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Abbey J Herringshaw, Sandhya L Kumar, Kaitlyn Noel Rody, Rajesh K Kana
The Weak Central Coherence account of autism spectrum disorders posits that individuals with ASD utilize a detail-oriented information processing bias. While this local bias is helpful in visual search tasks, ASD individuals falter in social cognition tasks where coherence is advantageous. The present study examined the neural correlates of Weak Central Coherence in ASD during visual and social processing. Fifteen ASD and sixteen typically developing children/adolescents completed a social/visual information processing task in an fMRI scanner...
November 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Azalea Reyes-Aguilar, Elizabeth Valles Capetillo, Magda Giordano
Pragmatics may be defined as the ability to communicate by expressing and recognizing intentions. The objective of this meta-analysis was to identify neural substrates for comprehension of pragmatic content in general, as well as the differences between pragmatic forms, and to describe if there is differential recruitment of brain areas according to natural language. This meta-analysis included 48 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that reported pragmatic versus literal language contrasts. The pragmatic forms were speech acts, metaphors, idioms, and irony...
November 8, 2018: Neuroscience
O F Elabi, K Duskova, J S Davies, E L Lane
Ghrelin is a peptide produced in the gut with a wide range of physiological functions. Recent studies have suggested it may have potential as a neuroprotective agent in models of Parkinson's disease, reducing the impact of toxic challenges on the survival of nigral dopaminergic neurons. The presence of the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra raises the possibility that a potential application for this property of ghrelin may be as an adjunctive neuroprotective agent to enhance and support the survival and integration of dopaminergic cells transplanted into the striatum...
November 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Weijie Qiang, Weiyan Cai, Qing Yang, Lan Yang, Yifei Dai, Zheng Zhao, Jie Yin, Yujie Li, Qi Li, Yajie Wang, Xiaogang Weng, Dong Zhang, Ying Chen, Xiaoxin Zhu
Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurological ailment that seriously threatens human health and imposes a huge burden on families and the society at large. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is an important pathological manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases, and currently considered a new research target. We previously found that artemisinin B from Artemisia annua Linn. has strong anti-inflammatory and immunological activities. In the present study, we assessed the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of artemisinin B in vitro and in vivo, exploring the underlying mechanisms...
November 3, 2018: Neuroscience
Amy E Edwards, Onur Guven, Michael D Furman, Qadeer Arshad, Adolfo M Bronstein
Cortical involvement in postural control is well recognized, however the role of non-visual afferents remains unclear. Parietal cortical areas are strongly implicated in vestibulo-spatial functions, but topographical localization during balance tasks remains limited. Here, we use electroencephalography (EEG) during continuous balance tasks of increasing difficulty at single electrode positions. Twenty-four healthy, right-handed individuals performed four balance tasks of increasing difficulty (bipedal and unipedal) and a seated control condition with eyes closed...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Kai Mo, Huali Xu, Hualei Gong, Hongyi Lei, Yongwei Wang, Wenjing Guo, Shiyuan Xu, Weifeng Tu
Neuropathic pain is associated with gene expression changes within the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after peripheral nerve injury, which involves epigenetic mechanisms. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), an epigenetic activator, regulates gene transcriptional activity by protein posttranslational modifications. However, whether CARM1 plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain is unknown. We report here that peripheral nerve injury induced the upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of CARM1 in the injured DRG, and blocking its expression through small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the injured DRG attenuated the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Honghong Tang, Xiaping Lu, Zaixu Cui, Chunliang Feng, Qixiang Lin, Xuegang Cui, Song Su, Chao Liu
Individuals show a great heterogeneity in determining to be honest or deceptive in daily life. A large number of studies have investigated the neural substrates of deception; however, the brain networks contributed to the individual difference in deception still remain unclear. The current study tried to address this issue by employing a machine-learning approach to predict individuals' deceptive propensity with topological properties of whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Participants finished the resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data acquisition, and then played as proposers in a modified ultimatum game in which they spontaneously chose to be honest or deceptive one week later...
October 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Yushuang Li, Lei Wu, Minhua Yu, Fei Yang, Bo Wu, Shuting Lu, Mengqi Tu, Haibo Xu
Emerging evidence suggests that hypoxia-inducible factors (specifically, HIF-1α) and Notch signaling are involved in epileptogenesis and that cross-coupling exists between HIF-1α and Notch signaling in other diseases, including tumors and ischemia. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which HIF-1α and Notch signaling affect the development of epilepsy, especially regarding neurogenesis, remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of HIF-1α in neurogenesis and whether Notch signaling is involved in this process during epileptogenesis by assessing hippocampal apoptosis, neuronal injury, and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in four groups, including control, epilepsy, epilepsy+2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) and epilepsy+GSI-IX (DAPT) groups...
October 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Hiromasa Satoh, Hidenori Suzuki, Fumihito Saitow
Deficits in dopaminergic function are thought to underlie attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopaminergic neurons are the main source of dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter that acts as a neuromodulator of cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which receives dopaminergic inputs from the ventral tegmental area. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely studied as an animal model of ADHD. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD by examining DA modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid neural (GABAergic) transmission recorded from layer V pyramidal cells of the ACC in SHR compared to control Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY)...
October 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Etay Aloni, Antonella Ruggiero, Atan Gross, Menahem Segal
Mitochondrial Carrier Homolog 2 (MTCH2) acts as a receptor for the BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Loss of MTCH2 affects mitochondria energy metabolism and function. MTCH2 forebrain conditional KO (MTCH2 BKO) display a deficit in hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Here we study age-related MTCH2 BKO behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of hippocampal functions. MTCH2 BKO exhibit impaired spatial but not motor learning and an impairment in long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices...
October 26, 2018: Neuroscience
Dóra Szarvas, Botond Gaál, Clara Matesz, Éva Rácz
Previously we described similarities and differences in the organization and molecular composition of an aggrecan based extracellular matrix (ECM) in three precerebellar nuclei, the inferior olive, the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus and the red nucleus of the rat associated with their specific cytoarchitecture, connection and function in the vestibular system. The aim of present study is to map the ECM pattern in a mesencephalic precerebellar nucleus, the pararubral area, which has a unique function among the precerebellar nuclei with its retinal connection and involvement in the circadian rhythm regulation...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
E A Kulikova, N V Khotskin, N B Illarionova, I E Sorokin, E Y Bazhenova, E M Kondaurova, K P Volcho, T M Khomenko, N F Salakhutdinov, E Ponimaskin, V S Naumenko, A V Kulikov
The serotoninergic 5-HT2A receptor is involved in the mechanism of depression and antidepressant drugs action. Earlier we showed that striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) inhibitor - 8-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,3,4,5-benzopentathiepin-6-amine hydrochloride (TC-2153) affects both the brain serotoninergic system and the brain-derived neurotropic factor that are known to be involved in the psychopathology of depression. In the present study we investigated the effects of chronic TC-2153 administration on behavior in the standard battery of tests as well as the effects of acute and chronic TC-2153 treatment on the brain 5-HT2A receptors in mice...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Celia Andreu-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel Martín-Pascual, Agnès Gruart, José María Delgado-García
Audiovisual cuts involve spatial, temporal, and action narrative leaps. They can even change the meaning of the narrative through film editing. Many cuts are not consciously perceived, others are, just as we perceive or not the changes in real events. In this paper, we analyze the effects of cuts and different editing styles on 36 subjects, using electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques and the projection of stimuli with different audiovisual style of edition but the same narrative. Eyeblinks, event-related potentials (ERPs), EEG spectral power and disturbances, and the functional and effective connectivity before and after the cuts were analyzed...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Gemma Manich, Mireia Recasens, Tony Valente, Beatriz Almolda, Berta González, Bernardo Castellano
Microglia are considered to be the resident macrophages of the CNS and main effector of immune brain function. Due to their essential role in the regulation of neuroinflammatory response, microglia constitute an important target for neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. The communication between neurons and microglia contributes to a proper maintenance of homeostasis in the CNS. Research developed in the last decade has demonstrated that this interaction is mediated by "Off-signals" - molecules exerting immune inhibition - and "On signals" - molecules triggering immune activation...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Helena Pivonkova, Zuzana Hermanova, Denisa Kirdajova, Thuraya Awadova, Jan Malinsky, Lukas Valihrach, Daniel Zucha, Mikael Kubista, Andrea Galisova, Daniel Jirak, Miroslava Anderova
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) channels are involved in astrocyte volume regulation; however, only limited data exist about its mechanism in astrocytes in situ. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult mice, where we found twice larger edema 1 day after the insult in trpv4-/- mice compared to the controls, which was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. This result suggests disrupted volume regulation in the brain cells in trpv4-/- mice leading to increased edema formation...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Hui Ma, Na Wang, Xinjuan Wang, Meng Jia, Yijing Li, Cailian Cui
Anxiety is considered an important protracted abstinence symptom that can aggravate craving and relapse risk in opioid addicts. Although the insular cortex (IC) has been reported to be a key brain region in mediating emotional and motivational alterations induced by drug consumption and withdrawal, the role of IC in anxiety related to protracted abstinence remains elusive. In this study, we found that: (1) anxiety-like behavior in morphine-dependent mice became significant after 28 days of withdrawal, while their physical symptoms became undetectable...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Greggory Wroblewski, Md Nabiul Islam, Akie Yanai, Mir Rubayet Jahan, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Koh Shinoda
Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a neural interactor of huntingtin in Huntington's disease and interacts with gene products in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases. In normal brains, HAP1 is expressed abundantly in the hypothalamus and limbic-associated regions. These areas tend to be spared from neurodegeneration while those with little HAP1 are frequently neurodegenerative targets, suggesting its role as a protective factor against apoptosis. In light of the relationship between neurodegenerative diseases and deterioration of higher nervous activity, it is important to definitively clarify HAP1 expression in a cognitively important brain region, the retrosplenial-retrohippocampal area...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Ioannis Dafnis, Letta Argyri, Angeliki Chroni
Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), one of the three apoE isoforms, is the strongest factor for raising the risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been proposed to play a major role in AD pathogenesis. Amyloid-peptide β 42 (Aβ42) has also been proposed to affect neuronal degeneration and AD pathogenesis, possibly by interacting with apoE. Previous studies have shown that the functions of apoE forms can be dictated by their structural and biophysical properties. Here we show that apoE4 can form SDS-stable oligomers, possibly reflecting aggregated forms, which increase following incubation of apoE4 with Aβ42...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Amy F T Arnsten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Nitin Agarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience
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