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Brain Research Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529158/evaluation-of-direct-and-cell-mediated-triple-gene-therapy-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#1
Rustem Robertovich Islamov, Andrey Alexandrovich Izmailov, Mikhail Evgenyevich Sokolov, Philip Olegovich Fadeev, Farid Vagizovich Bashirov, Anton Alexandrovich Eremeev, Gulnara Ferdinantovna Shaymardanova, Maxim Michaylovich Shmarov, Boris Savelyevich Naroditskiy, Yuri Alexandrovich Chelyshev, Igor Aleksandrovich Lavrov, András Palotás
Current treatment options for spinal cord injury (SCI) are scarce. One of the most promising innovative approaches include gene-therapy, however no single gene has so far been shown to be of clinical relevance. This study investigates the efficacy of various combinations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), angiogenin (ANG) and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in rats. Multiple therapeutic genes were administered intrathecally either via adenoviral vectors or by using genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCBMCs)...
May 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529157/protective-treatments-and-their-target-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
REVIEW
Jing Zhang, Rong Liu, Hong-Yu Kuang, Xin-Yuan Gao, Hao-Ling Liu
Diabetic retinopathy(DR)is one of the complications of diabetes which could cause severe vision loss. Retinal ganglion cell(RGC)injury has been confirmed prior to micro-vascular damage. Over the past few decades, a number of animal and clinical studies have confirmed that RGC impairment leads to an early deterioration of vision in DR. Inhibition of aldose reductase (AR), advanced glycation end product (AGE), oxidative stress, glutamate toxicity, and an inflammatory response may play important roles in protecting RGCs in DR...
May 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528204/a-novel-pleiotropic-effect-of-aspirin-beneficial-regulation-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-mechanisms-in-microglial-cells
#3
Diana Kata, Imre Földesi, Liliana Z Feher, Laszlo Hackler, Laszlo G Puskas, Karoly Gulya
Aspirin, one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has extensively studied effects on the cardiovascular system. To reveal further pleiotropic, beneficial effects of aspirin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial mechanisms, we performed morphometric and functional studies relating to phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) and analyzed the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above functions, in pure microglial cells...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528203/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity-and-withdrawal-symptoms-are-associated-with-acute-electronic-cigarette-use
#4
Andréa L Hobkirk, Travis T Nichols, Jonathan Foulds, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, John Richie, Thomas Eissenberg, Stephen J Wilson
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528202/microrna-129-5p-inhibits-the-development-of-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-related-epilepsy-by-targeting-hmgb1-through-the-tlr4-nf-kb-signaling-pathway
#5
Ai-Hua Liu, Ya-Ting Wu, Yu-Ping Wang
The study aimed to explore the effects of microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) on the development of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (AE)-related epilepsy by targeting HMGB1 through the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model. AE-related epilepsy models were established. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control, model, miR-129-5p mimics, miR-129-5p inhibitor, HMGB1 shRNA, TLR4/NF-kB (TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway was inhibited) and miR-129-5p mimics+HMGB1 shRNA groups respectively. Latency to a first epilepsy seizure attack was recorded...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526617/cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-a-novel-avenue-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Anisha S Bhounsule, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Manisha Oza
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequently encountered diseases in adults with progressive loss of memory and behavioral changes. Inspite of there being an intense research in the field of AD, only a few chemical entities exhibiting anti-AD activity make it through the clinical trials and it is thus need of an hour to develop new drugs or repurpose the existing ones for better management of Alzheimer's disease. Novel therapeutic targets can influence drug discovery in the field of AD. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5) which is a serine/threonine kinase can prove to be an upcoming beneficial target to be studied for treating AD...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502648/control-of-astrocyte-morphology-by-rho-gtpases
#7
REVIEW
Andre Zeug, Franziska E Müller, Stefanie Anders, Michel K Herde, Daniel Minge, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Christian Henneberger
Astrocytes modulate and support neuronal and synapse function via numerous mechanisms that often rely on diffusion of signalling molecules, ions or metabolites through extracellular space. As a consequence, the spatial arrangement and the distance between astrocyte processes and neuronal structures is of functional importance. Likewise, changes of astrocyte structure will affect the ability of astrocytes to interact with neurons. In contrast to neurons, where rapid morphology changes are critically involved in many aspects of physiological brain function, a role of astrocyte restructuring in brain physiology is only beginning to emerge...
May 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499803/establishment-and-characterization-of-primary-astrocyte-culture-from-adult-mouse-brain
#8
Xiu Sun, Xin Hu, Dan Wang, Yimin Yuan, Shangyao Qin, Zijian Tan, Yakun Gu, Xiao Huang, Cheng He, Zhida Su
As a major class of glial cells, astrocytes have been indicated to play multi-roles in physiological and pathological brain. Astrocyte cultures derived from postnatal mouse brains have been extensively used to characterize their biological properties. However, the inability to culture adult mouse primary astrocytes has long stymied studies of function in adult brain. Here, we developed a protocol to successfully establish highly enriched astrocyte cultures from the brains of adult mouse. Cortical tissues were collected to prepare cell suspension by enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation, and then plated onto vessels pre-coated with gelatin and matrigel and cultured in DMEM medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS)...
May 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499802/ampk-activates-foxo3a-and-promotes-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-developing-rat-brain-during-the-early-phase-after-hypoxia-ischemia
#9
Deyuan Li, Lili Luo, Min Xu, Jinlin Wu, Lina Chen, Jinhui Li, Zhongqiang Liu, Guoyan Lu, Yang Wang, Lina Qiao
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key metabolic and stress sensor/effector. Few investigations have been performed to study the role of AMPK in developing rat brain with hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Forkhead transcriptional factor (FOXO3a) has been revealed to be a critical effector of AMPK-mediated celluar apoptosis. However, it is not clear whether AMPK/FOXO3a pathway is involved in neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat brain after HI. In this study, we generated hypoxia-ischemia brain damage (HIBD) model using postnatal day 7 rats...
May 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479215/local-injection-to-sciatic-nerve-of-dex-reduces-pain-behaviors-sgcs-activation-ngf-expression-and-sympathetic-sprouting-in-cci-rats
#10
Jing-Ru Wu, Hui Chen, Deng-Xin Zhang, Kai Jiang, Ying-Ying Yao, Ming-Ming Zhang, Bo Zhou, Jie Wang
Neuropathic pain has become an intractable health threat, with its profound effect on quality of life. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is evidenced to play a crucial role in neuropathic pain. The peripheral nociceptive afferents seem to be essential not only to initiate the process of neuropathic pain, but also to maintain and modulate it. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a highly selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR), has provided significant analgesia in neuropathic pain. In the present study, we found that local injection to sciatic nerve of DEX alleviated heat hypersensitivity induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
May 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479214/the-protective-effect-of-astaxanthin-on-learning-and-memory-deficits-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-mouse-model-of-repeated-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#11
Yan Xue, Zhenzhen Qu, Jian Fu, Junli Zhen, Wenjing Wang, Yunlei Cai, Weiping Wang
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The present study was performed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant astaxanthin (ATX) in a mouse model of VCI. VCI was induced in male ICR mice by repeated occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery, leading to repeated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. After surgery, the mice received ATX or an equal volume of vehicle by daily intragastric administration for 28days...
May 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473190/oxidative-stress-and-neurodegeneration
#12
EDITORIAL
Jianhua Zhang, D Allan Butterfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461186/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-elevates-the-expressions-of-inflammatory-factors-and-promotes-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-a-comparative-study-based-on-han-and-she-populations-in-the-wenzhou-area
#13
Yin-Ying Fan, Qiao-Le Cai, Zhi-Yong Gao, Xue Lin, Qi Huang, Wei Tang, Jia-Hong Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of apolipoprotein E 4 (APOE4) gene polymorphisms on the expressions of inflammatory factors and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 185 AD patients (the case group, 130 cases from the Han ethnic group and 55 cases from the She ethnic group) and 190 healthy individuals (the control group, 130 cases from the Han ethnic group and 60 cases from the She ethnic group) were recruited for our study...
April 29, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458041/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-focused-ultrasound-new-perspectives-on-an-old-tool
#14
REVIEW
Burak Yulug, Lutfu Hanoglu, Ertugrul Kilic
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is a novel technique that can noninvasively modulate the cortical function. Moreover, there are rapidly replicating evidence suggesting the role of tFUS for targeted neuroprotective drug delivery by increasing the permeability of the central nervous system barrier that results with increased neuroprotective activity. In contrast to the indirect neuroprotective effect, there is rare evidence suggesting the direct parenchymal neuroprotective effect of transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS)...
April 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458039/glucocorticoids-glucocorticoid-receptors-effect-on-dopaminergic-neurotransmitters-in-adhd-rats
#15
Yanhui Chen, Xiaolan Zheng, Linqi Xie, Liang Huang, Zhongling Ke, Jie Zheng, Hongzhu Lu, Jun Hu
Dexamethaone (DEX, glucocorticoid receptor agonist) and RU486 (glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor) may affect the behavior of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rats, by changing the level of dopamine and noradrenaline and dopamine transporter in different regions of their brain. In this study, we have investigated the effect and the underlying mechanism of Glucocorticoids/Glucocorticoid receptors on dopaminergic neurotransmitters in ADHD Rats. Thirty male Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and 30 male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were respectively divided into 3 groups randomly as follows: a GR agonist group (DEX), a GR inhibitor group (RU486) and a control group (CON)...
April 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458038/coenzyme-q10-attenuated-%C3%AE-amyloid25-35-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-pc12-cells-through-regulation-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#16
Li Li, Daohua Xu, Jiantao Lin, Dawei Zhang, Guanhai Wang, Ling Sui, Hongyan Ding, Jikun Du
Inflammation plays critical roles in the pathogenic mechanisms of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous study revealed that CoQ10 augmented cellular antioxidant defense capacity, thereby protecting PC12 cells from oxidative neurotoxicity. However, the mechanism by which CoQ10 inhibits inflammation remains unknown. In this study, we aim to examine the effects of CoQ10 on Aβ25-35-induced inflammatory in PC12 cells and the underlying molecular mechanism of its neuroprotective action...
April 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454931/neuroprotective-effect-of-minocycline-on-cognitive-impairments-induced-by-transient-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-through-its-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidant-properties-in-male-rat
#17
Yazdan Naderi, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei, Siavash Parvardeh, Taraneh Moini Zanjani
Memory deficit is the most visible symptom of cerebral ischemia that is associated with loss of pyramidal cells in CA1 region of the hippocampus. Oxidative stress and inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage. Minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline derived antibiotic, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We evaluated the neuroprotective effect of minocycline on memory deficit induced by cerebral I/R in rat. I/R was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 20min...
April 25, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450076/local-energy-on-demand-are-spontaneous-astrocytic-ca-2-microdomains-the-regulatory-unit-for-astrocyte-neuron-metabolic-cooperation
#18
REVIEW
Martin Oheim, Elke Schmidt, Johannes Hirrlinger
Astrocytes are a neural cell type critically involved in maintaining brain energy homeostasis as well as signaling. Like neurons, astrocytes are a heterogeneous cell population. Cortical astrocytes show a complex morphology with a highly branched aborization and numerous fine processes ensheathing the synapses of neighboring neurons, and typically extend one process connecting to blood vessels. Recent studies employing genetically encoded fluorescent calcium (Ca(2+)) indicators have described 'spontaneous' localized Ca(2+)-transients in the astrocyte periphery that occur asynchronously, independently of signals in other parts of the cells, and that do not involve somatic Ca(2+) transients; however, neither it is known whether these Ca(2+)-microdomains occur at or near neuronal synapses nor have their molecular basis nor downstream effector(s) been identified...
April 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442324/the-interactive-role-of-cb1-receptors-and-l-type-calcium-channels-in-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-in-rats
#19
Hamidreza Komaki, Fargol Saadat, Siamak Shahidi, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Parisa Hasanein, Alireza Komaki
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic responses is a widely researched model of synaptic plasticity that occurs during learning and memory. The cannabinoid system is an endogenous system that modulate this kind of synaptic plasticity. In addition, voltage dependent calcium channels is essential for induction of LTP at some synapses in the hippocampus. However, there is currently debate over the interaction between L-type calcium channels and cannabinoid system on the synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examined the effects of an acute administration of the cannabinoid antagonist AM251 following a chronic administration of the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil on LTP induction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus(DG) of rats...
April 23, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438669/the-effects-of-chinese-medicines-on-camp-pka-signaling-pathway-in-central-nervous-system-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Lin Li, Xiang Fan, Xi-Ting Zhang, Shao-Qian Yue, Zuo-Yan Sun, Jin-Qiang Zhu, Jun-Hua Zhang, Xiu-Mei Gao, Han Zhang
Neuropathological injury in adult mammal central nervous system (CNS) may cause axon disruption, neuronal death and produce lasting neurological deficits. Failure of axon regeneration is one of the major challenges for CNS function recovery. Recently, cAMP/PKA signaling pathway has been proven to be a critical regulator for neuronal regeneration, neuroplasticity and learning and memory ability. And previous studies have revealed the effects of Chinese medicines on prevention and treatment of CNS dysfunction medicated by cAMP/PKA signaling pathway partially...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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