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Brain Research Bulletin

Ange Landela Luzolo, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi
Malaria remains of significant public health concern under the tropics, causing millions of deaths annually. The disease is caused by protozoans of the Plasmodium genus, of which harbors several distinct species. Human infection occurs during the blood meal of an infected female mosquito belonging to the Anopheles genus. It is estimated that around 1 % of children infected with Plasmodium falciparum develops a more severe form of malaria, which may eventually lead to cerebral complications including cerebral malaria (CM)...
January 15, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Christiane Gimenes Ball, Jackeline Moraes Malheiros, Harsha Battapady, Alberto Tannus, Clement Hamani, Luciene Covolan
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) refers to the delivery of electric current to specific deep brain structures through implanted electrodes. Recently approved for use in United States, DBS to the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) is a safe and effective alternative treatment for medically refractory seizures. Despite the anti-seizure effects of ANT DBS, preclinical and clinical studies have failed to demonstrate it actions at a whole brain level. OBJECTIVE: Here, we used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approach in healthy adult rats to investigate the effects of ANT DBS through the circuit of Papez, which has central role in the generation and propagation of limbic seizures, in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
January 15, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Desire Tshala-Katumbay, Sharon L Juliano
Viral infections are a major cause of human central nervous system infection, and may be associated with significant mortality, and long-term sequelae. In Africa, the lack of effective therapies, limited diagnostic and human resource facilities are especially in dire need. Most viruses that affect the central nervous system are opportunistic or accidental pathogens. Some of these viruses were initially considered harmless, however they have now evolved to penetrate the nervous system efficiently and exploit neuronal cell biology thus resulting in severe illness...
January 15, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
P C Leal, J M M Bispo, L C R F Lins, M F Souza, A M Gois, C Moore, M Marchioro, A M Ribeiro, R H Silva, C K Meshul, J R Santos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is mostly known as a dopamine deficiency syndrome due the structural and functional changes in striatal projection neurons. However, studies have considered this pathology as a multi-systemic disease in which the neurodegenerative process extends beyond the dopaminergic system. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the morphological and immunohistochemical changes associated with behavioral and cognitive alterations in a model of parkinsonism induced by low dose of reserpine...
January 11, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
V Selakovic, Lj Arsenijevic, M Jovanovic, S Sivcev, N Jovanovic, M Leontijevic, M Stojanovic, M Radenkovic, P Andjus, L Radenovic
Agmatine (AgM, 100 mg/kg i.p.) effect was tested in parallel at two animal models of cerebral ischemia - rat MCAO model (60'/24 h, 60'/48 h, 90'/24 h, 90'/48 h) and gerbil global ischemia (10') model, administrated 5 min after reperfusion. Aim was to evaluate AgM effect on functional outcome 24 and 48 h after MCAO on neurological and sensor-motor function, and coordination in rats. AgM administration significantly reduced infarct volume, improved neurological score and improved post-ischemic oxidative status...
January 11, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Xiangyu Fang, Xueru Xu, Xingwu Lin, Rongguo Liu
Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which produces remarkable analgesia through high-frequency electromagnetic energy, has become a main therapy for chronic neuropathic pain. The chronic neuropathic pain in patients is frequently accompanied by depression. However, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of the treatment of PRF on DRG for the neuropathic pain-induced depression remain unclear. This study was designed to explore the effect of PRF on DRG on the neuropathic pain-induced depression in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI)...
January 9, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Judit Herédi, Edina Katalin Cseh, Anikó Magyariné Berkó, Gábor Veres, Dénes Zádori, József Toldi, Zsolt Kis, László Vécsei, Etsuro Ono, Levente Gellért
Manipulation of kynurenic acid (KYNA) level through kynurenine aminotransferase-2 (KAT-2) inhibition with the aim of therapy in neuro-psychiatric diseses has been the subject of extensive recent research. Although mouse models are of particular importance, neither the basic mechanism of KYNA production and release nor the relevance of KAT-2 in the mouse brain has yet been clarified. Using acute mouse brain slice preparations, we investigated the basal and L-kynurenine (L-KYN) induced KYNA production and distribution between the extracellular and intracellular compartments...
January 9, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Yuan-Tao Huang, Li-Hua Zhang, Mei-Fang Li, Lin Cheng, Guo-Ying Zou, Hong-Hao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare degenerative disease characterized by symmetrical bilateral calcinosis in the basal ganglia and other brain regions. It has an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern in most cases and exhibits genetic heterogeneity. Previous studies reported that SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, XPR1 and MYORG are associated with PFBC, with SLC20A2 the main culprit. However, other mutations may also cause PFBC. Here, we performed a study to reveal the contributing mutations that gave rise to PFBC in a Chinese PFBC family...
January 8, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Xiao-Ling Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Qian-Hang Shao, Zhao Zhang, Lin Li, Zhen-Yu Guo, Hong-Mei Sun, Yi Zhang, Nai-Hong Chen
Deletions or some mutations in the gene encoding the multifunctional protein, DJ-1, have been considered to be linked with autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Current emerging evidence suggests that DJ-1 is involved in the protection against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this are not completely clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DJ-1 on the Akt pathway, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) with regard to modulating mitochondrial function...
January 8, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Yamini Madav, Sarika Wairkar, Bala Prabhakar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been a global concern for years due to its severe implications that affects the quality of life of the patients. The available line of therapy for treating Alzheimer's includes acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, NMDA(N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonists and their combination which gives only symptomatic relief rather than treating the root cause of AD. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the characteristic features underlying Alzheimer's pathology. Several attempts have been made towards exploring the niceties of these hallmarks and targeting various aspects of amyloid and tau pathology at different stages to eliminate the ultimate cause...
January 8, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Karina Genaro, Débora Fabris, Wiliam A Prado
Electrical stimulation of the anterior pretectal nucleus (APtN) activates two descending pain inhibitory pathways. One of these pathways relays in the ipsilateral lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi), whereas the other pathway relays in the contralateral pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). Antinociceptive effect of APtN stimulation has been seen in various pain models in the rodents. Similarly, LPGi or PPTg stimulation results in higher pain thresholds. Descending antinociceptive pathways activated by electrical APtN stimulation have been elucidated, but the underlying neurotransmitter mechanisms involved have not been clarified yet...
January 8, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Baile Ning, Qinxin Zhang, Minzhen Deng, Nanbu Wang, Yongqi Fang
Both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy involve in the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD). But the relationship between them is not clear in PD. A 6-OHDA-induced parkinsonian rat is recognized as a standard model for many years, and it can be used in experimental study. The glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a master regulator of ER stress, and the C/EBP homologous binding protein (CHOP) is an indicator of the UPR signaling. Besides, the Beclin-1 is also well known as a regulator of autophagy, and P62 is a specific marker to monitor autophagy...
January 6, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Caitlin B Pointer, Tyler J Wenzel, Andis Klegeris
Cardiolipin is a mitochondrial membrane phospholipid with several well-defined metabolic roles. Cardiolipin can be released extracellularly by damaged cells and has been shown to affect peripheral immune functions. We hypothesized that extracellular cardiolipin can also regulate functions of microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that extracellular cardiolipin increases microglial phagocytosis and neurotrophic factor expression, as well as decreases the release of inflammatory mediators and cytotoxins by activated microglia-like cells...
January 6, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Dongdong Qin, Shihao Wu, Yongchang Chen, Xintian Hu
Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disease characterized by social communication and social interaction deficits, as well as repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the causes of autism are extremely complex, involving genes, environments and gene-environment interactions, genetic mutations are the highest risk factors. For this reason, preclinical research is now shifting into focusing on generating transgenic and knockout models, especially using the nonhuman primates, which are the closest relatives to humans...
December 31, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Peter Dome, Laszlo Tombor, Judit Lazary, Xenia Gonda, Zoltan Rihmer
Given the moderate efficacy of the currently available antidepressants (ADs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), the identification of agents that are both able to enhance the effectiveness of ADs and have a good safety profile is a reasonable task for current psychopharmacology. In addition to the well-known drugs (second-generation antipsychotics, levothyroxine, dopaminergic agents, etc.) for augmentation, investigations suggest that several nutraceuticals and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs may be effective and safe as adjunct therapeutic agents to conventional ADs...
December 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Bing Wu, Yongling Liu, Fuyan Liu, Qing Deng, Jinglei Wang, Renwen Han, Dalei Zhang, Jiaxiang Chen, Jie Wei
Ghrelin(1-7)-NH2 is the active N-terminal hepta-peptide of ghrelin as an agonist at the ghrelin receptor GHS-R1α. The biological functions of ghrelin(1-7)-NH2 have not been well investigated. Therefore in this study, we were interested in exploring the effects and molecular mechanisms of ghrelin(1-7)-NH2 in pain modulation at the supraspinal level using the tail withdrawal test in mice. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of ghrelin(1-7)-NH2 (0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2 nmol/kg) induced a dose- and time-related antinociceptive effect...
December 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Lifang Zou, Yingxin Gong, Shuangmei Liu, Shangdong Liang
Neuropathic pain is generally resistant to currently available treatments, and it is often a consequence of nerve injury due to surgery, diabetes or infection. Myocardial ischemic nociceptive signaling increases the sympathoexcitatory reflex to aggravate myocardial injury. Elucidation of the pathogenetic factors might provide a target for optimal treatment. Abundant evidence in the literature suggests that P2X and P2Y receptors play important roles in signal transmission. Traditional Chinese medicines, such as emodin, puerarin and resveratrol, antagonize nociceptive transmission mediated by purinergic 2 (P2) receptors in primary afferent neurons...
December 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Yuru Du, Wenjing Li, Yiming Li, Juxiang Yang, Xinhao Wang, Shuo Yin, Xi Wang, Omar Israel Velez de-la-Paz, Yuan Gao, Haiying Chen, Xi Yin, Haishui Shi
Depression is the root of various diseases. It is one of the most debilitating conditions globally. Antidepressant drugs are usually the first-line of depression treatment. Arctigenin (ARC), one of active ingredient of Arctium lappa L, has been found to exert neuroprotective, anti-decrepitude, and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of ARC using acute and chronic mild stress (CMS) mice model. ICR mice model received acute stress or chronic mild stress assessed by open field test (OFT), novelty suppressed feeding (NSF), sucrose preference test (SPT), forced-swimming test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST)...
December 28, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
D E Ribeiro, T Glaser, Á Oliveira-Giacomelli, H Ulrich
Neurogenesis is a process of generating functional neurons which occurs during embryonic and adult stages in mammals. While neurogenesis during development phase is characterized by intensive proliferation activity in all regions of the brain to form the architecture and neural function of the nervous system, adult neurogenesis occurs with less intensity, in only two brain regions, and is involved in the maintenance of neurogenic niches, local repairmen, memory and emotional functions in the hippocampus. Taking such differences into account, the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in cell differentiation in developmental stages and maintenance of the nervous system is an important research target...
December 26, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Lan Wen, Lei Liu, Jinfang Li, Linyan Tong, Keming Zhang, Qinbin Zhang, Changqing Li
Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability worldwide. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) is predominantly expressed in the brain as well as in the heart and has been reported to be involved in resistance to neuronal cell death caused by ischemic injury. However, the underlying mechanism of NDRG4 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery was performed to establish a model of ischemic brain injury...
December 26, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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