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Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089870/large-dense-core-vesicle-exocytosis-from-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-is-regulated-by-neuropeptide-y
#1
Anneka Bost, Ali H Shaib, Yvonne Schwarz, Barbara A Niemeyer, Ute Becherer
Peptidergic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons transmit sensory and nociceptive information from the periphery to the central nervous system. Their synaptic activity is profoundly affected by neuromodulatory peptides stored and released from large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs). However, the mechanism of peptide secretion from DRG neurons is poorly understood. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), we visualized individual LDCVs loaded with fluorescent neuropeptide Y (NPY) and analyzed their stimulation-dependent release...
January 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089601/corrigendum-to-behavioural-and-neurochemical-consequences-of-chronic-gut-microbiota-depletion-during-adulthood-in-the-rat-neuroscience-339-2016-463-477
#2
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088488/average-activity-but-not-variability-is-the-dominant-factor-in-the-representation-of-object-categories-in-the-brain
#3
Hamid Karimi-Rouzbahani, Nasour Bagheri, Reza Ebrahimpour
To categorize the perceived objects, brain utilizes a broad set of its resources and encoding strategies. Yet, it remains elusive how the category information is encoded in the brain. While many classical studies have sought the category information in the across-trials-averaged activity of neurons/neural populations, several recent studies have observed category information also in the within-trial correlated variability of activities between neural populations (i.e. dependent variability). Moreover, other studies have observed that independent variability of activity, which is the variability of the measured neural activity without any influence from correlated variability with other neurons/populations, could also be modulated for improved categorization...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087339/differential-behavioral-sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-inhalation-in-rats
#4
Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Devanshi Naik, Renu Sah
Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087338/auditory-hindbrain-atrophy-and-anomalous-calcium-binding-protein-expression-after-neonatal-exposure-to-monosodium-glutamate
#5
Lindsey Foran, Kaitlyn Blackburn, Randy J Kulesza
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is stored and released by both neurons and astrocytes. Despite the important role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter, elevated extracellular glutamate can result in excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring sodium salt of glutamic acid that is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Previous studies have shown that MSG administration during the early postnatal period results in neurodegenerative changes in several forebrain regions, characterized by neuronal loss and neuroendocrine abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087337/tunicamycin-impairs-olfactory-learning-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#6
Jia Tong, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Mustuo Taniguchi, Toshiharu Namba, Yu-Jie Wang, Hideto Kaba
Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089578/dual-influences-of-early-life-maternal-deprivation-on-histone-deacetylase-activity-and-recognition-memory-in-rats
#7
Manoel Osório Albuquerque Filho, Betânia Souza de Freitas, Rebeca Carvalho Lacerda Garcia, Pedro Castilhos de Freitas Crivelaro, Nadja Schröder, Maria Noêmia Martins de Lima
Exposure to stress early in life may negatively impact nervous system functioning, including increasing the proneness to learning and memory impairments later in life. Maternal deprivation, a model of early-life stress, hinders memory in adult rats and lessens brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus in a very heterogeneous way among individuals. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the possible epigenetic modulation underlying recognition memory impairment and reduced BDNF levels in the hippocampus of adult maternally deprived rats...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089577/neutralizing-anti-interleukin-1%C3%AE-antibodies-reduce-ischemia-related-interleukin-1%C3%AE-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-fetal-sheep
#8
Aparna Patra, Xiaodi Chen, Grazyna B Sadowska, Jiyong Zhang, Yow-Pin Lim, James F Padbury, William A Banks, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic ischemic insults predispose to perinatal brain injury. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in the evolution of this injury. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key mediator of inflammatory responses and elevated IL-1β levels in brain correlate with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after brain injury. Impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the fetus. In addition, ischemia-reperfusion increases cytokine transport across the BBB of the ovine fetus...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089576/conditional-deletion-of-pejvakin-in-adult-outer-hair-cells-causes-progressive-hearing-loss-in-mice
#9
Suzan L Harris, Marcin Kazmierczak, Tina Pangršič, Prahar Shah, Nadiya Chuchvara, Alonso Barrantes-Freer, Tobias Moser, Martin Schwander
Mutations in the Pejvakin (Pjvk) gene cause autosomal recessive hearing loss DFNB59 with audiological features of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) or cochlear dysfunction. The precise mechanisms underlying the variable clinical phenotypes of DFNB59 remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mice with conditional ablation of the Pjvk gene in all sensory hair cells or only in outer hair cells (OHCs) show similar auditory phenotypes with early-onset profound hearing loss. By contrast, loss of Pjvk in adult OHCs causes a slowly progressive hearing loss associated with OHC degeneration and delayed loss of inner hair cells (IHCs), indicating a primary role for pejvakin in regulating OHC function and survival...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087336/oleate-induces-katp-channel-dependent-hyperpolarisation-in-mouse-hypothalamic-glucose-excited-neurones-without-altering-cellular-energy-charge
#10
Selma Dadak, Craig Beall, Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Marc Pm Soutar, Rory J McCrimmon, Michael L J Ashford
The unsaturated fatty acid, oleate exhibits anorexigenic properties reducing food intake and hepatic glucose output. However, its mechanism of action in the hypothalamus has not been fully determined. This study investigated the effects of oleate and glucose on GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic cells (a model of glucose-excited (GE) neurones) and mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones. Whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings, immunoblotting and cell energy status measures were used to investigate oleate and glucose sensing properties of mouse hypothalamic neurones...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077279/homology-analysis-detects-topological-changes-of-iba1-localization-accompanied-by-microglial-activation
#11
Toshinori Sawano, Ryo Tsuchihashi, Eiichi Morii, Fumiya Watanabe, Kazuaki Nakane, Shinobu Inagaki
The state of microglial activation provides important information about the central nervous system. However, a reliable index of microglial activation in histological samples has yet to be established. Here, we show that microglial activation induces topological changes of Iba1 localization that can be detected by analysis based on homology theory. Analysis of homology was applied to images of Iba1-stained tissue sections, and the 0-dimentional Betti number (b0: the number of solid components) and the 1-dimentional Betti number (b1: the number of windows surrounded by solid components) were obtained...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077278/oscillatory-eeg-activity-induced-by-conditioning-stimuli-during-fear-conditioning-reflects-salience-and-valence-of-these-stimuli-more-than-expectancy
#12
J H Chien, L Colloca, A Korzeniewska, J J Cheng, C M Campbell, A E Hillis, F A Lenz
Imaging studies have described hemodynamic activity during fear conditioning protocols with stimulus trains in which a visual conditioned stimulus (CS+) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US, painful laser pulse) while another visual stimulus is unpaired (CS-). We now test the hypothesis that CS Event Related Spectral Perturbations (ERSPs) are related to ratings of CS Expectancy (likelihood of pairing with the US), Valence (unpleasantness) and Salience (ability to capture attention). ERSP windows in EEG were defined by both time after the CS and frequency, and showed increased oscillatory power (Event Related Synchronization, ERS) in the delta/theta Windows (0-8 Hz) and the gamma Window (30-55 Hz)...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069530/structural-changes-in-functionally-illiterate-adults-after-intensive-training
#13
Melanie Boltzmann, Bahram Mohammadi, Amir Samii, Thomas F Münte, Jascha Rüsseler
About 7.5million adults in Germany cannot read and write properly despite attending school for several years. They are considered to be functional illiterates. Since the ability to read and write is crucial for being employed and socially accepted, we developed a literacy training to overcome these deficits. In this study, we investigate the structural changes induced by the training. A group of 20 functional illiterates and 20 adult normal readers participated in the study. Group differences as well as intervention-related changes in gray (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and white matter (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, TBSS, applied to fractional anisotropy, FA, obtained with diffusion tensor imaging, DTI) were assessed in functional illiterates and normal reading controls...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069532/neural-plasticity-and-network-remodeling-from-concepts-to-pathology
#14
REVIEW
Erez James Cohen, Eros Quarta, Riccardo Bravi, Alberto Granato, Diego Minciacchi
Neuroplasticity has been subject to a great deal of research in the last century. Recently, significant emphasis has been placed on the global effect of localized plastic changes throughout the central nervous system, and on how these changes integrate in a pathological context. Specifically, alterations of network functionality have been described in various pathological contexts to which corresponding structural alterations have been proposed. However, considering the amount of literature and the different pathological contexts, an integration of this information is still lacking...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069531/can-we-predict-who-will-respond-to-neurofeedback-a-review-of-the-inefficacy-problem-and-existing-predictors-for-successful-eeg-neurofeedback-learning
#15
REVIEW
O Alkoby, A Abu-Rmileh, O Shriki, D Todder
Despite the success of neurofeedback treatment in many cases, the variability in the efficacy of the treatment is high, and some studies report that a significant proportion of subjects does not benefit from it. Quantifying the extent of this problem is difficult, as many studies do not report the variability among subjects. Nonetheless, the ability to identify in advance those subjects who are - or who are not - likely to benefit from neurofeedback is an important issue, which is only now starting to gain attention...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062192/direct-effects-of-glucose-insulin-glp-1-and-gip-on-bulbospinal-neurons-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-in-neonatal-wistar-rats
#16
Naoki Oshima, Hiroshi Onimaru, Hidehito Matsubara, Takahiro Uchida, Atsushi Watanabe, Toshihiko Imakiire, Yasuhiro Nishida, Hiroo Kumagai
Although patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often exhibit hypertension, the mechanisms responsible for this correlation are not well known. We hypothesized that the bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are affected by the levels of glucose, insulin, or incretins (glucagon like peptide-1 [GLP-1] or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP]) in patients with DM. To investigate whether RVLM neurons are activated by glucose, insulin, GLP-1, or GIP, we examined changes in the membrane potentials of bulbospinal RVLM neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp technique during superfusion with various levels of glucose or these hormones in neonatal Wistar rats...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057539/effects-of-ibuprofen-on-cognition-and-nmda-receptor-subunit-expression-across-aging
#17
Alejandra Márquez Loza, Valerie Elias, Carmen P Wong, Emily Ho, Michelle Bermudez, Kathy R Magnusson
Age-related declines in long- and short-term memory show relationships to decreases in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression, which may involve inflammation. This study was designed to determine effects of an anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, on cognitive function and NMDA receptor expression across aging. Male C57BL/6 mice (ages 5, 14, 20, and 26months) were fed ibuprofen (375ppm) in NIH31 diet or diet alone for 6weeks prior to testing. Behavioral testing using the Morris water maze showed that older mice performed significantly worse than younger in spatial long-term memory, reversal, and short-term memory tasks...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057538/neuropeptide-y-y2-and-y5-receptors-as-promising-targets-for-neuroprotection-in-primary-neurons-exposed-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-in-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#18
Helena Domin, Łukasz Przykaza, Danuta Jantas, Ewa Kozniewska, Paweł M Boguszewski, Maria Śmiałowska
It was postulated that neuropeptide Y (NPY)-ergic system could be involved in the ischemic pathophysiology, however, the role of particular subtypes of NPY receptors (YRs) in neuroprotection against ischemia is still not well known. Therefore, we investigated the effect of NPY and YR ligands using in vitro and in vivo experimental ischemic stroke models. Our in vitro findings showed that NPY (0.5-1μM) and specific agonists of Y2R (0.1-1μM) and Y5R (0.5-1μM) but not that of Y1R produced neuroprotective effects against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal cell death, being also effective when given 30min after the end of OGD...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057537/the-chloride-co-transporters-nkcc1-and-kcc2-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae
#19
Muhammad Saad Yousuf, Kasia Zubkow, Gustavo Tenorio, Bradley Kerr
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) often complain of neuropathic pain. According to the Gate Control Theory of Pain, spinal networks of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are important in modulating nociceptive inputs from the periphery. Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) and K+-Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) generally dictate the tone of GABA/glycine inhibition by regulating intracellular chloride concentrations. In this study, we investigated the role of NKCC1 and KCC2 in neuropathic pain observed in the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used model to study the pathophysiology of MS...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057536/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-to-the-inferior-parietal-lobe-decreases-mu-suppression-to-egocentric-but-not-allocentric-hand-movements
#20
Monica B Berntsen, Nicholas R Cooper, Vincenzo Romei
Egocentric vs. allocentric perspective during observation of hand movements has been related to self-other differentiation such that movements observed from an egocentric viewpoint have been considered as self-related while movements observed from an allocentric viewpoint have been considered as belonging to someone else. Correlational studies have generally found that egocentric perspective induces greater neurophysiological responses and larger behavioral effects compared to an allocentric perspective. However, recent studies question previous findings by reporting greater (μ) suppression and greater transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) during observation of allocentric compared to egocentric movements...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
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