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H Acosta, A Jansen, B Nuscheler, T Kircher
The successful recovery from affective loss (i.e. bereavement, relationship breakup) has been linked to Adult Attachment Style (AAS), a personality trait. Up to now, the association between AAS, affective loss experiences and brain gray matter volume is unclear. In 192 healthy subjects we investigated the association between MRI brain gray matter volume, applying voxel based morphometry, AAS (Relationship Scales Questionnaire, subscales "avoidance" (AV) and "anxiety" (ANX)), and number of affective losses within the last 5 years (AL; List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire)...
July 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Philip Chu, Reena Abraham, Kumarie Budhu, Usma Khan, Natalia De Marco Garcia, Joshua C Brumberg
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are a form of aggregate Extracellular Matrix (ECM) in the brain. Recent evidence suggests that the postnatal deposition of PNNs may play an active role in regulating neuroplasticity and, potentially, neurological disorders. Observations of high levels of PNNs expression around somas, proximal dendrites, and axon initial segments of a subtype of neurons have also led to proposals that PNNs may modulate the intrinsic properties of the neurons they ensheathe. While high levels of PNNs are postnatally expressed throughout the neocortex, it is still unclear how they impact the neuronal physiology of the many classes and subtypes of neurons that exist...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Chris Vriend, Odile A van den Heuvel, Henk W Berendse, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Linda Douw
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread neuropathological involvement of cortical and subcortical brain areas, which may therefore affect the structural brain network or 'connectome'. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph analysis we studied the structural connectome of medication-naïve PD patients. DTI was acquired in 23 early-stage PD patients and 38 age, sex and education matched healthy controls. We studied global, subnetwork and local network topology using the Brainnetome atlas...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Xiaohong Lin, Liyang Sai, Zhen Yuan
In this study, fused electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) techniques were utilized to examine the relationship between the ERP (event-related potential) component P300 and fNIRS hemodynamic signals for high-accuracy deception detection. During the performance of a modified concealed information test (CIT) task, a series of Chinese names were presented, which served as the target, irrelevant, or the probe stimuli for both the guilty and innocent groups. For participants in the guilty group, the probe stimulus was their individual name, whereas for the innocent group, the probe stimulus was one irrelevant name...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Davide Crivelli, Ludovico Pedullà, Ambra Bisio, Miguel David Sabogal Rueda, Giampaolo Brichetto, Marco Bove, Michela Balconi
Action observation is known to enhance sensorimotor system activation, and such effect has been linked to neural priming and response facilitation mechanisms. This facilitation effect, however, has been primarily studied by focusing on high-level motor proficiency, whereas evidence on the effect of observing poorly performed actions is still lacking. We then devised a study to investigate neural correlates of the observation of suboptimal motor acts as mirrored by corticospinal activation (via TMS, Experiment1) and by modulation of cortical oscillatory activity (via EEG, Experiment2)...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Yue Yang, Qingchun Zhao, Yingshi Zhang, Qiong Wu, Xiaowen Jiang, Gang Cheng
Mirror therapy (MT) as a relatively new rehabilitation technique has been widely applied in stroke patients. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the effects of MT for stroke survivors. The main purpose of this network meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of MT on motor function, activities of daily living (ADL), and pain perception in stroke survivors. Several databases were searched to identify RCTs evaluating the effects of MT in stroke patients to perform this network meta-analysis...
July 4, 2018: Neuroscience
Masataka Nakajima, Satoshi Suda, Kota Sowa, Yuki Sakamoto, Chikako Nito, Yasuhiro Nishiyama, Junya Aoki, Masayuki Ueda, Shoji Yokobori, Marina Yamada, Hiroyuki Yokota, Takashi Okada, Kazumi Kimura
Perampanel (PER), a noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor antagonist, clinically used for seizure control, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, few studies have investigated the therapeutic effects of PER in brain injury including stroke. Our aim was to investigate the neuroprotective potential of PER using a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 90-minute MCAO followed by intraperitoneal PER administration at a dose of 1...
July 4, 2018: Neuroscience
Fujiya Gomi, Yoko Uchida, Shogo Endo
β-amyloid (Aβ) plays an important role in the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vitro studies have demonstrated that Aβ oligomers induce hippocampal and neocortical neuronal death. However the neurotoxic mechanisms by which soluble Aβ oligomers cause neuronal damage and death remain to be fully elucidated. To this end, we analyzed the gene expression profile of rat cerebral cortical neurons treated with Aβ oligomers in vitro. Aβ treatment induced the expression of novel SH2 containing protein 3 (NSP3), an adaptor molecule interacting with Cas family proteins...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience
Seung H Chung, Sangita Biswas, Jiho Sohn, Peng Jiang, Samaneh Dehghan, Hassan Marzban, Wenbin Deng
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a severe type of white matter damage in premature infants and the most common cause of cerebral palsy. It is generally known to be caused by hypoxia and inflammation. Currently there is no effective treatment available, in part due to that the pathogenesis of the disease has not been well understood. The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is the serine/threonine kinase and several in vitro studies demonstrated that p38 MAPK is essential for oligodendroglial differentiation and myelination...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience
Hu Erling, Du Huan, Zhu Xinliang, Wang Leilei, Shang Sen, Wu Xingjuan, Lu Haixia, Lu Xiaoyun
Neurobiological evidence suggests that the ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) exerts many neuroprotective functions for the brain. The previous study revealed that BHBA could promote the expression of brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at glucose inadequate condition. Here we demonstrated that BHBA administration induced the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus of mice fed with normal diet. In vitro experiment results also showed that 0.02-2 mM BHBA significantly increased BDNF expression in both the primary hippocampal neurons and the hippocampus neuron cell line HT22 under adequate glucose supply...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience
Allonna Harker, Cathy Carroll, Sarah Raza, Bryan Kolb, Robbin Gibb
Whereas environmental challenges during gestation have been repeatedly shown to alter offspring brain architecture and behavior, exploration examining the consequences of paternal preconception experience on offspring outcome is limited. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of preconception paternal stress (PPS) on cerebral plasticity and behavior in the offspring. Several behavioral assays were performed on offspring between postnatal days 33 (P33) and 101 (P101). Following behavioral testing, the brains were harvested and dendritic morphology (dendritic complexity, length, and spine density) were examined on cortical pyramidal cells in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OFC), parietal cortex (Par1), and the CA1 area of the hippocampus...
June 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Eva-Lotta von Rüden, Fabio Wolf, Michael Keck, Fabio Gualtieri, Marta Nowakowska, Michael Oglesbee, Heidrun Potschka
Strong evidence exists that Toll-like receptor-mediated effects on microglia functional states can promote ictogenesis and epileptogenesis. So far, research has focused on the role of high-mobility group box protein 1 as an activator of Toll-like receptors. However, the development of targeting strategies might need to consider a role of additional receptor ligands. Considering the fact that heat shock protein A1 (hsp70) has been confirmed as a Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 ligand, we have explored the consequences of its overexpression in a mouse kindling paradigm...
June 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Camilla Boschian, Andrea Messina, Angela Bozza, Maria Elena Castellini, Giovanni Provenzano, Yuri Bozzi, Simona Casarosa
The Engrailed-2 (En2) gene codes for a homeobox-containing transcription factor, involved in midbrain-hindbrain embryonic development. In postnatal brain, En2 is expressed in the ventral mesencephalon, cerebellum, hippocampus and neocortex. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been identified in the human EN2 gene. Accordingly, mice lacking the En2 homeodomain (En2hd/hd , referred to as En2-/- ) show molecular, anatomical and behavioral "ASD-like" features...
June 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Nicholas S Gregory, Mamta Gautam, Christopher J Benson, Kathleen A Sluka
Chronic muscle pain is acutely worsened by exercise. Acid sensing ion channels (ASIC) are heteromeric channels expressed in muscle sensory neurons that detect decreases in pH. We have previously shown ASIC3 is important in activity-induced hyperalgesia. However, ASICs form heteromers with ASIC1a being a key component in sensory neurons. Therefore, we studied the role of ASIC1a in mice using behavioral pharmacology and genetic deletion in a model of activity-induced hyperalgesia. We found ASIC1a-/- mice developed mechanical hyperalgesia similar to wild-type mice, but antagonism of ASIC1a, with psalmotoxin, prevented development of mechanical hyperalgesia in wild-type mice, but not in ASIC1a-/- mice...
June 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Rachel L Hill, Jacqueline R Kulbe, Indrapal N Singh, Juan A Wang, Edward D Hall
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of lipid peroxidation (LP). Lipid peroxidation-derived neurotoxic aldehydes such as 4-HNE and acrolein bind to mitochondrial proteins, inducing additional oxidative damage and further exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction and LP. Mitochondria are heterogeneous, consisting of both synaptic and non-synaptic populations. Synaptic mitochondria are reported to be more vulnerable to injury; however, this is the first study to characterize the temporal profile of synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria following TBI, including investigation of respiratory dysfunction and oxidative damage to mitochondrial proteins between 3 and 120h following injury...
June 27, 2018: Neuroscience
Emily Dziedowiec, Sunil U Nayak, Keenan S Gruver, Tyra Jennings, Christopher S Tallarida, Scott M Rawls
Unlike the behavioral effects planarians display when exposed to cocaine, amphetamines, cathinones, ethanol and sucrose, effects of opioid receptor agonists, especially mu opioid receptor agonists, are poorly defined in these flatworms. Here, we tested the hypothesis that planarians exposed to a selective mu opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO (0.1, 1, 10 µM), would display a triad of opioid-like effects (place conditioning, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and motility changes). DAMGO was selected versus morphine because of its greater mu opioid receptor selectivity...
June 26, 2018: Neuroscience
Shunpei Moriya, Akira Yamashita, Shigetaka Kawashima, Ryusei Nishi, Akihiro Yamanaka, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is one of the origins of the brain dopaminergic system and is involved in regulating various physiological functions such as pain processing and motivation. In this study, we utilized a fiber photometry system to specifically investigate the activity of dopamine neurons in the VTA using dopamine transporter promoter-driven Cre recombinase-expressing mice and site-specific infection of adeno-associated virus carrying the FLEX G-CaMP6 gene. As expected, expression of G-CaMP6 was restricted to VTA dopamine neurons...
June 26, 2018: Neuroscience
Marianne Groleau, Mira Chamoun, Elvire Vaucher
Cholinergic stimulation coupled with visual conditioning enhances the visual acuity and cortical responses in the primary visual cortex. To determine which cholinergic receptors are involved in these processes, qRT-PCR was used. Two modes of cholinergic enhancement were tested: a phasic increase of acetylcholine release by an electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain cholinergic nucleus projecting to the visual cortex, or a tonic pharmacological potentiation of the cholinergic transmission by the acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, donepezil...
June 26, 2018: Neuroscience
Steven J Harrison, Michael Hough, Kendra Schmid, Boman Groff, Nicholas Stergiou
Rhythmic actions are characterizable as a repeating invariant pattern of movement together with variability taking the form of cycle-to-cycle fluctuations. Variability in behavioral measures is atypically random, and often exhibits serial temporal dependencies and statistical self-similarity in the scaling of variability magnitudes across timescales. Self-similar (i.e. fractal) variability scaling is evident in measures of both brain and behavior. Variability scaling structure can be quantified via the scaling exponent (α) from Detrended Fluctuation Analysis...
June 26, 2018: Neuroscience
Jesyin Lai, Edward L Bartlett
Age-related hearing decline typically includes threshold shifts as well as reduced wave I auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes due to cochlear synaptopathy/neuropathy, which may compromise precise coding of suprathreshold speech envelopes. This is supported by findings with older listeners, who have difficulties in envelope and speech processing, especially in noise. However, separating the effects of threshold elevation, synaptopathy, and degradation by noise on physiological representations may be difficult...
June 25, 2018: Neuroscience
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