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Applied and Environmental Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881419/oral-administration-of-a-select-mixture-of-bacillus-probiotics-affects-the-gut-microbiota-and-goblet-cell-function-in-newly-weaned-muc4-resistant-pigs-following-escherichia-coli-challenge
#1
Wei Zhang, Yao-Hong Zhu, Dong Zhou, Qiong Wu, Dan Song, Johan Dicksved, Jiu-Feng Wang
: Structural disruption of the gut microbiota and impaired goblet cell function are collateral etiologic factors in enteric diseases. Low, moderate, or high doses of a Bacillus licheniformis-B. subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to MUC4 resistant piglets for 1 week before the F4-expressing ETEC strain (F4(+) ETEC) challenge. The luminal contents were collected from the mucosa of colon on day 8 after F4(+) ETEC challenge. BLS-mix attenuated E. coli-induced expansion of Bacteroides uniformis, Eubacterium eligens, Acetanaerobacterium and Sporobacter populations...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881418/environmental-pseudomonads-inhibit-cystic-fibrosis-patient-derived-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Payel Chatterjee, Elizabeth Davis, Fengan Yu, Sarah James, Julia H Wildschutte, Daniel D Wiegmann, David H Sherman, Robert M McKay, John J LiPuma, Hans Wildschutte
: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is evolving resistance to many currently used antibiotics. While much research has been devoted to the roles of pathogenic P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, less is known of its ecological properties. P. aeruginosa dominate the lungs during chronic infection in CF patients, yet its abundance in some environments is less compared to other diverse groups of pseudomonads. Here, we sought to determine if clinical isolates of P...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881417/analysis-of-germination-capacity-and-inventarisation-of-germinant-receptor-sub-clusters-of-genome-sequenced-bacillus-cereus-environmental-isolates-and-model-strains
#3
Alicja K Warda, Yinghua Xiao, Jos Boekhorst, Marjon H J Wells-Bennik, Masja N Nierop Groot, Tjakko Abee
: Spore germination of 17 Bacillus cereus food isolates and reference strains was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis in combination with fluorescent staining at a single spore level. This approach allowed for rapid collection of germination data in more than 20 conditions including heat activation of spores, germination in complex media (BHI and TSB), and exposure to saturating concentrations of single amino acids and the combination of alanine and inosine. Whole genome sequence comparison revealed a total of eleven clusters of operons encoded germinant receptors (GRs); GerK, GerI and GerL were present in all strains, whereas GerR, GerS, GerG, GerQ, GerX, GerF, GerW and GerZ (sub)clusters showed a more diverse presence/absence in different strains...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881416/metagenomics-of-two-severe-foodborne-outbreaks-provides-diagnostic-signatures-and-signs-of-co-infection-not-attainable-by-traditional-methods
#4
Andrew D Huang, Chengwei Luo, Angela Pena-Gonzalez, Michael R Weigand, Cheryl Tarr, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis
: Diagnostic testing for foodborne pathogens relies on culture-based techniques that are not rapid enough for real-time disease surveillance and do not give a quantitative picture of pathogen abundance or the response of the natural microbiome. Powerful sequence-based, culture-independent approaches such as shotgun metagenomics could sidestep these limitations, and potentially reveal a pathogen-specific signature on the microbiome that would have implications not only for diagnostics but also for better understanding disease progression and pathogen ecology...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881415/whole-genome-relationships-among-francisella-bacteria-of-diverse-origin-define-new-species-and-provide-specific-regions-for-detection
#5
Jean F Challacombe, Jeannine M Petersen, La Verne Gallegos-Graves, David Hodge, Segaran Pillai, Cheryl R Kuske
Francisella tularensis (Ft) is a highly virulent zoonotic pathogen that causes tularemia, and because of weaponization efforts in past world wars, is considered a Tier 1 biothreat agent. Detection and surveillance of Ft may be confounded by the presence of uncharacterized, closely related organisms. Through DNA-based diagnostics and environmental surveys, novel clinical and environmental Francisella isolates have been obtained in recent years. Here we present 17 new Francisella genomes and a comparison of their characteristics to each other and to 14 publicly available genomes as well as a comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and sdhA genes from over 90 Francisella strains...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881414/enhanced-glucose-consumption-and-organic-acid-production-by-engineered-corynebacterium-glutamicum-based-on-analysis-of-a-pfkb1-deletion-mutant
#6
Satoshi Hasegawa, Yuya Tanaka, Masako Suda, Toru Jojima, Masayuki Inui
: In the analysis of a carbohydrate metabolite pathway, we found interesting phenotypes in a mutant strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum deficient in pfkB1, which encodes fructose-1-phosphate kinase. After aerobically cultivated with fructose as a carbon source, this mutant consumed glucose and produced organic acid, predominantly L-lactate, more than 2-fold as compared with the wild-type grown with glucose under conditions of oxygen deprivation. This considerably higher fermentation capacity was unique for the combination of the pfkB1 deletion and fructose cultivation...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864179/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-among-human-gut-derived-bifidobacteria
#7
Sabrina Duranti, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Chiara Ferrario, Rosaria Anzalone, Alice Viappiani, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
: The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may regularly be exposed to antibiotics, which are used to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Bacterial communities of the gut retain a reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, and antibiotic therapy thus positively selects for those microorganisms that harbor such genetic features, causing microbiota modulation. During the first months following birth, bifidobacteria represent one of the most dominant components of the human gut microbiota, though little is known about their AR gene complement (or resistome)...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864178/microbial-nursery-production-of-high-quality-biological-soil-crust-biomass-for-restoration-of-degraded-dryland-soils
#8
Sergio Velasco Ayuso, Ana Giraldo Silva, Corey J Nelson, Nichole N Barger, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
: Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are slow growing, phototroph-based microbial assemblages developing on topsoils of drylands. Biocrusts help maintain soil fertility and reduce erosion. Because their loss through human activities has negative ecological and environmental health consequences, biocrust restoration is of interest. Active soil inoculation with biocrust microorganisms can be an important tool in this endeavor. We present a culture-independent, two-step process to grow multispecies biocrusts in open greenhouse nursery facilities, based on inoculation of local soils with local biocrust remnants, and incubation under semi-natural conditions that maintain the essence of the habitat, but lessen its harshness...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864177/the-histone-deacetylase-hda-2-regulates-growth-conidiation-blue-light-perception-and-oxidative-stress-responses-in-trichoderma-atroviride
#9
Macario Osorio-Concepción, Gema Rosa Cristóbal Mondragón, Braulio Gutiérrez-Medina, Sergio Casas-Flores
: Fungal blue-light photoreceptors have been proposed as integrators of light and oxidative stress. However, additional elements participating in the integrative pathway remain to be identified. In Trichoderma atroviride, the blue-light receptor proteins BLR-1 and -2 are known to regulate gene transcription, mycelial growth and asexual development upon illumination, and recent global transcriptional analysis revealed that the histone deacetylase encoding gene hda-2 is induced by light...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864176/insights-into-the-biosynthesis-of-duramycin
#10
Liujie Huo, Ayşe Ökesli, Ming Zhao, Wilfred A van der Donk
: Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides that are characterized by the thioether cross-linked bisamino acids lanthionine (Lan) and methyllanthionine (MeLan). Duramycin contains 19 amino acids including one Lan and two MeLan, an unusual lysinoalanine (Lal) bridge formed from the ϵ-amino group of lysine 19 and a serine residue at position 6, and an erythro-3-hydroxy-L-aspartic acid at position 15. These modifications are important for the interactions of duramycin with its biological target phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864175/the-acceptor-side-of-photosystem-ii-is-the-initial-target-of-nitrite-stress-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#11
Xin Zhang, Fei Ma, Xi Zhu, Junying Zhu, Junfeng Rong, Jiao Zhan, Hui Chen, Chenliu He, Qiang Wang
: Nitrite, a common form of inorganic nitrogen (N), can be used as a nitrogen source through N assimilation. However, high levels of nitrite depress photosynthesis in various organisms. In this study, we investigated which components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain are targeted by nitrite stress in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells. Measurements of whole-chain and PSII-mediated electron transport activities revealed that high levels of nitrite primarily impair electron flow in PSII...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864174/multilocus-sequence-analysis-of-phylogroup-1-and-2-oral-treponeme-strains
#12
Yong-Biao Huo, Yuki Chan, Donnabella C Lacap-Bugler, Sisu Mo, Patrick C Y Woo, W Keung Leung, Rory M Watt
: More than 75 'species-level' phylotypes of spirochete bacteria belonging to the genus Treponema reside within the human oral cavity. The majority of these oral treponeme phylotypes correspond to as-yet uncultivated taxa, or strains of uncertain standing in taxonomy. Here, we analyze phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships between oral treponeme strains using a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme based on the highly-conserved 16S rRNA, pyrH, recA and flaA genes. We utilize this MLSA scheme to analyze genetic data from a curated collection of oral treponeme strains (n=71) of diverse geographical origins...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864173/salad-leaf-juices-enhance-salmonella-growth-fresh-produce-colonisation-and-virulence
#13
Giannis Koukkidis, Richard Haigh, Natalie Allcock, Suzanne Jordan, Primrose Freestone
: We show in this report that traces of juices released from salad leaves as they became damaged can significantly enhance Salmonella enterica salad leaf colonisation. Salad juices in water increased Salmonella growth by 110% over the un-supplemented control, and in host-like serum based media by more than 2400-fold over controls. In serum based media salad juices induced growth of Salmonella via provision of Fe from transferrin, and siderophore production was found to be integral to the growth induction process...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864172/the-ebpa-rpon-regulatory-pathway-of-the-pathogen-leptospira-interrogans-is-essential-for-survival-in-the-environment
#14
Wei-Lin Hu, Christopher J Pappas, Jun-Jie Zhang, You-Yun Yang, Jie Yan, Mathieu Picardeau, X Frank Yang
Leptospira interrogans is the agent of leptospirosis, a re-emerging zoonotic disease. Leptospirosis is transmitted to humans through environmental surface waters contaminated by the urine of mammals that are chronically infected by pathogenic strains that are able to survive in water for long periods. Little is known about the regulatory pathways underlying environmental sensing and host adaptation of L. interrogans during its enzootic cycle. This study identifies the EbpA-RpoN regulatory pathway in L. interrogans In this pathway, EbpA, a σ(54) activator and putative prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein (EBP), and the alternative sigma factor RpoN (σ(54)) control expression of at least three genes - encoding AmtB (an ammonium transport protein) and two proteins of unknown function...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864171/mitochondrial-superoxide-dismutase-and-yap1p-act-as-a-signaling-module-contributing-to-ethanol-tolerance-of-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Anna N Zyrina, Ekaterina A Smirnova, Olga V Markova, Fedor F Severin, Dmitry A Knorre
: There are two superoxide dismutases in yeast: cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes. Inactivation of the cytoplasmic enzyme, Sod1p, renders the cells sensitive to a variety of stresses while inactivation of the mitochondrial isoform, Sod2p, typically has a weaker effect. One exception is ethanol-induced stress. Here we studied the role of Sod2p in yeast ethanol tolerance. First, we found that repression of SOD2 prevents ethanol-induced relocalization of yeast hydrogen peroxide-sensing transcription factor Yap1p - one of the key stress-resistance proteins...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864170/control-of-biofilm-formation-antibiotics-and-beyond
#16
Ammar Algburi, Nicole Comito, Dimitri Kashtanov, Leon M T Dicks, Michael L Chikindas
Biofilm-associated bacteria are less sensitive to antibiotics than free-living (planktonic) cells. Furthermore, with variation in concentration of antibiotics throughout a biofilm, microbial cells are often exposed to levels below inhibitory concentrations and may develop resistance. This, and the irresponsible use of antibiotics, lead to the selection of pathogens that are difficult to eradicate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention use the terms "antibiotic" and "antimicrobial agents" interchangeably...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864169/increasing-the-thermostable-sugar-1-phosphate-nucleotidylyltransferase-activities-of-archaeal-st0452-protein-through-site-saturation-mutagenesis-of-the-97th-amino-acid-position
#17
Yuki Honda, Qian Zang, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Mohammad Dadashipour, Zilian Zhang, Yutaka Kawarabayasi
: The ST0452 protein is a bifunctional protein exhibiting sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidylyltransferase (Sugar-1-P NTase) and amino-sugar-1-phosphate acetyltransferase activities and was isolated from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii Based on the previous observation that five single mutations increased ST0452 Sugar-1-P NTase activity, nine double mutant ST0452 proteins were generated with the intent of obtaining enzymes exhibiting a further increase in catalysis, but all showed less than 15% of the wild-type N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlcNAc-1-P UTase) activity...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864168/biogeography-of-oenococcus-oeni-reveals-distinctive-but-non-specific-populations-in-wine-producing-regions
#18
Mariette El Khoury, Hugo Campbell-Sills, Franck Salin, Erwan Guichoux, Olivier Claisse, Patrick M Lucas
: Understanding the mechanisms behind the typicity of regional wines inevitably brings attention to microorganisms associated to its production. Oenococcus oeni is the main bacterial species involved in wine and cider making. It develops after the yeast-driven alcoholic fermentation and performs the malolactic fermentation, which improves the taste and aromatic complexity of most wines. Here we have evaluated the diversity and specificity of O. oeni strains in six regions. 235 wines and ciders were collected during spontaneous malolactic fermentations and used to isolate 3,212 bacterial colonies...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836853/production-of-2-hydroxyisobutyric-acid-from-methanol-by-methylobacterium-extorquens-am1-expressing-r-3-hydroxybutyryl-coa-isomerizing-enzymes
#19
Maria-Teresa Rohde, Sylvi Tischer, Hauke Harms, Thore Rohwerder
: The biotechnological production of the methyl methacrylate precursor 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) via bacterial poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) overflow metabolism requires suitable (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA specific coenzyme B12-dependent mutases (RCM). Here, we characterized a predicted mutase from Bacillus massiliosenegalensis JC6 as a mesophilic RCM, closely related to the thermophilic enzyme previously identified in Kyrpidia tusciae DSM 2912 (M.-T. Weichler, N. Kurteva-Yaneva, D...
November 11, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836852/comparative-genomics-reveal-the-diversity-of-restriction-methylation-systems-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#20
Poyin Chen, Henk C den Bakker, Jonas Korlach, Nguyet Kong, Dylan B Storey, Ellen E Paxinos, Meredith Ashby, Tyson Clark, Khai Luong, Martin Wiedmann, Bart C Weimer
: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that found in a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural environments. Genome sequencing technologies are rapidly becoming a powerful tool in facilitating our understanding of how genotype, classification and virulence phenotypes interact to predict the health risks of individual bacterial isolates. Currently, 57 closed L. monocytogenes genomes are publicly available representing three of the four phylogenetic lineages and suggest L. monocytogenes has high genomic synteny...
November 11, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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