaque production have been investigated on the intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory deficits in rats...
July 19, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jennifer M Mitchell, Dawn Weinstein, Taylor Vega, Andrew S Kayser
RATIONALE: Impairment in time perception, a critical component of decision-making, represents a risk factor for psychiatric conditions including substance abuse. A therapeutic that ameliorates this impairment could be advantageous in the treatment of impulsivity and decision-making disorders. OBJECTIVES: Here we hypothesize that the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone, which increases dopamine tone in frontal cortex (Ceravolo et al Synapse 43:201-207, 2002), improves time perception, with predictive behavioral, genetic, and neurobiological components...
July 19, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jonathan M Hailwood, Christopher J Heath, Trevor W Robbins, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey
RATIONALE: Across species, effort-related motivation can be assessed by testing behaviour under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. However, to date, PR tasks for rodents have been available using traditional operant response systems only. OBJECTIVES: Touchscreen operant response systems allow the assessment of behaviour in laboratory rodents, using tasks that share high face validity with the computerised assessments used in humans. Here, we sought to optimise a rat touchscreen variant of PR and validate it by assessing the effects of a number of manipulations known to affect PR performance in non-touchscreen paradigms...
July 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Victória A Müller Ewald, Benjamin J De Corte, Subhash C Gupta, Katherine V Lillis, Nandakumar S Narayanan, John A Wemmie, Ryan T LaLumiere
RATIONALE: The infralimbic cortex (IL) and its downstream projection target the nucleus accumbens shell (NAshell) mediate the active suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. Although an optogenetic approach would be beneficial for stimulating the IL and its efferents to study their role during reinstatement of cocaine seeking, the use of channelrhodopsin introduces significant difficulties, as optimal stimulation parameters are not known. OBJECTIVES: The present experiments utilized a stable step-function opsin (SSFO) to potentiate endogenous activity in the IL and in IL terminals in the NAshell during cocaine-seeking tests to determine how these manipulations affect cocaine-seeking behaviors...
July 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Caroline I Jahn, Sophie Gilardeau, Chiara Varazzani, Bastien Blain, Jerome Sallet, Mark E Walton, Sebastien Bouret
INTRODUCTION: While several theories have highlighted the importance of the noradrenergic system for behavioral flexibility, a number of recent studies have also shown a role for noradrenaline in motivation, particularly in effort processing. Here, we designed a novel sequential cost/benefit decision task to test the causal influence of noradrenaline on these two functions in rhesus monkeys. METHODS: We manipulated noradrenaline using clonidine, an alpha-2 noradrenergic receptor agonist, which reduces central noradrenaline levels and examined how this manipulation influenced performance on the task...
July 11, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Rachel-Karson Thériault, Francesco Leri, Bettina Kalisch
RATIONALE: There is evidence that central mu opioid receptors (MORs) are implicated in several aspects of cocaine addiction, and that MOR expression is elevated by cocaine in vitro and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) when administered in vivo. OBJECTIVE: To understand the cellular mechanisms involved in regulating MOR expression, this study explored whether neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) modulates the neurochemical and behavioral effects of acute and repeated cocaine administration...
July 10, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Xupeng Bai, Chuncao Xu, Dingsheng Wen, Yibei Chen, Hongliang Li, Xueding Wang, Liemin Zhou, Min Huang, Jing Jin
RATIONALE: Valproate (VPA) is a choice for the treatment of primary generalized epilepsies and partial epilepsies. Unfortunately, weight gain or obesity is one of the most frequent adverse effects of VPA treatment. Genetic factors were shown to be involved in the effect. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) with VPA-induced weight gain and obesity in epileptic patients...
July 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Hans Rollema, Raymond S Hurst
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Two mechanisms underlie smoking cessation efficacies of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists: a "nicotine-like" agonist activity reduces craving by substituting for nicotine during a quit attempt, and a "nicotine-blocking" antagonist activity attenuates reinforcement by competing with inhaled nicotine during a relapse. To evaluate the contribution of each mechanism to clinical efficacy, we estimated the degree of agonist and antagonist activities of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline, cytisine, and the discontinued nAChR agonists dianicline, ABT-418, ABT-089, CP-601927, and CP-601932, relative to the functional effects of nicotine from smoking...
July 7, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Kenzie L Preston, William J Kowalczyk, Karran A Phillips, Michelle L Jobes, Massoud Vahabzadeh, Jia-Ling Lin, Mustapha Mezghanni, David H Epstein
RATIONALE: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of specific events usually focuses more on antecedents and concomitants than on aftermaths. OBJECTIVES: To examine mental state both before and after discrete episodes of stress and drug use. METHODS: For up to 16 weeks, outpatients on opioid-agonist treatment carried smartphones on which they initiated entries for stressful events (SEs) or lapses to drug use (DUs), and thrice daily when randomly prompted (RPs)...
July 7, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Ethan H Mereish, Hayley Treloar Padovano, Stephanie Wemm, Robert Miranda
The name of Hayley Treloar Padovano was incorrectly tagged in the original version of this article. Instead of Padovano as family name and Hayley Treloar as given name, it should be Hayley as given name and Treloar Padovano as family name. Correct presentation of author name when online should be Treloar Padovano H.
July 7, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Nadia Benturquia, Lucie Chevillard, Christophe Poiré, Olivier Roussel, Camille Cohier, Xavier Declèves, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Mélanie Etheve-Quelquejeu, Huixiong Chen, Bruno Mégarbane
RATIONALE: The use of synthetic cathinones as recreational drugs frequently sold in combination has been increasing exponentially. However, the consequences of combining cathinones on the resulting stimulant effects and the pharmacokinetics have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To study 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; 3 mg/kg) and mephedrone (4-MMC; 30 mg/kg)-induced effects on rat locomotor activity and pharmacokinetics, administered alone or in combination by the intragastric route...
July 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Eric J Kim, Klara Felsovalyi, Lauren M Young, Sergey V Shmelkov, Michael F Grunebaum, Timothy Cardozo
Despite decades of clinical use and research, the mechanism of action (MOA) of antidepressant medications remains poorly understood. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants-atypical antidepressants such as bupropion have also proven effective, while exhibiting a divergent clinical phenotype. The difference in phenotypic profiles presumably lies in the differences among the MOAs of SSRIs/SNRIs and bupropion...
July 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Marion J F Levy, Fabien Boulle, Harry W Steinbusch, Daniël L A van den Hove, Gunter Kenis, Laurence Lanfumey
Depression is a major health problem with a high prevalence and a heavy socioeconomic burden in western societies. It is associated with atrophy and impaired functioning of cortico-limbic regions involved in mood and emotion regulation. It has been suggested that alterations in neurotrophins underlie impaired neuroplasticity, which may be causally related to the development and course of depression. Accordingly, mounting evidence suggests that antidepressant treatment may exert its beneficial effects by enhancing trophic signaling on neuronal and synaptic plasticity...
June 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Nura W Lingawi, Vincent Laurent, R Fredrick Westbrook, Nathan M Holmes
The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) and infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex (IL) play distinct roles in the extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear in laboratory rodents. In the past decade, research in our laboratory has examined the roles of these brain regions in the re-extinction of conditioned fear: i.e., extinction of fear that is restored through re-conditioning of the conditioned stimulus (CS) or changes in the physical and temporal context of extinction training (i.e., extinction of renewed or spontaneously recovered fear)...
June 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Samantha Tang, Bronwyn M Graham
Recently, evidence has emerged showing that the behavioural and hormonal features of fear extinction are altered as a result of reproductive experience in both rats and humans. The current set of experiments sought to determine whether reproductive experience also alters the molecular features of fear extinction. In adult male rats, it has been widely demonstrated that the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) is essential for fear extinction. We therefore compared the involvement of NMDAR in fear extinction between nulliparous (virgin) and primiparous (reproductively experienced) female rats...
June 29, 2018: Psychopharmacology
M C Arenas, C I Navarro-Francés, S Montagud-Romero, J Miñarro, C Manzanedo
RATIONALE: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex is a model of pre-attentional inhibitory function. The dopamine baseline in the nucleus accumbens plays a key role in PPI regulation as well as in the rewarding effects of cocaine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of PPI to identify the more vulnerable mice of both sexes to the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine. METHODS: Male and female OF1 mice were first tested in the PPI paradigm to classify them as high or low PPI...
June 29, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Marina Mori, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Masaru Mimura, Kenji F Tanaka
RATIONALE: Impulsive choice has often been evaluated in rodents according to the proportion of choices for the delayed large magnitude reinforcer (%large choice) in a delay-discounting task (DDT). However, because %large choice is influenced by both sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and sensitivity to delayed reinforcement (i.e., discounting rate), distinctively evaluating such discounting parameters represents a critical issue demanding methods to determine each parameter in rats. The serotonin (5-HT) system is well known to be involved in impulsive choice; nevertheless, only a few studies have distinguished discounting parameters and investigated how 5-HT modulators affect discounting rate...
June 28, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Yuki Asari, Yumiko Ikeda, Amane Tateno, Yoshiro Okubo, Takehiko Iijima, Hidenori Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is an analgesic with monoamine reuptake inhibition and μ-opioid receptor activation. Although tramadol has been widely used for treatment of various pain conditions, there is controversy over the risk of abuse potential. We examined the effects of tramadol on the reward system in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the potential of tramadol for drug abuse or dependence. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted for 19 healthy adults under tramadol or placebo...
June 27, 2018: Psychopharmacology
L Decroix, K De Pauw, J Van Cutsem, N Pattyn, E Heyman, R Meeusen
INTRODUCTION: Acute cocoa flavanols (CF) intake has been suggested to modulate cognitive function and neurovascular coupling (NVC). Whether increased NVC is solely driven by improved vascular responsiveness or also by neuronal activity remains unknown. This study investigated the effects of acute CF intake on cognitive performance, NVC, and neuronal activity in healthy subjects in normoxia and hypoxia (4000 m simulated altitude; 12.7% O2 ). METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects (age 23...
June 27, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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