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Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Yi-Lung Chen, Han-Yi Fu, Tzong-Huei Lee, Chao-Jen Shih, Lina Huang, Yu-Sheng Wang, Wael Ismail, Yin-Ru Chiang
The environmental release and fate of estrogens are becoming an increasing public concern. Bacterial degradation has been considered the main process for eliminating estrogens from wastewater treatment plants. Various bacterial isolates are reportedly capable of aerobic estrogen degradation and several estrogen degradation pathways have been proposed in the proteobacteria and actinobacteria. However, the ecophysiological relevance of estrogen-degrading bacteria in the environment is unclear. In this study, we investigated estrogen degradation pathway and corresponding degraders in activated sludge collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant, Taipei, Taiwan...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ning Xu, Yingying Zheng, Xiaochen Wang, Terry A Krulwich, Yanhe Ma, Jun Liu
Corynebacterium glutamicum is generally regarded as a moderately salt-alkali-tolerant industrial organism. However, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these specific adaptations. Here, we found that the Mrp1 antiporter played crucial roles in conferring both environmental Na+ -resistance and alkali-tolerance, whereas the Mrp2 antiporter was necessary in coping with high KCl stress at alkaline pH. Furthermore, the Δ mrp1mrp2 double mutant showed most severe growth retardation, and failed to grow under high salt or alkaline conditions...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Haiyan Zeng, Jumei Zhang, Qingping Wu, Wenjing He, Haoming Wu, Yingwang Ye, Chengsi Li, Na Ling, Moutong Chen, Juan Wang, Shuzhen Cai, Tao Lei, Yu Ding, Liang Xue
Cronobacter strains harboring the CRISPR-Cas system are important foodborne pathogens causing serious neonatal infections. However, the specific role of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial evolution remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we investigated the impact of CRISPR-Cas in Cronobacter evolution and obtained 137 new whole-genome sequences of Cronobacter by next-generation sequencing technology. Among the strains examined (n=240), 90.6% (193/213) of prevalent species Cronobacter sakazakii , Cronobacter malonaticus , and Cronobacter dublinensis strains had intact CRISPR-Cas systems...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mengfei Wang, Dan Zhu, Jianfeng Dai, Zhengwei Zhong, Yi Zhang, Jingwen Wang
Ticks are important disease vectors as they transmit a variety of human and animal pathogens worldwide. Symbionts that co-evolved with ticks confer crucial benefits to their host in nutrition metabolism, fecundity and vector competence. Although over a hundred-tick species have been identified in China, general information of tick symbiosis is limited. Here, we visualized the tissue distribution of Coxiella sp. and Rickettsia sp. in lab reared Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides by fluorescent in situ hybridization...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Katherine Lavelle, James Murphy, Brian Fitzgerald, Gabriele A Lugli, Aldert Zomer, Horst Neve, Marco Ventura, Charles M Franz, Christian Cambillau, Douwe van Sinderen, Jennifer Mahony
Phages of Streptococcus thermophilus present a major threat to the production of many fermented dairy products. To date, only a handful of studies have assessed the biodiversity of S. thermophilus phages in dairy fermentations. In order to develop strategies to limit phage predation in this important industrial environment, it is imperative that such studies are undertaken and that phage-host interactions of this species are better defined. The present study investigated the biodiversity and evolution of phages within an Irish dairy fermentation facility over an eleven year period...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Zohre Kurt, Marco Minoia, Jim C Spain
Resveratrol is among the best-known secondary plant metabolites because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. It also is an important allelopathic chemical widely credited with protection of plants from pathogens. The ecological role of resveratrol in natural habitats is difficult to establish rigorously because it does not seem to accumulate outside of plant tissue. It is likely that bacterial degradation plays a key role in determining the persistence, and thus the ecological role, of resveratrol in soil...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jing-Jing Liu, Guo-Chang Zhang, In Iok Kong, Eun Ju Yun, Jia-Qi Zheng, Dae-Hyuk Kweon, Yong-Su Jin
The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii has been extensively studied for preventing and treating diarrheal diseases and is now commercially available in some countries. S. boulardii displays notable phenotypes, such as high optimal growth temperature, high tolerance against acidic conditions, and the inability to form ascospores, which differentiate S. boulardii from S. cerevisiae The majority of prior studies stated that S. boulardii exhibits sluggish or halted galactose utilization. Nonetheless, molecular mechanisms underlying inefficient galactose uptake have yet to be elucidated...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nicholas Dusek, Austin J Hewitt, Kaycie N Schmidt, Peter W Bergholz
E. coli are deposited into soil with feces and exhibit subsequent population decline with concomitant environmental selection. Environmentally persistent strains exhibit longer survival times during this selection process and some strains have adapted to soil and sediments. A georeferenced collection of E. coli isolates was developed comprising 3,329 isolates from 1,428 soil samples that were collected from a landscape spanning the transition from the grasslands to the eastern deciduous forest biomes. The isolate collection and sample database were analyzed together to discover how land cover, site characteristics and soil chemistry influence the prevalence of cultivable E...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nastassia V Patin, Zoe A Pratte, Matthew Regensburger, Eric Hall, Kailen Gilde, Alistair D M Dove, Frank J Stewart
Artificial habitats for animals have high commercial and societal value. Microbial communities (microbiomes) in such habitats may play ecological roles similar to those in nature. However, this hypothesis remains largely untested. Georgia Aquarium's Ocean Voyager (OV) exhibit is a closed-system aquatic habitat that mimics the oligotrophic open ocean and houses thousands of large marine animals, including fish, sea turtles, and whale sharks. We present a 14-month time series characterizing the OV water column microbiome...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Núria Daranas, Anna Bonaterra, Jesús Francés, Jordi Cabrefiga, Emilio Montesinos, Esther Badosa
A viability qPCR (v-qPCR) assay was developed for the unambiguous detection and quantification of Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 viable cells in aerial plant surfaces. A 972 bp region of a PM411 predicted prophage with mosaic architecture enabled the identification of a PM411 strain-specific molecular marker. Three primer sets, with different amplicon lengths (92, 188, and 317 bp), and one TaqMan probe were designed. All the qPCR assays showed good linearity over a 4-log range and good efficiencies, but differed in sensitivity...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kevin W Becker, Felix J Elling, Jan M Schröder, Julius S Lipp, Tobias Goldhammer, Matthias Zabel, Marcus Elvert, Jörg Overmann, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs
The stratified water column of the Black Sea serves as a model ecosystem for studying the interactions of microorganisms with major biogeochemical cycles. Here we provide detailed analysis of isoprenoid quinones to study microbial redox processes in the ocean. In a continuum from the photic zone through the chemocline into deep anoxic sediments of the southern Black Sea, diagnostic quinones and inorganic geochemical parameters indicate niche segregation between redox processes and corresponding shifts in microbial community composition...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yehonatan Sharaby, Sarah Rodríguez-Martínez, Marina Pecellin, Rotem Sela, Avi Peretz, Manfred Höfle, Malka Halpern, Ingrid Brettar
Legionella pneumophila causes water-based infections resulting in severe pneumonia. Recently, we showed that different variable numbers of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA-8) genotypes dominated different sites of a drinking-water distribution system, with a genotype-related temperature and abundance regime. Here we compare the pathogenicity potential of different MLVA-8 genotypes of environmental and clinical strains. The virulence traits studied were hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity towards amoebae and macrophages...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kieran James, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Christophe Penno, Rebecca Louise O'Brien, Douwe van Sinderen
Bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in considerable detail for a variety of both plant and human-derived glycans, particularly involving the bifidobacterial prototype Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. We recently elucidated the metabolic pathways by which the<u>h</u>uman<u>m</u>ilk<u>o</u>ligosaccharide (HMO) constituents lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and lacto-N-biose (LNB) are utilized by B. breve UCC2003. However, to date no work has been carried out on the regulatory mechanisms that control expression of the genetic loci involved in these HMO metabolic pathways...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Eva G Barreales, Cláudia M Vicente, Antonio de Pedro, Javier Santos-Aberturas, Jesús F Aparicio
The biosynthesis of small size polyene macrolides is ultimately controlled by a couple of transcriptional regulators that act in a hierarchical way. A SARP-LAL regulator binds the promoter of a PAS-LuxR regulator-encoding gene and activates its transcription, and in turn, the gene product of the latter activates transcription from various promoters of the polyene gene cluster directly. The primary operator of PimR, archetype of SARP-LAL regulators, contains three heptameric direct repeats separated by four nucleotide spacers, but the regulator can also bind a secondary operator with only two direct repeats separated by a 3 nucleotide spacer, both located in the promoter region of its unique target gene pimM Similar arrangement of operators has been identified for PimR counterparts encoded by gene clusters for different antifungal secondary metabolites, including not only polyene macrolides but peptidyl nucleosides, phoslactomycins, or cycloheximide...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Catherine M Spirito, Sarah E Daly, Jeffrey J Werner, Largus T Angenent
The antibiotic monensin is fed to dairy cows to increase milk production efficiency. A fraction of this monensin is excreted into the cow manure. Previous studies have found that cow manure containing monensin can negatively impact the performance of anaerobic digesters, especially upon first introduction. Few studies have examined whether the anaerobic digester microbiome can adapt to monensin during the operating time. Here, we conducted a long-term, time-series study of four lab-scale anaerobic digesters fed with cow manure...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Audrey Rivière, Marija Selak, Annelies Geirnaert, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Luc De Vuyst
Inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are broken down to different extents by various bifidobacterial strains present in the human colon. To date, phenotypic heterogeneity in the consumption of these complex oligosaccharides at strain level remains poorly studied. To examine mechanistic variations in ITF and AXOS constituent preferences present in one individual, ITF and AXOS consumption by bifidobacterial strains isolated from the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®), inoculated with feces from one healthy individual, was investigated...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Gianna P Ahnrud, Alma J Mendoza, Matthew J Hurley, Patrick J Marek
Enhancements in swabbing technology to increase sample collection efficacy would benefit the food industry. Specifically these enhancements would assist the food industry in implementing the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) requirements by improving environmental monitoring effectiveness. A sonicating swab device, an example of an enhanced swabbing technology, was demonstrated previously to remove biofilm from stainless steel more efficiently than a standard cotton swab. Within this study, the performance of the sonicating swab was compared to the standard cotton swab for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from inoculated surfaces (plastic cutting board, wood cutting board, vinyl floor tile, and quarry clay floor tile)...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yusuke Sone, Shuto Nakamura, Makoto Sasaki, Fumihito Hasebe, Seung-Young Kim, Nobutaka Funa
1,8-Dihydroxynaphthalene (1,8-DHN) is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of DHN melanin, which is specific to fungi. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of the gene products of an operon consisting of soceCHS1 , bdsA , and bdsB from the gram-negative bacterium, Sorangium cellulosum Heterologous expression of soceCHS1 , bdsA , and bdsB in Streptomyces coelicolor caused secretion of a dark-brown pigment into the broth. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the broth revealed that the recombinant strain produced 1,8-DHN, indicating that the operon encoded a novel enzymatic system for the synthesis of 1,8-DHN...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Noelia Martínez, Roberto Luque, Christian Milani, Marco Ventura, Oscar Bañuelos, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are mutualistic intestinal bacteria and their presence in the human gut has been associated with health-promoting activities. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in this genus is controversial, since, although bifidobacteria are non-pathogenic microorganisms, they could serve as reservoirs of resistance for intestinal pathogens. However, until now, few antibiotic resistance determinants have been functionally characterized in this genus. In this work, we show that Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 displays atypical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yunfang Meng, Yumeng Fan, Wanqing Liao, Xiaorong Lin
Cryptococcus neoformans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. Like many dimorphic fungal pathogens, C. neoformans can undergo morphological transition from the yeast form to the hypha form and its morphotype is tightly linked to its virulence. Although some genetic factors controlling morphogenesis have been identified, little is known about the epigenetic regulation in this process. Proteins with the plant homeodomain (PHD) finger, a structurally conserved domain in eukaryotes, are first identified in plants and are known to be involved in reading and effecting chromatin modification...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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