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Brain Research Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214547/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-predisposes-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Francesca Scicchitano, Annalidia Donato, Edoardo Ferlazzo, Sara Gasparini, Vittoria Cianci, Chiara Mignogna, Giuseppe Donato, Rita Citraro, Umberto Aguglia, Giovambattista De Sarro
The link between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and epilepsy has been poorly investigated. Some reports suggest that CSVD may predispose to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Aim of this study was to evaluate whether spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an established model of systemic hypertension and CSVD, have a propensity to develop TLE more than generalized seizures. To this aim, amygdala kindling, as a model of TLE, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling, as a model of generalized seizures, have been used to ascertain whether SHRs are more prone to TLE as compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212849/hydrogen-sulfide-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-alcohol-mediated-neurotoxicity
#2
REVIEW
Akash K George, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Yuankun Zhai, Neetu Tyagi
Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212850/human-astrocytes-in-the-diseased-brain
#3
Elena Dossi, Flora Vasile, Nathalie Rouach
Astrocytes are key active elements of the brain that contribute to information processing. They not only provide neurons with metabolic and structural support, but also regulate neurogenesis and brain wiring. Furthermore, astrocytes modulate synaptic activity and plasticity in part by controlling the extracellular space volume, as well as ion and neurotransmitter homeostasis. These findings, together with the discovery that human astrocytes display contrasting characteristics with their rodent counterparts, point to a role for astrocytes in higher cognitive functions...
February 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189516/from-in-silico-astrocyte-cell-models-to-neuron-astrocyte-network-models-a-review
#4
Franziska Oschmann, Hugues Berry, Klaus Obermayer, Kerstin Lenk
The idea that astrocytes may be active partners in synaptic information processing has recently emerged from abundant experimental reports. Because of their spatial proximity to neurons and their bidirectional communication with them, astrocytes are now considered as an important third element of the synapse. Astrocytes integrate and process synaptic information and by doing so generate cytosolic calcium signals that are believed to reflect neuronal transmitter release. Moreover, they regulate neuronal information transmission by releasing gliotransmitters into the synaptic cleft affecting both pre- and postsynaptic receptors...
February 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189515/erythropoietin-rescues-primary-rat-cortical-neurons-from-pyroptosis-and-apoptosis-via-erk1-2-nrf2-bach1-signal-pathway
#5
Rui Li, Li-Min Zhang, Wen-Bo Sun
The most commonly used inhalation anesthetics, sevoflurane, is reported to be a risk for development of learning disability. Erythropoietin (EPO) administration might be involved an effective therapy for sevoflurane neurotoxicity. EPO-EPO receptor-extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) signal pathway plays a pivotal role in the neuroprotective effect. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) ratio altering by Erk1/2 could ameliorate oxidative stress occurred in human macrophages...
February 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167133/nmda-receptor-adjusted-co-administration-of-ecstasy-and-cannabinoid-receptor-1-agonist-in-the-amygdala-via-stimulation-of-bdnf-trk-b-creb-pathway-in-adult-male-rats
#6
Ghorbangol Ashabi, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Solmaz Khalifeh, Laleh Elhampour, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Consumption of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB-1) agonist such as cannabis is widely taken in 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy users; it has been hypothesized that co-consumption of CB-1 agonist might protect neurons against MDMA toxicity. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors regulate neuronal plasticity and firing rate in the brain through Tyrosine-kinase B (Trk-B) activation. The molecular and electrophysiological association among NMDA and MDMA/Arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA, a selective CB-1 receptor agonist) co-consumption was not well-known...
February 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163071/gaba-and-gaba-receptors-alterations-in-the-primary-visual-cortex-of-concave-lens-induced-myopic-model
#7
Wen Zhao, Ai-Ling Bi, Chao-Li Xu, Xiang Ye, Mei-Qing Chen, Xin-Ting Wang, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Jun-Guo Guo, Wen-Jun Jiang, Jin Zhang, Hong-Sheng Bi
Until recently most researches on myopia mechanisms have mainly been focused on the eye ball and few investigations were explored on the upper visual pathway, such as the visual cortex. The roles of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the retinal and in the upper visual pathway are inter-correlated. As the retinal glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GABA, and the mRNA levels of GABA receptors increased during the concave lens induced myopia formation, however, whether GABA alterations also occurred in the visual cortex during the concave lens induction is still unknown...
February 2, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161194/bumetanide-reduce-the-seizure-susceptibility-induced-by-pentylenetetrazol-via-inhibition-of-aberrant-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-neonatal-rats-after-hypoxia-ischemia
#8
Jiang-Jian Hu, Xing-Liang Yang, Wen-Di Luo, Song Han, Jun Yin, Wan-Hong Liu, Xiao-Hua He, Bi-Wen Peng
Hypoxia-ischemia brain damage (HIBD) is one of prevalent causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Our data demonstrated that hypoxia-ischemia (HI) induced Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) increasing in hippocampus. Previous studies demonstrated that NKCC1 regulates various stages of neurogenesis. In this study, we studied the role of increased NKCC1 in regulating of HI-induced neurogenesis. HIBD model was established in 7days old Sprague-Dawley rat pup, and the expression of NKCC1 was detected by western blot and qPCR...
February 2, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161197/icariin-enhances-remyelination-process-after-acute-demyelination-induced-by-cuprizone-exposure
#9
Yifan Zhang, Linlin Yin, Na Zheng, Li Zhang, Jianghong Liu, Weixiong Liang, Qi Wang
Pathology are still progressive and cumulative in the remission course of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), thus drug treatment during the remission period may play a great role for the regeneration of the myelin sheath. C57BL/6 mice were fed with cuprizone (CPZ, 0.2% w/w) for 5 weeks to induce acute demyelination and oligodendrocytes degeneration, after which CPZ was withdrawn to allow recovery. Icariin (ICA, 6.25, 12.5 and 25mg/kg/day), vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution) or water was administrated orally to mice for 1 week after CPZ withdrawal...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161196/activation-of-cannabinoid-receptors-elicits-antidepressant-like-effects-in-a-mouse-model-of-social-isolation-stress
#10
Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Hossein Amini-Khoei, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Shayan Amiri, Maria Ghesmati, Mazyar Zahir, Hamed Shafaroodi, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Social isolation stress (SIS) paradigm is a chronic stress procedure able to induce profound behavioral and neurochemical changes in rodents and evokes depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Recent studies demonstrated that the cannabinoid system plays a key role in behavioral abnormalities such as depression through different pathways; however, there is no evidence showing a relation between SIS and the cannabinoid system. This study investigated the role of the cannabinoid system in depressive-like behavior and anxiety-like behavior of IC animals...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161195/activation-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-by-iptakalim-normalizes-stress-induced-hpa-axis-disorder-and-depressive-behaviour-by-alleviating-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-mouse-hypothalamus
#11
Xiao-Jie Zhao, Zhan Zhao, Dan-Dan Yang, Lu-Lu Cao, Ling Zhang, Juan Ji, Jun Gu, Ji-Ye Huang, Xiu-Lan Sun
Stress-induced disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly implicated in incidence of mood disorders. A heightened neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress play a fundamental role in the dysfunction of the HPA axis. We have previously demonstrated that iptakalim (Ipt), a new ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, could prevent oxidative injury and neuroinflammation against multiple stimuli-induced brain injury. The present study was to demonstrate the impacts of Ipt in stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behavior...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161193/preventive-treatment-of-astaxanthin-provides-neuroprotection-through-suppression-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-activation-of-antioxidant-defense-pathway-after-stroke-in-rats
#12
Lei Pan, Dong-Dong Qin, Ying Zhou, Xiu-Fang Li, Qing-Jia Wan, Zheng-Bo Wang, Xin-Tian Hu, Yong Yin, Le-Hua Yu
Astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant carotenoid, has been shown to reduce cerebral ischemic injury in rodents. However, there have not been any studies specifically addressing whether preventive administration of astaxanthin can protect against cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether pretreatment of astaxanthin can protect against ischemic injuries in the adult rats. The rats were pre-administered intragastrically with astaxanthin for seven days (once a day), and middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed at 1hour after the final administration...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161192/eeg-based-zero-phase-phase-locking-value-plv-and-effects-of-spatial-filtering-during-actual-movement
#13
Wenjuan Jian, Minyou Chen, Dennis J McFarland
Phase-locking value (PLV) is a well-known feature in sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) based BCI. Zero-phase PLV has not been explored because it is generally regarded as the result of volume conduction. Because spatial filters are often used to enhance the amplitude (square root of band power (BP)) feature and attenuate volume conduction, they are frequently applied as pre-processing methods when computing PLV. However, the effects of spatial filtering on PLV are ambiguous. Therefore, this article aims to explore whether zero-phase PLV is meaningful and how this is influenced by spatial filtering...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159699/drugs-targeting-intermediate-filaments-can-improve-neurosupportive-properties-of-astrocytes
#14
Yolanda de Pablo, Meng Chen, Elin Möllerström, Marcela Pekna, Milos Pekny
In response to central nervous system (CNS) injury, astrocytes upregulate intermediate filament (nanofilament) proteins GFAP and vimentin. Whereas the intermediate filament upregulation in astrocytes is important for neuroprotection in the acute phase of injury, it might inhibit the regenerative processes later on. Thus, timely modulation of the astrocyte intermediate filaments was proposed as a strategy to promote brain repair. We used clomipramine, epoxomicin and withaferin A, drugs reported to decrease the expression of GFAP, and assessed their effect on neurosupportive properties and resilience of astrocytes to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)...
January 31, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153540/involvement-of-peripheral-p2y1-receptors-and-potential-interaction-with-il-1-receptors-in-il-1%C3%AE-induced-thermal-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#15
Soon-Gu Kwon, Dae-Hyun Roh, Seo-Yeon Yoon, Sheu-Ran Choi, Hoon-Seong Choi, Ji-Young Moon, Suk-Yun Kang, Alvin J Beitz, Jang-Hern Lee
Although interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypical pro-inflammatory cytokine, the specific mechanisms underlying the role of its cognate receptor, the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) in peripheral sensitization remain to be investigated. Since emerging evidence in the literature indicates that IL-1β can modulate membrane-bound receptors, we decided to examine the involvement of P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) in IL-1β induced pain and the potential interaction of P2Y1Rs and IL-1Rs in both naïve and carrageenan injected rats...
January 30, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122264/the-structural-and-functional-evidence-for-vesicular-release-from-astrocytes-in-situ
#16
Kirsten Bohmbach, Martin K Schwarz, Susanne Schoch, Christian Henneberger
The concept of the tripartite synapse states that bi-directional signalling between perisynaptic astrocyte processes, presynaptic axonal boutons and postsynaptic neuronal structures defines the properties of synaptic information processing. Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular release from astrocytes, as one of the mechanisms of astrocyte-neuron communication, has attracted particular attention but has also been the subject of intense debate. In neurons, regulated vesicular release is a strongly coordinated process. It requires a complex release machinery comprised of many individual components ranging from vesicular neurotransmitter transporters and soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE) proteins to Ca(2+)-sensors and the proteins that spatially and temporally control exocytosis of synaptic vesicles...
January 22, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115195/carnosine-modulates-glutamine-synthetase-expression-in-senescent-astrocytes-exposed-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-recovery
#17
Xiaojie Shi, Bingyu Wang, Yuan Liu, Jingjing Zhang, Yuyan Huang, Pei Cao, Yao Shen, Jianxin Lyu
Carnosine is believed to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia. However, few reports concern its function on senescent astrocytes during cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carnosine on cell damage and glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in D-galactose-induced senescent astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R). The results showed that OGD/R caused massive cell damage and a significant decrease in GS expression both in the young and senescent astrocytes...
January 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111275/concomitant-behavioral-and-pfc-neuronal-activity-recorded-following-dose-response-protocol-of-mpd-in-adult-male-rats
#18
Sidish S Venkataraman, Catherine Claussen, Michael Joseph, Nachum Dafny
The use of methylphenidate (MPD), a commonly prescribed drug to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has steadily increased over the past 25 years. This trend has been accompanied by more MPD abuse by ordinary individuals for its cognitive enhancing effects. Therefore, understanding the effects of MPD on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain area involved in higher cortical processing such as executive function, language, planning, and attention regulation, is of particular importance. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of acute and chronic dose-response characteristics following MPD exposure on both the PFC neuronal population and behavioral activity in freely behaving animals implanted previously with permanent electrodes within the PFC...
January 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111274/possible-involvement-of-the-ca1-gabaergic-system-on-harmaline-induced-memory-consolidation-deficit
#19
Mohammad Nasehi, Naghmeh Saadati, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Activation of the GABAB receptors inhibit learning and memory processes. The current research was designed to examine the role of dorsal hippocampal (CA1) GABAB receptors on harmaline induced memory consolidation deficit in mice. For this purpose, the effects induced by the GABAB antagonist phaclofen and the GABAB agonist baclofen on memory consolidation were assessed by using the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Furthermore, the possible involvement of harmaline on GABAB receptor's effects was also assessed through using the same behavioral procedure...
January 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109794/mir-29a-expressions-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-diagnostic-value-in-patients-with-pediatric-tuberculous-meningitis
#20
Deng Pan, Miao Pan, Yu-Ming Xu
To evaluate the value of miR-29a expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Our study enrolled 112 children with TBM and 130 healthy children, from which PBMC and CSF were collected. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of miR-29a in PBMC and CSF, and then analyze the diagnostic value. Compared with control group, the miR-29a expressions in PBMC and CSF were increased in TBM children (both P <0...
January 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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