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Brain Research Bulletin

Fernanda Severo Sabedra Sousa, Paloma Taborda Birmann, Rodolfo Baldinotti, Mariana G Fronza, Renata Balaguez, Diego Alves, César Augusto Brüning, Lucielli Savegnago
Chronic pain and depressive disorders have been estimated to co-occur in up to 80% of patients and traditional antidepressants and analgesics have shown limited clinical efficacy. α- (phenylselanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) is an organic selenium compound which has already demonstrated antioxidant, antidepressant and antinociceptive activities in animal models, without showing acute toxicity. In view of develop more effective treatments to comorbid pain and depression, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavioral and biochemical effects of PSAP on reserpine induced pain-depression dyad model in mice as well to analyze the interaction of PSAP with specific targets by molecular docking analysis...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Zeyu Deng, Li Congcong, Liu Chenglong, Du Errong, Xu Changshui
Neuropathic pain is defined as a type of chronic pathological pain that often results from nerve damage or disease. The purinergic receptor P2X4 is mainly expressed on the cell surface of spinal dorsal horn microglia and is known to be involved in neuropathic pain. Catestatin (CST) is an endogenous peptide derived from chromogranin A. Here, we attempted to identify how CST function in neuropathic pain. Rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) was used and experimental results indicated that mechanical and thermal pain sensitivities were significantly increased in CCI rats...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Chao-Wei Wang, Lin-Lin Su, Qiu-Ju Hua, Ying He, Yan-Nan Fan, Ting-Ting Xi, Bin Yuan, Yan-Xia Liu, Si-Bei Ji
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of aspirin reaction units (ARU) in a 3-month follow-up study in a cohort of Chinese patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. METHODS: Prospective single-center survey of acute ischemic stroke patients receiving aspirin therapy. Two hundred and seventy-five Chinese patients with first-ever ischemic stroke who previously received aspirin therapy were enrolled. ARU was measured using the VerifyNow system. A cutoff of 550 ARU was used to determine the presence of aspirin resistance (AR)...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Nan Zhang, Hongyi Zhu, Song Han, Leiming Sui, Junfa Li
Conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)γ and synapsin Ia/b have been implicated in the development of ischemic stroke, but their relationships and functions are unclear. In the present study, the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced ischemic insult in primary cultured cortical neurons in vitro and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke model in vivo were used to elucidate the function of cPKCγ and its modulation on synapsin Ia/b phosphorylation in ischemic stroke. We found that cPKCγ knockout significantly increased the infarct volume of mice after 1 h MCAO/72 h reperfusion by using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Chiara Tesoriero, Federico Del Gallo, Marina Bentivoglio
Sleep is frequently altered in systemic infections as a component of sickness behavior in response to inflammation. Sleepiness in sickness behavior has been extensively investigated. Much less attention has instead been devoted to sleep and wake alterations in brain infections. Most of these, as other neuroinfections, are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The present overview highlights the importance of this topic from both the clinical and pathogenetic points of view. Vigilance states and their regulation are first summarized, emphasizing that key nodes in this distributed brain system can be targeted by neuroinflammatory signaling...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Tahseen J Karim, Ceren Aksel, Natasha Kharas, Nachum Dafny
Methylphenidate (MPD) is the most commonly prescribed psychostimulant for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPD acts on brain structures of the reward/motivation system, including the caudate nucleus (CN). The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic dose response effects of MPD on CN neurons in freely behaving adolescent rats. Semi-microelectrodes were implanted into the CN of one hundred and sixty-three adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats. On experimental day one (ED1), each rat was injected with 0...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Kyu-Sun Choi, Han-Jun Kim, Sun Hee Do, Se Jin Hwang, Hyeong-Joong Yi
OBJECTIVE: Hydrogen inhalation has been found to be neuroprotective and anti-oxidative in several brain injury models. Building on these studies, we investigated potential neuroprotective effects of hydrogen inhalation in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), focusing on apoptosis and inflammation. METHODS: Forty-five 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per each group): a sham group, ICH group, and ICH + hydrogen group...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Aryo Zare, Sandra Schipper, Wolfgang Stein, Yasin Temel, Gommert A van Koeveringe, Ali Jahanshahi
INTRODUCTION: Many of the currently available therapies for urinary incontinence target the peripheral autonomic system, despite many etiologies residing in the central nervous system. Following previous experiments that determined the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG), to be the main afferent station of bladder sensory signals, we aimed for electrophysiological characterization of vlPAG neurons using single unit recording. METHODS: 15 rats were anesthetized and underwent implantation with electrodes at the dome and the neck of the bladder, to electrically stimulate the detrusor...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Daniel Okitundu, Dieudonne Mumba, Michael J Boivin, Thorkild Tylleskär, Desire Tshala-Katumbay
Epidemics of neurodegenerative diseases putatively caused by food toxins have been reported in the tropics with no clear understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. These diseases include the disease named Konzo that has been well documented in sub-Sahara Africa, mostly among children and women of childbearing age. Outbreaks of Konzo have occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Tanzania, Central African Republic, Angola, Cameroun, and most recently in Zambia. The main clinical picture consists of a symmetrical, permanent and irreversible spastic paraparesis (motor neuron disease) with no signs of sensory or genitourinary impairments...
July 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Bang-Bon Koo, Samantha Calderazzo, Bethany G E Bowley, Alekha Kolli, Mark B Moss, Douglas L Rosene, Tara L Moore
Curcumin has recently been shown to be a potential treatment for slowing or ameloriating cognitive decline during aging in our nonhuman primate model of normal aging. In these same monkeys, we studied for the first time the neurological impacts of long-term curcumin treatments using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixteen rhesus monkeys received curcumin or a vehicle control for 14-18 months. We applied a combination of structural and diffusion MRI to determine whether the curcumin resulted in structural or functional changes in focal regions of the brain...
July 4, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Peng Huang, Tingting Gao, Zhaoyang Dong, Chuying Zhou, Yuling Lai, Ting Pan, Yuan Liu, Xiaoshan Zhao, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Ge Wen, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Depression is a heterogeneous disorder, but the exact neuronal mechanisms causing the disease have not yet been discovered. METHODS/MATERIALS: We have established a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model to explore the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 30, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Rui Lan, Ji-Tao Wu, Tao Wu, Yun-Zhi Ma, Bao-Qi Wang, Hai-Zhong Zheng, Ya-Na Li, Yan Wang, Chun-Qing Gu, Yong Zhang
This study examined the course of mitophagy following cerebral ischemia with reperfusion and the role of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin/p62 signalling pathway. The middle cerebral artery of male Sprague-Dawley rats was occluded for 90 min and was followed by different time-points of reperfusion. Cerebral infarct areas were detected by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, while brain damage was observed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of LC3, Beclin1 and LAMP-1 were estimated by western blots...
June 28, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Pariya Edalat, Mohadeseh Kavianpour, Shahram Zarrabian, Abbas Haghparast
Hippocampus (HIP) is an essential brain site to study reward-related learning tasks, such as conditioning place preference (CPP) that can measure the preference for environmental stimuli related to reward. Furthermore, orexin neurons, situated exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and link the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse in the LH and the CA1 region of the HIP. Therefore, in this study adult male rats were conditioned with morphine using a CPP paradigm. After the eighth day of the extinction period, on the reinstatement day, orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists were administered bilaterally into the CA1 region prior to acute stress...
June 28, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Yusong Zhang, Jian Fang, Wen Feng, Qi Sun, Jian Xu, Qingxin Xia
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/GLP-1 receptor(R) signaling in the regulation of seizure susceptibility and to explore the potential mechanism in rats. METHODS: Hyperthermia-induced seizures in SD rats were generated using hot bath methods, and seizure severity was measured according to Racine scores and electroencephalogram (EEG). Protein levels of GLP-1 and GLP-1R in the brain tissues of rats were evaluated through ELISA, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry to explore the possible roles of each in FS...
June 27, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Judit Málly, Trevor W Stone, Gabriella Sinkó, Noémi Geisz, Elek Dinya
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may influence the progression of PD compared with levodopa. The long term mind modification effect of repeated rTMS and tDCS is not known, nor are the predictors for the effect of NBS. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that the regularly repeated rTMS would decrease the development of PD. Later, the treatment protocol was completed with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), supposing that there is an add-on effect...
June 26, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Anna Gorzkiewicz, Janusz Szemraj
The endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling system is one of the most extensive of the mammalian brain. Despite the involvement of only few specific ligands and receptors, the system encompasses a vast diversity of triggered mechanisms and driven effects. It mediates a wide range of phenomena, including the regulation of transmitter release, neural excitability, synaptic plasticity, impulse spread, long-term neuronal potentiation, neurogenesis, cell death, lineage segregation, cell migration, inflammation, oxidative stress, nociception and the sleep cycle...
June 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Aline A Mourão, Aryanne B Soares de Mello, Marina C Dos Santos Moreira, Karla L Rodrigues, Carlos H Xavier, Rodrigo M Gomes, André H Freiria-Oliveira, Graziela T Blanch, Gustavo R Pedrino
The crucial role of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) in the maintenance of hydroelectrolytic balance and autonomic regulation have been highlighted. Recently, the participation of the MnPO in the control of sympathetic nerve activity was demonstrated in essential hypertension model. However, peculiarities on the neurochemical changes underlying the differential role of MnPO during hypertension remain to be clarified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the main excitatory pathways that modulate MnPO neurons in hypertensive rats...
June 23, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Béatrice Koba Bora, Ana Luiza Ramos-Crawford, Alla Sikorskii, Michael Joseph Boivin, Didier Malamba Lez, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Abdon Mukalay Wa Mukalay, Daniel Okitundu Luwa, Desiré Tshala-Katumbay
The impact of concurrent exposure to neurotoxic metals is a significant threat to brain function, mostly in contexts of multiple exposures as seen in the developing world. Ninety-five children (46 boys and 49 girls, 6 to 11-year old) from Congo-Kinshasa were assessed for cognition using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (2nd edition) and exposure to Cr, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, As, Cd, Se, Hg, Fe, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) in serum and urine collections. Concentrations of elements were all above normal ranges except for Cd, Se and Hg...
June 23, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Min Li, Yuetao Wen, Rongrong Zhang, Fei Xie, Gang Zhang, Xinyue Qin
BACKGROUND: Repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) is implicated in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but its mechanisms are still largely unknown. This work focused on the effects of RGMa on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after focal cerebral I/R injury. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion (I/R), MCAO/reperfusion administered recombinant adenovirus expressing sh-con (I/R + sh-con) and MCAO/reperfusion administered recombinant adenovirus expressing sh-RGMa (I/R + sh-RGMa) groups...
June 20, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Andrea Giacomini, Fiorenza Stagni, Marco Emili, Sandra Guidi, Maria Elisa Salvalai, Mariagrazia Grilli, Veronica Vidal-Sanchez, Carmen Martinez-Cué, Renata Bartesaghi
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition due to triplication of Chromosome 21, are characterized by intellectual disability that worsens with age. Since impairment of neurogenesis and dendritic maturation are very likely key determinants of intellectual disability in DS, interventions targeted to these defects may translate into a behavioral benefit. While most of the neurogenesis enhancers tested so far in DS mouse models may pose some caveats due to possible side effects, substances naturally present in the human diet may be regarded as therapeutic tools with a high translational impact...
June 20, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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