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Cara L Wellman, Kelly M Moench
BACKGROUND: Stress is associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction, and increases risk for a variety of psychological disorders, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Prefrontal cortex is critical for executive function and emotion regulation, is a target for stress hormones, and is implicated in many stress-influenced psychological disorders. Extinction of conditioned fear provides an excellent model system for examining how stress-induced changes in corticolimbic structure and function are related to stress-induced changes in neural function and behavior, as the neural circuitry underlying this behavior is well characterized...
September 17, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Erin M Rock, Cheryl L Limebeer, Linda A Parker
RATIONALE: Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating component of cannabis, or the psychoactive Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabiol (THC), shows anti-hyperalgesia and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia effects of CBD's potent acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), in a rodent model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in the rat hind paw, when administered systemically (intraperitoneal, i...
September 17, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Mitsukuni Murasaki, Tsukasa Koyama, Shigenobu Kanba, Masahiro Takeuchi, Yuriko Shimizu, Eri Arita, Kentaro Kuroishi, Masahiro Takeuchi, Shinya Kamei
The original version of this article contained a mistake in Table 5. Correct version is presented here.
September 17, 2018: Psychopharmacology
E M McGlashan, L S Nandam, P Vidafar, D R Mansfield, S M W Rajaratnam, S W Cain
RATIONALE: Disturbances of the circadian system are common in depression. Though they typically subside when depression is treated with antidepressants, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Despite being the most commonly prescribed class of antidepressants, the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on the human circadian clock is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the SSRI citalopram (30 mg) on the sensitivity of the human circadian system to light...
September 15, 2018: Psychopharmacology
M H Monfils, H J Lee, N E Keller, R F Roquet, S Quevedo, L Agee, R Cofresi, J Shumake
Fear conditioning is widely employed to study dysregulations of the fear system. The repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of a reinforcer leads to a decrease in fear responding-a phenomenon known as extinction. From a translational perspective, identifying whether an individual might respond well to extinction prior to intervention could prove important to treatment outcomes. Here, we test the hypothesis that CO2 reactivity predicts extinction phenotype in rats, and that variability in CO2 reactivity as well as extinction long-term memory (LTM) significantly predicts orexin activity in the lateral hypothalamus (LH)...
September 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Kai Zhang, Hidetoh Toki, Yuko Fujita, Min Ma, Lijia Chang, Youge Qu, Shingo Harada, Tetsuhiro Nemoto, Akiko Mizuno-Yasuhira, Jun-Ichi Yamaguchi, Shigeyuki Chaki, Kenji Hashimoto
RATIONALE: (R,S)-ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, exhibits rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects and anti-suicidal ideation in treatment-resistant patients with depression. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine are unknown. Although the previous report demonstrated the deuterium isotope effects in the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine, the deuterium isotope effects in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine, which is more potent than (S)-ketamine, are unknown...
September 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Roger Marek, Yajie Sun, Pankaj Sah
Fear learning and extinction are controlled by the activity of three interconnected regions: the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Of these, the medial prefrontal cortex modulates specific aspects in fear and extinction via a top-down regulation. In recent years, extensive progress has been made in our understanding of the neural circuits that mediate fear-related behaviors and their modulation by ascending systems. The development of new experimental techniques is now revealing the details of the intrinsic circuits within these structures as well as the connections between them...
September 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Richard M O'Connor, Cian P McCafferty, Javier A Bravo, Nicolas Singewald, Andrew Holmes, John F Cryan
RATIONALE: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating anxiety-related disorder which develops subsequent to a severe psychologically traumatic event. Only ~ 9% of people who experience such a trauma develop PTSD. It is clear that a number of factors, including genetics, influence whether an individual will develop PTSD subsequent to a trauma. The 129S1/SvImJ (S1) inbred mouse strain displays poor fear extinction and may be useful to model this specific aspect of PTSD. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7 receptor) has previously been shown to be involved in cognitive processes and anxiety-like behaviour placing it in a key position to regulate fear extinction processes...
September 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Bronwyn M Graham, Rick Richardson
RATIONALE: One approach to improving exposure therapy for anxiety disorders has focused on developing pharmacological adjuncts to enhance extinction, but these efforts have produced modest success in clinical trials. Understanding the factors that predict the efficacy of adjuncts will help to develop personalized treatments for anxiety. OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether individual differences in within-session extinction (fear reduction during extinction training) predict the extent to which the neurotrophin fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) enhances extinction recall in rats...
September 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Kelsey S Hideshima, Ashkhan Hojati, Justin M Saunders, Doan M On, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Jong M Shin, Ana Sánchez-González, Cassandra M Dunn, Alexander B Pais, Anthony C Pais, Michael F Miles, Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Javier González-Maeso
BACKGROUND: Serotonin 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) are neurotransmitter G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in the signaling mechanisms underlying psychosis and schizophrenia treatment. Previous findings in mGlu2 knockout (KO) mice suggested that mGlu2 is necessary for head-twitch behavior, a rodent phenotype characteristic of hallucinogenic 5-HT2A receptor agonists. However, the role of mGlu2 in the behavioral effects induced by antipsychotic drugs remains poorly understood...
September 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
James M Clay, Matthew O Parker
RATIONALE: Chronic alcohol misuse can escalate into alcohol use disorder (AUD). The causal mechanisms through which recreational social drinking develops into compulsive uncontrolled alcohol misuse are multifaceted. For example, stress is an important risk factor that influences alcohol craving in both healthy and addicted individuals. In addition, those that are high in impulsivity/risk taking drink more and are at greater risk of developing addiction. At present, however, it is not possible accurately to predict those at risk of escalation in alcohol use, or of developing AUD...
September 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Quenten Highgate, Susan Schenk
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) preferentially increases synaptic serotonin (5HT). This response was attenuated following repeated exposure but there was recovery as a result of abstinence. Effects of abstinence on self-administration of many drugs have been documented but the impact on MDMA self-administration is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effects of abstinence on MDMA and cocaine self-administration. METHODS: Six-hour daily MDMA or cocaine sessions were conducted until a total of 350 mg/kg had been self-administered...
September 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Caroline I Jahn, Sophie Gilardeau, Chiara Varazzani, Bastien Blain, Jerome Sallet, Mark E Walton, Sebastien Bouret
The article Dual contributions of noradrenaline to behavioural flexibility and motivation written by Caroline I. Jahn, Sophie Gilardeau, Chiara Varazzani, Bastien Blain, Jerome Sallet, Mark E. Walton, Sebastien Bouret was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal.
September 11, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Yuan He, Ying Wang, Ting-Ting Chang, Yanbin Jia, Junjing Wang, Shuming Zhong, Huiyuan Huang, Yao Sun, Feng Deng, Xiaoyan Wu, Chen Niu, Li Huang, Guolin Ma, Ruiwang Huang
OBJECTIVE: The cerebellum plays an important role in depression. Cerebro-cerebellar circuits have been found to show aberrance in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether the cerebro-cerebellar connectivity contributes equally to the pathologic mechanisms of BD and MDD remains unknown. METHODS: We recruited 33 patients with MDD, 32 patients with BD, and 43 healthy controls (HC). We selected six seed regions (three per hemisphere) in the cerebrum, corresponding to the affective, cognitive control, and default mode networks, to establish cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity maps...
September 11, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Sebastian Trautmann, Anja Kräplin, Raoul Dieterich, Jan Richter, Markus Muehlhan
BACKGROUND: Traumatic events are associated with alcohol use problems with increased alcohol craving as a potential mediator. There is still a lack of knowledge regarding the causal nature of this association and its underlying mechanisms. This study investigated the effects of acute trauma exposure on alcohol craving in healthy individuals considering the role of stress reactivity and childhood trauma (CT) using a laboratory randomized controlled design. METHODS: Ninety-five healthy participants were randomly exposed to a trauma or a neutral film...
September 10, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Alicia L Danforth, Charles S Grob, Christopher Struble, Allison A Feduccia, Nick Walker, Lisa Jerome, Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Amy Emerson
RATIONALE: Standard therapeutic approaches to reduce social anxiety in autistic adults have limited effectiveness. Since 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy shows promise as a treatment for other anxiety disorders, a blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. OBJECTIVES: To explore feasibility and safety of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for reduction of social fear and avoidance that are common in the autistic population. METHODS: Autistic adults with marked to very severe social anxiety were randomized to receive MDMA (75 to 125 mg, n = 8) or inactive placebo (0 mg, n = 4) during two 8-h psychotherapy sessions (experimental sessions) in a controlled clinical setting...
September 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Julie A Marusich, Elaine A Gay, Bruce E Blough
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones are used as stimulants of abuse. Different stimulants may induce distinct rates of disease progression, yielding neurochemical changes that may vary across brain regions or neurotransmitter systems. OBJECTIVES: This research sought to behaviorally and chemically differentiate stages of synthetic cathinone abuse through rodent self-administration and measurement of the neurotransmitter profile in multiple brain regions. METHODS: Male rats were trained to self-administer α-PVP, mephedrone (4MMC), or saline...
September 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Demario S Overstreet, Terence M Penn, Sarah T Cable, Edwin N Aroke, Burel R Goodin
RATIONALE: Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world. Caffeine administered acutely in a laboratory environment or as a medication adjuvant has known properties that help alleviate pain. However, much less is known about the potential impact of habitual dietary caffeine consumption on the experience of pain. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this observational study was to determine whether caffeine consumed habitually as part of a daily diet was associated with experimental pain sensitivity using noxious stimuli in a non-clinical sample of 62 community-dwelling adults between 19 and 77 years old...
September 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Alexander Weigard, Cynthia Huang-Pollock, Andrew Heathcote, Larry Hawk, Nicolas J Schlienz
RATIONALE: Cigarette smokers often experience cognitive decrements during abstinence from tobacco, and these decrements may have clinical relevance in the context of smoking cessation interventions. However, limitations of the behavioral summary statistics used to measure cognitive effects of abstinence, response times (RT) and accuracy rates, may restrict the field's ability to identify robust abstinence effects on task performance and test mechanistic hypotheses about the etiology of these cognitive changes...
September 4, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Zeyuan Cao, Shuang Wu, Chao Wang, Li Wang, Jair C Soares, Shu-Chang He, Xiang Yang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have reported that long-term exposure to job-related stress can lead to burnout, which may be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Burnout correlates with depression. This study investigated whether one tag polymorphism rs6354 in 5-HTT gene modulated the influence of job-related stress on burnout in the medical professionals in a Chinese Han population, which to our best knowledge has not been explored. METHODS: Seven hundred twelve subjects were recruited from a general hospital and measured for burnout symptoms using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the stress using the House and Rizzo's Work Stress Scale, and the stressors using the Evers, Frese, and Cooper's Sources of Pressure Scale...
September 4, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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