journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neuroscience

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223243/on-the-verge-of-a-respiratory-type-panic-attack-selective-activations-of-rostrolateral-and-caudoventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-matter-following-short-lasting-escape-to-a-low-dose-of-potassium-cyanide
#1
Cláudia Janaina Torres Müller, Jeyce Willig Quintino-Dos-Santos, Fagna Giacomin Schimitel, Sérgio Tufik, Vanessa Beijamini, Newton Sabino Canteras, Luiz Carlos Schenberg
Intravenous injections of potassium cyanide (KCN) both elicit escape by its own and facilitate escape to electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). Moreover, whereas the KCN-evoked escape is potentiated by CO2, it is suppressed by both lesions of PAG and clinically-effective treatments with panicolytics. These and other data suggest that the PAG harbors a hypoxia-sensitive alarm system which activation could both precipitate panic and render the subject hypersensitive to CO2. Although prior c-Fos immunohistochemistry studies reported widespread activations of PAG following KCN injections, the employment of repeated injections of high doses of KCN (>60 µg) in anesthetized rats compromised both the localization of KCN-responsive areas and their correlation with escape behavior...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223242/fviia-prevents-the-progressive-hemorrhaging-of-a-brain-contusion-by-protecting-microvessels-via-formation-of-the-tf-fviia-fxa-complex
#2
Qiang Yuan, Dalong Zhang, Sirong Wu, Jian Yu, Lei Yu, Yirui Sun, Zhuoying Du, Zhiqi Li, Liangfu Zhou, Xing Wu, Jin Hu
Factor VII (FVII) plays a key role in the initiation of the coagulation cascade and, in clinical situations, recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) effectively prevents progressive hemorrhaging after a brain contusion. However, it remains unclear whether decreases in FVII activity directly lead to progressive hemorrhaging and, moreover, the precise mechanisms underlying this process are not yet known. The present study demonstrated that decreased FVII activity directly led to progressive hemorrhaging of the cerebral contusions...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223241/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-differential-activation-of-microglial-genes-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#3
Akbar Khan, Furong Ju, Wenguang Xie, Muhammad Tariq Hafeez, Xiaofeng Cheng, Zhijie Yang, Lirui Zhu, Ting Li, Shengxiang Zy
Microglia are immune cells in the brain and play a pivotal role in the progression of ischemic injury, but the gene expression and signaling pathways related to the activation of microglia following ischemia remain unclear. In our experiment, we used digital gene expression (DGE) analysis to profile the transcriptome of ischemic tissue in a photothrombosis model. DGE analysis identified that a total of 749 genes were differentially regulated (643 up-regulated and 106 down-regulated) after 2 days and 7 days following stroke...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223240/carbachol-induced-network-oscillations-in-an-in-vitro-limbic-system-brain-slice
#4
Maxime Lévesque, Mauro Cataldi, Li-Yuan Chen, Shabnam Hamidi, Massimo Avoli
We employed simultaneous field potential recordings from CA3, subiculum and entorhinal cortex in an in vitro brain slice preparation to understand the involvement of these limbic areas in the generation of the field potential oscillations that are induced by bath application of the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol. Regularly spaced oscillations that mainly presented at theta frequency range (5-12 Hz) occurred synchronously in all three structures in the presence of carbachol. These oscillations, which disappeared when slices were perfused with pirenzepine or with glutamatergic receptor antagonists, were categorized as short (< 4 s) and long (> 4s) with short events oscillating at higher frequencies than long events...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223239/anterior-insula-signals-inequalities-in-a-modified-ultimatum-game
#5
Xuemei Cheng, Li Zheng, Lin Li, Yijie Zheng, Xiuyan Guo, Guang Yang
Studies employing the Ultimatum Game (UG) which involves two parties (i.e., proposers and responders) splitting some money have suggested the role that anterior insula (AI) plays in detecting fairness norm violation, i.e., violation of the responder's expectation of receiving equal splits from the proposer. In this study, we explored how AI would respond when there existed simultaneously another expectation of being treated equivalently as others. Participants acted as responders and would be informed about both the offers they received and the average amount of money the same proposer offered to others...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215749/steady-state-centrifugal-input-via-the-lateral-olfactory-tract-modulates-spontaneous-activity-in-the-rat-main-olfactory-bulb
#6
Neil C Ford, Edwin R Griff
Mitral and tufted cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of anesthetized rats exhibit vigorous spontaneous activity, action potentials produced in the absence of odor stimuli. The central hypothesis of this paper is that tonic activity of centrifugal input to the MOB modulates the spontaneous activity of MOB neurons. The spontaneous activity of centrifugal fibers causes a baseline of steady-state neurotransmitter release, and odor stimulation produces transient changes in the resulting spontaneous activity...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215748/long-non-coding-rna-snhg14-promotes-microglia-activation-by-regulating-mir-145-5p-pla2g4a-in-cerebral-infarction
#7
Xu Qi, Ming Shao, Hongjing Sun, Yue Shen, Delong Meng, Wei Huo
Activated microglia cells (MCs) are able to release a large amount of inflammatory cytokines after ischemic stroke, which exacerbates neuron damage. In this study, we explored the functional involvement of lncRNA SNHG14 and its potential regulatory mechanism in the activation of MCs. The mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and microglia cell model of oxygen/glucose deprivation were made. The expression of SNHG14, miR-145-5p and PLA2G4A protein expression was determined by quantitative real time PCR and western blot, respectively...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215747/unexpected-acoustic-stimulation-during-action-preparation-reveals-gradual-re-specification-of-movement-direction
#8
Welber Marinovic, James Tresilian, Jack L Chapple, Stephan Riek, Timothy Carroll
A loud acoustic stimulus (LAS) is often used as a tool to investigate motor preparation in simple reaction time (RT) tasks, where all movement parameters are known in advance. In this report, we used a LAS to examinedirection specification in simple and choice RT tasks. This allowed us toinvestigatehow the specification of movement direction unfolds during the preparation period. In two experiments, participants responded to the appearance of an imperative stimulus (IS) with a ballistic wrist force directed towards one of two targets...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215746/performance-of-a-concurrent-cognitive-task-modifies-pre-and-post-perturbation-evoked-cortical-activity
#9
George Mochizuki, Shaun G Boe, Amanda Marlin, William E McIlroy
Preparation for postural instability engages cortical resources that serve to optimize compensatory balance responses. Engagement of these cortical resources in cognitive dual-task activities may impact the ability to appropriately prepare and optimize responses to instability. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cognitive dual-task activities influenced cortical activity preceding and following postural instability. Postural instability was induced using a lean-and-release paradigm in 10 healthy participants...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215745/astrocyte-transport-of-glutamate-and-neuronal-activity-reciprocally-modulate-tau-pathology-in-drosophila
#10
Jason G Kilian, Heng-Wei Hsu, Kenneth Mata, Fred W Wolf, Masashi Kitazawa
Abnormal buildup of the microtubule associated protein tau is a major pathological hallmark of SAlzheimer's disease (AD)and various tauopathies. The mechanisms by which pathological tau accumulates and spreads throughout the brain remain largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that a restoration of the major astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT1, ameliorated a buildup of tau pathology and rescued cognition in a mouse model of AD. We hypothesized thataberrant extracellular glutamate and abnormal neuronal excitatory activities promoted tau pathology...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215744/cart-peptide-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-regulates-psychostimulants-correlations-between-psychostimulant-and-cart-peptide-effects
#11
Martin O Job, Michael J Kuhar
In this study, we reexamined the effect of CART peptide on psychostimulant (PS)-induced locomotor activity (LMA) in individual rats. The Methods utilized were as previously published. The PS-induced LMA was defined as the distance traveled after PS administration (intraperitoneal), and the CART peptide effect was defined as the change in the PS-induced activity after bilateral intra-NAc administration of CART peptide. The experiments included both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, and varying the CART peptide dose and the PS dose...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214580/localization-of-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-prairie-vole-microtus-ochrogaster-neocortex
#12
Auriane Duchemin, Adele M H Seelke, Trenton C Simmons, Sara M Freeman, Karen L Bales
Early experience and social context interact to alter the phenotype of complex social behaviors. These early experiences can also result in alterations to cortical organization and connections. Given the ability of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) to modulate social and reproductive behavior, OT is likely involved in these cortical processes. However, little is known about the distribution of OT and OT receptors (OTR) within the neocortex. Using autoradiographic and neuroanatomical techniques, we characterized the cortical distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) in prairie voles, a socially monogamous rodent species...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214579/motor-training-and-the-combination-of-action-observation-and-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-reciprocally-interfere-with-the-plastic-changes-induced-in-primary-motor-cortex-excitability
#13
Ambra Bisio, Laura Avanzino, Monica Biggio, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove
AO-PNS is a stimulation protocol combining action observation (AO) and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) to induce plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) (increased excitability). Another method to increase M1 excitability is motor training. The combination of two protocols, which individually induce long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in overlapping neural circuits, results in a transitory occlusion or reverse of this phenomenon. This study aimed to understand the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying AO-PNS by testing whether AO-PNS and motor training induced LTP-like plasticity in, at least partially, overlapping neural networks...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214578/increasing-lateralized-motor-activity-in-younger-and-older-adults-using-real-time-fmri-during-executed-movements
#14
Heather F Neyedli, Cassandra Sampaio-Baptista, Matthew A Kirkman, David Havard, Michael Lührs, Katie Ramsden, David D Flitney, Stuart Clare, Rainer Goebel, Heidi Johansen-Berg
Neurofeedback training involves presenting an individual with a representation of their brain activity and instructing them to alter the activity using the feedback. One potential application of neurofeedback is for patients to alter neural improve function. For example, there is evidence that greater laterality of movement-related activity is associated with better motor outcomes after stroke; so using neurofeedback to increase laterality may provide a novel route for improving outcomes. However, we must demonstrate that individuals can control relevant neurofeedback signals...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214577/parafascicular-thalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-decreases-nmda-receptor-glun1-subunit-gene-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Mónica R Fernández-Cabrera, Abraham Selvas, Miguel Miguéns, Alejandro Higuera-Matas, Anna Vale-Martínez, Emilio Ambrosio, Margarita Martí-Nicolovius, Gemma Guillazo-Blanch
The rodent parafascicular nucleus (PFn) or the centromedian-parafascicular complex of primates is a posterior intralaminar nucleus of the thalamus related to cortical activation and maintenance of states of consciousness underlying attention, learning and memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the PFn has been proved to restore arousal and consciousness in humans and to enhance performance in learning and memory tasks in rats. The primary expected effect of PFn DBS is to induce plastic changes in target neurons of brain areas associated with cognitive function...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214576/amplified-induced-neural-oscillatory-activity-predicts-musicians-benefits-in-categorical-speech-perception
#16
Gavin M Bidelman
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reveal musical experience refines neural encoding and confers stronger categorical perception (CP) and neural organization for speech sounds. In addition to evoked brain activity, the human EEG can be decomposed into induced (non-phase-locked) response whose various frequency bands reflect different mechanisms of perceptual-cognitive processing. Here, we aimed to clarify which spectral properties of these neural oscillations are most prone to music-related neuroplasticity and which are linked to behavioral benefits in the categorization of speech...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212832/motor-dysfunction-and-alterations-in-glutathione-concentration-cholinesterase-activity-and-bdnf-expression-in-substantia-nigra-pars-compacta-in-rats-with-pedunculopontine-lesion
#17
Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, Javier Jimenez-Martin, Mei-Li Díaz-Hung, Esteban Alberti-Amador, Maylin Wong-Guerra, Ma Elena González-Fraguela, Bárbara Estupiñán-Díaz, Teresa Serrano-Sánchez, Liliana Francis-Turner, Susana Delgado-Ocaña, Yanier Núñez-Figueredo, Yamilé Vega-Hurtado, Isabel Fernández-Jiménez
Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been considered a critically important region in the regulation of some of the physiological functions that fail during the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, the effects of unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN [through the injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) solution (concentration: 0.1M; volume: 0.5µL)] in motor execution and gait disorders and the changes in cellular and molecular indicators in rat nigral tissue were evaluated. The motor execution was assessed using the beam test (BT) and the gait disorders by footprint test...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#18
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215988/a-computational-model-of-the-respiratory-network-challenged-and-optimized-by-data-from-optogenetic-manipulation-of-glycinergic-neurons
#19
Yoshitaka Oku, Swen Hülsmann
The topology of the respiratory network in the brainstem has been addressed using different computational models, which help to understand the functional properties of the system. We tested a neural mass model by comparing the result of activation and inhibition of inhibitory neurons in silico with recently published results of optogenetic manipulation of glycinergic neurons [Sherman, et al. (2015) Nat Neurosci 18:408]. The comparison revealed that a five-cell type model consisting of three classes of inhibitory neurons [I-DEC, E-AUG, E-DEC (PI)] and two excitatory populations (pre-I/I) and (I-AUG) neurons can be applied to explain experimental observations made by stimulating or inhibiting inhibitory neurons by light sensitive ion channels...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215987/accelerated-retinal-aging-in-pacap-knock-out-mice
#20
Andrea Kovács-Valasek, Krisztina Szabadfi, Viktória Dénes, Bálint Szalontai, Andrea Tamás, Péter Kiss, Aliz Szabó, Gyorgy Setalo, Dóra Reglődi, Robert Gábriel
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide. PACAP and its receptors are widely distributed in the retina. A number of reports provided evidence that PACAP is neuroprotective in retinal degenerations. The current study compared retina cell type-specific differences in young (3-4months) and aged adults (14-16months), of wild-type (WT) mice and knock-out (KO) mice lacking endogenous PACAP production during the course of aging. Histological, immunocytochemical and Western blot examinations were performed...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
journal
journal
26672
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"