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Brain Research Bulletin

Di Wen, Can Cui, Weisong Duan, Wan Wang, Ying Wang, Yakun Liu, Zhongyao Li, Chunyan Li
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, but little is known about the exact causes and pathophysiology of this disease. In transgenic mouse models of ALS, mitochondrial abnormalities develop during the disease and might contribute to the progression of ALS. Gene therapy was recently shown to induce beneficial effects. For example, the delivery of human insulin-like growth factor-1 (hIGF-1) by self-complementary adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has been shown to prolong the lifespan of ALS transgenic mice...
November 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Veronia Fawzy Fahim, Walaa Wadie, Amani Nabil Shafik, Magdy Ishak Attallah
OBJECTIVES: The memory protective role of simvastatin and/or insulin, in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia was examined. METHODS: DM was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were divided into untreated; insulin treated; simvastatin treated with 10 and 20 mg/kg/day; and combined insulin plus simvastatin treatment in the previous doses. Treatment started after blood glucose elevation and persisted for 6 weeks...
November 2, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Hao Bai, Lei Zhao, Haixiao Liu, Hao Guo, Wei Guo, Longlong Zheng, Xunyuan Liu, Xun Wu, Jianing Luo, Xia Li, Li Gao, Dayun Feng, Yan Qu
Ischemic stroke is a severe cerebrovascular disease. Although great progress has been made, the consequent ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is inevitable and affects the therapeutic effect. Adiponectin (APN) is a fat-derived plasma protein that has beneficial actions on cardiovascular disorders. The present study aims to investigate the effect of APN on I/R injury and the potential underlying mechanisms. In step 1, APN were administered for three times (once every 8 h) 24 h before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
November 2, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Augusto Anesio, Silas Pereira Barbosa, Laurival A de Luca, Patrícia Maria de Paula, Débora S A Colombari, Eduardo Colombari, Carina A F Andrade, José V Menani
Central cholinergic activation stimulates water intake, but also NaCl intake when the inhibitory mechanisms are blocked with injections of moxonidine (α2 adrenergic/imidazoline agonist) into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). In the present study, we investigated the involvement of central M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors on NaCl intake induced by pilocarpine (non-selective muscarinic agonist) intraperitoneally combined with moxonidine into the LPBN or by muscimol (GABAA agonist) into the LPBN. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the LPBN and in the lateral ventricle were used...
November 1, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Farzad Salehpour, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Paolo Cassano, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Marjan Erfani, Michael R Hamblin, Maryam Moghadam Salimi, Pouran Karimi, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Javad Mahmoudi
This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation (PBM) combined with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) on depressive-like behavior, cerebral oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis markers in mice. To induce a depressive-like model, mice were subjected to sub-chronic restraint stress for 5 consecutive days. NIR PBM (810 nm laser, 33.3 J/cm2 ) and/or CoQ10 (500 mg/kg/day, gavage) were administered for five days concomitantly with immobilization. Behavior was evaluated by the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and open field test (OFT)...
October 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Bor Luen Tang
Exosomes, in the mix with other extracellular microvesicles (EVs), are very broadly implicated in a multitude of neuronal physiological and pathological processes. However, their roles in axonal regeneration upon injury, which is potentially useful from a therapeutics perspective, are less well-defined. Exosomes from both neuronal and non-neuronal sources have been shown to promote neurite growth or enhance axon regeneration of injured neurons. How these beneficial effects are actually achieved has not been very clear...
October 24, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ying Tan, Xi Hu, Yongbing Deng, Peng Yuan, Yanfeng Xie, Jia Wang
TRA2A, Transformer2A proteins, plays important roles in paclitaxel resistance and progression of breast cancer. However, whether TRA2A was involved in the progression of glioma remains to be elucidated. In this study, our results demonstrated that the expression of TRA2A was higher in the glioma tissue than that of normal tissue. Overexpression of TRA2A in glioma SHG44 cell lines promoted the tumor cells proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), while, knockdown of TRA2A showed the opposite effect...
October 24, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Yi-Ning Hao, Qi-Xuan Lu, Yu-Hao Zhai, Hao-Yue Wang, Mei-Na Wu, Meng-Ming Hu, Biao Yang, Zhao-Jun Wang, Ze-Wen Wu, Jin-Shun Qi
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and α-synuclein (α-syn) are major components of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively. Co-occurrence of Aβ and α-syn in the senile brains of AD and LB diseases suggests interactions between the two proteins. However, the significance of the overlapping deposition, especially the effects of α-syn on the Aβ aggregation, still remains to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of α-syn pre-formed fibrils (PFFs) injection on the cognitive behaviors and Aβ deposition in the brain of APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice by using Morris water maze (MWM) test, immunohistochemistry and western blot techniques...
October 24, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Xuejin Cao, Hanrong Xu, Weixi Feng, Dongyuan Su, Ming Xiao
The glymphatic pathway and meningeal lymphatic vessels are involved in clearance of metabolic macromolecules from the brain. However, the functional interaction between the two systems in the maintenance of brain homeostasis remains unclear. Here we reported that deletion of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a functional regulator of glymphatic clearance, aggravated brain pathology of 3 month-old mice after blocking of the meningeal lymphatic drainage for 2 weeks via ligation of the deep cervical lymphatic nodes (LdcLNs)...
October 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Beáta Berta, László Péczely, Erika Kertes, Zoltán Petykó, Tamás Ollmann, Kristóf László, Veronika Kállai, Anita Kovács, Olga Zagorácz, Rita Gálosi, Zoltán Karádi, László Lénárd
Effects of kainate or 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA) lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) on taste-related learning and memory processes were examined. Neurotoxins were applied by iontophoretic method to minimize the extent of lesion and the side effects. Acquisition and retention of conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) was tested to different taste stimuli (0.05 M NaCl, 0.01 M saccharin, 0.01 M citrate and 0.00025 M quinine). In the first experiment, palatability index of taste solutions with these concentrations has been determined as strongly palatable (NaCl, saccharin), weakly palatable (citrate) and weakly unpalatable (quinine) taste stimuli...
October 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Alexandr Bondar, Liubov Shubina
Photostimulation of the visual analyzer with a periodic signal is widely used in research and clinical practice, as well as in brain-computer interface technologies. In most studies of rhythmic photostimulation in structures of visual system at all its levels, the nonlinear nature of the response reactions is noted. However, the mechanism of formation of the induced electrophysiological reactions remains unclear. In addition, there is no literature data on the nature of response reactions of "non-visual" brain structures...
October 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
A H Basil, M Gross, R Rajkumar, M Kirby, A Pinhasov, G S Dawe
Social hierarchy is considered to impart an adaptive advantage to the species by reducing long-term conflict between conspecifics. While social stratification is frequently established via stress-inducing stimuli, the subsequent integration of individuals into the hierarchy may attenuate anxiety. Presently, we hypothesized that repeated reinforcement of murine social hierarchy in the dominant-submissive relationship (DSR) food-competition test would engender divergent neuroplastic changes mediating both social and anxiety-like behavior among selectively-bred Dominant (Dom) and Submissive (Sub) mice...
October 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Mengxin Shen, Dan Lv, Xu Liu, Shuting Li, Yaping Chen, Yanhua Zhang, Zhen Wang, Chuang Wang
Previous studies have suggested that rapid reductions in depression-like behaviors are observed in response to sub-anesthetic-doses of ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. Neuropeptide VGF (non-acronymic) is a critical effector of depression-like behaviors and is thought to be involved in the antidepressant actions of ketamine that have been demonstrated. However, the mechanism underlying the involvement of VGF in the anti-depressant action of ketamine remains unclear. We found that single dose ketamine treatment reversed CSDS-induced depression-like behaviors and decrease of VGF in the PFC of mice...
October 11, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Gang Wu, Xixi Zhao, Feidi Wang, Ruolan Tan, Jin Wang, Xingxing Li, Chen Chen, Jing An, Haixia Lu
As one of several opioids, oxycodone has been widely used, particularly in postoperative analgesia in children and cesarean section. However, the effect of oxycodone on developing brain still remains to be seen. Since there is a link between anesthetics exposure and long-term behavioral or cognitive dysfunction in young children, in the current study, the direct effect of oxycodone on neural stem cells (NSCs) biological behaviors was investigated. After exposed to a high dose of oxycodone (10 μg/mL) for 48 h, NSCs survival and proliferation were significantly reduced, while NSCs apoptosis and differentiation were enhanced...
October 2, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Mengmeng Wang, Weiliang Huang, Tingting Gao, Xiaoshan Zhao, Zhiping Lv
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Paul L Mueller, Carolyn E Pritchett, Tyler N Wiechman, Alevtina Zharikov, Andras Hajnal
Depression is associated with uncontrolled diabetes, which indicates a lack of insulin effect, yet the role of the insulin receptor in mediating depression is not clearly established because insulin receptors are not required for glucose entry into the brain. However, insulin receptors are important for brain function since insulin receptor knockout mice have depressive-like activity. Depression and cognitive problems are also associated with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the elderly. Rodent studies showed chronic IGF-1 administration had antidepressant-like (AD) activity...
September 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Bei Li, Xiu Jing Feng, Xue Yuan Hu, Yong Ping Chen, Ji Chen Sha, Hua Yun Zhang, Hong-Gang Fan
Isoflurane, an inhalational anesthesia, has frequently been used in pediatric anesthesia. However, research indicates that isoflurane can induce oxidative stress and affect neural and cognitive development. Melatonin, an endogenous hormone that exhibits antioxidant functions, can play a neuroprotective role by activating the PKCα/Nrf2 signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress. This study aims to determine whether the effect of melatonin on isoflurane-induced oxidative stress is related to activation of the PKCα/Nrf2 signaling pathway...
September 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Jiabing Shen, Tingting Zhou, Haizhen Li, Wanyan Li, Shuyao Wang, Yan Song, Kaifu Ke, Maohong Cao
Recent studies have shown that Cab45s, belonging to the CREC family, can fight against apoptosis in the cancer cell lines. Here, we report that Cab45s may involve in neuronal apoptosis at the early stage of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in pathophysiology. We found that expression of Cab45s was enhanced in areas contiguous to hematoma following ICH in adult rats, and that so were the expressions of Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and active caspase-3. In vitro, coimmunoprecipitation analysis indicated the interaction between Cab45s and GRP78...
September 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Meili Wu, Lu Xu, Yu Wang, Ning Zhou, Fei Zhen, Ying Zhang, Xuebin Qu, Hongbin Fan, Sihan Liu, Yan Chen, Ruiqin Yao
S100A8/A9, a heterodimer complex composed of calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9, is significantly increased in the serum of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Relevant reports have revealed that MS pathology is commonly associated with the activation of microglial cells and the damage of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Moreover, microglia activation following stimulation increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which further exacerbate the damage to OPCs...
September 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Wenya Li, Shengchang Yang, Fu-Yang Yu, Yashuo Zhao, Zhi-Min Sun, Ji-Ren An, Ensheng Ji
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very common breathing and sleep disorder characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), which is often associated with behavioral and neurocognitive functions impairment. Hydrogen (H2 ), as a novel and effective antioxidant, is reported to be a potential neuroprotective agent. The aim of this study is to investigate whether H2 could improve CIH-induced neurocognitive impairment and the related mechanism. Rats were exposed to IH for 5 weeks (8 h/day) and/or inhalation of H2 gas 2 h/day...
September 20, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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