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Hongmei Wu, Quanzhi Zhang, Jingquan Gao, Caihong Sun, Jia Wang, Wei Xia, Yonggang Cao, Yanqiu Hao, Lijie Wu
RATIONALE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders that manifest in early childhood, and it is growing up to be a major cause of disability in children. However, the etiology and treatment of ASD are not well understood. In our previous study, we found that serum levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) were increased significantly in children with autism, indicating that S1P levels may be involved in ASD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify a link between increased levels of S1P and neurobehavioral changes in autism...
December 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Julianne L Price, Ben Lewis, Jeff Boissoneault, Ian R Frazier, Sara Jo Nixon
RATIONALE: Our previous work demonstrated differential neurobehavioral effects of low-dose alcohol consumption on older and younger adults in a driving simulator. However, the ability to enhance or suppress a response in such context has yet to be examined. OBJECTIVES: The current study contrasted older and younger drivers' responses to specific stimuli (i.e., relevant, irrelevant) in scenarios of differing complexity following low-dose acute alcohol administration...
December 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Udita Datta, Mariangela Martini, WenLin Sun
BACKGROUND: Current diagnosis of drug addiction like other mental disorders is based on clinical symptoms not on neural pathophysiology and consequently, does not provide useful information on the underlying pathophysiology and may impede the efforts to identify the underlying mechanisms. Identifying the functional deficits that are relevant to addiction and can be traced to the neural systems will greatly facilitate our understanding of the heterogeneity of the condition and improve future diagnosis and treatment...
December 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Jae-Hoon Lee, Minkyung Lee, Ji-Ae Park, Young Hoon Ryu, Kyo Chul Lee, Kyeong Min Kim, Jae Yong Choi
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on serotonin 1A receptors in the rat brain in vivo. METHODS: Five surgically thyroidectomized male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and five hypophysectomized SD rats were used as animal models of hypothyroidism; the same number of sham-operated SD rats served as age-matched controls. After hypothyroidism was confirmed by thyroid function tests, serotonin positron emission tomography (PET) was performed for 120 min...
December 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Christopher L Robison, Julia R Martz, Juan M Dominguez
RATIONALE: Systemic estradiol (E2) increases the behavioral and neural response to cocaine. Where in the brain E2 acts to modulate cocaine response is not entirely clear. Evidence supports a role in this modulation for several candidate regions, including the medial preoptic area (mPOA). OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether manipulation of E2 in the mPOA modulates differing behavioral responses to cocaine and whether this is reflected in differing levels of c-Fos in the NAc following cocaine administration...
December 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Jennifer M Wright, Suelynn Ren, Annie Constantin, Paul B S Clarke
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Nicotine and D-amphetamine can strengthen reinforcing effects of unconditioned visual stimuli. We investigated whether these reinforcement-enhancing effects reflect a slowing of stimulus habituation and depend on food restriction. METHODS: Adult male rats pressed an active lever to illuminate a cue light during daily 60-min sessions. Depending on the experiment, rats were challenged with fixed or varying doses of D-amphetamine (0.25-2 mg/kg IP) and nicotine (0...
December 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Kaeli Zimmermann, Shuxia Yao, Marcel Heinz, Feng Zhou, Wolfgang Dau, Markus Banger, Bernd Weber, René Hurlemann, Benjamin Becker
RATIONALE: Intact cognitive and emotional functioning is vital for the long-term success of addiction treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between chronic marijuana use and lasting alterations in cognitive brain function. Despite initial evidence for altered emotion processing in dependent marijuana users after short abstinence periods, adaptations in the domain of emotion processing after longer abstinence remain to be determined. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Using task-based and resting state fMRI, the present study investigated emotion processing in 19 dependent marijuana users and 18 matched non-using controls after an abstinence period of > 28 days...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Emily R Hankosky, Sara R Westbrook, Rachel M Haake, Michela Marinelli, Joshua M Gulley
RATIONALE: Adolescence is a period of considerable development of brain and behavior and is the time during which most drug use is initiated. OBJECTIVE: Age-dependent differences in motivated behaviors may be one of the factors that contribute to heightened vulnerability to developing substance use disorders, so we sought to compare age differences in methamphetamine (METH) and saccharin seeking. METHODS: Beginning during adolescence or adulthood, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer 0...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Rafat A Mohammed Jawad, Claire V Hutchinson, Jose Prados
In rodents, sucrose has been found to elicit addictive-like behaviours like the development of tolerance and the association with cues present at the time of consumption. Furthermore, the neurochemical response to sucrose binges is equivalent to the one observed in response to the abuse of addictive substances like cocaine. The experiments reported here address the effects of sucrose on an invertebrate model, the Platyhelminth brown planarian. The animals exposed to a 10% sucrose solution in one context developed a conditioned place preference (CPP) which was subsequently extinguished in the absence of the rewarding agent...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Allison R Bechard, Peter U Hamor, Marek Schwendt, Lori A Knackstedt
RATIONALE: Effective pharmacological treatments to prevent cocaine relapse remain elusive. In male rats, ceftriaxone attenuates the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking while increasing glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and xCT expression in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc). Despite reported sex differences in cocaine relapse, these effects have not yet been confirmed in female rats. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of ceftriaxone on cue-primed reinstatement and cocaine-induced alterations in glutamatergic proteins in the NAc of female rats...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Rohit Verma, Kuljeet Singh Anand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Casia Wardzala, Charles Murchison, Jennifer M Loftis, Katie J Schenning, Nora Mattek, Randall Woltjer, Jeff Kaye, Joseph F Quinn, Clare J Wilhelm
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of moderate alcohol may differ in aging men versus women. OBJECTIVES: Cognitive and functional decline and neuropathology were investigated in a cohort of aging men and women with diverse alcohol histories. METHODS: Non-demented (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of ≤ 0.5 and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of > 24), autonomously living participants were tracked in longitudinal aging studies to examine self-report and objective tests of rates of decline in a cohort (n = 486) of octogenarians...
November 29, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Karsten Gjessing Jensen, Stefan Gärtner, Christoph U Correll, Ditte Rudå, Dea Gowers Klauber, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Jens Richardt Jepsen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Klaus Juul, Anne Katrine Pagsberg
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of quetiapine extended release (ER) versus aripiprazole on corrected QT interval (QTc) and QT dispersion (QTd) in youths with first-episode psychosis. METHODS: Youths 12-17 years were randomized to quetiapine ER (daily dose range = 50 to 800 mg) or aripiprazole (daily dose range = 2.5 to 30 mg) in a 12-week double-blinded trial and examined at weeks 0, 4, and 12. Primary outcome was QTc change using Hodges formula (QTcH); secondary outcomes included QTcH > 450 ms, QTcH > 500 ms, QTcH change > 60 ms, QTd, and heart rate (HR)...
November 29, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Lauren V Moran, Luke E Stoeckel, Kristina Wang, Carolyn E Caine, Rosemond Villafuerte, Vanessa Calderon, Justin T Baker, Dost Ongur, Amy C Janes, A Eden Evins, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Nicotine improves attention and processing speed in individuals with schizophrenia. Few studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on cognitive control. Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research demonstrates blunted activation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in response to error and decreased post-error slowing in schizophrenia. METHODS: Participants with schizophrenia (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 12) participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the effects of transdermal nicotine on cognitive control...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Nathalie Boutros, Andre Der-Avakian, James P Kesby, Soon Lee, Athina Markou, Svetlana Semenova
BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol exposure may increase depression vulnerability in adulthood by increasing the anhedonic response to stress. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (postnatal days 28-53) were exposed to binge-like adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) or water. In adulthood, rats were exposed to social defeat, consisting of daily confrontations with an aggressive conspecific, followed by testing of brain reward function in a discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation procedure for 10 consecutive days...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Anne Marije Kaag, Anna E Goudriaan, Taco J De Vries, Tommy Pattij, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Reconsolidation-based interventions have been suggested to be a promising treatment strategy for substance use disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a working memory intervention to interfere with the reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories in a sample of non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers. METHODS: Participants were randomized to one of the two conditions that underwent a 3-day intervention: in the experimental condition, a 30-min working memory training was performed immediately after a 15-min memory retrieval session (i...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Liana Fattore, Alessandro Piva, Mary Tresa Zanda, Guido Fumagalli, Cristiano Chiamulera
RATIONALE: Clinical data with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients recently stimulated interest on the potential therapeutic use of psychedelics in disorders characterized by maladaptive memories, including substance use disorders (SUD). The rationale for the use of MDMA in PTSD and SUD is being extended to a broader beneficial "psychedelic effect," which is supporting further clinical investigations, in spite of the lack of mechanistic hypothesis...
November 25, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Qian Ren, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Shi-Feng Chu, Cong-Yuan Xia, Nai-Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) remains a major public health problem worldwide. The association between MDD and the dysfunction of gap junction channels (GJCs) in glial cells, especially astrocytes, is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: This review provides an overview of the role of astrocyte GJCs in LMDD. RESULTS: Exposure to chronic unpredictable stress caused a reduction in connexin expression in the rat prefrontal cortex, a result that is consistent with clinical findings reported in postmortem studies of brains from MDD patients...
November 25, 2017: Psychopharmacology
S Bretin, A Krazem, N Henkous, C Froger-Colleaux, E Mocaer, C Louis, N Perdaems, A Marighetto, D Beracochea
Positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors (AMPA-PAMs) are described to facilitate cognitive processes in different memory-based models. Among them, S 47445 is a novel potent and selective AMPA-PAM. In order to assess its efficacy after repeated administration, S 47445 effect was evaluated in two aging-induced memory dysfunction tasks in old mice, one short-term working memory model evaluated in a radial maze task and one assessing contextual memory performance. S 47445 was shown to improve cognition in both models sensitive to aging...
November 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Allison A Feduccia, Julie Holland, Michael C Mithoefer
Pharmacotherapy is often used to target symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but does not provide definitive treatment, and side effects of daily medication are often problematic. Trauma-focused psychotherapies are more likely than drug treatment to achieve PTSD remission, but have high dropout rates and ineffective for a large percentage of patients. Therefore, research into drugs that might increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy is a logical avenue of investigation. The most promising drug studied as a catalyst to psychotherapy for PTSD thus far is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as the recreational drug "Ecstasy...
November 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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