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Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031607/hearing-without-neuroglobin
#1
Manuela Nowotny, Lenneke Kiefer, Daniel Andre, Thomas Hankeln, Stefan Reuss
Neuroglobin is a member of the globin family of respiratory proteins, which was recently observed in many neurons of the auditory pathways. Up to now, however, nothing was known about the role of neuroglobin in hearing processes. We therefore studied auditory function by recording distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in wild-type (C57BL/6N) and neuroglobin-knockout mice. In KO mice, DPOAE thresholds were moderately augmented in the range of 5-18 kHz, reaching statistical significance at 8 and 10 kHz, while the ABR thresholds were not different between groups...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031604/sex-mediates-the-effects-of-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-mind-reading
#2
A K Martin, J Huang, A Hunold, M Meinzer
Sex differences in social cognitive ability are well established, including measures of Theory of Mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to investigate if sex mediates the effects of high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) administered to a key hub of the social brain (i.e., the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dmPFC) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). 40 healthy young adults (18-35 years) were randomly allocated to receive either anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS in sham HD-tDCS controlled, double blind designs...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031603/xanthurenic-acid-formation-from-3-hydroxykynurenine-in-the-mammalian-brain-neurochemical-characterization-and-physiological-effects
#3
K V Sathyasaikumar, M Tararina, H-Q Wu, S A Neale, F Weisz, T E Salt, R Schwarcz
Xanthurenic acid (XA), formed from 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, may modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by inhibiting the vesicular glutamate transporter and/or activating Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Here we examined the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which 3-HK controls the neosynthesis of XA in rat, mouse and human brain, and compared the physiological actions of 3-HK and XA in the rat brain. In tissue homogenates, XA formation from 3-HK was observed in all three species and traced to a major role of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II)...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031602/microstructural-mri-basis-of-the-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#4
G Olivito, M Lupo, C Iacobacci, S Clausi, S Romano, M Masciullo, M Molinari, M Cercignani, M Bozzali, M Leggio
Spinocerebellarataxiatype2(SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebellum. The particular atrophy pattern results in some typical clinical features mainly including motor deficits. In addition, the presence of cognitive impairments, involving language, visuospatial and executive functions, has been also shown in SCA2 patients and it is now widely accepted as a feature of the disease. The aim of the study is to investigate the microstructural patterns and the anatomo-functional substrate that could account for the cognitive symptomatology observed in SCA2 patients...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031601/enhancing-generalization-of-visuomotor-adaptation-by-inducing-use-dependent-learning
#5
Yuming Lei, Shancheng Bao, Monica A Perez, Jinsung Wang
Learning a motor task in one condition typically generalizes to another, although it is unclear why it generalizes substantially in certain situations, but only partially in other situations (e.g., across movement directions and motor effectors). Here, we demonstrate that generalization of motor learning across directions and effectors can be enhanced substantially by inducing use-dependent learning, that is, by having subjects experience motor actions associated with a desired trajectory repeatedly during reaching movements...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030287/inhibition-of-pain-and-pain-related-brain-activity-by-heterotopic-noxious-counter-stimulation-and-selective-attention-in-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain
#6
Alexandra Ladouceur, Nabi Rustamov, Jean-Daniel Dubois, Jessica Tessier, Alexandre Lehmann, Martin Descarreaux, Pierre Rainville, Mathieu Piché
The aim of the present study was to assess inhibition of pain and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) by heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation (HNCS) and by selective attention in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Seventeen patients and age/sex matched controls were recruited (10 men, 7 women; mean age ± SD: 43.3 ± 10.4 and 42.7 ± 11.1, respectively). On average, patients with LBP reported pain duration of 7.6 ± 6.5 years, light to moderate disability (19.3 ± 5.7/100) and low clinical pain intensity (21...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030286/peptides-acting-as-cognitive-enhancers
#7
Diego Asua, Ghassen Bougamra, María Calleja, Miguel Morales, Shira Knafo
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of three peptides that, by improving synaptic function, enhance learning and memory in laboratory rodents. We summarize their structure, their mechanisms of action, and their effects on synaptic and cognitive function. First we describe FGL, a peptide derived from the neural cell adhesion molecule which improves cognition by the activation of the PKC pathway that triggers an activity-dependent delivery of AMPA receptors to the synapses. Then we describe PTD4-PI3KAc peptide that by activating PI3K signalling pathway it promotes synapse and spine formation and enhances hippocampal dependent memory...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024787/ketogenic-metabolism-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-hdac-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat
#8
Xiaomeng Wang, Xiaoliang Wu, Qi Liu, Ganggang Kong, Jian Zhou, Jie Jiang, Xiuhua Wu, Zhiping Huang, Wanhan Su, Qingan Zhu
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ketogenic metabolism, induced by different diet interventions, on histone acetylation and its potential antioxidant capacity to injured spinal cord tissue in rats. 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, fed with ketogenic diet (KD), every other day fasting (EODF), every other day ketogenic diet (EODKD) and standard diet (SD) respectively for 2 weeks. β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) concentration was measured both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024786/neurobiological-correlates-of-pain-avoidance-like-behavior-in-morphine-dependent-and-non-dependent-rats
#9
Amanda R Pahng, Rod I Paulsen, M Adrienne McGinn, Kimberly N Edwards, Scott Edwards
Repeated use of opioids can lead to the development of analgesic tolerance and dependence. Additionally, chronic opioid exposure can cause a paradoxical emergence of heightened pain sensitivity to noxious stimuli, termed hyperalgesia, which may drive continued or escalated use of opioids to manage worsening pain symptoms. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia has traditionally been measured in rodents via reflex-based assays, including the von Frey method. To better model the cognitive/motivational dimension of pain in a state of opioid dependence and withdrawal, we employed a recently developed non-reflex-based method for measuring pain avoidance-like behavior in animals (mechanical conflict avoidance test)...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024785/slow-intrathecal-injection-of-raavrh10-enhances-its-transduction-of-spinal-cord-and-therapeutic-efficacy-in-a-mutant-sod1-model-of-als
#10
Dongxiao Li, Chong Liu, Chunxing Yang, Dan Wang, Dongxia Wu, Yinkuang Qi, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Zuoshang Xu, Yansu Guo
Mutant SOD1 causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by a dominant gain of toxicity. Previous studies have demonstrated therapeutic potential of mutant SOD1-RNAi delivered by intrathecal (IT) injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). However, optimization of delivery is needed to overcome the high degree of variation in the transduction efficiency and therapeutic efficacy. Here, on the basis of our previously defined, efficient IT injection method, we investigated the influence of injection speed on transduction efficiency in the central nervous system (CNS)...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024784/causal-role-of-noradrenaline-in-the-timing-of-internally-generated-saccades-in-monkeys
#11
Tomoki W Suzuki, Masaki Tanaka
We recently found that when monkeys performed an oculomotor version of the time production task, the trial-by-trial latency of self-timed saccades was negatively correlated with pupil diameter just before the delay period (Suzuki et al., 2016). Since pupil diameter has been shown to correlate with neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus, the level of noradrenaline (NA) in the brain might regulate the subjective passage of time. To examine this, we orally administered a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (reboxetine, 0...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993238/thalamo-insular-pathway-conveying-orofacial-muscle-proprioception-in-the-rat
#12
Fumihiko Sato, Yume Uemura, Chiharu Kanno, Yumi Tsutsumi, Akiko Tomita, Ayaka Oka, Takafumi Kato, Katsuro Uchino, Jumpei Murakami, Tahsinul Haque, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Atsushi Yoshida
Little is known about how proprioceptive signals arising from muscles reach to higher brain regions such as the cerebral cortex. We have recently shown that a particular thalamic region, the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM), conveys the proprioceptive signals from jaw-closing muscle spindles (JCMSs) in rats. In this study, we further addressed how the orofacial thalamic inputs from the JCMSs were transmitted from the thalamus (VPMcvm) to the cerebral cortex in rats...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993237/sonic-hedgehog-induces-glt-1-degradation-via-pkc-delta-to-suppress-its-transporter-activities
#13
Yuqing Wang, Shanshan Lu, Zhongwei Qu, Lin Wu, Yizheng Wang
GLT-1 is mainly expressed in astrocytes and has a crucial role in glutamate uptake. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) can inhibit glutamate uptake and its pathway is activated in many brain diseases related with glutamate excitotoxicity. However, whether SHH regulates GLT-1 to affect glutamate uptake is not clear. Here, we use pharmacological and genetic methods to show that SHH induces GLT-1 degradation in astrocytes in a manner that is dependent on PKC delta (PKCδ) to regulate GLT-1 activities. GLT-1 protein levels are reduced as early as 2 hs in astrocytes after incubation with SHH, whereas its mRNA levels are not changed...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988851/ablation-of-c-fibers-decreases-quantal-size-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-in-the-insular-cortex
#14
Shota Murayama, Kiyofumi Yamamoto, Mari Kaneko, Bunnai Ogiso, Masayuki Kobayashi
The primary sensory cortex exhibits neuroplastic changes responding to sensory disturbances, and GABAergic synaptic transmission plays a critical role in the regulation of plasticity. The insular cortex (IC) integrates orofacial nociceptive signals conveyed via myelinated Aδ- and unmyelinated C-fibers. However, it has been unknown whether a disturbance of nociceptive inputs, such as a deletion of the peripheral nerves, alters GABAergic local circuit in IC. The present study elucidated GABAergic synaptic transmission in the model rat whose C-fibers were ablated by capsaicin injection 1-2 days after birth...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988852/assessment-of-a-nutritional-supplement-containing-resveratrol-prebiotic-fiber-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#15
Sabrina Salberg, Glenn Yamakawa, Jennaya Christensen, Bryan Kolb, Richelle Mychasiuk
Children and adolescents have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI), with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for most of these injuries. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable and often suffer from post-injury symptomologies that may persist for months. We hypothesized that the combination of resveratrol (RES), prebiotic fiber (PBF), and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) would be an effective therapeutic supplement for the mitigation of mTBI outcomes in the developing brain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the supplement (3S) or control condition, which was followed by a mTBI or sham insult...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987512/genes-linking-mitochondrial-function-cognitive-impairment-and-depression-are-associated-with-endophenotypes-serving-precision-medicine
#16
Peter Petschner, Xenia Gonda, Daniel Baksa, Nora Eszlari, Michael Trivaks, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
Mitochondria densely populate cells in central nervous system providing essential energy for neurons and influencing synaptic plasticity. Harm to these organelles can impair cognitive performance through damaged neurotransmission and altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Impaired cognition could be one underlying factor which can characterize major depressive disorder, a huge burden for society marked by depressed mood and anhedonia. A growing body of evidence binds mitochondrial dysfunctions with the disease. Cognitive disturbances with different severity are also observable in several patients, suggesting that damage or inherited alterations of mitochondria may have an important role in depression...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987511/socs3-ablation-in-sf1-cells-causes-modest-metabolic-effects-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#17
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato
Previous studies have shown that leptin resistance is a key feature that leads to gestational metabolic adaptions. We hypothesized that leptin sensitivity in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) plays a critical role regulating gestational metabolic changes. In the present study, we generated a mouse model carrying ablation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) cells, which include the VMH, in order to investigate whether increased leptin sensitivity in this neuronal population prevents at least part of the metabolic changes typically observed during gestation and lactation...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987510/aging-related-oxidative-stress-positive-effect-of-memory-training
#18
Mirko Pesce, Raffaella Tatangelo, Irene La Fratta, Alessia Rizzuto, Giovanna Campagna, Cinzia Turli, Alessio Ferrone, Sara Franceschelli, Lorenza Speranza, Antonia Patruno, Patrizia Ballerini, Maria Anna De Lutiis, Mario Felaco, Alfredo Grilli
The cognitive impairment characterizing the phenotype of older adults has been related to the efficiency of the antioxidant system. This study aimed at investigating the effect of memory training (MT) on memory, global cognitive functioning, and the oxidant and antioxidant capacity of plasma. We recruited 52 healthy subjects aged over 60. Twenty-nine subjects were submitted to 6-months of MT (Experimental Group, EG), and 23 were used as a Control Group (CG). Global cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Short- and Long-Term Memory (STM and LTM, respectively) by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) at baseline (T0) and after 6-months (T1)...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987509/white-matter-microstructural-properties-are-related-to-inter-individual-differences-in-cognitive-instability-after-sleep-deprivation
#19
Yuanqiang Zhu, Liuxian Wang, Yibin Xi, Tian Dai, Ningbo Fei, Lin Liu, Ziliang Xu, Xuejuan Yang, Chang Fu, Jinbo Sun, Junling Xu, Dapeng Shi, Jie Tian, Hong Yin, Wei Qin
Several diseases are characterized by cognitive instability, which is amplified in the conditions of sleep deprivation (SD). Cognitive instability in SD can be examined by number of lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), which is considered to be a gold standard in the field. However, the number of PVT lapses widely range according to inter-individual differences, from apparent cognitive resistance to severe cognitive impairment. In this study, tract-based spatial statistical analyses with multiple diffusion tensor imaging-derived characteristics (i...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987508/acylated-and-unacylated-ghrelin-confer-neuroprotection-to-mesencephalic-neurons
#20
Johanna Wagner, Franca Vulinović, Anne Grünewald, Marcus M Unger, Jens C Möller, Christine Klein, Patrick P Michel, Vincent Ries, Wolfgang H Oertel, Daniel Alvarez-Fischer
The polypeptide ghrelin is an endogenous ligand at the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. To ghrelin multiple functions have been ascribed including promotion of gastrointestinal motility. Postprandial ghrelin levels have been reported to be reduced in patients suffering from Parkinson disease (PD). Experimental studies revealed neuroprotective effects of ghrelin in different PD models. The purpose of the present study was (i) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective action of ghrelin and (ii) to determine whether these effects occur with both the acylated and the unacylated form...
October 4, 2017: Neuroscience
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