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Brain Research Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330650/short-term-green-tea-supplementation-prevents-recognition-memory-deficits-and-ameliorates-hippocampal-oxidative-stress-induced-by-different-stroke-models-in-rats
#1
Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann, Mauren Assis Souza, Helen L Schimidt, Aryele Pinto Izaguirry, Alexandre Martins, Alexandre Garcia, Francielli W Santos, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes
This study investigate the effect of green tea (GT) on short and long term declarative memory and oxidative damage induced by transient ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 10 according the stroke type induced were used: Sham IR, Sham IR+GT, IR, IR+GT, Sham ICH, Sham ICH+GT, ICH, ICH+GT. Supplementation with GT was initiated 10days before stroke surgery and continuous for 6days after (GT dose 400mg/kg). Short (STM) and long term memory (LTM) we evaluated with object recognition task (OR) and hippocampus were used to evaluate parameters related to oxidative stress (ROS, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity)...
March 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322886/high-gamma-oscillations-in-the-motor-cortex-during-visuo-motor-coordination-a-tacs-interferential-study
#2
E Santarnecchi, A Biasella, E Tatti, A Rossi, D Prattichizzo, S Rossi
BACKGROUND: While the role of beta (∼20Hz), theta (∼5Hz) and alpha (∼10Hz) oscillations in the motor areas have been repeatedly associated with defined properties of motor performance, the investigation of gamma (∼40-90Hz) oscillatory activity is a more recent and still not fully understood component of motor control physiology, despite its potential clinical relevance for motor disorders. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We have implemented an online neuromodulation paradigm based on transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the dominant motor cortex during a visuo-motor coordination task...
March 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315396/ischemia-deteriorates-spike-encoding-at-cortical-gabaergic-neurons-and-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-by-increasing-the-intracellular-ca-2
#3
Li Huang, Chun Wang, Rongjing Ge, Hong Ni, Shidi Zhao
GABAergic neurons play a critical role in the central nervous system, such as well-organized behaviors. The ischemic cell death is presumably initiated by neuronal excitotoxicity resulted from the dysfunction of GABAergic neurons. It is not clear how ischemia influences different types of GABAergic neurons and whether intracellular Ca(2+) plays a key role in the ischemic excitotoxicity. We have investigated this issue at cortical GABAergic neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells by whole-cell recording in mouse brain slices, and the roles of intracellular Ca(2+) are examined by BABTA infusion...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315395/acute-intravenous-administration-of-dietary-constituent-theanine-suppresses-noxious-neuronal-transmission-of-trigeminal-spinal-nucleus-caudalis-in-rats
#4
Shiori Takehana, Yoshiko Kubota, Nobuo Uotsu, Kei Yui, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
Theanine is a non-dietary amino acid linked to the modulation of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, although the acute effects of theanine in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The present study investigated whether acute intravenous theanine administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284901/the-application-and-neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-cerebral-ischemic-post-conditioning-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Zhixing Li, Hanlin Chen, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
Ischemic stroke is a serious cerebrovascular disease that leads to death and/or severe disability, and extensive research has been directed in search of appropriate treatment measures. One such potential treatment is the use of cerebral ischemic post-conditioning (IPostC), and its neuroprotective effects and controllability have been widely confirmed and validated. Numerous studies have indicated that cerebral IPostC can suppress the inflammatory reaction in ischemia reperfusion injury, improve cerebral circulation, reduce infarct volume, and promote both neurogenesis and angiogenesis...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284900/crosstalk-between-glia-extracellular-matrix-and-neurons
#6
Inseon Song, Alexander Dityatev
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in the central nervous system form highly organized ECM structures around cell somata, axon initial segments, and synapses and play prominent roles in early development by guiding cell migration, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, and by regulating closure of the critical period of development, synaptic plasticity and stability, cognitive flexibility, and axonal regeneration in adults. Major components of neural ECM, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), tenascin-R and hyaluronic acid, are synthesized by both neurons and glial cells...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286184/altered-functional-efficacy-of-hippocampal-interneuron-during-epileptogenesis-following-febrile-seizures
#7
Yeon Hee Yu, Kahyun Lee, Dal Sik Sin, Kyung-Ho Park, Dae-Kyoon Park, Duk-Soo Kim
Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure type in infants and young children. FS may induce functional changes in the hippocampal circuitries. Abnormality of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmissions was previously related to wide-spread seizure attack in the hippocampus following recurrent seizure onset. To clarify the involvement of expressional changes and functional alterations of hippocampal interneurons with epileptogenesis following FS, we investigated long-term effects following recurrent seizure in a hyperthermia-induced seizure animal model...
March 7, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274815/electroacupuncture-improves-gait-locomotion-h-reflex-and-ventral-root-potentials-of-spinal-compression-injured-rats
#8
Carlos Escobar-Corona, Sergio Torres-Castillo, Erika Elizabeth Rodríguez-Torres, Bertha Segura-Alegría, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada, Salvador Quiroz-González
This study explored the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation (EA) on alterations in the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) response and gait locomotion provoked by spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat. A compression lesion of the spinal cord was evoked by insufflating a Fogarty balloon located in the epidural space at the T8-9 spinal level of adult Wistar male rats (200-250 gr; n=60). In different groups of SCI rats, EA (frequencies: 2, 50 and 100Hz) was applied simultaneously to Huantiao (GB30), Yinmen (BL37), Jizhong (GV6) and Zhiyang (GV9) acupoints from the third post-injury day until the experimental session...
March 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274814/the-role-of-aquaporin-4-in-synaptic-plasticity-memory-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Jacqueline A Hubbard, Jenny I Szu, Devin K Binder
Since the discovery of aquaporins, it has become clear that the various mammalian aquaporins play critical physiological roles in water and ion balance in multiple tissues. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the principal aquaporin expressed in the central nervous system (CNS, brain and spinal cord), has been shown to mediate CNS water homeostasis. In this review, we summarize new and exciting studies indicating that AQP4 also plays critical and unanticipated roles in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Next, we consider the role of AQP4 in Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke...
March 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274813/possible-role-of-endothelin-receptor-against-hyperhomocysteinemia-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-ad-type-of-vascular-dementia-in-rats
#10
Major Singh, Atish Prakash
Vascular dementia (VaD) is considered as the second commonest form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study was designed to investigate the effect of endothelin receptor against β-amyloid induced AD type of vascular dementia. This disease was induced by combine administration of single ICV (intracerebroventricle) infusion of β-amyloid (Aβ) once and chronic oral administration of L-Methionine for 21 days. Bosentan (dual endothelin receptor antagonist) was administered for 21 days. Behavioral alterations were observed during different time interval of the study...
March 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267561/pharmacological-and-antihyperalgesic-properties-of-the-novel-%C3%AE-2-3-preferring-gabaa-receptor-ligand-mp-iii-024
#11
Bradford D Fischer, Raymond J Schlitt, Bryan Z Hamade, Sabah Rehman, Margot Ernst, Michael M Poe, Guanguan Li, Revathi Kodali, Leggy A Arnold, James M Cook
γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are located in spinal nociceptive circuits where they modulate the transmission of pain sensory signals from the periphery to higher centers. Benzodiazepine-type drugs bind GABAA, receptors containing α1, α2, α3, and α5 subunits (α1GABAA, α2GABAA, α3GABAA, and α5GABAA receptors, respectively) through which they inhibit the transmission of these signals. However, the role of these different GABAA receptor subtypes in the antihyperalgisic properties of benzodiazepine-type drugs has not been characterized fully and is limited by currently available compounds...
March 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267560/neurogenic-bladder-dysfunction-does-not-correlate-with-astrocyte-and-microglia-activation-produced-by-graded-force-in-a-contusion-induced-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Alvaro Munoz
Rodent models for the study of neurogenic bladder dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI) are difficult to standardize, particularly when evaluating the specific contribution of the SCI to end-organ function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of bladder dysfunction associated with a highly reproducible, contusion-induced SCI in female rats. An infinite horizon impactor was used to create a contusion SCI with a magnitude of either 100 or 150 kDyne at the T8/T9 thoracic region of female Sprague-Dawley rats...
March 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238830/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-was-less-under-isoflurane-than-pentobarbital-anesthesia-via-a-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-early-cerebral-ischemia
#13
Oak Z Chi, Scott J Mellender, Geza K Kiss, Xia Liu, Harvey R Weiss
One of the important factors altering the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in cerebral ischemia is the anesthetic used. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway has been reported to be involved in modulating BBB permeability and in isoflurane induced neuroprotection. This study was performed to compare the degree of BBB disruption in focal cerebral ischemia under isoflurane vs pentobarbital anesthesia and to determine whether inhibition of PI3K/Akt would affect the disruption in the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia...
February 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235599/diazinon-and-parathion-diverge-in-their-effects-on-development-of-noradrenergic-systems
#14
Theodore A Slotkin, Samantha Skavicus, Frederic J Seidler
Organophosphate pesticides elicit developmental neurotoxicity through mechanisms over and above their shared property as cholinesterase inhibitors. We compared the consequences of neonatal exposure (postnatal days PN1-4) to diazinon or parathion on development of norepinephrine systems in rat brain, using treatments designed to produce equivalent effects on cholinesterase, straddling the threshold for barely-detectable inhibition. Norepinephrine levels were measured throughout development from the immediate posttreatment period (PN5), to early adolescence (PN30), young adulthood (PN60) and full adulthood (PN100); we assessed multiple brain regions containing all the major noradrenergic synaptic projections...
February 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235598/overexpression-of-phosphodiesterase-4-subtypes-involved-in-surgery-induced-neuroinflammatory-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#15
Wei Wang, Qiang Fu, Xiao-Ying Zhang, Ze-Guo Feng, Hao Zhang, Bo Sui, Yong-Yi Zhang, Wei-Xing Zhao, Zhi-Peng Xu, Wei-Dong Mi
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is characterized by cognitive impairments in patients after surgery. Hippocampal neuroinflammation induced by surgery has been recognized as a pathogenesis of POCD. Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) is an enzyme that specifically hydrolyses cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which plays an important role during neuroinflammation and the process of learning and memory. However, the role of PDE4 in the development of POCD remains unclear. Male 14-month-old C57BL/6 mice received carotid artery exposure to mimic POCD...
February 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232022/plastic-changes-at-corticostriatal-synapses-predict-improved-motor-function-in-a-partial-lesion-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Eduard Bentea, Cynthia Moore, Lauren Deneyer, Lise Verbruggen, Madeline J Churchill, Rebecca L Hood, Charles K Meshul, Ann Massie
In Parkinson's disease, striatal dopamine depletion leads to plastic changes at excitatory corticostriatal and thalamostriatal synapses. The functional consequences of these responses on the expression of behavioral deficits are incompletely understood. In addition, most of the information on striatal synaptic plasticity has been obtained in models with severe striatal dopamine depletion, and less is known regarding changes during early stages of striatal denervation. Using a partial model of nigral cell loss based on intranigral injection of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, we demonstrate ultrastructural changes at corticostriatal synapses with a 15% increase in the length and 30% increase in the area of the postsynaptic densities at corticostriatal synapses 1 week following toxin administration...
February 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214547/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-predisposes-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#17
Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Francesca Scicchitano, Annalidia Donato, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Sara Gasparini, Vittoria Cianci, Chiara Mignogna, Giuseppe Donato, Rita Citraro, Umberto Aguglia, Giovambattista De Sarro
The link between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and epilepsy has been poorly investigated. Some reports suggest that CSVD may predispose to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Aim of this study was to evaluate whether spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an established model of systemic hypertension and CSVD, have a propensity to develop TLE more than generalized seizures. To this aim, amygdala kindling, as a model of TLE, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling, as a model of generalized seizures, have been used to ascertain whether SHRs are more prone to TLE as compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212849/hydrogen-sulfide-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-alcohol-mediated-neurotoxicity
#18
REVIEW
Akash K George, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Yuankun Zhai, Neetu Tyagi
Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212850/human-astrocytes-in-the-diseased-brain
#19
Elena Dossi, Flora Vasile, Nathalie Rouach
Astrocytes are key active elements of the brain that contribute to information processing. They not only provide neurons with metabolic and structural support, but also regulate neurogenesis and brain wiring. Furthermore, astrocytes modulate synaptic activity and plasticity in part by controlling the extracellular space volume, as well as ion and neurotransmitter homeostasis. These findings, together with the discovery that human astrocytes display contrasting characteristics with their rodent counterparts, point to a role for astrocytes in higher cognitive functions...
February 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189515/erythropoietin-rescues-primary-rat-cortical-neurons-from-pyroptosis-and-apoptosis-via-erk1-2-nrf2-bach1-signal-pathway
#20
Rui Li, Li-Min Zhang, Wen-Bo Sun
The most commonly used inhalation anesthetics, sevoflurane, is reported to be a risk for development of learning disability. Erythropoietin (EPO) administration might be involved an effective therapy for sevoflurane neurotoxicity. EPO-EPO receptor-extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) signal pathway plays a pivotal role in the neuroprotective effect. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) ratio altering by Erk1/2 could ameliorate oxidative stress occurred in human macrophages...
February 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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