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Brain Research Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645861/protective-effect-of-lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-on-dextromethorphan-induced-mood-impairment-and-neurogenesis-suppression
#1
Kevin Kai-Ting Po, Joseph Wai-Hin Leung, Jackie Ngai-Man Chan, Timothy Kai-Hang Fung, Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña, Emily Lok-Lam Sin, Kwok-Fai So, Benson Wui-Man Lau, Andrew Man-Hong Siu
Dextromethorphan (DXM) is one of the common drugs abused by adolescents. It is the active ingredient found in cough medicine which is used for suppressing cough. High dosage of DXM can induce euphoria, dissociative effects and even hallucinations. Chronic use of DXM may also lead to depressive-related symptoms. Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. A recent study has shown the potential beneficial effect of Lycium barbarum to reduce depression-like behavior...
June 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629814/abcb1a-p-glycoprotein-limits-brain-exposure-of-the-anticancer-drug-candidate-seliciclib-in-vivo-in-adult-mice
#2
Franciska Erdő, Ildikó Nagy, Beáta Tóth, Annamária Bui, Éva Molnár, Zoltán Tímár, Rémi Magnan, Peter Krajcsi
Seliciclib displayed limited brain exposure in vivo in adult rats with mature blood-brain barrier (BBB). Selicilib was shown to be a specific substrate of human ABCB1 in vitro. To demonstrate that ABCB1/Abcb1 can limit brain exposure in vivo in mice we are showing that seliciclib is a substrate of mouse Abcb1a, the murine ABCB1 ortholog expressed in the BBB as LLC-PK-Abcb1a cells displayed an efflux ratio (ER) of 15.31±3.54 versus an ER of 1.44±0.10 in LLC-PK1-mock cells. Additionally, in the presence of LY335979, an ABCB1/Abcb1a specific inhibitor, the observed ER for seliciclib in the LLC-PK1-mMdr1a cells decreased to 1...
June 16, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625786/drug-induces-depression-like-phenotypes-and-alters-gene-expression-profiles-in-drosophila
#3
Ming-Di Jiang, Ya Zheng, Jia-Lin Wang, Yu-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental illness that affects more than 350 million people worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of depression are currently unclear. Studies suggest that Drosophila and humans have similar depression-like symptoms under pressure. In this research, we choose Drosophila melanogaster as the animal model to explore the molecular mechanisms that trigger depression. RESULTS: We found that feeding D. melanogaster with the medium containing Levodopa or Chlorpromazine could induce depression-like phenotypes in both behavioral and biochemical biomarkers, including significantly decreased food intake, mating frequency, serotonin (5-HT) concentration, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as well as reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625785/cerebral-ischemia-repefusion-injury-from-bench-space-to-bedside
#4
REVIEW
Z Nagy, S Nardai
While stroke research represents the primary interface between circulation and brain research, the hemostasis system also carries a pivotal role in the mechanism of vascular brain injury. The complex interrelated events triggered by the energy crisis have a specific spatial and temporal pattern arching from the initial damage to the final events of brain repair. The complexity of the pathophysiology make it difficult to model this disease, therefore it is challenging to find appropriate therapeutic targets...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625784/heightened-sympathetic-arousal-is-demonstrated-by-skin-conductance-responsivity-to-auditory-stimuli-in-a-small-cohort-of-neonates-with-opiate-withdrawal
#5
Christiana N Oji-Mmuo, Fumiyuki Chin Gardner, Kim K Doheny
To determine the effects of auditory stimulus on skin conductance (SC) in infants with severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) that required morphine treatment (MT) compared with NAS infants that did not require morphine treatment (non-MT). We prospectively enrolled opiate-exposed term infants without polysubstance exposure. Skin conductance responses to an auditory stimulus (ringing a bell for 3seconds) near the time of discharge were obtained. Skin conductance was measured before, during, and after the stimulus...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624583/pre-adolescent-and-adolescent-mice-are-less-sensitive-to-the-effects-of-acute-nicotine-on-extinction-and-spontaneous-recovery
#6
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Dana Zeid, Jessica M Tumolo, Thomas J Gould
Adolescence is a period of high risk for the initiation of nicotine product usage and exposure to traumatic events. In parallel, nicotine exposure has been found to age-dependently modulate acquisition of contextual fear memories; however, it is unknown if adolescent nicotine exposure alters extinction of fear related memories. Age-related differences in sensitivity to the effects of nicotine on fear extinction could increase or decrease susceptibility to anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine administration on extinction and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear memories in pre-adolescent (PND 23), late adolescent (PND 38), and adult (PND 53) C57B6/J mice...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627395/the-opioid-epidemic-is-an-historic-opportunity-to-improve-both-prevention-and-treatment
#7
Robert L DuPont
The current narrative describing the national opioid epidemic as the result of overprescribing opioid pain medicines fails to capture the full dimensions of problem and leads to inadequate and even confounding solutions. Overlooked is the fact that polysubstance use is nearly ubiquitous among overdose deaths, demonstrating that the opioid overdose death problem is bigger than opioids. The foundation of the nation's opioid overdose crisis - and the totality of the nation's drug epidemic - is widespread recreational pharmacology, the use of drugs for fun or "self-medication...
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622830/corrigendum-to-involvement-of-autophagy-in-connexin-40-reduction-in-the-late-phase-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-brain-res-bull-131-2017-100-106
#8
Wei Chen, Yijun Guo, Wenjin Yang, Ping Zheng, Jinsong Zeng, Wusong Tong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599877/zeaxanthin-improves-diabetes-induced-cognitive-deficit-in-rats-through-activiting-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#9
Xiaoyan Zhou, Shanshan Wang, Xin Ding, Li Qin, Yizhen Mao, Lei Chen, Wei Li, Changjiang Ying
Published studies have shown that cognitive deficit is a characteristic manifestation of neurodegenerative disease in diabetes. However, there is no effective prevention and treatment for this diabetes-associated behavior disorder. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the effect of zeaxanthin on cognitive deficit and the change in the hippocampus correlated with cognitive decline in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats in this study were induced by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozocin (STZ), cognitive ability of rats were evaluated use morris water maze (MWM) and morphology change in hippocampus was assessed by cresyl violet stain...
June 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603012/an-improved-three-vessel-occlusion-model-of-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#10
Dmitriy N Atochin, Galina A Chernysheva, Oleg I Aliev, Vera I Smolyakova, Anton N Osipenko, Sergey V Logvinov, Anna A Zhdankina, Tatiana M Plotnikova, Mark B Plotnikov
We developed an improved three-vessel occlusion model of global cerebral ischemia in rats. This method consists in cessation of cerebral blood flow by accessing a. carotis communis sinistra through the ventral surface of the neck as well as tr. brachiocephalicus and a. subclavia sinistra through the first intercostal space, bypassing the pleural cavity and excluding pneumothorax. After the occlusion of the vessels that resulted in interruption of their blood flow, according to laser-Doppler flowmetry, there was a sharp decline in local cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex to 4±1% of the initial level...
June 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602762/different-patterns-of-changes-between-actin-dynamics-and-synaptic-density-in-the-rat-s-primary-visual-cortex-during-a-special-period-of-visual-development
#11
Mei-Qing Chen, Ai-Ling Bi, Yue-Ying Zhang, Qin Yan, Yuan-Yuan Sun, Xiu-Yan Zhang, Xian-Zhen Ma, Hong-Sheng Bi
In our previous study, we found that the normalized levels of the synaptosomal filament actin (F-actin) to monomeric global actin (G-actin) ratio in the primary visual cortex (V1) of rats was significantly lower on postnatal day (P) 45 compared with P30, however, the synaptic density in the monocular area of primary visual cortex (V1M) maintained a stable high level from P30 to P45. The mechanisms underlying the different patterned of change in synaptic density and actin rearrangements from P30 to P45 are unclear...
June 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599876/effects-of-different-musical-frequencies-on-npy-and-ghrelin-secretion-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#12
Cristina Russo, Antonella Russo, Rosario Gulino, Rosalia Pellitteri, Stefania Stanzani
It is known that exists a relationship between listening to music and food intake. Hypothalamus appears to integrate the orexigenic properties of a novel peptide, ghrelin (Ghre) that induces food intake through neuropeptide Y (NPY). Ghre stimulates appetite by acting on the ventral hypothalamus, which controls food intake. Ghre is secreted from the stomach and circulates in the bloodstream under fasting conditions, sending a hunger signal from the periphery to the Central Nervous System. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the rat, the effects of different musical frequencies (432 and 440Hz) on the Ghre and NPY expression in the hypothalamic neurons through immunohistochemistry; in addition, we investigated on the different production of Ghre in the serum through Western blot assay (Wb), in relation to the body weight of animals...
June 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596051/functions-of-at1-and-at2-angiotensin-receptors-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-rat-correlating-single-unit-and-cardiovascular-responses
#13
Mehrangiz Khanmoradi, Ali Nasimi
The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) is a complex structure with both neuroendocrine and autonomic functions including cardiovascular control. The PVN contains angiotensin II (AngII) immunoreactive cells, fibers, as well as AT1 and AT2 receptors of AngII. We microinjected AngII into the PVN of normotensive anesthetized rats and simultaneously recorded blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and single-unit responses. The roles of AT1 and AT2 receptors in these responses were also evaluated. Microinjection of AngII into the PVN produced a short excitatory single-unit response and two types of pressor responses: short duration with a decrease in HR and long with an increase in HR...
June 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587862/brain-networks-activated-to-form-object-recognition-memory
#14
Toshiyuki Tanimizu, Kyohei Kono, Satoshi Kida
Object recognition memory allows discrimination of familiar and novel objects. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for object recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory at the anatomic level remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the brain network for the generation of OR memory in mice by measuring the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos. We found that c-fos expression was induced in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), insular cortex (IC), perirhinal cortex (PRh), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when OR memory was generated, suggesting that gene expression in these brain regions contributes to the formation of OR memory...
June 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583855/characterization-of-aromatase-expression-in-the-spinal-cord-of-an-animal-model-of-familial-als
#15
Can Sun, Yuanyuan Liu, Yaling Liu, Mei Zhao, Jingxu Zhai, Pengli Hao, Ying Wang, Yingxiao Ji
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease involving motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. ALS leads to progressive, aggravated muscle weakness and paralysis. Although the precise pathogenesis remains unknown, several studies have shown that estrogens exert neuroprotective effects during the course of the disease. Aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen synthesis. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting to observe the characteristics of aromatase expression in the spinal cords of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1)-G93A transgenic mice...
June 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576659/ceftriaxone-reverses-deficits-of-behavior-and-neurogenesis-in-an-mptp-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#16
Ming-Hong Hsieh, Wan-Yun Meng, Wen-Chieh Liao, Jun-Cheng Weng, Hsin-Hua Li, Hong-Lin Su, Chih-Li Lin, Ching-Sui Hung, Ying-Jui Ho
Hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) so that glutamatergic modulation maybe a potential therapeutic target for PD. Ceftriaxone (CEF) has been reported to increase glutamate uptake by increasing glutamate transporter expression and has been demonstrated neuroprotective effects in animal study. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CEF on behavior and neurogenesis in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat model...
May 30, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552674/enrichment-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-independent-of-blood-monocyte-derived-microglia-presence-following-high-dose-total-body-irradiation
#17
Marc J Ruitenberg, Julia Wells, Perry F Bartlett, Alan R Harvey, Jana Vukovic
Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to at least 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche...
May 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552673/neuroprotective-effects-of-sulfiredoxin-1-during-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-oxidative-stress-injury-in-rats
#18
Jingxian Wu, Yanlin Chen, Shanshan Yu, Lingyu Li, Xiujuan Zhao, Qiong Li, Jing Zhao, Yong Zhao
As an endogenous antioxidant protein, Sulfiredoxin1 (Srxn1) can prevent cell oxidative stress damage. However, its role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we explored effects of Srxn1 knockdown on oxidative stress using in vitro and in vivo I/R models and investigated related neuroprotective mechanisms. For in vitro studies, primary cortical neuronal cultures were transfected with an interfering lentivirus targeting Srxn1. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was conducted after Srxn1 knockdown...
May 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552672/possible-involvement-of-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-in-neuroprotective-effects-of-topiramate-against-methylphenidate-induced-apoptosis-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-isolated-hippocampus-of-rats-molecular-biochemical-and-histological-evidences
#19
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Fatemeh Babalouei, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mansour Heidari, Zahra Madjd
Chronic abuse of methylphenidate (MPH) can cause serious neurotoxicity. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) were approved, but its putative mechanism remains unclear. In current study the role of CREB/BDNF signaling pathway in TPM protection against methylphenidate-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus was evaluated. 60 adult male rats were divided randomly into six groups. Groups received MPH (10mg/kg) only and concurrently with TPM (50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) and TPM (50 and 100mg/kg) only for 14 days...
May 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549887/fluvoxamine-maleate-effects-on-dopamine-signaling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-stressed-parkinsonian-rats-implications-for-learning-and-memory
#20
Ernest Dallé, Willie M U Daniels, Musa V Mabandla
Parkinson's disease (PD) is also associated with cognitive impairment and reduced extrinsic supply of dopamine (DA) to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the present study, we looked at whether exposure to early life stress reduces DA and serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the PFC thus leading to enhanced cognitive impairment in a Parkinsonian rat model. Maternal separation was the stressor used to develop an animal model for early life stress that has chronic effects on brain and behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the antidepressant Fluvoxamine maleate (FM) prior to a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion to model motor deficits in rats...
May 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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