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Applied and Environmental Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-co-circulate-with-type-1-and-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-in-luxembourg
#1
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus was evaluated. Faeces collection (n= 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, faeces (n= 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710270/stabilization-of-multimeric-proteins-via-inter-subunits-cyclization
#2
Lu Zhu, Shuwen Wang, Wenya Tian, Yeqi Zhang, Yang Song, Jun Zhang, Bo Mu, Chao Peng, Zixin Deng, Hongmin Ma, Xudong Qu
Proteins with high catalytic efficiency and selectivity under mild conditions have long been appreciated by industrial and medicinal fields. These proteins, which are commonly multimeric, often possess low stability impeding wider application. Currently, strategies to improve the stability of multimeric proteins concentrate on enhancing the interaction at internal-interface of the subunits. In this report, we confirmed that the largely underestimated subunit terminal ends are as significant as the internal-interface for protein stability...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710269/molecular-mechanism-and-genetic-determinants-of-buprofezin-degradation
#3
Xueting Chen, Junbin Ji, Leizhen Zhao, Jiguo Qiu, Chen Dai, Weiwu Wang, Jian He, Jiandong Jiang, Qing Hong, Xin Yan
Buprofezin is a widely used insect growth regulator whose residue has been frequently detected in the environment, posing a threat to aquatic organisms and non-target insects. Microorganisms play an important role in the degradation of buprofezin in the natural environment. However, the relevant catabolic pathway has not been fully characterized, and the molecular mechanism of catabolism is still completely unknown. Rhodococcus qingshengii YL-1 can utilize buprofezin as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710268/physiological-evidence-for-isopotential-tunneling-in-the-electron-transport-chain-of-methane-producing-archaea
#4
Nikolas Duszenko, Nicole R Buan
Many, but not all, organisms use quinones to conserve energy in their electron transport chains. Fermentative bacteria and methane-producing archaea (methanogens) do not produce quinones but have devised other ways to generate ATP. Methanophenazine (MPh) is a unique membrane electron carrier found in Methanosarcina species that plays the same role as quinones in the electron transport chain. To extend the analogy between quinones and MPh, we compared the MPh pool sizes between two well-studied Methanosarcina species, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A and Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro to the quinone pools sizes in the bacterium, Escherichia coli We found the quantity of MPh per cell increases as cultures transition from exponential growth to stationary phase, and absolute quantities of MPh were 3-fold higher in M...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710267/increased-processivity-misincorporation-and-nucleotide-incorporation-efficiency-in-sulfolobus-solfataricus-dpo4-thumb-domain-mutations
#5
Li Wang, Chenchen Liang, Jing Wu, Liming Liu, Keith E J Tyo
The present study aimed to increase the processivity of Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4. Protein engineering and bioinformatics were used to compile a library of potential Dpo4 mutation sites. Ten potential mutants were identified and constructed. A primer extension assay was used to evaluate the processivity of Dpo4 mutants. Thumb (A181D) and finger (E63K) domain mutants showed a processivity of 20 and 19 nucleotides (nt), respectively. A little finger domain mutant (I248Y) exhibited a processivity of 17 nt, only 1 nt more than wild-type Dpo4...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710266/specificity-of-subtilin-mediated-activation-of-histidine-kinase-spak
#6
Christoph Geiger, Tobias Spieß, Sophie Marianne Korn, Peter Kötter, Karl-Dieter Entian
Autoinduction via two-component systems is a widespread regulatory mechanism that senses environmental and metabolic changes. Although the lantibiotics nisin and subtilin are closely related and share the same lanthionine ring structure, they autoinduce their biosynthesis in a highly specific manner. Subtilin can only activate the two-component system SpaRK of Bacillus subtilis, whereas nisin activates solely the two-component system NisRK of Lactococcus lactis To identify components that determine the specificity of subtilin autoinduction, several variants of the respective lantibiotic were analyzed for their autoinduction capacity...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710265/francisella-like-endosymbionts-and-rickettsia-species-in-local-and-imported-hyalomma-ticks
#7
Tal Azagi, Eyal Klement, Gidon Perlman, Yaniv Lustig, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Dmitry Apanaskevich, Yuval Gottlieb
Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are hosts for Francisella like endosymbionts (FLE) and may serve as vectors of zoonotic disease agents. This study was aimed to provide initial characterization of the interaction between Hyalomma and FLE and to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Rickettsia in these ticks. Hyalomma marginatum, H. rufipes, H. dromedarii, H. aegyptium and H. excavatum ticks, identified morphologically and molecularly, were collected from different hosts and locations, representing the genus distribution in Israel, as well as from migratory birds...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710264/two-novel-dissimilar-crystal-proteins-cry5ca1-and-cry5da1-synergistically-act-against-meloidogyne-incognita-and-delay-cry5ba-based-nematode-resistance
#8
Ce Geng, Yingying Liu, Miaomiao Li, Zhen Tang, Sajid Muhammad, Jinshui Zheng, Danfeng Wan, Donghai Peng, Lifang Ruan, Ming Sun
Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis have been successfully used as biopesticides and transgenic crops throughout the world. However, resources against the most serious agricultural pathogens, plant root-knot nematodes, are limited. The genomes of several highly nematicidal virulent Bt strains from our laboratory have been sequenced, facilitating the identification of novel Cry proteins and other virulence factors. We identified two novel Cry proteins, Cry5Ca1 and Cry5Da1, that exhibit high toxicity against Meloidogyne incognita Using the Caenorhabditis elegans model, both Cry5 toxins showed to negatively affect nematode lifespan, fertility and survival...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710263/enzymatic-mechanism-for-arabinan-degradation-and-transport-in-the-thermophilic-bacterium-caldanaerobius-polysaccharolyticus
#9
Daniel Wefers, Jia Dong, Ahmed M Abdel-Hamid, Hans Müller Paul, Gabriel V Pereira, Yejun Han, Dylan Dodd, Ramiya Baskaran, Beth Mayer, Roderick I Mackie, Isaac Cann
The plant cell wall polysaccharide arabinan is an important supply of arabinose, and unraveling arabinan degrading strategies by microbes is important for understanding its use as a source of energy. Here, we explored the arabinan degrading enzymes in the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus and identified a gene cluster encoding two glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 α-L-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf51A, CpAbf51B), a GH43 endo-arabinanase (CpAbn43A), a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase (CpAbp27A), and two GH127 β-L-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf127A, CpAbf127B)...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710262/med15b-regulates-acid-stress-response-and-tolerance-in-candida-glabrata
#10
Yanli Qi, Hui Liu, Jiayin Yu, Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu
Candida glabrata is a promising producer of organic acids. To elucidate the physiological function of the Mediator tail subunit Med15B in the response to low pH stress, we constructed a deletion strain, med15BΔ, and overexpression strain, HTUΔ/CgMED15B Deletion of MED15B caused biomass production, glucose consumption rate, and cell viability to decrease by 28.3%, 31.7%, and 26.5%, respectively, compared with those of the parent strain (HTUΔ) at pH 2.0. Expression of lipid metabolism-related genes was significantly downregulated in the med15BΔ strain, whereas key genes of ergosterol biosynthesis showed abnormal upregulation...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687653/identification-of-the-atpase-subunit-of-the-primary-maltose-transporter-in-the-hyperthermophilic-anaerobe-thermotoga-maritima
#11
Raghuveer Singh, Derrick White, Paul Blum
Thermotoga maritima is a hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacterium that produces molecular hydrogen (H2) by fermentation. It catabolizes a broad range of carbohydrates through the action of diverse ABC transporters. However, in T. maritima and related species, highly similar genes with ambiguous annotation obscure a precise understanding of genome function. In T. maritima three putative malK genes all annotated as ATPase subunits exhibited higher identity to each other. To distinguish between these genes, malK disruption mutants were constructed by gene replacement and the resulting mutant cell lines were characterized...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687652/high-temporal-and-spatial-variability-of-atmospheric-methane-oxidation-in-alpine-glacier-forefield-soils
#12
Eleonora Chiri, Philipp A Nauer, Edda-Marie Rainer, Josef Zeyer, Martin H Schroth
Glacier-forefield soils can provide a substantial sink for atmospheric CH4, facilitated by aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). However, MOB activity, abundance, and community structure may be affected by soil age, location in different forefield landforms, and temporal fluctuations in soil-physical parameters. We assessed spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric CH4 oxidation in an Alpine glacier forefield during the snow-free season 2013. We quantified CH4 flux in soils of increasing age and in different landforms (sandhill, terrace, floodplain) using soil-gas-profile and static flux-chamber methods...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687651/characterization-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-of-o91-serogroup-isolated-from-food-and-environmental-samples
#13
Peter C H Feng, Sabine Delannoy, David W Lacher, Joseph M Bosilevac, Patrick Fach, Lothar Beutin
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of the O91:H21 serotype has caused severe infections including hemolytic uremic syndrome. Strains of the O91 serogroup have been isolated from food, animals and the environment worldwide, but are not well characterized. We used a microarray and other molecular assays to examine 49 O91 strains (environmental, food and clinical) for virulence potential and phylogenetic relationships. Most of the isolates were identified to be strains of O91:H21 and O91:H14 serotype, with a few O91:H10 strains and one O91:H9 strain...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687650/parallel-evolution-of-two-clades-of-a-major-atlantic-endemic-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-pathogen-lineage-by-independent-acquisition-of-related-pathogenicity-islands
#14
Feng Xu, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona, Kevin P Drees, Robert P Sebra, Vaughn S Cooper, Stephen H Jones, Cheryl A Whistler
Shellfish-transmitted Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections have recently increased from locations with historically low disease incidence, such as the Northeast United States (US). This change coincided with a bacterial population shift towards human pathogenic variants occurring in part through the introduction of several Pacific native lineages (ST36, ST43 and ST636) to near-shore areas off the Atlantic coast of the Northeast US. Concomitantly, ST631 emerged as a major endemic pathogen. Phylogenetic trees of clinical and environmental isolates indicated that two clades diverged from a common ST631 ancestor, and in each of these clades, a human pathogenic variant evolved independently through acquisition of distinct Vibrio pathogenicity islands (VPaI)...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687649/imposed-environmental-stresses-facilitate-cell-free-nanoparticle-formation-by-deinococcus-radiodurans
#15
Angela Chen, Lydia M Contreras, Benjamin K Keitz
The biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been examined in a wide range of organisms due to increased interest in green synthesis and environmental remediation applications involving heavy metal ion contamination. Deinococcus radiodurans is particularly attractive for environmental remediation involving metal reduction due to its high resistance to radiation and other environmental stresses. However, few studies have thoroughly examined the relationship between environmental stresses and their resulting effect on nanoparticle biosynthesis...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687648/host-specificity-of-segmented-filamentous-bacteria-sfb-flagellins-affects-their-interaction-patterns-with-mouse-ileal-mucosal-proteins
#16
Huahai Chen, Yeshi Yin, Yanling Wang, Xin Wang, Charlie Xiang
Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are known modulators of the mammalian immune system. Currently, the technology for investigating SFB culture in vitro is immature, and as a result, the mechanisms of SFB colonization and immune regulation are not yet fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the gene diversity and host specificity of SFB flagellin genes. The flic1 and flic2 genes are relatively conserved, while the flic3 and flic4 genes are more variable, especially at the central and C-terminal regions...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687647/the-deep-sea-bacterium-shewanella-piezotolerans-wp3-has-two-dmso-reductases-in-distinct-subcellular-locations
#17
Lei Xiong, Huahua Jian, Xiang Xiao
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) acts as a substantial sink for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in deep waters and is therefore considered a potential electron acceptor supporting abyssal ecosystems. Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was isolated from west Pacific deep-sea sediments, and two functional DMSO respiratory subsystems are essential for maximum growth of WP3 under in situ conditions (4°C/20 MPa). However, the relationship between these two subsystems and the electron transport pathway underlying DMSO reduction by WP3 remain unknown...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687646/aerobiological-stability-of-different-species-of-gram-negative-bacteria-including-well-known-biothreat-simulants-in-single-cell-particles-and-cell-clusters-of-different-composition
#18
Marius Dybwad, Gunnar Skogan
The ability to perform controlled experiments with bioaerosols is a fundamental enabler of many bioaerosol research disciplines. A practical alternative to using hazardous biothreat agents, e.g. for detection equipment development and testing, involves using appropriate model organisms (simulants). Several species of Gram-negative bacteria have been used or proposed as biothreat simulants. The appropriateness of different bacterial genera, species, and strains as simulants is however still debated. Here we report aerobiological stability characteristics of four species of Gram-negative bacteria (Pantoea agglomerans, Serratia marcesens, Escherichia coli, and Xanthomonas arboricola) in single-cell particles and cell clusters produced using four spray liquids (H2O, phosphate-buffered saline[PBS], spent culture medium[SCM], and SCM:PBS mixture)...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687645/deficiency-of-rgpg-causes-major-defects-in-cell-division-and-biofilm-formation-and-deficiency-of-lcp-proteins-leads-to-accumulation-of-cell-wall-antigens-in-culture-medium-by-streptococcus-mutans
#19
Arpan De, Sumei Liao, Jacob P Bitoun, Randy Roth, Wandy L Beatty, Hui Wu, Zezhang T Wen
S. mutans is known to possess rhamnose-glucose polysaccharides (RGP), a major cell wall antigen. S. mutans strains deficient of rgpG, encoding the first enzyme of the RGP biosynthesis pathway, were constructed by allelic exchange. The rgpG deficiency had no effect on growth rate, but caused major defects in cell division and altered cell morphology. Unlike the coccoid wild-type, the rgpG mutant existed primarily in chains of swollen, squarish dividing cells. Deficiency of rgpG also causes significant reduction in biofilm formation (P<0...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687644/genome-scale-model-and-omics-analysis-of-metabolic-capacities-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-reveal-a-preferential-mucin-degrading-lifestyle
#20
Noora Ottman, Mark Davids, Maria Suarez-Diez, Sjef Boeren, Peter J Schaap, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos
The composition and activity of the microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract is primarily shaped by nutrients derived either from food or the host. Bacteria colonizing the mucus layer have evolved to use mucin as a carbon and energy source. One of the members of the mucosa-associated microbiota is Akkermansia muciniphila, which is capable of producing an extensive repertoire of mucin-degrading enzymes. To further study substrate utilization abilities of A. muciniphila, we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model to test amino acid auxotrophy, vitamin biosynthesis, and sugar degrading capacities...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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