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Brain Research Bulletin

Sally Barlow, Briana Fahey, Kimberley J Smith, Johannes Passecker, Andrea Della-Chiesa, Vincent Hok, Jennifer S Day, Charlotte K Callaghan, Shane M O'Mara
Patients receiving cytokine immunotherapy with IFN-α frequently present with neuropsychiatric consequences and cognitive impairments, including a profound depressive-like symptomatology. While the neurobiological substrates of the dysfunction that leads to adverse events in IFN-α-treated patients remains ill-defined, dysfunctions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are strong possibilities. To date, hippocampal deficits have been well-characterised; there does however remain a lack of insight into the nature of prefrontal participation...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Hatice Kumru, Jesus Benito-Penalva, Markus Kofler, Joan Vidal
BACKGROUND: GABA-ergic neurons are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, including the spinal cord which is important for the transmission of pain impulses to the brain. Here we hypothesized that intrathecal baclofen (ITB) which is a GABA analogue might exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain, which could be related to subtypes of pain in spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: SCI patients with a cervical or thoracic lesion and neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either a single ITB bolus or placebo...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Nafiseh Mirzaei Damabi, Gholam Reza Namvar, Fahimeh Yeganeh, Masoumeh Hatam
The lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) is a pontine area involved in cardiovascular chemoreflex. This study was performed to find the effects of reversible synaptic blockade of the LPBN on the chemoreflex responses, and to find the roles of GABAA receptor and α2 -adenoreceptor (α2 -AR) in chemoreflex. It also aimed to seek possible interaction between GABA and noradrenergic systems of the LPBN in urethane-anesthetized male rats. Cardiovascular chemoreflex was activated by intravenous injection of potassium cyanide (KCN, 80 μg/kg)...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Guang Yang, Ning Wang, Sai Wang Seto, Dennis Chang, Huazheng Liang
The present study aimed to test whether Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) protects the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR autophagy signaling pathway. Primary rat BMECs were cultured and identified by the expression of factor VIII-related antigen before being exposed to OGD/R to imitate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage in vitro. The protective effect of HSYA was evaluated by assessing (1) cellular morphologic and ultrastructural changes; (2) cell viability and cytotoxicity; (3) transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of monolayer BMECs; (4) cell apoptosis; (5) fluorescence intensity of LC3B; (6) LC3 mRNA expression; (7) protein expressions of LC3, Beclin-1, Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), phospho-Akt (p-Akt), Akt, phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR) and mTOR...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Sajwan-Khatri Mamta, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent trophic factor that preferentially binds to GDNF family receptor α-1 (GFRα-1) by regulating dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain. Present study aimed to evaluate the significance of GFRα-1 expression during early brain development in catfish. Initially, the full-length cDNA of GFRα-1 was cloned from adult brain which showed high homology with other vertebrate counterparts. Quantitative PCR analysis of tissue distribution revealed ubiquitous expression of GFRα-1 in the tissues analyzed with high levels in female brain and ovary...
May 11, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ming Xu, Xiaoxia Liu, Guanghai Mei, Junjie Zhang, Weixing Wang, Hongzhi Xu
PURPOSE: Aberrant expression of angiogenic factors has been anecdotally documented in brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) nidus vessels; however, no data is available on the effect of radiosurgery on the levels of angiogenic factors in AVM patients. We sought to determine the plasma contents of VEGF, TGF-β, Ang-2 and bFGF in 28 brain AVM patients at baseline and post radiosurgery and further analyzed the relationship between plasma contents of these angiogenic factors with clinicopathologic variables of these patients...
May 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Javad Mahmoudi, Gisou Mohaddes, Marjan Erfani, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Pouran Karimi, Mojgan Rajabi, Siamak Reyhani-Rad, Fereshteh Farajdokht
Chronic migraine dramatically affects the quality of life in the migraineurs. This study examined the effect of chronic cerebrolysin (CBL) treatment on the migraine-associated symptoms in a rat model of migraine. Experiments were carried out on 8 weeks, male Wistar rats. Chronic migraine was modeled by injection (10 mg/kg, i.p) of nitroglycerin (NTG) on days 3, 5, 7, and 9. CBL (2.5 and 5 ml/kg, i.p.) was injected every day for 10 days. Mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds of the hind paw were examined by von Frey hairs and hot plate, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ying Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Jingxu Zhai, Weisong Duan, Shuo Sun, Hongying Cui, Xuexiao Chen, Jianwen Ji, Yaling Liu
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to paralysis and death within 3-5 years. Although the vast majority studies focus on the vulnerable neurons, growing evidences showed that the non-neuronal cells contribute to pathogenesis and disease progression. Here, we showed that intrathecal injection of scAAV9-VEGF at 60 days of age could prolong the lifespan of ALS mice. VEGF treatment significantly reduced the number of microglia and inhibited the neuroinflammatory response in CNS...
May 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Adam Broncel, Renata Bocian, Paulina Kłos-Wojtczak, Jan Konopacki
Previously, we have demonstrated that hippocampal (HPC) theta rhythm can be produced, depending on current intensity, directly during vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) or with a time delay following stimulation. This suggests that theta EEG pattern can also be used as a bio-indicator of the efficiency of VNS. In the present study, we focused on three specific, technical issues related to the stimulation procedure of the vagal nerve: i/does the type of the electrode used for VNS and the technique of its implantation affect the parameters of the HPC theta rhythm? ii/does the type of electrode used determine the current intensity threshold of VNS-induced HPC theta? iii/is the repeatability of the VNS effect determined by the type of electrode used? We demonstrated that a platinum-iridium cuff electrode offers some important advantages over a tungsten electrode...
May 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Xiang Tang, Feng Cai, Dong-Xue Ding, Lu-Lu Zhang, Xiu-Ying Cai, Qi Fang
The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation time constants, T1 and T2, are sensitive to changes in brain tissue microstructure integrity. Quantitative T1 and T2 relaxation times have been proposed to serve as non-invasive biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which alterations are believed to not only reflect AD-related neuropathology but also cognitive impairment. In this review, we summarize the applications and key findings of MRI techniques in the context of both AD subjects and AD transgenic mouse models...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Manzumeh-Shamsi Meymandi, Zahra Soltani, Gholamreza Sepehri, Sedigheh Amiresmaili, Fatemeh Farahani, Mohammadmehdi Moeini Aghtaei
Brain edema and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) are among the main causes of neurological disturbance and mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since pregabalin neuroprotective effects have been shown, this study was performed to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effects of pregabalin in experimental TBI of male rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sham, vehicle, pregabalin 30 mg/kg and pregabalin 60 mg/kg. TBI was induced in vehicle and pregabalin groups by Marmarou method...
May 3, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Sha-Sha Wang, Zhao Zhang, Tian-Bi Zhu, Shi-Feng Chu, Wen-Bin He, Nai-Hong Chen
Myelin is a membrane wrapped around the axon of the nerve cell, which is composed of the mature oligodendrocytes. The role of myelin is to insulate and prevent the nerve electrical impulses from the axon of the neurons to the axons of the other neurons, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Minor changes in myelin thickness could lead to substantial changes in conduction speed and may thus alter neural circuit function. Demyelination is the myelin damage, which characterized by the loss of nerve sheath and the relative fatigue of the neuronal sheath and axon...
May 3, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Elisaveta E Genrikhs, Dmitriy N Voronkov, Marina R Kapkaeva, Tatyana A Gudasheva, Yuliya A Glibka, Nickolay K Isaev, Elena V Stelmashook
The delayed protective effect of GK-2, a dipeptide mimetic of Nerve Growth Factor, was investigated on the model of focal one-sided traumatic brain injury (TBI) of the sensorimotor cortex region on the 180th day after the injury. TBI caused a reliably disruption of the functions of the limbs contralateral to injury focus. The intraperitoneal administration of GK-2 (1 mg/kg) from 1st to 4th and from 7th to 10th days after TBI reduced the impairment of the motor functions of the limbs. This therapeutic effect significant manifested itself from the 7th day and continued until the end of the experiment - on the 180th day after TBI...
May 3, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Mohamed Ammari, Haifa Othman, Azhar Hajri, Mohsen Sakly, Hafedh Abdelmelek
Pistacia lentiscus L. is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the neuroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus oil (PLo) of has not been reported. The present study was designed to examine the neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects of PLo aigainst lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into three groups...
April 28, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Parastoo Mardani, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Alireza Komaki, Amir Shojaei, Samaneh Dehghan, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh
INTRODUCTION: The signaling pathways involved in the antiepileptogenic effect of low frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) have not been fully understood. In the present study the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade was investigated in mediating the inhibitory effects of LFS on kindled seizures. METHODS: Animals received kindling stimulations for seven days (the mean number of stimulation days for achieving stage 5 seizure) according to semi-rapid perforant path kindling protocol (12 stimulations per day at 10 min intervals)...
April 26, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Mehlika Panpallı Ateş, Halil Can Alaydın, Bülent Cengiz
This study was designed to investigate whether the cerebellum has an inhibitory effect on motor cortical excitability. Sixteen healthy adults (age range, 25-50 years, five female) participated in the study. Anodal cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (a-cTDCS) was used to modulate cerebellar excitability. A-cTDCS was given for 20 min at 1 mA intensity. The automatic threshold tracking method was used to investigate cortical excitability. Resting motor threshold (RMT), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), short interval intracortical facilitation (SICF), intracortical facilitation (ICF), and the input output curve (I-O curve) were motor cortical excitability parameters...
April 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Li Tao, Di Li, Huixiang Liu, Feng Jiang, Yitian Xu, Gang Chen, Ying Cao, Rong Gao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a complex sequence of inflammatory responses that contribute to secondary injury. Metformin, a first-line drug used to treat type 2 diabetes, is reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activity on diseases associated with the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study is to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of metformin on acute brain injury after TBI and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: sham group, TBI group, TBI + saline (NS) group and TBI + metformin group...
April 23, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Kirill Smirnov, Daria Tsvetaeva, Evgenia Sitnikova
WAG/Rij rats are genetically predisposed to absence epilepsy. Maternal behavior in WAG/Rij female rats is known to differ from that in non-epileptic females. We hypothesize that (1) mother's behavior may be changed as response to changes in pup's conditions; (2) sensory deprivation at the neonatal age affect learning and behavior in adulthood. All whiskers in WAG/Rij rat pups were trimmed daily during PN1-PN8. Maternal behavior was examined during the same period. It was found that in the control group, WAG/Rij females often demonstrated abnormally long (>1 min) repetitive purposeless stereotypical actions that were roughly classified as compulsive-like behavior...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Chae-Seok Lim, Jae-Ick Kim, Chuljung Kwak, Jaehyun Lee, Eun Hae Jang, Jihae Oh, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Memory reconsolidation is the process by which previously consolidated memories reenter a labile state through reactivation of the memory trace and are actively consolidated through de novo protein synthesis. Although extensive studies have shown that β-adrenergic signaling plays a critical role in the restabilization of reactivated memory, its role in the destabilization of long-term memory is not well-studied. In this study, we found that membrane excitability increased in hippocampal CA1 neurons immediately after the retrieval of contextual fear memory...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Cailing Lu, Zhijuan Meng, Yiyuan He, Deqiang Xiao, Haiqing Cai, Yilu Xu, Xianghong Liu, Xinhang Wang, Laiming Mo, Ziwei Liang, Xuejing Wei, Qingqing Ao, Boying Liang, Xiyi Li, Shen Tang, Songchao Guo
Glutamate excitotoxicity, characterized as excessive glutamate stress, is considered to be involved in cerebral ischaemia, brain trauma, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Glutamate homeostasis disruption was highlighted in Mn neurotoxicity caused by high levels of Mn. Astrocytes, accounting for approximately 50% of the neuronal cells in the central nervous system and maintain glutamate homeostasis, are sensitive to neurotoxicity induced by Mn exposure. Astrocytes are tightly coupled with gap junctions (GJ), which are comprised of connexins, mainly connexin43 (Cx43)...
April 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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