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Applied and Environmental Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006408/impaired-autophagy-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-alters-gut-microbiota-and-host-immune-responses
#1
Lingyu Yang, Chao Liu, Wenjing Zhao, Chuan He, Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Ke Xu, Lu Xiao, Lingxiao Luo, Shuyun Liu, Wei Li, He Meng
Establishing and maintaining beneficial interactions between the host and associated gut microbiota are pivotal requirements for host health. Autophagy is an important catabolic recycling pathway that degrades long-lived proteins and some organelles by lysosome to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although impaired autophagy is thought to be closely correlated with Crohn's disease (CD), the functional role of autophagy in the maintenance of gut microbiota is poorly understood. As autophagy-related 5 ( Atg5 ) is a key gene associated with the extension of the phagophoric membrane in autophagic vesicles, we established a gut-specific Atg5 knockout mouse model, and found that the disruption of autophagic flux in the intenstinal epithelium cells dramatically altered the composition of the gut microbiota and reduced alpha diversity...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006407/single-snp-in-atp-synthase-gene-significantly-improves-environmental-stress-tolerance-of-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#2
Wenjing Lou, Xiaoming Tan, Kuo Song, Shanshan Zhang, Guodong Luan, Cheng Li, Xuefeng Lu
In response to a broad range of habitats and environmental stresses, cyanobacteria have evolved various effective acclimation strategies, which will be helpful for improving the stress tolerances of photosynthetic organisms including higher plants. Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 and PCC 7942 possess genomes that are 99.8% identical but exhibit significant differences in cell growth and stress tolerance. Here, we found that a single amino acid substitution at the α-subunit of Fo F1 ATP synthase (AtpA), C252Y, is the primary contributor to the improved stress tolerance of S...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006406/cobalamin-activity-based-probe-enables-microbial-cell-growth-and-finds-new-cobalamin-protein-interactions-across-domains
#3
Joshua J Rosnow, Sungmin Hwang, Bryan J Killinger, Young-Mo Kim, Ronald J Moore, Stephen R Lindemann, Julie A Maupin-Furlow, Aaron T Wright
Understanding the factors that regulate microbe function and microbial community assembly, function, and fitness is a grand challenge. A critical factor and an important enzyme cofactor and regulator of gene expression is cobalamin (vitamin B12 ). Our knowledge of the roles of vitamin B12 is limited because technologies that enable in situ characterization of microbial metabolism and gene regulation with minimal impact on cell physiology are needed. To meet this need we show that a synthetic probe mimic of B12 supports growth of B12 auxotrophic bacteria and archaea...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006405/cooperative-involvement-of-glycosyltransferases-in-the-transfer-of-aminosugars-in-the-biosynthesis-of-the-macrolactam-sipanmycin-by-streptomyces-sp-cs149
#4
Mónica G Malmierca, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jesús Martín, Fernando Reyes, Carmen Méndez, Carlos Olano, José A Salas
Macrolactams comprise a family of natural compounds with important bioactivities such as antibiotic, antifungal or antiproliferative. Sipanmycins A and B are two novel members of this family with two sugar moieties attached to the aglycon. In the related macrolactam vicenistatin, the sugar moiety has been proved essential for cytotoxicity. In this work, the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of sipanmycins ( sip cluster) in Streptomyces sp. CS149 is described and the steps involved in the glycosylation of the final compounds unraveled...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006404/bacterial-endospores-as-phage-genome-carriers-and-protective-shells
#5
Naiana Gabiatti, Pingfeng Yu, Jacques Mathieu, Grant W Lu, Xifan Wang, Hangjun Zhang, Hugo M Soares, Pedro J J Alvarez
Bacterial endospores can serve as phage genome protection shells against various environmental stresses to enhance microbial control applications. The genomes of polyvalent lytic Bacillus phages PBSC1 and PBSC2, infecting both B. subtilis subsp. subtilis and B. cereus NRS 248, were incorporated into B. subtilis endospores (without integration into the host chromosome). When PBSC1 and PBSC2 were released from germinating endospores, they significantly inhibited the growth of the targeted opportunistic pathogen B...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006403/microbial-community-dynamics-and-assembly-follows-trajectories-of-an-early-spring-diatom-bloom-in-a-semi-enclosed-bay
#6
Huajun Zhang, Kai Wang, Lixin Shen, Heping Chen, Fanrong Hou, Xiaoyan Zhou, Demin Zhang, Xiangyu Zhu
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are serious ecological disasters in coastal areas, significantly influencing biogeochemical cycles driven by bacteria. The shifts in microbial communities during HABs have been widely investigated, yet the assembly mechanism of microbial communities during HABs is poorly understood. Here using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the microbial communities during an early spring diatom bloom, in order to investigate the dynamics of microbial assembly process. Rhodobacteraceae , Flavobacteriaceae, and Microbacteriaceae were the main bacterial families during the bloom...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006402/long-term-colonization-dynamics-of-enterococcus-faecalis-in-implanted-devices-in-research-macaques
#7
Mia T Lieberman, Daria Van Tyne, JoAnn Dzink-Fox, Eric J Ma, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Enterococcus faecalis is a common opportunistic pathogen that colonizes cephalic recording chambers (CRCs) of macaques used in cognitive neuroscience research. We previously characterized 15 E. faecalis strains isolated from macaques at our institution in 2011. The goal of this study was to examine how a 2014 protocol change prohibiting antimicrobials within CRCs affected colonizing E. faecalis strains. We collected 20 E. faecalis isolates from 10 macaques between 2013-2017 for comparison to four previously characterized 2011 isolates with respect to sequence type (ST) distribution, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and changes in genes that might confer a survival advantage...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006401/quorum-sensing-in-pseudomonas-savastanoi-pv-savastanoi-and-erwinia-toletana-role-in-virulence-and-interspecies-interactions-in-the-olive-knot
#8
Eloy Caballo-Ponce, Xianfa Meng, Gordana Uzelac, Nigel Halliday, Miguel Cámara, Danilo Licastro, Daniel Passos da Silva, Cayo Ramos, Vittorio Venturi
The olive-knot disease ( Olea europea L.) is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi (PSV). PSV in the olive-knot undergoes interspecies interactions with the harmless endophyte Erwina toletana (ET); PSV and ET co-localize and form a stable community resulting in a more aggressive disease. PSV and ET produce the same type of the N -acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) signal and they share AHLs in planta. In this work we have further studied the AHL QS systems of PSV and ET in order to determine possible molecular mechanism(s) involved in this bacterial inter-species interaction/cooperation...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006400/heterologous-expression-of-pseudomonas-putida-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-proteins-yields-escherichia-coli-chemotactic-to-aromatic-compounds
#9
Clémence Roggo, Estelle Emilie Clerc, Noushin Hadadi, Nicolas Carraro, Roman Stocker, Jan Roelof van der Meer
Escherichia coli , commonly used in chemotaxis studies, is attracted mostly by amino acids, sugars and peptides. We envisioned modifying chemotaxis specificity of E. coli by expressing heterologous chemoreceptors from Pseudomonas putida enabling attraction either to toluene or benzoate. The mcpT gene encoding the type 40H methyl-accepting chemoreceptor for toluene from Pseudomonas putida MT53 and the pcaY gene for the type 40H receptor for benzoate and related molecules from P. putida F1 were expressed from the trg promoter on a plasmid in motile wild-type E...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006399/diversity-and-proliferation-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-a-clarion-call-for-clinically-effective-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors
#10
Anou M Somboro, John Osei Sekyere, Daniel G Amoako, Sabiha Y Essack, Linda A Bester
The worldwide proliferation of life-threatening metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs)-producing Gram-negative bacteria is a serious concern to public health. MBLs are compromising the therapeutic efficacies of β-lactams, particularly carbapenems, which are last-resort antibiotics indicated for various multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Inhibiting enzymes mediating antibiotic resistance in bacteria is one of the major promising means in overcoming bacterial resistance. Compounds having potential MBLs-inhibitory activity have been reported, but none are currently under clinical trials...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006398/genome-centric-metagenomics-revealed-the-spatial-distribution-and-the-diverse-metabolic-functions-of-lignocellulose-degrading-uncultured-bacteria
#11
Panagiotis G Kougias, Stefano Campanaro, Laura Treu, Panagiotis Tsapekos, Andrea Armani, Irini Angelidaki
The mechanisms by which specific anaerobic microorganisms remain firmly attached to lignocellulosic material allowing them to efficiently decompose the organic matter are far to be elucidated. To circumvent this issue, the microbiomes collected from anaerobic digesters treating pig manure and meadow grass were fractionated to separate the planktonic microbes from those adhered to lignocellulosic substrate. Assembly of shotgun reads followed by binning process recovered 151 population genomes, 80 out of which were completely new and were not previously deposited in any database...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006397/-nitrosospira-cluster-8a-play-a-predominant-role-in-the-nitrification-process-of-a-subtropical-ultisol-under-long-term-inorganic-and-organic-fertilization
#12
Yongxin Lin, Guiping Ye, Jiafa Luo, Hong J Di, Deyan Liu, Jianbo Fan, Weixin Ding
Long-term effects of inorganic and organic fertilization on nitrification activity (NA) and the abundance and community structure of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated in an acidic Ultisol. Seven treatments applied annually for 27 years comprised: no fertilization (control); inorganic NPK fertilizer (N); inorganic NPK fertilizer + lime (CaCO3 ) (NL); inorganic NPK fertilizer + peanut straw (NPS); inorganic NPK fertilizer + rice straw (NRS); inorganic NPK fertilizer + radish (NR); and, inorganic NPK fertilizer + pig manure (NPM)...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006396/thiaminase-i-provides-a-growth-advantage-by-salvaging-precursors-from-environmental-thiamin-and-its-analogs-in-burkholderia-thailandensis
#13
David R Sannino, Clifford E Kraft, Katie A Edwards, Esther R Angert
Thiamin is essential to life, as it serves as a cofactor for enzymes involved in critical carbon transformations. Many bacteria can synthesize thiamin, while thiamin auxotrophs must obtain it or its precursors from the environment. Thiaminases degrade thiamin by catalyzing the base-exchange substitution of thiazole with a nucleophile, and thiaminase I specifically has been implicated in thiamin deficiency syndromes in animals. The biological role of this secreted enzyme has been a long-standing mystery. We used the thiaminase I producing soil bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis as a model to ascertain its function...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006395/quantitative-pcr-analysis-of-gut-disease-discriminatory-phyla-for-diagnosing-shrimp-disease-incidence
#14
Weina Yu, Jinxuan Cao, Wenfang Dai, Qiongfen Qiu, Jinbo Xiong
There is evidence that gut microbial signatures are indicative of host health status. However, few efforts have been devoted to establish an applicable technique for diagnosing disease incidence using the gut microbial signatures. Herein, we established a quantitative PCR (qPCR) based approach to detect the relative abundances of gut disease-discriminatory phyla, which in turn afforded independent variables for quantitatively diagnosing the incidences of shrimp disease. Given the temporal dynamics of gut bacterial communities as healthy shrimp aged, we identified the disease-discriminatory phyla after ruling out the age-discriminatory phyla...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006394/prevalence-and-genotyping-of-cryptosporidium-species-in-sheep-in-china
#15
Rongsheng Mi, Xiaojuan Wang, Yan Huang, Guodong Mu, Yehua Zhang, Haiyan Jia, Xiaoli Zhang, Heng Yang, Xu Wang, Xiangan Han, Zhaoguo Chen
In this study, we assessed the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium in sheep from 10 provinces in China. Faecal samples from 1035 sheep originating from 16 farms were collected and 295 (28.5%) were found to be Cryptosporidium positive by nested PCR. Cryptosporidium was detected at all farms, with infection rates between 5.7% and 50.0%. Three Cryptosporidium species were identified, including Cryptosporidium xiaoi (73.2%, 216/295), Cryptosporidium ubiquitum (21.7%, 64/295), and Cryptosporidium parvum (5...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006393/enterococci-concentrations-in-a-coastal-ecosystem-are-a-function-of-fecal-source-input-environmental-conditions-and-environmental-sources
#16
Derek Rothenheber, Stephen Jones
Fecal pollution at coastal beaches requires management efforts to address public health and economic concerns. Fecal-borne bacterial concentrations are influenced by different fecal sources, environmental conditions, and ecosystem reservoirs, making their public health significance convoluted. In this study, we sought to delineate the influences of these factors on enterococci concentrations in southern Maine coastal recreational waters. Weekly water samples and water quality measurements were conducted at freshwater, estuarine, and marine beach sites from June through September 2016...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006392/-neospora-caninum-dense-granule-protein-7-regulates-pathogenesis-of-neosporosis-by-modulating-host-immune-response
#17
Yoshifumi Nishikawa, Naomi Shimoda, Ragab M Fereig, Tomoya Moritaka, Kousuke Umeda, Maki Nishimura, Fumiaki Ihara, Kaoru Kobayashi, Yuu Himori, Yutaka Suzuki, Hidefumi Furuoka
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii Neosporosis caused by N. caninum is considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle and nervous-system dysfunction in dogs, and identification of the virulence factors of this parasite is important for the development of control measures. Here, we used a luciferase reporter assay to screen the dense granule proteins genes of N. caninum , and found that NcGRA6, NcGRA7, and NcGRA14 are involved in the activation of the NF-κB, calcium/calcineurin, and cAMP/PKA signals...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006391/stable-expression-of-modified-green-fluorescent-protein-in-group-b-streptococcus-to-enable-visualization-in-experimental-systems
#18
Matthew J Sullivan, Glen C Ulett
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a gram-positive bacterium associated with various diseases in humans and animals. Many studies have examined GBS physiology, virulence and microbe-host interactions using diverse imaging approaches, including fluorescence microscopy. Strategies to label and visualize GBS using fluorescence biomarkers have been limited to antibody-based methods or non-specific stains that bind DNA or protein; an effective plasmid-based system to label GBS with a fluorescence biomarker would represent a useful visualization tool...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006390/mediation-analysis-as-a-means-of-identifying-dietary-components-that-affect-the-fecal-microbiota-of-infants-weaned-by-modified-baby-led-compared-to-traditional-approaches
#19
Claudia Leong, Jillian J Haszard, Blair Lawley, Anna Otal, Rachael W Taylor, Ewa A Szymlek-Gay, Elizabeth A Fleming, Lisa Daniels, Louise J Fangupo, Gerald W Tannock, Anne-Louise M Heath
The introduction of 'solids' (i.e. complementary foods) to the milk-only diet of early infancy affects the development of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine whether a 'baby-led' approach to complementary feeding, that encourages early introduction of an adult type diet, results in alterations to gut microbiota composition compared to traditional spoon-feeding. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) study randomized 206 infants to BLISS (a modified version of Baby-Led Weaning (BLW): introduction of solids at 6 months of age, followed by self-feeding of family foods) or Control (traditional spoon-feeding of purées) groups...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980561/crispr-cpf1-assisted-multiplex-genome-editing-and-transcriptional-repression-in-streptomyces
#20
Lei Li, Keke Wei, Guosong Zheng, Xiaocao Liu, Shaoxin Chen, Weihong Jiang, Yinhua Lu
Streptomyces has strong capability to produce a large number of bioactive natural products and remains invaluable sources for the discovery of novel drug leads. Although the Streptococcus pyogenes ( Sp ) CRISPR-Cas9-assisted genome editing tool has been developed for rapid genetic engineering in Streptomyces , it has a number of limitations, including the toxicity of Sp Cas9 expression in some important industrial Streptomyces strains and the need for complex expression constructs when targeting multiple genomic loci...
July 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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