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Brain Research Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414105/functional-reorganization-after-hemispherectomy-in-humans-and-animal-models-what-can-we-learn-about-the-brain-s-resilience-to-extensive-unilateral-lesions
#1
REVIEW
Luca Sebastianelli, Viviana Versace, Alexandra Taylor, Francesco Brigo, Wolfgang Nothdurfter, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Raffaele Nardone
Hemispherectomy (HS) is an effective surgical procedure aimed at managing otherwise intractable epilepsy in cases of diffuse unihemispheric pathologies. Neurological recovery in subjects treated with HS is not limited to seizure reduction, rather, sensory-motor and behavioral improvement is often observed. This outcome highlights the considerable capability of the brain to react to such an extensive lesion, by functionally reorganizing and rewiring the cerebral cortex, especially early in life. In this narrative review, we summarize the animal studies as well as the human neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies dealing with the reorganizational processes that occur after HS...
April 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411132/methyl-jasmonate-attenuates-memory-dysfunction-and-decreases-brain-levels-of-biomarkers-of-neuroinflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-mice
#2
Umukoro Solomon, Eduviere Anthony Taghogho
Neuroinflammation plays a central role in the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a gradual loss of memory functions. Thus, it has been proposed that agents that could reduce inflammatory processes in AD brains might be useful for the treatment of the disease. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a bioactive compound, which has been reported to exhibit anti-amnesic and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we further examine its effects on the brain levels of biomarkers of neuroinflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory deficits in mice...
April 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411131/influence-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-on-beta-amyloid-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-in-a-rat-model-a-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-study
#3
Siamak Shahidi, Somayeh Zargooshnia, Sara Soleimani Asl, Alireza Komaki, Abdolrahman Sarihi
Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function due to the extracellular accumulation and deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on learning and memory in an Aβ-induced Alzheimer's disease model in adult male rats, using behavioral and electrophysiological methods Thirty-five rats were divided into five groups: control, sham-operated, Aβ, Aβ+NAC (1-14 days), and Aβ+NAC (14-28 days)...
April 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395933/electroacupuncture-improves-neurobehavioral-function-and-brain-injury-in-rat-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#4
Yan Zhu, Li Deng, Huajun Tang, Xiaoqing Gao, Youhua Wang, Kan Guo, Jiming Kong, Chaoxian Yang
Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for stroke in China for a long time. Recently, studies have demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) can accelerate intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced angiogenesis in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EA on neurobehavioral function and brain injury in ICH rats. ICH was induced by stereotactic injection of collagenase type I and heparin into the right caudate putamen. Adult ICH rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: model control group (MC), EA at non-acupoint points group (non-acupoint EA) and EA at Baihui and Dazhui acupoints group (EA)...
April 7, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389208/role-of-the-amygdala-gaba-a-receptors-in-acpa-induced-deficits-during-conditioned-fear-learning
#5
Mohammad Nasehi, Farnaz Roghani, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure for the emotional processing and storage of memories associated with emotional events, especially fear. On the other hand, endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors play a key role in learning and memory partly through long-term synaptic depression of GABAergic synapses in the BLA. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of GABA-A receptor agonist and antagonist in the fear-related memory acquisition deficits induced by ACPA (a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist)...
April 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389207/netrin-1-improves-the-amyloid-%C3%AE-mediated-suppression-of-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity
#6
Mohammad Shabani, Masoud Haghani, Parisa Esmaeili Tazangi, Mahnaz Bayat, Seyed Mostafa Shid Moosavi, Hoda Ranjbar
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of netrin-1 (NT-1) on amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced impairments in learning-memory and synaptic plasticity. The NT-1 or its vehicle was administered four times into the Aβ+NT or Aβ+V groups, respectively. The Aβ+SNT group received a single dose of NT-1. The Aβ+HNT group received heat-inactivated NT-1. For the learning-memory and synaptic plasticity assessment, field potentials recording and behavioral experiment were used. Bilateral injection of Aβ1-42 inhibits induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and decreased memory performance in all the behavioral tasks...
April 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373150/involvement-of-autophagy-in-connexin-40-reduction-in-the-late-phase-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#7
Wei Che, Yijun Guo, Wenjin Yang, Ping Zheng, Jinsong Zeng, Wusong Tong
Brain trauma can activate an attenuation of connexin gap junction that is implicated in neuronal injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we aimed to study whether autophagy, a stress-response process for recycling of intracellular proteins and organelles, is involved in the reduction of connexin 40 (Cx40) during the late phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In a rat model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI), we found that Cx40 protein in the brain started to decline at post-surgery day 2 and the decrease continued for up to day 6...
April 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373151/neuroprotective-effect-of-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-a-rat-model-of-experimental-diabetic-neuropathy
#8
Rezvan Najafi, Asieh Hosseini, Habib Ghaznavi, Saeed Mehrzadi, Ali M Sharifi
OBJECTIVE: Neuropathies are a nerve disorders that caused by diabetes. Neuropathy affects over 50 percent of diabetic patients. High blood glucose and their toxic byproducts are the main causes for nerve dysfunction. In the present study, we examined the neroprotective effects of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in diabetic rats. METHOD: Rats divided into four groups: control group, diabetic group, the diabetic group treated with CeO2 nanoparticle at a dose of 65mg/kg and diabetic group received CeO2 nanoparticle at a dose of 85mg/kg...
March 31, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373149/immune-system-activation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Zheng Chen, Gui-Quan Shen, Alexander Lerner, Bo Gao
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome characterized by a variable combination of headaches, seizures, altered mental status, visual impairment, focal neurological signs and symmetric vasogenic edema in bilateral posterior cerebral circulation territory. The pathogenesis of PRES is still controversial. Most of the clinical conditions associated with PRES involve a systemic toxicity response in the entire organism with activation of the cells of the immune system and cytokines...
March 31, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363846/enteric-glia-regulate-gut-motility-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Vladimir Grubišić, Alexei Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec, Vladimir Parpura
The enteric nervous system, often referred to as the second brain, is the largest assembly of neurons and glia outside the central nervous system. The enteric nervous system resides within the wall of the digestive tract and regulates local gut reflexes involved in gastrointestinal motility, blood flow and fluid transport; all these functions can be accomplished in the absence of the extrinsic innervation from the central nervous system. It is neurons and their circuitry within the enteric nervous system that govern the gut reflexes...
March 28, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347717/long-non-coding-rnas-in-brain-development-synaptic-biology-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Changhua Shi, Ling Zhang, Chuan Qin
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are long transcripts without apparent protein-coding roles, interfere with gene expression and signaling events at various stages. Increasing evidence has suggested that lncRNAs function in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and under pathophysiologic conditions. In the nervous system, the expression of lncRNAs has been detected and characterized under normal physiologic conditions and in disease states. Some lncRNAs regulate brain development and synaptic plasticity...
March 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341600/metabolic-disorder-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-bioenergetics-redox-homeostasis-and-central-carbon-metabolism
#12
Annadurai Anandhan, Maria S Jacome, Shulei Lei, Pablo Hernandez-Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Robert Powers, Rodrigo Franco
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic process in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival...
March 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330650/short-term-green-tea-supplementation-prevents-recognition-memory-deficits-and-ameliorates-hippocampal-oxidative-stress-induced-by-different-stroke-models-in-rats
#13
Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann, Mauren Assis Souza, Helen L Schimidt, Aryele Pinto Izaguirry, Alexandre Martins, Alexandre Garcia, Francielli W Santos, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes
This study investigated the effect of green tea (GT) on short and long term declarative memory and oxidative damage induced by transient ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 10 according the stroke type induced: Sham IR, Sham IR+GT, IR, IR+GT, Sham ICH, Sham ICH+GT, ICH, ICH+GT. Supplementation with GT was initiated 10days before stroke surgery and continuous for 6days after (GT dose 400mg/kg). Short (STM) and long term memory (LTM) we evaluated with object recognition task (OR) and hippocampus were used to evaluate parameters related to oxidative stress (ROS, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity)...
March 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322886/high-gamma-oscillations-in-the-motor-cortex-during-visuo-motor-coordination-a-tacs-interferential-study
#14
E Santarnecchi, A Biasella, E Tatti, A Rossi, D Prattichizzo, S Rossi
BACKGROUND: While the role of beta (∼20Hz), theta (∼5Hz) and alpha (∼10Hz) oscillations in the motor areas have been repeatedly associated with defined properties of motor performance, the investigation of gamma (∼40-90Hz) oscillatory activity is a more recent and still not fully understood component of motor control physiology, despite its potential clinical relevance for motor disorders. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We have implemented an online neuromodulation paradigm based on transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the dominant motor cortex during a visuo-motor coordination task...
March 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315395/acute-intravenous-administration-of-dietary-constituent-theanine-suppresses-noxious-neuronal-transmission-of-trigeminal-spinal-nucleus-caudalis-in-rats
#15
Shiori Takehana, Yoshiko Kubota, Nobuo Uotsu, Kei Yui, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
Theanine is a non-dietary amino acid linked to the modulation of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, although the acute effects of theanine in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The present study investigated whether acute intravenous theanine administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315396/ischemia-deteriorates-spike-encoding-at-cortical-gabaergic-neurons-and-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-by-increasing-the-intracellular-ca-2
#16
Li Huang, Chun Wang, Rongjing Ge, Hong Ni, Shidi Zhao
GABAergic neurons play a critical role in the central nervous system, such as well-organized behaviors. The ischemic cell death is presumably initiated by neuronal excitotoxicity resulted from the dysfunction of GABAergic neurons. It is not clear how ischemia influences different types of GABAergic neurons and whether intracellular Ca(2+) plays a key role in the ischemic excitotoxicity. We have investigated this issue at cortical GABAergic neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells by whole-cell recording in mouse brain slices, and the roles of intracellular Ca(2+) are examined by BABTA infusion...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284901/the-application-and-neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-cerebral-ischemic-post-conditioning-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Zhixing Li, Hanlin Chen, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
Ischemic stroke is a serious cerebrovascular disease that leads to death and/or severe disability, and extensive research has been directed in search of appropriate treatment measures. One such potential treatment is the use of cerebral ischemic post-conditioning (IPostC), and its neuroprotective effects and controllability have been widely confirmed and validated. Numerous studies have indicated that cerebral IPostC can suppress the inflammatory reaction in ischemia reperfusion injury, improve cerebral circulation, reduce infarct volume, and promote both neurogenesis and angiogenesis...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284900/crosstalk-between-glia-extracellular-matrix-and-neurons
#18
REVIEW
Inseon Song, Alexander Dityatev
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in the central nervous system form highly organized ECM structures around cell somata, axon initial segments, and synapses and play prominent roles in early development by guiding cell migration, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, and by regulating closure of the critical period of development, synaptic plasticity and stability, cognitive flexibility, and axonal regeneration in adults. Major components of neural ECM, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), tenascin-R and hyaluronic acid, are synthesized by both neurons and glial cells...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286184/altered-functional-efficacy-of-hippocampal-interneuron-during-epileptogenesis-following-febrile-seizures
#19
Yeon Hee Yu, Kahyun Lee, Dal Sik Sin, Kyung-Ho Park, Dae-Kyoon Park, Duk-Soo Kim
Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure type in infants and young children. FS may induce functional changes in the hippocampal circuitries. Abnormality of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmissions was previously related to wide-spread seizure attack in the hippocampus following recurrent seizure onset. To clarify the involvement of expressional changes and functional alterations of hippocampal interneurons with epileptogenesis following FS, we investigated long-term effects following recurrent seizure in a hyperthermia-induced seizure animal model...
March 7, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274815/electroacupuncture-improves-gait-locomotion-h-reflex-and-ventral-root-potentials-of-spinal-compression-injured-rats
#20
Carlos Escobar-Corona, Sergio Torres-Castillo, Erika Elizabeth Rodríguez-Torres, Bertha Segura-Alegría, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada, Salvador Quiroz-González
This study explored the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation (EA) on alterations in the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) response and gait locomotion provoked by spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat. A compression lesion of the spinal cord was evoked by insufflating a Fogarty balloon located in the epidural space at the T8-9 spinal level of adult Wistar male rats (200-250 gr; n=60). In different groups of SCI rats, EA (frequencies: 2, 50 and 100Hz) was applied simultaneously to Huantiao (GB30), Yinmen (BL37), Jizhong (GV6) and Zhiyang (GV9) acupoints from the third post-injury day until the experimental session...
March 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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