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Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

Deepali Jain, Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri
CONTEXT: - There has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer. A number of oncogenic drivers have been identified in non-small cell lung carcinoma, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) gene rearrangement. Because of the clinical presentation at an advanced stage of disease in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients, the use of minimally invasive techniques is preferred to obtain a tumor sample for diagnosis...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Liyun Cao, Chi Hyun Lee, Jing Ning, Beverly C Handy, Elizabeth A Wagar, Qing H Meng
CONTEXT: - Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is a noncoding RNA that is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) tissue and excreted in urine in patients with PCa. OBJECTIVE: - To assess the clinical utility of urinary PCA3 in men at risk of PCa. DESIGN: - We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of 271 men (median age, 63 years) with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and/or strong family history, and/or abnormal digital rectal examination findings...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Scott Kizy, Jing Li Huang, Schelomo Marmor, Anne Blaes, Jianling Yuan, Heather Beckwith, Todd M Tuttle, Jane Yuet Ching Hui
CONTEXT: - The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) provides a probability of distant recurrence for estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancers. The utility of RS for rarer histologic subtypes of breast cancer is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the distribution of RS among various histologic subtypes using a population database. DESIGN: - Women between the ages of 18 and 75 with estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer and known RS results were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Kelly J Butnor, Elizabeth N Pavlisko, Thomas A Sporn, Victor L Roggli
CONTEXT: - Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a component of the BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome. Other than in BAP1 familial studies, nonmesothelial neoplasms in individuals with MM has not been comprehensively assessed. OBJECTIVE: - To assess the spectrum and prevalence of nonmesothelial neoplasms in individuals with MM. DESIGN: - Individuals with MM and second neoplasms were identified from a database of 3900 MM cases. The expected prevalence of each type of neoplasm was calculated and compared with the actual prevalence in the study population using available Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data and other published data...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Luka Brcic, Gregor Vlacic, Franz Quehenberger, Izidor Kern
CONTEXT: - Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis. Several studies have analyzed potential prognostic markers, but histologic type remains the single most important prognostic factor. Histologic subtypes of epithelioid MPM seem to have prognostic and therapeutic implications. Interobserver agreement in histologic pattern classification should be high. OBJECTIVE: - To assess interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility in histologic differentiation between the main types of MPMs, and in further subtyping of epithelioid-type mesothelioma...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Ron B Schifman, Daniel R Luevano
CONTEXT: - Annual monitoring with serum aluminum measurements is recommended for dialysis patients who are susceptible to toxic accumulation from contaminated dialysis fluid or from ingestion of aluminum-containing medications. OBJECTIVE: - To evaluate long-term trends in serum aluminum concentrations and frequency of chronic toxicity. DESIGN: - A retrospective observational study was conducted by analyzing serum aluminum results obtained from the Veterans Affairs corporate data warehouse...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Jason D Merker, Geoffrey R Oxnard, Carolyn Compton, Maximilian Diehn, Patricia Hurley, Alexander J Lazar, Neal Lindeman, Christina M Lockwood, Alex J Rai, Richard L Schilsky, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Patricia Vasalos, Brooke L Billman, Thomas K Oliver, Suanna S Bruinooge, Daniel F Hayes, Nicholas C Turner
PURPOSE: - Clinical use of analytical tests to assess genomic variants in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is increasing. This joint review from the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists summarizes current information about clinical ctDNA assays and provides a framework for future research. METHODS: - An Expert Panel conducted a literature review on the use of ctDNA assays for solid tumors, including preanalytical variables, analytical validity, interpretation and reporting, and clinical validity and utility...
March 5, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Andrew G Nicholson, Ming S Tsao, William D Travis, Deepa T Patil, Francoise Galateau-Salle, Mirella Marino, Sanja Dacic, Mary Beth Beasley, Kelly J Butnor, Yasushi Yatabe, Harvey I Pass, Valerie W Rusch, Frank C Detterbeck, Hisao Asamura, Thomas W Rice, Ramon Rami-Porta
CONTEXT: - The Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, in conjunction with the International Mesothelioma Interest Group, the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group, and the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration, developed proposals for the 8th edition of their respective tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging classification systems. OBJECTIVE: - To review these changes and discuss issues for the reporting pathologist...
February 26, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Richard L Attanoos, Andrew Churg, Francoise Galateau-Salle, Allen R Gibbs, Victor L Roggli
CONTEXT: - Although many mesotheliomas are related to asbestos exposure, not all are, and there is increasing information on other causes of mesothelioma. OBJECTIVE: - To provide a review of non-asbestos causes for malignant mesothelioma. DATA SOURCES: - Review of relevant literature published via PubMed and other search engines. CONCLUSIONS: - Currently, most pleural mesotheliomas (70% to 90%) in men in Europe and North America are attributable to asbestos exposure; for peritoneal mesothelioma the proportion is lower...
February 26, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Jarcy Zee, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Laura H Mariani, Joseph P Gaut, Matthew B Palmer, Serena M Bagnasco, Avi Z Rosenberg, Stephen M Hewitt, Lawrence B Holzman, Brenda W Gillespie, Laura Barisoni
CONTEXT: - Testing reproducibility is critical for the development of methodologies for morphologic assessment. Our previous study using the descriptor-based Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network Digital Pathology Scoring System (NDPSS) on glomerular images revealed variable reproducibility. OBJECTIVE: - To test reproducibility and feasibility of alternative scoring strategies for digital morphologic assessment of glomeruli and explore use of alternative agreement statistics...
February 19, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Morteza Saeedi, Elnaz Vahidi, Shirin Asri, Amirhosein Jahanshir
CONTEXT: - Lumbar puncture (LP) is still an important modality in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Rapid and correct fluid analysis can provide patients with a better prognosis by appropriate intervention. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the value of cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level in differentiation between SAH and traumatic LP. DESIGN: - This was a cross-sectional observational study. Patients with a diagnostic suspicion of SAH, who were admitted to the emergency department, were enrolled in our study based on the inclusion criteria...
February 19, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Mary Ann Sanders, Jane E Brock, Beth T Harrison, Tad J Wieczorek, Xuefei Hong, Anthony J Guidi, Deborah A Dillon, Leslie Max, Susan C Lester
CONTEXT: - Patients choosing to retain the nipple when undergoing therapeutic or prophylactic mastectomy are at risk for cancers arising at that site. OBJECTIVE: - To identify cases of invasive carcinoma arising within the nipple and to investigate their clinical, imaging, biologic, and staging features. DESIGN: - Carcinomas were identified by prospective review of surgical and consult cases at 4 hospitals. RESULTS: - The 24 patients identified presented with symptoms related to the nipple...
February 12, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Paloma Del C Monroig-Bosque, Brandon Driver, Joel A Morales-Rosado, Michael Deavers, David Tacha, Eric Bernicker, Philip T Cagle, Ross A Miller
CONTEXT: - The interaction between programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) on activated T cells sends an inhibitory signal that dampens the immune response. Tumors can express PD-L1 and evade the immune system. In advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma, expression of PD-1 in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) correlates with PD-L1 expression in tumor cells (TCs). However, this relationship has not been thoroughly explored in early disease. OBJECTIVE: - To investigate the correlation of PD-1 and PD-L1 in non-small cell lung carcinoma tumor samples, with emphasis on stage I disease...
February 12, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Piers Blombery, Kate Jones, Ken Doig, Georgina Ryland, Michelle McBean, Ella Thompson, Costas K Yannakou, David Westerman
CONTEXT: - Detection of measurable residual disease after therapy is an important predictor of outcome in acute myeloid leukemia. OBJECTIVE: - To investigate the feasibility of using next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the diagnostic laboratory to perform quantitative NPM1 mutation assessment using ultradeep (approximately 300 000×-500 000×) sequencing (NGS-q NPM1) as a method of assessing residual disease burden in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. DESIGN: - A flexible NGS-based assay for the detection and quantitation of NPM1 mutations was developed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of target DNA sequences, sequencing on an Illumina (San Diego, California) MiSeq, and analyzing data with an in-house-designed bioinformatic pipeline...
February 9, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Ralph Green, Michael A Hogarth, Michael B Prystowsky, Hooman H Rashidi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Trupti Pai, Tanuja Shet, Asawari Patil, Omshree Shetty, Angad Singh, Sangeeta B Desai
CONTEXT: - PathVysion-a US Food and Drug Administration-approved dual-probe human epidermal growth factor receptor ( HER2) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay-provides the HER2: CEP17 ratio, a centromeric enumeration probe ratio for determining HER2 status in breast cancers. However, pericentromeric amplifications might then skew the HER2: CEP17 ratio, underestimating the HER2 status, which calls into question the use of CEP17 as the reference probe. OBJECTIVE: - To analyze the utility of a noncentromeric chromosome 17 reference locus ( D17S122) to assess HER2 gene status in cases showing "nonclassical" FISH patterns with the CEP17 probe...
January 31, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Matthew G Hanna, Ishtiaque Ahmed, Jeffrey Nine, Shyam Prajapati, Liron Pantanowitz
CONTEXT: - Augmented reality (AR) devices such as the Microsoft HoloLens have not been well used in the medical field. OBJECTIVE: - To test the HoloLens for clinical and nonclinical applications in pathology. DESIGN: - A Microsoft HoloLens was tested for virtual annotation during autopsy, viewing 3D gross and microscopic pathology specimens, navigating whole slide images, telepathology, as well as real-time pathology-radiology correlation...
January 31, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Jasmine Haller, Marjorie Parker David, Nathan E Lee, Sara C Shalin, Jerad M Gardner
CONTEXT: - Patients with rare tumors have difficulty finding reliable information about their disease. Facebook patient support groups allow patients to educate one another. OBJECTIVE: - To investigate how these patients perceive the value of pathologists, both in Facebook groups and real-world patient care. DESIGN: - Survey links were posted in 12 Facebook patient groups: 6 with an active pathologist member (angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, epithelioid sarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans [×2], and desmoid fibromatosis), and 6 without "active" pathologist involvement (aggressive angiomyxoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, and osteosarcoma)...
January 29, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Borislav A Alexiev, Pauline M Chou, Lawrence J Jennings
CONTEXT: - Melanotic schwannoma (MS) is a nerve sheath tumor with a uniform composition of variably melanin-producing Schwann cells and metastatic potential. The MS is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of all nerve sheath tumors, with a predilection for spinal nerve involvement. Microscopically, the tumors are characterized by spindle and epithelioid cells arranged in interlacing fascicles, with marked accumulation of melanin in neoplastic cells and associated melanophages...
January 26, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Juehua Gao, Shunyou Gong, Yi-Hua Chen
CONTEXT: - Myeloid neoplasms with familial occurrence have been rarely reported in the past. With the advance of molecular technology and better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasms, investigating the genetic causes of familial acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome has become feasible in the clinical setting. Recent studies have identified a rapidly expanding list of germline mutations associated with increased risks of developing myeloid neoplasm in the affected families...
January 26, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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