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Cassie M Chandler, Jaren Reeves-Darby, Sherman A Jones, J Abigail McDonald, Guanguan Li, Md T Rahman, James M Cook, Donna M Platt
RATIONALE: GABAA receptors containing the α5 subunit (i.e., α5GABAA receptors) appear to be critically involved in the reinforcing and subjective effects of alcohol. Their role in alcohol relapse remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: Pharmacological approaches were used to probe the role of α5GABAA receptors in alcohol seeking induced by re-exposure to a sweetened alcohol-paired cue, as well as in alcohol + sucrose vs. sucrose self-administration. METHODS: For reinstatement studies, rats were trained to self-administer alcohol under a fixed-ratio schedule in which responding was maintained by alcohol + sucrose deliveries and an alcohol-paired stimulus...
January 12, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Aleksandra M Herman, Hugo D Critchley, Theodora Duka
RATIONALE: State-dependent changes in physiological arousal may influence impulsive behaviours. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between arousal and impulsivity, we assessed the effects of yohimbine (an α2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, which increases physiological arousal via noradrenaline release) on performance on established laboratory-based impulsivity measures in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Forty-three participants received a single dose of either yohimbine hydrochloride or placebo before completing a battery of impulsivity measures...
January 11, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Jon Lansner, Christian G Jensen, Anders Petersen, Patrick M Fisher, Vibe G Frokjaer, Signe Vangkilde, Gitte M Knudsen
RATIONALE: The serotonergic system has been repeatedly linked to visual attention in general, but the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on specific components of visual attention remain unknown. Changes in distinct perceptual and cognitive processes are not readily evident in most attention paradigms. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we isolate basic components of visual attention to investigate potential effects of longer-term SSRI administration on non-emotional aspects of visual attention in healthy males...
January 8, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Jennifer R Fonda, Kristin L Gregor, Catherine B Fortier, Erica R Scioli-Salter, Regina E McGlinchey, Ann Rasmusson
RATIONALE: Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive disorders, and pain. Research has revealed pairwise relationships among these conditions but has not examined more complex relationships that may influence symptom severity, chronicity, and treatment outcome. OBJECTIVE: To examine the clustering of current PTSD, depressive disorders, and clinically significant pain according to current tobacco use and dependence among post-9/11 deployed veterans...
January 7, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Maria Konstandi, Ioannis Sotiropoulos, Tsutomu Matsubara, Foteini Malliou, Alexandra Katsogridaki, Christina E Andriopoulou, Frank J Gonzalez
RATIONALE: Stressful life events are suggested to contribute to the development of various pathologies, such as cardiovascular disorders, whose etiopathogenesis is highly associated with elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins. SAA synthesis in the liver is regulated by a complex network of cytokines acting independently or in concert with various hormones/stimulants including the stress-activated sympathetic nervous system. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms that regulate the stress-induced hepatic synthesis of SAA, with particular focus on adrenoceptors (AR), major components of the sympathoadrenal response to stress...
January 6, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Anu Ruusunen, Tetyana Rocks, Felice Jacka, Amy Loughman
Rapidly accumulating evidence supports the important role of gut microbiome in the regulation of mood, behaviour, appetite, gastrointestinal symptomology, and nutrient metabolism. These are all core features frequently altered in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). Current treatment recommendations for AN support the use of high-calorie diets as an essential part of nutritional rehabilitation, commonly achieved by elevating the fat content of the diet. However, in contrast to this approach, there is accumulating evidence suggesting the importance of balanced, high-fibre diets on the gut microbiome...
January 5, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Dominique de Quervain, Oliver T Wolf, Benno Roozendaal
Extensive evidence from both animal model and human research indicates that glucocorticoid hormones are crucially involved in modulating memory performance. Glucocorticoids, which are released during stressful or emotionally arousing experiences, enhance the consolidation of new memories, including extinction memory, but reduce the retrieval of previously stored memories. These memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently received considerable interest for translational purposes because strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias...
January 4, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Colleen J Lawrimore, Leon G Coleman, Fulton T Crews
RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) involves dysregulation of innate immune signaling in brain. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), an innate immune receptor that is upregulated in post-mortem human alcoholics, leads to induction of interferon (IFN) signaling. IFNs have been linked to depressive-like symptoms and therefore may play a role in addiction pathology. Astrocyte-neuronal signaling may contribute to maladaptation of neuronal circuits. OBJECTIVES: In this manuscript, we examine ethanol (EtOH) induction of IFN signaling in neuronal, astrocyte, and microglial cell lines and assess astrocyte-neuronal interactions...
January 4, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Angela Jacques, Nicholas Chaaya, Chiemi Hettiarachchi, Marie-Louise Carmody, Kate Beecher, Arnauld Belmer, Fatemeh Chehrehasa, Selena Bartlett, Andrew R Battle, Luke R Johnson
RATIONALE: The precise neural circuitry that encodes fear memory and its extinction within the brain are not yet fully understood. Fearful memories can be persistent, resistant to extinction, and associated with psychiatric disorders, especially post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we investigated the microtopography of neurons activated during the recall of an extinguished fear memory, as well as the influence of time on this microtopography. METHODS: We used the plasticity-related phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (pMAPK) to identify neurons activated in the recall of consolidated and extinguished auditory Pavlovian fear memories in rats...
January 4, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Angela Maria Casaril, Micaela Domingues, Suely Ribeiro Bampi, Darling de Andrade Lourenço, Nathalia Batista Padilha, Eder João Lenardão, Mariana Sonego, Fabiana Kommling Seixas, Tiago Collares, Cristina Wayne Nogueira, Robert Dantzer, Lucielli Savegnago
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Stress-induced alterations in oxidative and inflammatory parameters have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Based on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the selenium-containing compound 3-((4-chlorophenyl)selanyl)-1-methyl-1H-indole (CMI), we assessed its ability to reverse depression-like behavioral alterations, neuroinflammation, and oxidative imbalance induced by acute restraint stress. METHODS: Mice submitted to restraint for 240 min received CMI (1 or 10 mg/kg, orally) 10 min after the end of the stress induction...
January 4, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Liang Yang, Yuanyuan Ran, Zhenzhen Quan, Ran Wang, Qinghu Yang, Qiutian Jia, Heao Zhang, Yanhui Li, Yiheng Peng, JianHua Liang, Hui Wang, Hiroshi Nakanishi, Yulin Deng, Hong Qing
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal neurogenesis has been widely considered as one of the potential biological mechanisms for the treatment of depression caused by chronic stress. Many natural products have been reported to be beneficial for neurogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The present study is designed to investigate the effect of dragon's blood extract (DBE) and its biologically active compound, pterostilbene (PTE), on hippocampal neurogenesis. METHODS: The male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study, which were maintained on the normal, DBE and PTE diet groups for 4 weeks before dissection in the normal rat model and behavioral testing in the CUS depression rat model...
January 4, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Duygun Altıntaş Aykan, Murat Kesim, Beyza Ayan, Ayşegül Kurt
RATIONALE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are gut derived hormones. GLP-1 and GLP-2 were shown to have pleiotropic effects in intestinal and pancreatic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the activities of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on nociception and inflammation in mice, involving their actions on serotonergic, nitrergic, and opioidergic systems. METHODS: Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of intraperitoneally injected GLPs were evaluated in hotplate latency test, formalin-induced behavioral, and paw edema tests...
January 4, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Ryan Wu, Inge E M de Jong, Martin Sarter
RATIONALE: Falls in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with cognitive, specifically attentional impairments and with losses in cholinergic projection systems. We previously established an animal model of the combined basal forebrain cholinergic-striatal dopaminergic losses of PD fallers (Dual Lesioned, DL, rats) and demonstrated that treating DL rats with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), donepezil, together with a 5HT6 receptor antagonist, idalopirdine, reduced fall frequency and improved associated aspects of the performance of DL rats traversing rotating rods...
January 4, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Tianyao Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Ruiyu Zhang, Hongyu Zhong, Lian Wang, Jinghui Zhao, Ling Yang, Xiaotang Fan
RATIONALE: Resveratrol (RSV) has been indicated to exhibit beneficial effects on depression and anxiety treatment by suppression of inflammatory processes. Depression triggered by deficiency of estrogen and anxiety-like behaviors are associated with inflammation. The role of RSV in ovariectomized mice is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We examine whether the RSV, a Sirt1 activator, alleviates ovariectomy-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors through the inhibition of inflammatory processes...
January 4, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Fang Wei, Jian Song, Cui Zhang, Jun Lin, Rong Xue, Li-Dong Shan, Shan Gong, Guo-Xing Zhang, Zheng-Hong Qin, Guang-Yin Xu, Lin-Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: The glymphatic system has recently been proposed to function as a brain-wide macroscopic system for the clearance of potentially harmful molecules, such as amyloid beta (e.g., Aβ), from the brain parenchyma. Previous literatures have established that the glymphatic function is dramatically suppressed by aging, traumatic brain injury, and some diseases. However, the effect of chronic stress on the glymphatic function and its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. METHODS: Adult mice were randomly divided into four groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-treated group, CUMS simultaneously treated with mifepristone (MFP) group, dexamethasone (DEX)-treated group, and control group...
January 3, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Timo L Kvamme, Mads Uffe Pedersen, Morten Overgaard, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Valerie Voon
RATIONALE: Identifying the predictors of relapse in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients is crucial for effective surveillance procedures and the optimization of treatment. Physiological measures such as functional MRI activity and heart rate variability have been shown as potential markers of relapse prediction. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to assess differential pupillary reactions to alcohol-related cues as an objective physiological candidate predictor of relapse...
January 3, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Wei Gao, Andrew P Salzwedel, Alexander L Carlson, Kai Xia, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Martin A Styner, Amanda L Thompson, Xiujuan Geng, Barbara D Goldman, John H Gilmore, Rebecca C Knickmeyer
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the possibility that microbial communities inhabiting the human gut could affect cognitive development and increase risk for mental illness via the "microbiome-gut-brain axis." Infancy likely represents a critical period for the establishment of these relationships, as it is the most dynamic stage of postnatal brain development and a key period in the maturation of the microbiome. Indeed, recent reports indicate that characteristics of the infant gut microbiome are associated with both temperament and cognitive performance...
January 2, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Shin-Lei Peng, Han Chiu, Chun-Yi Wu, Chiun-Wei Huang, Yi-Hsiu Chung, Cheng-Ting Shih, Wu-Chung Shen
RATIONALE: Caffeine is a widely studied psychostimulant, even though its exact effect on brain activity remains to be elucidated. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows studying mechanisms underlying cerebral metabolic responses to caffeine in caffeine-naïve rats. Rodent studies are typically performed under anesthesia. However, the anesthesia may affect neurotransmitter systems targeted by tested drugs. OBJECTIVES: The scope of the present study was to address the impairing or enhancing effect of two common anesthetics, alpha-chloralose and isoflurane, on the kinetics of caffeine...
January 2, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Kathryne Van Hedger, Sarah K Keedy, Kathryn E Schertz, Marc G Berman, Harriet de Wit
RATIONALE: The behavioral and reward-related effects of stimulant drugs have been studied extensively; yet the effect of stimulants on sensory processing is still relatively unknown. Prior brain imaging studies have shown that single doses of stimulant drugs increase neural function during cognitive and attentional processes. However, it is not clear if stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine (MA) affect neural responses to novel sensory stimuli, and whether these effects depend on the visual features of the stimuli...
January 2, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Thomas Anderson, Rotem Petranker, Daniel Rosenbaum, Cory R Weissman, Le-Anh Dinh-Williams, Katrina Hui, Emma Hapke, Norman A S Farb
RATIONALE: Microdosing psychedelics-the regular consumption of small amounts of psychedelic substances such as LSD or psilocybin-is a growing trend in popular culture. Recent studies on full-dose psychedelic psychotherapy reveal promising benefits for mental well-being, especially for depression and end-of-life anxiety. While full-dose therapies include perception-distorting properties, microdosing mayprovide complementary clinical benefits using lower-risk, non-hallucinogenic doses. OBJECTIVES: This pre-registered study aimed to investigate whether microdosing psychedelics is related to differences in personality, mental health, and creativity...
January 2, 2019: Psychopharmacology
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