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Brain Research Bulletin

Fiona M Bright, Roger W Byard, Robert Vink, David S Paterson
Substance P (SP) and its tachykinin NK1 receptor (NK1R) function within key medullary nuclei to regulate cardiorespiratory and autonomic control. We examined the normative distribution of SP and NK1R in the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, [5-HT]) network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development, to provide a baseline to facilitate future analysis of the SP/NK1R system and its interaction with 5-HT within pediatric brainstem disorders in early life. [125I] labelled Bolton Hunter SP (BH-SP) tissue receptor autoradiography (n = 15), single label immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double label immunofluorescence (IF) (n = 10) were used to characterize the normative distribution profile of SP and NK1R in the 5-HT network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development...
January 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Wei-Zhu Liu, Bo-Wei Huang, Wen-Jie You, Ping Hu, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Bin Xu, Zong-Yong Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang
Emerging evidence indicates that loss of inhibitory tone in amygdala with its subsequent overactivation contributes to the development of multiple mental disorders such as anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Harmine is a member of natural β-carboline alkaloids which can readily cross the blood brain barrier and displays significant antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in rodents. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, by using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in in vitro amygdala slices, we examined the effect of harmine on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission onto basal amygdala (BA) projection neurons (PNs)...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Qisen Li, Jiacheng Zeng, Meiling Su, Yu He, Banghao Zhu
Zicao acts as a pleiotropic medicine in various diseases due to its particular pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and wound healing effects. However, few studies have focused on the function in neurodegenerative diseases of Zicao. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Acetylshikonin (AS) from Zicao on the hippocampus of the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced sub-acute aging mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aging model was established in male Kunming mice by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (150 mg/kg/d) for 60 days, and the mice were given AS (270, 540 and 1080 mg/kg/d) or distilled water intragastrically for 30 days after 30 days of D-gal injection...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Arzu Keskin-Aktan, Kazime Gonca Akbulut, Çiğdem Yazici-Mutlu, Gizem Sonugur, Müge Ocal, Hakan Akbulut
OBJECTIVE: Though the mechanisms are not clearly understood, melatonin and curcumin have been reported to have neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of melatonin and curcumin in the brain are not clearly understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of melatonin and curcumin treatments on oxidative stress parameters, the expression of SIRT2, Bcl-2 and Bax in the hippocampus. METHODS: A total of twenty-four adult (13 months-old) male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (1% ethanol:PBS), s...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Cen-Jing Zhu, Guo-Xin Jiang, Jin-Mei Chen, Zhi-Ming Zhou, Qi Cheng
BACKGROUND: Serum level of Haptoglobin (Hp) maybe associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between serum Hp and AD, as well as between Hp and MCI. METHODS: Serum levels of Hp were measured and analyzed for 51 patients with AD, 139 patients with MCI and their healthy controls matched with sex and age. All study subjects were from a survey among residents aged 60 years and over in a community located in the southwest suburb of Shanghai...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Attila Ozsvár, Róbert Szipőcs, Zoltán Ozsvár, Judith Baka, Pál Barzó, Gábor Tamás, Gábor Molnár
Degradation of myelin sheath is thought to be the cause of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), but definitive agreement on mechanism of how myelin is lost is currently lacking. Autoimmune initiation of MS has been recently questioned by proposing that the immune response is a consequence of oligodendrocyte degeneration. To study the process of myelin breakdown, we induced demyelination with cuprizone and applied coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, a non-destructive label-free method to image lipid structures in living tissue...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Mohammad Hossein Esmaeili, Behnam Bahari, Ali-Akbar Salari
Affective disorders including depression and anxiety are among the most prevalent behavioral abnormalities in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affect the quality of life and progression of the disease. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-(HPA) axis has been reported in affective disorders and AD. Recent studies revealed that current antidepressant drugs are not completely effective for treating anxiety- and depression-related disorders in people with dementia. ATP-sensitive-potassium-(KATP) channels are well-known to be involved in AD pathophysiology, HPA axis function and the pathogenesis of depression and anxiety-related behaviors...
January 4, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ying Wang, Qian Jiang, Yang-Yang Xia, Zhi-Hua Huang, Cheng Huang
Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) was reported to be involved in the modulation of neuropathic pain. Electroacupuncture (EA) has therapeutic effects on neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether α7nAChR participates in the relieving effects of 2 Hz EA on neuropathic pain. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was measured to study the EA-mediated analgesic effect in a rat model of spared nerve injury (SNI)...
January 4, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Lihua Gu, Di Wu, Xiang Tang, Xinyang Qi, Xiaoli Li, Feng Bai, Xiaochun Chen, Qingguo Ren, Zhijun Zhang
Previous studies have demonstrated myelin deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is still unclear whether myelin deficits occur at early stage of AD. Our study aimed to investigate myelin deficits in 5XFAD mice dynamically in different cognition-associated brain regions at early stage of AD. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to detect myelin changes in late-myelinating regions such as prelimbic area (PrL), retrosplenial granular cortex (Rsg), field CA1 of hippocampus (CA1) and entorhinal cortex (ERC) respectively at different stages (1, 2, 3 and 5 months of age) in 5XFAD mouse model...
December 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Shaofang Wang, Jun Zhu, Tonghui Xu
The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) remodels neural circuits at the synaptic level in the mammalian hippocampus and cortex. However, the underlying mechanism of synapse dynamics remains unclear. To elucidate the mechanism, we traced individual dendritic spines on layer V pyramidal neurons of the primary sensory cortex in adult female mice under E2 intervention using two-photon in vivo imaging microscopy. We confirmed the increase of the spine density upon E2 treatment in the intact mouse cortex. Furthermore, we found that this increase is due to the promotion of spine formation and the stability of newly formed spines...
December 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Jingwei Lv, Yan Wang, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins, has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. This study was designed to research the protective effect of PPD against cognitive deficits induced by chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) in mice. The CSD model was induced by subjecting the mice to our self-made Sleep Interruption Apparatus (SIA) continuously for 14 days. The memory enhancing effects of PPD were evaluated by behavioral tests and the related mechanism was further explored by observing the oxidative stress changes in the cortex and hippocampus of mice...
December 26, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Bor Luen Tang
The astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) hypothesis posits that during neuronal activation, astrocytic glycolysis consumes glucose and generates lactate, with the latter then imported by neurons as a preferred fuel. The hypothesis has been controversial, with multiple theoretical postulates for and against, and with empirical evidence that were either supportive or otherwise. Recent findings using direct in vivo imaging of lactate and glucose uptake as well as associated metabolic changes in neurons have now placed important constraints on the hypothesis...
December 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Patrick Davis, Leon G Reijmers
Great progress is being made in our understanding of how the brain stores and retrieves memories, which is exemplified by continuous discoveries of novel spatial and temporal components of so-called memory engrams. These discoveries have led to the realization that engrams are controlled by complex spatiotemporal dynamics across scales that span from molecules to brain regions, and from milliseconds to years. Moreover, it is now clear that across the lifetime of an engram, many of its spatial and temporal properties are not fixed, but instead change in complex ways...
December 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Zhiliang Guo, Shuhong Yu, Xin Chen, Ping Zheng, Ting Hu, Zhenhui Duan, Xiaoyun Liu, Qian Liu, Ruidong Ye, Wusheng Zhu, Xinfeng Liu
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and neutrophils play pivotal roles in hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) treatment in stroke; however, the contribution of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), a key component of the innate immune system, is not yet known. This study aimed to explore the role of NLRP3 in the delayed rtPA-induced HT and its association with the neutrophil recruitment. METHODS: Rats were subjected to thromboembolic focal cerebral ischemia and delayed rtPA treatment at 4 h after ischemia to mimic HT...
December 16, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Marjan Sahafzadeh, Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Zahra Mousavi, Abbas Haghparast
Orexin plays a key role in mediating stress-induced drug relapse. However, the role of different types of orexinergic receptors that modulate stress-induced drug seeking remains unknown. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has an important role in the reward system and receives orexinergic projections of the lateral hypothalamus. In addition, orexin interacts with other receptors that are involved in drug reinstatement. Therefore, in the present study, the role of orexin receptors in the NAc in morphine priming- induced reinstatement and the effect of food deprivation (FD) on drug reinstatement were examined...
December 16, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Mengmeng Wang, Weiliang Huang, Tingting Gao, Xiaoshan Zhao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Xiao Yao San (XYS) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat depression; however, the mechanism underlying its antidepressant properties remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects and action mechanisms of XYS on interferon-α-induced depression in mice. METHOD: Mice were divided into six groups: control; model; low-, medium-, and high-dose XYS; and escitalopram-treated group. Except for the control mice, all groups of mice were injected with interferon (IFN)-α to establish the depression model...
December 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Amanda L Maciel, Helena M Abelaira, Airam B de Moura, Thays G de Souza, Thayse Rosa, Danyela Matos, Talita Tuon, Leandro Garbossa, Ana Paula Strassi, Maria Eduarda Fileti, Mariana P Goldim, Khiany Mathias, Fabricia Petronilho, João Quevedo, Gislaine Z Réus
Despite decades of research, the fundamental neurochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the major depressive disorder (MDD) are still poorly understood, and current antidepressant treatments have limited clinical efficacy. In clinical conditions, the rapprochement between the disease and the corrective actions of drugs in laboratory animals is essential for developing effective therapies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant effects of ketamine (N-metil-d-asparte (NMDA) receptor antagonist), minocycline (tetracycline antibiotic), and amitriptyline (classical antidepressant), on behavior and oxidative stress parameters in animals submitted to the chronic mild stress (CMS) and maternal deprivation protocols...
December 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Richard Leandro Spinieli, Christie Ramos Andrade Leite-Panissi
Studies have used paradigms based on animal models to understand human emotional behavior because they appear to be correlated with fear- and anxiety-related defensive patterns in non-human mammals. In this context, tonic immobility (TI) behavior is an innate response associated with extreme threat situations, such as predator attack. Some reports have demonstrated the involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in regulation of the endocrine system, defensive behaviors and behavioral responses to stress...
December 12, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Hamed Salmanzadeh, Hossein Azizi, S Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, Narges Pachenari, Saeed Semnanian
Accumulating evidence support the growing non-medical use of morphine during adolescence. Despite this concern which has recently been addressed in some studies, cellular mechanisms underlying the long-term neurobiological and behavioral effects of opiate exposure during this critical period have still remained largely unexplored. Several reports have proposed that subtle long-lasting neurobiological alterations might be triggered by exposure to opiate derivatives or drugs of abuse particularly when this occurs during a critical phase of brain maturation such as adolescence...
December 12, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Sándor Borbély, Ildikó Világi, Zsófia Haraszti, Örs Szalontai, Tünde Hajnik, Attila Tóth, László Détári
Sleep deprivation has severe consequences for higher nervous functions. Its effects on neuronal excitability may be one of the most important factors underlying functional deterioration caused by sleep loss. In the present work, excitability changes were studied using two complementary in vivo and ex vivo models. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded from freely-moving animals in vivo. Amplitude of evoked responses showed a near-continuous decrease during deprivation. Prevention of sleep also reduced synaptic efficacy ex vivo, measured from brain slices derived from rats that underwent sleep deprivation...
December 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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