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Brain Research Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919636/adrenomedullin-and-angiotensin-ii-signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-effects-on-cerebellar-antioxidant-enzymes-activity
#1
Figueira Leticia, Israel Anita
Human adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide involved in cardiovascular control. AM has two specific receptors formed by the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 2 or 3, known as AM1 and AM2 receptors, respectively. In addition, AM has appreciable affinity for the calcitonin gene-1 related peptide receptor (CGRP1), composed of CRLR/RAMP1. In brain, AM and their receptors are expressed in several localized areas, including the cerebellum. AM has been reported as an antioxidant...
December 2, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915092/acupuncture-ameliorates-inflammatory-response-in-a-chronic-unpredictable-stress-rat-model-of-depression
#2
Jun Lu, Run-Hui Shao, Shu-Ying Jin, Li Hu, Ya Tu, Jian-You Guo
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Chronic inflammatory response has been viewed as a key factor in depression. Acupuncture in Chinese medicine has been shown to be an effective treatment for depression. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying antidepressant effect of acupuncture. The rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 28days to induce depressive-like behaviors. Acupuncture treatment was applied once every other day during the 28-day stress period...
November 30, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915091/electroconvulsive-stimulation-transiently-enhances-the-permeability-of-the-rat-blood-brain-barrier-and-induces-astrocytic-changes
#3
Masanobu Ito, Kuerban Bolati, Tomoya Kinjo, Koichiro Ichimura, Akiko Furuta, Declan M McLoughlin, Toshihito Suzuki, Heii Arai
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays important roles in both the physiological and pharmacological state of the brain. Transiently enhancing the permeability of the BBB may allow use of more types of medications for neuropsychiatric diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that seizures cause a transient decrease in BBB integrity. We studied the timing of BBB changes following seizures and the role of astrocytes in this process. Rats received 10 applications of electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS). They were then infused with sodium fluorescein, a fluorescent substance that rarely passes the BBB, via the inferior vena cava...
November 30, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908798/platelets-are-responsible-for-the-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-blood-clots-inside-and-around-blood-vessels-in-mouse-brain-after-thrombosis
#4
Lilia Y Kucheryavykh, Josué Dávila-Rodríguez, David E Rivera-Aponte, Lidia V Zueva, A Valance Washington, Priscilla Sanabria, Mikhail Y Inyushin
INTRODUCTION: Platelets contain beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as Aβ peptide (Aβ) that can be released upon activation. During thrombosis, platelets are concentrated in clots and activated. METHODS: We used in vivo fluorescent analysis and electron microscopy in mice to determine to what degree platelets are concentrated in clots. We used immunostaining to visualize Aβ after photothrombosis in mouse brains. RESULTS: Both in vivo results and electron microscopy revealed that platelets were 300-500 times more concentrated in clots than in non-clotted blood...
November 28, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894823/development-of-fast-neurotransmitter-synapses-general-principle-and-recent-progress
#5
EDITORIAL
Wei Lu, Yelin Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889580/methylphenidate-modulates-dorsal-raphe-neuronal-activity-behavioral-and-neuronal-recordings-from-adolescent-rats
#6
Holly Whitt, Natasha Kharas, Nachum Dafny, Cruz Reyes-Vasquez
Methylphenidate (MPD) is a widely prescribed psychostimulants used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). Unlike the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine, MPD does not exhibit direct actions on the serotonin transporter, however there is evidence suggesting that the therapeutic effects of MPD may be mediated in part by alterations in serotonin transmission. This study aimed to investigate the role of the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus, one of the major sources of serotonergic innervation in the mammalian brain, in the response to MPD exposure...
November 23, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889579/protective-effects-of-high-tryptophan-diet-on-aging-induced-passive-avoidance-impairment-and-hippocampal-apoptosis
#7
Giuseppe Musumeci, Paola Castrogiovanni, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Rosa Imbesi, Carla Loreto, Sergio Castorina, Salvatore Giunta
In our previous work we have shown that L-Tryptophan (TrP) enriched diet prevents the age-induced decline of hippocampal Serotonin (5-HT) production. Considering that loss or reduction in 5-HT neurotransmission may contribute to age-related cognitive decline, here we have investigated the effect of such diet on passive avoidance (PA) behavior, cell death, pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules (BAX, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) and an important transcription factor involved in synaptic plasticity and memory (CREB). The increase in 5-HT neurotransmission in the Hippocampus (Hp) of aged rats was induced by 1 month of high TrP administration...
November 23, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871950/increased-expression-of-herpud1-involves-in-neuronal-apoptosis-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#8
Wensen Ding, Rongrong Chen, Chunshuai Wu, Weihai Chen, Hongtian Zhang, Xingjuan Fan, Hongmei Wang, Yuteng Ji, Lili Xie, Xiaojin Ning, Lihua Shen
Homocysteine-inducible endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible ubiquitin-like domain member 1 protein (HERPUD1) is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Immense amounts of research showed HERPUD1 plays multiple roles in various models. In this work, we explored the role of HERPUD1 during the pathophysiological processes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Rat ICH model was established and verified by behavioral test. Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed a significant up-regulation of HERPUD1 expression around the hematoma after ICH...
November 18, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845170/functional-symmetry-of-the-primary-visual-pathway-evidenced-by-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials
#9
Zhenghua Wu, Zheng Wu
The primary visual pathway exhibits a symmetrical anatomical structure, initially arising from the left and right retinas, passing through the lateral geniculate nucleus, and finally projecting to the left and right primary visual cortices. However, to our knowledge, studies based on scalp EEG have not provided adequate evidence of the functional symmetry of the primary visual pathway, as the usual visual ERP is often related to other higher-level brain areas. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) can be considered as the direct response of the primary visual pathway to a repetitive stimulus, with a very limited correlation with responses of higher-level brain areas...
November 12, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836802/effects-of-dimethyl-sulfoxide-on-the-morphology-and-viability-of-primary-cultured-neurons-and-astrocytes
#10
Chen Zhang, Yuanying Deng, Hongmei Dai, Wenjuan Zhou, Jing Tian, Guoying Bing, Lingling Zhao
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent and vehicle for in vivo and in vitro administration of test compounds. Effects of DMSO independent of the test compound, such as in studies examining morphological plasticity or neurotoxic responses, may lead to spurious results. AIM: To investigate effects of DMSO concentration ([DMSO]) on morphology and survival of primary cultured neurons and astrocytes. METHODS: Primary cultured neurons and astrocytes were treated with 0...
November 9, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825855/effect-of-co-administration-of-memantine-and-sertraline-on-the-antidepressant-like-activity-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-levels-in-the-rat-brain
#11
Meysam Amidfar, Gislaine Z Réus, João Quevedo, Yong-Ku Kim, Mohammad Arbabi
A developing body of data has drawn attention to the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists as potential drugs for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the possibility of synergistic interactions between the antidepressant sertraline with the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine. The present study was aimed to evaluate behavioural and molecular effects of the chronic treatment with memantine and sertraline alone or in combination in rats. To this aim, rats were chronically treated with memantine (2...
November 5, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818278/effect-of-amitriptyline-treatment-on-neurofilament-h-protein-in-an-experimental-model-of-depression
#12
Maria Domenica Sanna, Carla Ghelardini, Nicoletta Galeotti
It has been proposed that depression is associated with dysfunction of hippocampal plasticity. Novel hypotheses suggest that antidepressants induce neuronal structural plasticity, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of amitriptyline on levels of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (NF-H) in the hippocampus of mice exposed to acute and chronic behavioral despair paradigms. Immunoblotting experiments showed that animals exposed to the tail suspension test (TST) displayed diminished levels of pNF-H 24h after testing...
November 3, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816554/neuroprotective-effects-of-n-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-oxidative-stress-in-mouse-hippocampus
#13
Jiae Kim, Chang Hun Cho, Hoh-Gyu Hahn, Soo-Young Choi, Sung-Woo Cho
We previously reported that N-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine (KHG26693) suppresses amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neuronal oxidative damage in cortical neurons. Here we investigated the mechanism and antioxidative function of KHG26693 in the hippocampus of Aβ-treated mice. KHG26693 significantly attenuated Aβ-induced TNF-α and IL-1β enhancements. KHG26693 decreased Aβ-mediated malondialdehyde formation, protein oxidation, and reactive oxygen species by decreasing the iNOS level. KHG26693 suppressed Aβ-induced oxidative stress through a mechanism involving glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and GSH attenuation...
November 2, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816553/oxaloacetate-and-adipose-stromal-cells-conditional-medium-synergistically-protected-potassium-serum-deprivation-induced-neuronal-apoptosis
#14
Qingpeng Liu, Gang Zhao, Changwei Zhou, Martin R Farlow, Yansheng Du, Guangxu Xu, Huiying Gu
Adipose stromal cells conditioned media (ASC-CM) protect neurons in a variety of neuronal death models including potassium/serum deprivation-induced neuronal apoptosis. In this study, we found that ASC-CM contained glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and its substrate, oxaloacetate (OAA) directly protected cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) from apoptosis induced by serum and potassium deprivation. Additionally, OAA inhibited serum and potassium deprivation-induced caspase 3 activation. ASC-CM and OAA in combination had a synergistic neuroprotective effect...
November 2, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769874/preventive-effects-of-blueberry-extract-on-behavioral-and-biochemical-dysfunctions-in-rats-submitted-to-a-model-of-manic-behavior-induced-by-ketamine
#15
Gabriela Debom, Marta Gazal, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Carlus Augustu Tavares do Couto, Bruna Mattos, Claiton Lencina, Manuella Pinto Kaster, Gabriele Codenonzi Ghisleni, Rejane Tavares, Elizandra Braganhol, Vitor Clasen Chaves, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Francieli Stefanello, Roselia Maria Spanevello
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of blueberry extract on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in a model of mania induced by ketamine administration in rats. Male rats were pretreated with blueberry extract (200mg/kg, once a day for 14days), lithium chloride (45mg/kg, mood stabilizer used as a positive control, twice a day for 14days), or vehicle. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received an injection of ketamine (25mg/kg) or vehicle. In the 15th day, thirty minutes after ketamine administration the hyperlocomotion of the animals was assessed in the open - field apparatus...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746369/methylprednisolone-sodium-succinate-reduces-bbb-disruption-and-inflammation-in-a-model-mouse-of-intracranial-haemorrhage
#16
Shiqi Cheng, WeiWei Gao, Xin Xu, Hengyi Fan, Yingang Wu, Fei Li, Jianning Zhang, Xingen Zhu, Yan Zhang
Inflammation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) cause oedema and secondary brain injury after intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), which is closely related to patient prognosis. Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS), a well-known immunosuppressive agent, is widely applied in many diseases to inhibit inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of MPSS on inflammation and disruption of the BBB in a model mouse of ICH. ICH was induced by injecting collagenase into the right striatum of male C57/BL mice...
October 13, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743928/distortion-of-the-normal-function-of-synaptic-cell-adhesion-molecules-by-genetic-variants-as-a-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Deeba Noreen Baig, Toru Yanagawa, Katsuhiko Tabuchi
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SCAMs) are a functional category of cell adhesion molecules that connect pre- and postsynapses by the protein-protein interaction via their extracellular cell adhesion domains. Countless numbers of common genetic variants and rare mutations in SCAMs have been identified in the patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these, NRXN and NLGN family proteins cooperatively function at synaptic terminals both of which genes are strongly implicated as risk genes for ASDs...
October 12, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725169/regional-c-fos-expression-induced-by-peripheral-oxytocin-administration-is-prevented-by-the-vasopressin-1a-receptor-antagonist-sr49059
#18
Callum Hicks, Linnet Ramos, Bruno Dampney, Sarah J Baracz, Iain S McGregor, Glenn E Hunt
Peripherally administered oxytocin induces a wide range of behavioural and physiological effects that are thought to be mediated by the oxytocin receptor (OTR). However, oxytocin also has considerable affinity for the vasopressin 1A receptor (V1AR), such that various oxytocinergic effects may in fact be mediated by the V1AR rather than the OTR. Here we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to determine the extent to which the regional pattern of neuronal activation produced by peripheral oxytocin involves the V1AR...
October 8, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725168/scopolamine-induced-greater-alterations-in-neurochemical-profile-and-increased-oxidative-stress-demonstrated-a-better-model-of-dementia-a-comparative-study
#19
Saida Haider, Saiqa Tabassum, Tahira Perveen
Cognitive decline is found to be a common feature of various neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to recapitulate AD associated cognitive deficits and to plan therapeutic strategies researchers have developed various preclinical dementia models to recapitulate different aspects of cognitive domains affected in AD brain. So, the present study was aimed to compare alterations in previously reported dementia models i.e. pharmacological (Scopolamine-induced and corticosterone-induced), Environmental (Aluminium-induced and noise-stress) and physiological (natural aging) models in rats in a single experimental study across three cognitive domains spatial, recognition, and associative memory and associated alterations in their oxidative status and neurochemical profile to select appropriate dementia model...
October 8, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721030/the-purkinje-cell-as-a-model-of-synaptogenesis-and-synaptic-specificity
#20
Marco Sassoè-Pognetto, Annarita Patrizi
Since the groundbreaking work of Ramon y Cajal, the cerebellar Purkinje cell has always represented an ideal model for studying the organization, development and function of synaptic circuits. Purkinje cells receive distinct types of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses, each characterized by exquisite sub-cellular and molecular specificity. The formation and refinement of these connections results from a temporally-regulated sequence of events that involves molecular interactions between distinct sets of secreted and surface proteins, as well as activity-dependent competition between converging inputs...
October 6, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
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