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Maruf M Hoque, Manning J Sabatier, Michael Borich, Trisha Kesar, Deborah Backus
Downslope walking (DSW) causes H-reflex depression in healthy adults, and thus may hold promise for inducing spinal reflex plasticity in people with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS). The study purpose was to test the hypothesis that DSW will cause acute depression of spinal excitability in PwMS. Soleus H-reflexes were measured in PwMS (n=18) before and after 20 minutes of treadmill walking during three visits. Participants walked on a different slope each visit [level: 0% (LW), upslope: +7.5% (USW) or downslope: -7...
September 14, 2018: Neuroscience
Shu Yu, Hui Xu, Xiaojing Chi, Li Wei, Qiong Cheng, Yumin Yang, Chun Zhou, Fei Ding
2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside (salidroside analog-4 g, SalA-4 g), has been shown neuroprotective prospects for the treatment of ischemic stroke. However, the dose-response and time window study for SalA-4 g, and the mechanism of SalA-4 g-mediated neuroprotection remain unclear. Here, we systematically investigated the therapeutic time window and dosage of SalA-4 g in permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats. SalA-4 g dose-dependently improved stroke outcome. Either pre-treatment or post-treatment of SalA-4 g exhibited notable neuroprotection, and maintained for up to 6 h after ischemia onset...
September 14, 2018: Neuroscience
David T Martel, Thibaut R Pardo-Garcia, Susan E Shore
Following noise overexposure and tinnitus-induction, fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) show increased spontaneous firing rates (SFR), increased spontaneous synchrony and altered stimulus-timing dependent plasticity (StDP), which correlate with behavioral measures of tinnitus. Sodium salicylate, the active ingredient in aspirin, which is commonly used to induce tinnitus, increases SFR and activates NMDA receptors in the ascending auditory pathway. NMDA receptor activation is required for StDP in many brain regions, including the DCN...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience
Hidehiko Komatsu, Naokazu Goda
In recent years, a growing body of research has addressed the nature and mechanism of material perception. Material perception entails perceiving and recognizing a material, surface quality or internal state of an object based on sensory stimuli such as visual, tactile, and/or auditory sensations. This process is ongoing in every aspect of daily life. We can, for example, easily distinguish whether an object is made of wood or metal, or whether a surface is rough or smooth. Judging whether the ground is wet or dry or whether a fish is fresh also involves material perception...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience
Xiangyang Yu, Lili Jia, Kuoqi Yin, Jingshu Lv, Wenli Yu, Hongyin Du
Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HIR) has been found to induce hippocampus injury and cognitive dysfunction. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) is an important factor mediating excitotoxicity and neurons injury, and autophosphorylation of Src can up-regulate tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A to improve its activity. However, the role of Src and NR2A in HIR-induced hippocampus injury in young mice remains unknown. In this study, we found that serum biomarkers of brain injury (S100β and NSE) increased significantly and reached highest after reperfusion of 3 days which had the same trend with the levels of p-Src and p-NR2A...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience
Laura J Blakemore, John T Corthell, Paul Q Trombley
Glutamate is the neurotransmitter used at most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, including those in the olfactory bulb (OB). There, ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) play a role in processes such as reciprocal inhibition and glomerular synchronization. Kainate receptors (KARs) represent another type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, which are composed of five (GluK1-GluK5) subunits...
September 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Mengjuan Shang, Junling Xing
The olfactory circuitry in mice involves a well-characterized, vertical receptor type-specific organization, but the localized inhibitory effect from granule cells on action potentials that propagate laterally in secondary dendrites remains open to debate. To understand the functional dynamics of the lateral (horizontal) circuits, we analyzed odor-induced signaling using transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator specifically in mitral/tufted and some juxtaglomerular cells. Optical imaging of the dorsal olfactory bulb (dOB) revealed specific patterns of glomerular activation in response to odor presentation or direct electric stimulation of the olfactory nerve (ON)...
September 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Xiaotong Wen, Hailing Wang, Zhenghao Liu, Chenghua Liu, Kang Li, Mingzhou Ding, Xia Wu
The central executive system (CES) may be the most fundamental yet least understood component of working memory. There is an ongoing debate about which brain regions underlie the top-down regulation of CES during working memory tasks. The neural substrates and regulatory mechanisms of CES remain controversial partly because few previous studies have been focused on comprehensive activation and deactivation joint analysis on all systems involved in all working memory stages, which have shown increasing importance in depicting the neural configuration of working memory...
September 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Natalie J Mills, Kaustubh Sharma, Masudul Haque, Meagan Moore, Ryoichi Teruyama
Current evidence suggests that the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in the brain plays a significant role in the development of hypertension. ENaC is present in vasopressin (VP) neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting that ENaC in VP neurons is involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Our recent study demonstrated that high dietary salt intake caused an increase in the expression and activity of ENaC that were responsible for the more depolarized basal membrane potential in VP neurons. A known regulator of ENaC expression, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), is present in VP neurons, suggesting that ENaC expression in VP neurons is regulated by aldosterone...
September 6, 2018: Neuroscience
M R Marques, F C Nicola, E F Sanches, D M Arcego, L E Durán-Carabali, D Aristimunha, C Dalmaz, C A Netto
INTRODUCTION: Locomotor training (LT) has been exhaustively investigated as a treatment for the spinal cord injury (SCI), however the literature reports both positive and negative effects over the functional recovery. The initiation period of LT following SCI is one of the major variables that needs attention. To investigate the better period, three different starting times were investigated after SCI in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups: control, SCI (rats with spinal cord contusion), and SCI groups exposed to LT starting 7, 14 or 28 days after the injury (SCI-T7, SCI-T14 and SCI-T28)...
September 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Ying Zhou, Junchao Wu, Rui Sheng, Mei Li, Yan Wang, Rong Han, Feng Han, Zhong Chen, Zheng-Hong Qin
It is generally believed that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) has been demonstrated to have potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. In the present research, we investigated if NADPH could offer neuroprotection by inhibiting glia-mediated neuroinflammation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a mechanism contributing to PD pathogenesis...
September 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Mayu Takahashi, Yoshikazu Shinoda
Sensory signals for eye movements (visual and vestibular) are initially coded in different frames of reference but finally translated into common coordinates, and share the same final common pathway, namely the same population of extraocular motoneurons. From clinical studies in humans and lesion studies in animals, it is generally accepted that voluntary saccadic eye movements are organized in horizontal and vertical Cartesian coordinates. However, this issue is not settled yet, because neural circuits for vertical saccades remain unidentified...
September 5, 2018: Neuroscience
Mian Zhao, Jun Wang, Xinlong Xi, Nan Tan, Li Zhang
The promotion of angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are related to angiogenesis following ischemic stroke. LncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12) was upregulated in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-exposed primary brain microvascular endothelial cells and in microvessel from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal brains. However, the role and underlying mechanism of SNHG12 in ischemic stroke especially associated with angiogenesis process remain unknown...
September 4, 2018: Neuroscience
Sirine Nouri, Faisal Karmali
The vestibular system enables humans to estimate self-motion, stabilize gaze and maintain posture, but these behaviors are impacted by neural noise at all levels of processing (e.g., sensory, central, motor). Despite its essential importance, the behavioral impact of noise in human vestibular pathways is not completely understood. Here, we characterize the vestibular imprecision that results from neural noise by measuring trial-to-trial vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) variability and perceptual just-noticeable differences (JNDs) in the same human subjects as a function of stimulus intensity...
September 4, 2018: Neuroscience
Lori A Lind, Erika R Murphy, Teresa E Lever, Nicole L Nichols
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to degeneration of motor neurons and skeletal muscles, including those required for swallowing. Tongue weakness is one of the earliest signs of bulbar dysfunction in ALS, which is attributed to degeneration of motor neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus in the brainstem, the axons of which directly innervate the tongue. Despite its fundamental importance, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) and strategies to preserve swallowing function have seldom been studied in ALS models...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Chloe E Page, Laurence Coutellier
Adolescence is a window of vulnerability to environmental factors such as chronic stress that can disrupt brain development and cause long-lasting behavioral dysfunction, as seen in disorders like depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. There are also sex differences in the prevalence of these disorders across the lifespan. However, the mechanisms of how adolescent stress contributes to neuropsychiatric phenotypes are not well understood, nor are the mediating effects of sex. We hypothesize that adolescent stress disrupts the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in a sex-specific manner, as this system matures during adolescence and plays an important role in cognitive and emotional functioning...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Wei Zhou, Zhichao Xia, George K Georgiou, Hua Shu
We aimed to investigate the role of dorsal and ventral visual systems in rapid naming of simple Chinese characters. Twenty college students (10 female; Mage  = 22.5 years) were required to covertly read a character- and a cross-matrix during an fMRI experiment. A basic prosaccade and a prosaccade-naming task was also performed to confirm the functional significance of the findings. The results of whole brain analysis showed that both dorsal and ventral visual systems were activated in the character-matrix reading...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Ewelina Rojewska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargiela, Edina Szucs, Sandor Benyhe, Joanna Starnowska, Joanna Mika, Ryszard Przewlocki, Barbara Przewlocka
Clinical studies have reported lower effectivity of opioid drugs in therapy of neuropathic pain. Therefore, to determine the changes in endogenous opioid systems in this pain more precisely, we have studied the changes in the pain-related behavior on days 1, 14, and 28 following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve in mice. In parallel, we have studied the changes of -(MOP), -(DOP) and -(KOP) receptors, proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN) mRNA levels, as well as GTPγS binding of opioid receptors on the ipsi- and contralateral parts of the spinal cord and thalamus on the 14th day following CCI, as on this day the greatest manifestation of pain-related behavior was observed...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Shaina P Cahill, John Darby Cole, Ru Qi Yu, Jack Clemans-Gibbon, Jason S Snyder
Adult neurogenesis has potential to ameliorate a number of disorders that negatively impact the hippocampus, including age-related cognitive decline, depression, and schizophrenia. A number of treatments enhance adult neurogenesis including exercise, NMDA receptor antagonism, antidepressant drugs and environmental enrichment. Despite the chronic nature of many disorders, most animal studies have only examined the efficacy of neurogenic treatments over short timescales (≤1 month). Also, studies of neurogenesis typically include only 1 sex, even though many disorders differentially impact males and females...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience
P Balaram, T A Hackett, D B Polley
Debilitating perceptual disorders including tinnitus, hyperacusis, phantom limb pain and visual release hallucinations may reflect aberrant patterns of neural activity in central sensory pathways following a loss of peripheral sensory input. Here, we explore short- and long-term changes in gene expression that may contribute to hyperexcitability following a sudden, profound loss of auditory input to one ear. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization to quantify mRNA levels for genes encoding AMPA and GABAA receptor subunits (Gria2 and Gabra1, respectively) in single neurons from the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (ACtx)...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience
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