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Brain Research Bulletin

Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mohammad Ahmad
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure)...
March 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ying Lu, De-Li Cao, Lin-Xia Zhao, Yu Han, You-Li Zhang
Visceral pain, observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, is a challenging medical problem and remains poorly understood because the mechanisms underlying it are unclear. Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pain. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential role of miR-146a-5p (the mature form of miR-146a) in a mouse model of colitis induced by intracolonic injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). We found that induction of colitis resulted in visceral hyperalgesia manifested by a decreased pain threshold to colorectal distension and upregulation of miR-146a-5p expression in the lumbosacral spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Benneth Ben-Azu, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Aya-Ebi Okubo Eneni, Solomon Umukoro, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
GABAergic (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) and neurotrophic derangements have important implication in schizophrenia, a neuropsychiatric disease. Previous studies have shown that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase) alters GABAergic and neurotrophic activities via inflammatory and oxidative pathways. Thus, it has been proposed that agents with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties might be beneficial for the treatment of the disease. Morin is neuroactive bioflavonoid compound, which has been reported to demonstrate antipsychotic and anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities...
March 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Abril Ortiz-Matamoros, Clorinda Arias
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the adult brain function and its dysregulation has been implicated in some neurodegenerative pathways. Despite the functional role of the Wnt signaling in adult neural circuits, there is currently no evidence regarding the relationships between exogenously Wnt signaling activation or inhibition and hippocampal structural changes in vivo. Thus, we analyzed the effect of the chronic infusion of Wnt agonists, Wnt7a and Wnt5a, and antagonist, Dkk-1, on different markers of plasticity such as neuronal MAP-2, Tau, synapse number and morphology, and behavioral changes...
March 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Xuke Han, Huangan Wu, Ping Yin, Zeqin Chen, Xiaohua Cao, Yanhong Duan, Jian Xu, Lixing Lao, Shifen Xu
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on Wistar Kyoto (WKY) depressive model rats and explore the possible mechanism of EA on hippocampal CA1 region neuronal synaptic plasticity. METHODS: The male WKY rats were randomized to three experimental groups (EA, Sham EA, and Model group, n = 8/group), and Wistar rats as the normal control group (n = 8). EA treatment was administered once daily for 3 weeks at acupuncture points Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (EX-HN3)...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Yani Zheng, Chao Huang, Fang Liu, Haiyan Lin, Yunfei Niu, Xiangqun Yang, Zhiying Zhang
The use of neurons induced from stem cells has been introduced as an effective strategy for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR). The evolution and role of native denervated Schwann cells (SCs) were often ignored when exploring the mechanisms underlying neural transplantation therapy for PNR. The aim of this study was to understand if following injury, native denervated SCs could be reactivated by transplanting of neurons induced from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (NI-BMSCs) to promote PNR...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Sohrab Kazemi, Mohsen Khalili-Fomeshi, Atefeh Akbari, Seydeh Narges Mousavi Kani, Seyed Raheleh Ahmadian, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
Nonylphenol (NP) has been introduced as the most common endocrine disturbing-chemical (EDC) in the environment. NP exerts several adverse effects on the reproductive system, immune system, and central nervous system (CNS) via its potent hormonal activity. In this study, the correlation between NP concentration and the resulting memory impairment and induction of anxiety was examined in adult rats. NP (at doses of 0.2 or 2 mg/kg) and corn oil (as NP vehicle) were orally administrated for 35 days. On day 36, animals were evaluated for anxiety and cognitive performance using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze test, respectively...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Michael J Boivin, Noeline Nakasujja, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Kimberley Walhof, Esther M van der Lugt, Robert O Opoka, Bruno Giordani
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive rehabilitation training (CCRT) may be beneficial for alleviating persisting neurocognitive deficits in Ugandan severe malaria survivors. We completed a randomized controlled trial of CCRT for both severe malaria and non-malaria cohorts of children. METHODS: 150 school-age severe malaria and 150 non-malaria children were randomized to three treatment arms: 24 sessions of Captain's Log CCRT for attention, working memory and nonverbal reasoning, in which training on each of 9 tasks difficulty increased with proficiency; a limited CCRT arm that did not titrate to proficiency but randomly cycled across the simplest to moderate level of training; and a passive control arm...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Luca Bors, Kinga Tóth, Estilla Zsófia Tóth, Ágnes Bajza, Attila Csorba, Krisztián Szigeti, Domokos Máthé, Gábor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Gábor K Tóth, Franciska Erdő
Decreased beta-amyloid clearance in Alzheimer's disease and increased blood-brain barrier permeability in aged subjects have been reported in several articles. However, morphological and functional characterization of blood-brain barrier and its membrane transporter activity have not been described in physiological aging yet. The aim of our study was to explore the structural changes in the brain microvessels and possible functional alterations of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier with aging. Our approach included MR imaging for anatomical orientation in middle aged rats, electronmicroscopy and immunohistochemistry to analyse the alterations at cellular level, dual or triple-probe microdialysis and SPECT to test P-glycoprotein functionality in young and middle aged rats...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Jennica M Young, Michael R Hoane
After sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI), a person's ability to make daily decisions can be affected. Simple tasks such as, deciding what to wear are no longer effortless choices, but are instead difficult decisions. This study explored the use of a discrimination task with a magnesium treatment in order to examine how decision-making skills are affected after TBI and if the treatment helped to attenuate cognitive and motor impairments. Thirty-one male rats were separated into MAG/TBI, VEH/TBI, or VEH/Sham groups...
March 1, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Wan Wang, Di Wen, Weisong Duan, Juntao Yin, Can Cui, Ying Wang, Zhongyao Li, Yakun Liu, Chunyan Li
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is closely associated with a reduction of neurotrophic factors in the central nervous system (CNS). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)-encoding vectors delivered via intramuscular and intraparenchymal spinal cord injections have conferred therapeutic benefits in ALS model mice, although the development of a noninvasive delivery route is still needed. Intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has been used to induce expression of neurotrophic genes in the lumbar spinal cords of adult mice...
February 27, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Megha Amar, Birendra Nath Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) plays an important role in maintaining brain excitability by regulating noradrenaline (NA) level and Na-K ATPase activity. We showed earlier that REMS deprivation (REMSD) associated elevated NA increased neuronal, while decreased glial Na-K ATPase activity. However, our knowledge was insufficient on how the REMSD-associated effect is sustained particularly under chronic condition. Using Neuro-2a cells as a model, we investigated the molecular mechanism of NA-induced increase in mRNA expression of Na-K ATPase subunit and the enzyme activity...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Shusaku Uchida, Gleb P Shumyatsky
Recent evidence demonstrates that epigenetic regulation of gene transcription is critically involved in learning and memory. Here, we discuss the role of histone acetylation and DNA methylation, which are two best understood epigenetic processes in memory processes. More specifically, we focus on learning-strength-dependent changes in chromatin on the fibroblast growth factor 1 (Fgf1) gene and on the molecular events that modulate regulation of Fgf1 transcription, required for memory enhancement, with the specific focus on CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1)...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Xiaoying Wu, Shengqun Liu, Zhenhua Hu, Guosong Zhu, Gaifang Zheng, Guangzhi Wang
Enriched environment (EE) has been shown to promote neurogenesis and functional recovery after ischemic stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, C57BL/6 mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (60 minutes) followed by reperfusion, after which mice were housed in either standard environment (SE) or EE and allowed to survive for 3, 4, 6 or 10 weeks. Ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) or striatum cells were dissociated from ischemic hemispheric brains of enriched mice at 14 days post-ischemia (dpi) and cultured in vitro...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Anette Bro Christensen, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Kåre Schmidt Ettrup, Dariusz Orlowski, Carsten Reidies Bjarkam
INTRODUCTION: The rotating 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model has long been important when developing new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD). Similar non-human primate models have been developed for translational research purposes as large animal models are required by regulatory bodies as an intermediate "phase 0" trial step. However, experimental research in non-human primates encounters several economical and regulatory issues, which may be avoided by the alternative use of pigs as a large animal model for experimental brain research...
February 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Jessica R Lowry, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia, and its prevalence is expected to increase dramatically due to the aging global population. Microglia-driven neuroinflammation may contribute to the progression of AD. Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), become chronically activated by the pathological proteins of AD including amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Such adversely activated microglia secrete mediators that promote inflammation and damage neurons. Cathepsins are proteases that are expressed by all brain cell types, and most of them are found both intra- and extra-cellularly...
February 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Hao Guo, Lei Zhao, Bodong Wang, Xia Li, Hao Bai, Haixiao Liu, Liang Yue, Wei Guo, Zhenyuan Bian, Li Gao, Dayun Feng, Yan Qu
Remote limb ischemic postconditioning (RIPoC) is a promising adjunct treatment for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated yet. The present study aims to investigate potential involvement and regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in RIPoC treatment against cerebral IR injury in mice. Mice were subjected to 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) then treated with vehicle, 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor), or compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) at the onset of reperfusion...
February 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Luciana M Pereira, Isabella M Guimarães, Vinícius E M Oliveira, Cristiane P Bastos, Fabíola M Ribeiro, Vânia F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Grace S Pereira
Estrogens positively affect object recognition memory (ORM). However, whether this effect rely on acetylcholine is unknown. Here we investigated if 17β-estradiol (E2) would be able to recover ORM deficits in animals with decreased expression of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT KDHET ). We found that E2 improved short-term ORM (STM) in VAChT KDHET male and in OVX female mutant mice. However, E2 did not recover long-term (LTM) ORM in both sexes. Next, we tested whether hippocampal ERs activation could also rescue STM in mutant mice...
February 12, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
V E Tóth, Á Fehér, J Németh, I Gyertyán, Z S Zádori, K Gyires
Previous findings showed that inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), degrading enzymes of anandamide (2-AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), reduced the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric lesions. The present study aimed to investigate: i./whether central or peripheral mechanism play a major role in the gastroprotective effect of inhibitors of FAAH, MAGL and AEA uptake, ii./which peripheral mechanism(s) may play a role in mucosal protective effect of FAAH, MAGL and uptake inhibitors...
February 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Qiao-Li Lv, Hui-Ting Zhu, Xiao-Hua Cheng, Hong-Mi Li, Hong-Hao Zhou, Shu-Hui Chen
Emerging studies show that dysregulated miRNAs are implicated in tumorigenesis and progression of various cancers. MiRNA-320c, an important member of miRNA-320 family, was characterized as a new candidate miRNA that suppressed the development of colorectal cancer and bladder cancer. However, the function of miRNA-320c in human glioma remained unclear. Here, we found that miRNA-320c was significantly down-regulated in glioma tissues and cell lines in contrast with normal brain tissues, being tightly related to clinical stage of glioma by qRT-PCR...
February 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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