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Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108773/effects-of-caffeine-on-alcohol-reinforcement-beverage-choice-self-administration-and-subjective-ratings
#1
Mary M Sweeney, Steven E Meredith, Daniel P Evatt, Roland R Griffiths
RATIONALE: Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. OBJECTIVES: This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. METHODS: Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e...
January 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097374/effects-of-5-ht1a-5-ht2a-and-5-ht2c-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-on-responding-for-a-conditioned-reinforcer-and-its-enhancement-by-methylphenidate
#2
Paul J Fletcher, Fiona D Zeeb, Caleb J Browne, Guy A Higgins, Ashlie D Soko
OBJECTIVES: These experiments examined the effects of selective 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor ligands on responding for a conditioned reinforcer (CRf). Effects of these ligands were measured under basal conditions and following elevated dopamine (DA) activity produced by the DA reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate. METHODS: Water-restricted rats learned to associate a conditioned stimulus (CS) with water in operant chambers. Subsequently, two response levers were made available; responding on one lever delivered the CS (now a CRf), while responding on the second lever had no consequences...
January 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083676/in-memory-of-athina-markou-1961-2016-obituary
#3
EDITORIAL
T W Robbins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083675/assessment-of-a-glycine-uptake-inhibitor-in-animal-models-of-effort-related-choice-behavior-implications-for-motivational-dysfunctions
#4
Samantha E Yohn, Daniela Alberati, Merce Correa, John D Salamone
RATIONALE: Motivated behavior can be characterized by a substantial exertion of effort, and organisms often make effort-related decisions based upon analyses of work-related response costs and reinforcement preference. Moreover, alterations in effort-based choice can be seen in people with major depression and schizophrenia. Effort-related decision making is studied using tasks offering choices between high effort options leading to highly valued reinforces vs low effort/low reward options...
January 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078393/antipsychotic-use-is-a-risk-factor-for-hyponatremia-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-15-year-follow-up-study
#5
Hang-Ju Yang, Wan-Ju Cheng
RATIONALE: Hyponatremia affects 10% of patients with chronic schizophrenia and can lead to severe consequences. However, the role of antipsychotics and other risk factors in hyponatremia occurrence has remained inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between antipsychotic use and hyponatremia occurrence in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We utilized the National Health Insurance Research Database to follow 2051 patients with schizophrenia from 1998 to 2013...
January 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070621/behavioral-evidence-for-the-abuse-potential-of-the-novel-synthetic-cathinone-alpha-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone-pvt-in-rodents
#6
Jae Hoon Cheong, Mee Jung Choi, Choon-Gon Jang, Yong Sup Lee, Sooyeun Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Joung-Wook Seo, Seong Shoon Yoon
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones are chemical derivatives of cathinone that are pharmacologically similar to cocaine and methamphetamine. Recently, abuse of synthetic cathinones among young people has increased. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to characterize the behavioral effects of alpha-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (PVT), an analog of alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone and second-generation synthetic cathinone, as well as to evaluate its abuse potential, using conditioned place preference, intravenous self-administration (SA), and drug discrimination paradigms in rodent models...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070620/nicotine-delivery-to-users-from-cigarettes-and-from-different-types-of-e-cigarettes
#7
Peter Hajek, Dunja Przulj, Anna Phillips, Rebecca Anderson, Hayden McRobbie
BACKGROUND: Delivering nicotine in the way smokers seek is likely to be the key factor in e-cigarette (EC) success in replacing cigarettes. We examined to what degree different types of EC mimic nicotine intake from cigarettes. METHODS: Twelve participants ('dual users' of EC and cigarettes) used their own brand cigarette and nine different EC brands. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2-min intervals for 10 min and again at 30 min. RESULTS: Eleven smokers provided usable data...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070619/theory-of-visual-attention-tva-applied-to-mice-in-the-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#8
C M Fitzpatrick, M Caballero-Puntiverio, U Gether, T Habekost, C Bundesen, S Vangkilde, D P D Woldbye, J T Andreasen, A Petersen
RATIONALE: The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used to measure rodent attentional functions. In humans, many attention studies in healthy and clinical populations have used testing based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to estimate visual processing speeds and other parameters of attentional capacity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to bridge these research fields by modifying the 5-CSRTT's design and by mathematically modelling data to derive attentional parameters analogous to human TVA-based measures...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070618/blunted-5-ht1a-receptor-mediated-responses-and-antidepressant-like-behavior-in-mice-lacking-the-gabab1a-but-not-gabab1b-subunit-isoforms
#9
Laura H Jacobson, Daniel Hoyer, Dominique Fehlmann, Bernhard Bettler, Klemens Kaupmann, John F Cryan
RATIONALE: There is accumulating evidence for a role of GABAB receptors in depression. GABAB receptors are heterodimers of GABAB1 and GABAB2 receptor subunits. The predominant GABAB1 subunit isoforms are GABAB1a and GABAB1b. GABAB1 isoforms in mice differentially influence cognition, conditioned fear, and susceptibility to stress, yet their influence in tests of antidepressant-like activity has not been fully investigated. OBJECTIVES: Given the interactions between GABAB receptors and the serotonergic system and the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR) in antidepressant action, we sought to evaluate 5-HT1AR function in GABAB1a(-/-) and GABAB1b(-/-) mice...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070617/a-pooled-analysis-of-on-the-road-highway-driving-studies-in-actual-traffic-measuring-standard-deviation-of-lateral-position-i-e-weaving-while-driving-at-a-blood-alcohol-concentration-of-0-5%C3%A2-g-l
#10
S Jongen, A Vermeeren, N N J J M van der Sluiszen, M B Schumacher, E L Theunissen, K P C Kuypers, E F P M Vuurman, J G Ramaekers
INTRODUCTION: The on-the-road highway driving test is generally regarded as a gold standard for assessing drug-induced driving impairment. The primary outcome measure is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), a measure of road tracking error or "weaving". The test has been calibrated for incremental doses of alcohol almost 30 years ago in order to define the impact of drug-induced impairment in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equivalents. Drug-induced changes in SDLP exceeding 2...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062899/bibi-ergo-sum-the-effects-of-a-placebo-and-contextual-alcohol-cues-on-motivation-to-drink-alcohol
#11
Paul Christiansen, Gareth Townsend, Graeme Knibb, Matt Field
RATIONALE: Acute 'priming' doses of alcohol reliably increase alcohol-seeking behaviour in social drinkers. However, the effects of the anticipated (rather than pharmacological) effects of alcohol, and their interaction with contextual alcohol cues, are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the extent to which an alcohol-placebo drink increases craving, subjective intoxication and beer consumption, while conjointly investigating the impact of contextual alcohol cues...
January 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054099/feeding-modulatory-effects-of-mu-opioids-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-review-of-recent-findings-and-comparison-to-opioid-actions-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#12
REVIEW
Ryan A Selleck, Brian A Baldo
RATIONALE: Whereas reward-modulatory opioid actions have been intensively studied in subcortical sites such as the nucleus accumbens (Acb), the role of cortical opioid transmission has received comparatively little attention. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe recent findings on the motivational actions of opioids in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), emphasizing studies of food motivation and ingestion. PFC-based opioid effects will be compared/contrasted to those elicited from the Acb, to glean possible common functional principles...
January 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050629/antireward-compulsivity-and-addiction-seminal-contributions-of-dr-athina-markou-to-motivational-dysregulation-in-addiction
#13
REVIEW
George F Koob
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states...
January 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032125/effects-of-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptor-agonists-on-environmental-enrichment-attenuated-sucrose-cue-reactivity-in-rats
#14
Edwin Glueck, Darren Ginder, Jeff Hyde, Katherine North, Jeffrey W Grimm
RATIONALE: Acute or chronic environmental enrichment (EE) reduces sucrose cue reactivity in rats. This effect may be mediated by dopamine receptors. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether dopamine D1 or D2 receptor agonism could reverse the EE effect. We also examined whether any reversal effects would vary with the incubation of sucrose craving. METHODS: Following 10 days (2 h/day) of sucrose self-administration, rats experienced either 1 or 30 days of forced abstinence and either overnight (acute) or 29 day (chronic) EE...
December 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028605/neuropeptide-systems-and-new-treatments-for-nicotine-addiction
#15
REVIEW
Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
RATIONALE: The mildly euphoric and cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine play a role in the initiation of smoking, while dysphoria and anxiety associated with smoking cessation contribute to relapse. After the acute withdrawal phase, smoking cues, a few cigarettes (i.e., lapse), and stressors can cause relapse. Human and animal studies have shown that neuropeptides play a critical role in nicotine addiction. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to describe the role of neuropeptide systems in the initiation of nicotine intake, nicotine withdrawal, and the reinstatement of extinguished nicotine seeking...
December 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028604/molecular-mechanisms-of-group-i-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mediated-ltp-and-ltd-in-basolateral-amygdala-in-vitro
#16
A Chen, W W Hu, X L Jiang, M Potegal, H Li
The roles of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) and mGluR5, in regulating synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) remain unclear. The present study examined mGluR1- and mGluR5-mediated synaptic plasticity in the BLA and their respective signaling mechanisms. Bath application of the group I mGluR agonist, 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (20 μM), directly suppressed basal fEPSPs (84.5 ± 6.3% of the baseline). The suppressive effect persisted for at least 30 min after washout; it was abolished by the mGluR1 antagonist 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt) but was unaffected by the mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6- (phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP)...
December 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028603/guanfacine-alters-the-effect-of-stress-and-smoking-on-heart-rate-variability-in-regular-daily-smokers
#17
Terril L Verplaetse, Philip H Smith, Kathryn M Z Smith, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Sherry A McKee
BACKGROUND: We had previously demonstrated that guanfacine, an α2a-adrenergic agonist, attenuated the effect of stress on smoking-lapse behavior in regular daily smokers. Heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of vagal activity, may be a potential mechanism underlying the relationship between stress, smoking, and relapse. METHODS: We examined whether guanfacine (0 mg/day vs. 3 mg/day; n = 26) altered changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) following stress and ad-lib smoking using a validated laboratory analogue of smoking-lapse behavior...
December 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028602/negative-affect-subtypes-and-craving-differentially-predict-long-term-cessation-success-among-smokers-achieving-initial-abstinence
#18
Yantao Zuo, Norka E Rabinovich, David G Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations of individual trajectories of three types of negative affect (NA: anxiety, depression, and anger) and craving during a 44-day period of incentivized smoking abstinence period with cessation outcome at 3 months and at 1 year. METHODS: Adult smokers (N = 140) completed questionnaire assessments of NA and craving during pre-quit baseline sessions and 15 postquit sessions over the 45 days of biochemically verified abstinence while on nicotine or placebo patch treatment...
December 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028601/voluntary-inhalation-of-methamphetamine-a-novel-strategy-for-studying-intake-non-invasively
#19
C Juarez-Portilla, R D Kim, M Robotham, M Tariq, M Pitter, J LeSauter, R Silver
RATIONALE: The abuse of the psychostimulant methamphetamine (MA) is associated with substantial costs and limited treatment options. To understand the mechanisms that lead to abuse, animal models of voluntary drug intake are crucial. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a protocol to study long-term non-invasive voluntary intake of MA in mice. METHODS: Mice were maintained in their home cages and allowed daily 1 h access to an attached tunnel leading to a test chamber in which nebulized MA was available...
December 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028600/the-contribution-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-and-non-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-nicotine-and-varenicline-in-mice
#20
Fernando B de Moura, Lance R McMahon
RATIONALE: The extent to which non-α4β2 versus α4β2* nAChRs contribute to the behavioral effects of varenicline and other nAChR agonists is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize the discriminative stimulus effects of varenicline and nicotine using various nAChR agonists and antagonists to elucidate possible non-α4β2 nAChR mechanisms. METHODS: Separate groups of male C57BL/6J mice were trained to discriminate varenicline (3...
December 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
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