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Brain Research Bulletin

Wenya Li, Shengchang Yang, Fu-Yang Yu, Yashuo Zhao, Zhi-Min Sun, Ji-Ren An, Ensheng Ji
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very common breathing and sleep disorder characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), which is often associated with behavioral and neurocognitive functions impairment. Hydrogen (H2 ), as a novel and effective antioxidant, is reported to be a potential neuroprotective agent. The aim of this study is to investigate whether H2 could improve CIH-induced neurocognitive impairment and the related mechanism. Rats were exposed to IH for 5 weeks (8 h/day) and/or inhalation of H2 gas 2 h/day...
September 20, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Sajad Fakhri, Leila Dargahi, Fatemeh Abbaszadeh, Masoumeh Jorjani
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition in which inflammatory responses in the secondary phase of injury leads to long lasting sensory-motor dysfunction. The medicinal therapy of SCI complications is still a clinical challenge. Understanding the molecular pathways underlying the progress of damage will help to find new therapeutic candidates. Astaxanthin (AST) is a ketocarotenoid which has shown anti-inflammatory effects in models of traumatic brain injury. In the present study, we examined its potential in the elimination of SCI damage through glutamatergic-phospo p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38MAPK) signaling pathway...
September 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ning-Ning Liu, Zhi-Ling Dong, Li-Li Han
Ischemic stroke (IS) is an acute cerebral event characterized by a high incidence rate, high disability rate as well as a high mortality. More recently, accumulative literature has provided evidence highlighting the role played by microRNAs (miRs) in the development of neurons. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of miR-410 in IS. Microarray-based gene expression profiling of AMI was conducted in order to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the corresponding miRs regulating these genes...
September 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Youjun Li, Feng Feng, Pan Lin, Zigang Huang, Tian Liu, Bo Zhou, Hongxiang Yao, Liang Zheng, Chenxi Li, Pan Wang, Zengqiang Zhang, Yan'e Guo, Luning Wang, Ningyu An, Xiaoqi Zhu, Xi Zhang, Jue Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a worldwide progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly. Previous research has indicated that Alzheimer's disease impairs white matter (WM) tracts. Anatomical and neuroimaging studies have indicated that WM tracts are associated with cognitive function. Whether the abnormal WM integrity in AD is associated with cognitive impairments and the clinical symptoms is still not clear. To this end, we investigated the relationship between the impairments in WM tracts and the decline of cognitive ability in AD...
September 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
A S Silva, L V Toffoli, V B Estrada, L F Veríssimo, J Francis-Oliveira, E G Moreira, M V Gomes, G G Pelosi
Fluoxetine (FLX) is an antidepressant from the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class that has largely been used for the treatment of depression in pregnancy. However, increasing evidences have indicated the potential of early maternal exposure to FLX to induce molecular and neuro functional effects on the offspring. In the present study we evaluated possible long lasting impacts of the maternal exposure to FLX during gestation and lactation. Female Wistar rats were gavaged with 5 mg/kg of FLX during the period that comprehends the first day of pregnancy (PD0) and the last day of lactation (LD21) (Group FLX)...
September 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Laura Micheli, Manuela Ceccarelli, Giorgio D'Andrea, Felice Tirone
Of wide interest for health is the relation existing between depression, a very common psychological illness, accompanied by anxiety and reduced ability to concentrate, and adult neurogenesis. We will focus on two neurogenic stimuli, fluoxetine and physical exercise, both endowed with the ability to activate adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, known to be required for learning and memory, and both able to counteract depression. Fluoxetine belongs to the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, which represent the most used pharmacological therapy; physical exercise has also been shown to effectively counteract depression symptoms in rodents as well as in humans...
September 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Qian-Qian Wei, Yongping Chen, Xueping Chen, Bei Cao, RuWei Ou, Lingyu Zhang, Yanbing Hou, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the natural history, clinical features, and survival relevance of patients presenting with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) with different phenotypes. METHODS: All patients were prospectively enrolled in a hospital-based register from 2006 to 2015. Cases were classified according to established phenotypes: classic, bulbar, flail arm, flail leg, upper motor neuron dominate, respiratory, pure lower motor neuron and pure upper motor neuron...
September 16, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Rosângela Figueiredo Mendes-da-Silva, Elian da Silva Francisco, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
Ascorbic acid (AA) administration has been associated with neuroprotection against oxidative stress, although at high doses it can facilitate oxidation and acts like a proconvulsing drug. The pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model has been widely studied. However, less is known about the effects of sub-convulsive doses of pilocarpine on brain activity in immature animals under normal or deficient nutritional conditions. Herein, we investigated the effects of chronic pilocarpine administration in a sub-convulsive dose, with or without AA, on the excitability-related phenomenon denominated as cortical spreading depression (CSD) and levels of lipid peroxidation-induced malondialdehyde in well-nourished and malnourished rats...
September 16, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Dan Yao, Tian Jing, Ling Niu, Xiuxiu Huang, Yin Wang, Xingqiang Deng, Mingguang Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the severe chronic diseases characterized with amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation and formation of senile-plaque (SP) like structures. Numerous risk factors including trace metals and cholesterol in diet have been identified as potential players for the onset of Aβ aggregation. To further illustrate the effects of copper and cholesterol in AD pathology, we employed an AD model mouse strain (Tg2567) and examined the histological and biochemical changes in the mouse brains and blood...
September 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ting-Ting Zhuang, Chuan Pan, Jing-Jing Chen, Fei Han, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Hui Xu, Ya-Ping Lu
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have found that persistent hypoxia caused by chronic asthma, especially during childhood, affects the development and function of the brain, but the mechanism is unclear. In the present study, BDNF and its signal pathway was investigated in mediating chronic asthma induced-neuronal changes that lead to behavior alterations. METHODS: The chronic asthma model was induced by sensitization with ovalbumin for more than 9 weeks in immature mice...
September 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Hiroki Imbe, Akihisa Kimura
Psychophysical stresses frequently increase sensitivity and response to pain, which is termed stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). However, the mechanism remains unknown. The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and locus coeruleus (LC) are core elements of the descending pain modulatory system, which modulate nociceptive transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. In the present study we examined the acetylation of histone H3 in the RVM and LC after repeated restraint stress for 3 weeks to clarify changes in the descending pain modulatory system in the rat with SIH...
September 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Chang Xu, Jiao-Jiao Niu, Jun-Fei Zhou, Yin-Sheng Wei
Sevoflurane is an experimental potent yet volatile anesthesia agent characterized by a low blood/gas partition coefficient. However, exposure to sevoflurane in neonatal mice has been speculated to result in learning deficits and abnormal social behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sevoflurane and miR-96, in an attempt to identify the means by which it mediates IGF1R to influence the cognitive dysfunction (CD) in neonatal rats. Relationship between differentially expressed miRNAs and sevoflurane concentration was identified...
September 11, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Anton M Lakstygal, Murilo S de Abreu, Allan V Kalueff
Epigenetic regulation has become a key focus of neuroscience and biopsychiatry, implicating DNA methylation, histone modification and other epigenetic mechanisms in various CNS disorders. Animal (experimental) models are a useful tool for epigenetic studies. Although most such research has been performed in rodents, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as a new promising model organism in neuroscience. These fish are particularly suitable for genetic and epigenetic studies due to their fully sequenced genome, easiness of genetic analyses and high physiological and genetic homology with humans...
September 1, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Wei-Shu Xue, Nan Wang, Ning-Yao Wang, Yue-Fen Ying, Guo-Hui Xu
This study is designed to investigate the function of the miR-145 in the protection of neural stem cells (NSCs) through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke rat. In our study, rat NSCs were selected and cultured in complete medium. The light microscopy was used to observe the morphology of NSCs at different times. The quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the miR-145 and other related mRNAs of the MARK pathway...
September 1, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Lang Zhang, Rahul Previn, Liang Lu, Ri-Fang Liao, Yi Jin, Ri-Kang Wang
Depression is one of the foremost psychological illness which is closely leagued with inflammation. Crocin is a natural product that exhibits both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. However, little is known about anti-inflammatory mechanisms of crocin on LPS-induced anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. The objective of this study is emphasized on neuroprotective role of crocin against LPS-induced anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in mice. It is observed that crocin inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and ROS in BV-2 microglial cells...
September 1, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ling Lin, Meizhen Yan, Bing Wu, Renxi Lin, Zhihong Zheng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the mammalian Mg2+ transporter solute carrier family 41, member 1 (SLC41A1) in the striatum (STR) of a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model, and its response to magnesium before the degenerative process commenced. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A unilateral parkinsonian rat model was induced by injection of 6-OHDA into the right medial forebrain bundle. Some rats received MgSO4 (90 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) for 7 or 14 days starting from the day following the 6-OHDA injection...
August 30, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Sheikh F Ahmad, Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Saleh A Bakheet, Musaad A Alshammari, Sabry M Attia
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an extremely predominant neurodevelopmental disorder expressed as impairment in reciprocal social interaction along with repetitive, restricted, and stereotyped behaviors. The protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin AG126 (AG126), regulates the expression of several genes that play an important role in the development of neuroinflammatory disorders. Here, we investigate the possible effects of AG126 (5 mg/kg daily through intraperitoneal injection) on self-grooming, marble burying, and hot plate test results in BTBR T + Itpr3tf/J mice (BTBR is a model of autism)...
August 30, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Athanase Millogo, Alfred Kongnyu Njamnshi, Mesu'a Kabwa-PierreLuabeya
Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem and the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this paper, the authors review the epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, as well as the non-specific clinical manifestations which render clinical diagnosis challenging especially in the sub-Saharan African context. Special attention is given to the association of epilepsy and neurocysticercosis, the former being the most common symptom of the later, and the role of the later in epileptogenesis is discussed...
August 28, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Limin Guan, Hu Qiao, Nan Wang, Xiao Luo, Jianqun Yan
The CeA is a critical region in regulating sodium intake, and interestingly, purinergic receptors reportedly related to fluid balance, are also expressed in CeA. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether the purinergic mechanisms of CeA were involved in regulating sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had cannulas implanted bilaterally into the CeA and were sodium depleted with furosemide (20 mg/kg) plus 24 h-sodium deficient food fed. Bilateral injections of the P2X purinergic agonist, α,β-methylene ATP (1...
August 28, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Hossein Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar, Fariba Khodagholi, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Abbas Haghparast
Brain reward and motivation circuit begin from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that its dopaminergic terminals project to various regions of the brain including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This reward circuit is influenced by drugs of abuse such as morphine and cannabinoid. The present study tried to investigate the role of the intra-accumbal CB1 receptor in the c-fos level and pCREB/CREB ratio in the NAc and the VTA during reinstatement phase of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) by western blotting...
August 28, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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