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Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203230/maternal-consumption-of-high-fat-diet-in-mice-alters-hypothalamic-notch-pathway-npy-cell-population-and-food-intake-in-offspring
#1
Simone Ferreira Lemes, Anelise Cristina Parras de Souza, Tanyara Baliani Payolla, Milena Diorio Versutti, Albina de Fátima da Silva Ramalho, Cristiano Mendes-da-Silva, Camilla Mendes Souza, Marciane Milanski, Adriana Souza Torsoni, Marcio Alberto Torsoni
Studies show that maternal consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) can impair the formation of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in mouse offspring. This damage can be mediated by Notch1/Hes5 signalling activation, leading to repression of proneural factors such as Mash1 and Ngn2/3, which are essential for neuronal differentiation and neurogenesis. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of maternal HFD consumption during gestation and lactation on the Notch1/Mash1 pathway in the hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus (ARC) of mouse offspring (neonates and 28 days old)...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203229/effects-on-hedonic-feeding-energy-expenditure-and-balance-of-the-non-opioid-peptide-dyn-a2-17
#2
B Alvarez, T Barrientos, L Gac, J A Teske, C E Perez-Leighton
The dynorphin (DYN) peptide family includes opioid and non-opioid peptides, yet the physiological role of the non-opioid DYN peptides remains poorly understood. Recent evidence shows that administering the non-opioid peptide DYN-A2-17 into the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) simultaneously increased short-term intake of standard rodent chow and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). The present studies aimed to expand upon the mechanisms and role of DYN-A2-17 on food intake and energy expenditure. Injection of DYN-A2-17 in PVN increased SPA, energy expenditure and wheel running in the absence of food...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203228/mild-fluid-percussion-injury-induces-diffuse-axonal-damage-and-reactive-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#3
Melissa A Powell, Raiford T Black, Terry L Smith, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips
Despite the regenerative capacity of the olfactory bulb (OB), head trauma causes olfactory disturbances in up to 30% of patients. While models of olfactory nerve transection, olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) ablation, or direct OB impact have been used to examine OB recovery, these models are severe and not ideal for study of OB synaptic repair. We posited that a mild fluid percussion brain injury (mFPI), delivered over mid-dorsal cortex, would produce diffuse OB deafferentation without confounding pathology...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203227/behaviour-of-adult-5-ht1a-receptor-knockout-mice-exposed-to-stress-during-prenatal-development
#4
Veronika Kiryanova, Victoria M Smith, Michael C Antle, Richard H Dyck
Chronic maternal stress during pregnancy can have long-term, detrimental consequences for the offspring. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for mediating these effects is essential for devising therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined whether serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) mediates the effects of maternal stress on the behavioural outcomes of the offspring as adults. Heterozygous (HET) mouse dams were bred with HET males and were randomly assigned to stress or control groups. Pregnant dams in the stress group were exposed to a regime of chronic unpredictable stress from embryonic day 7 to 18...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199069/vglut1-binding-to-endophilin-or-intersectin1-and-dynamin-phosphorylation-in-a-diurnal-context
#5
Karin Richter, Isabelle Schmutz, Mahesh Darna, Johannes-F Zander, Rohit Chavan, Urs Albrecht, Gudrun Ahnert-Hilger
Glutamate is concentrated into synaptic vesicles (SV) by the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT) 1and 2. VGLUTs also harbour a Na+/Pi -transport activity when residing at the plasma membrane. Here we aimed to identify whether the diurnal switches of VGLUT1 parallels interactions with or modification of endocytic proteins VGLUT1 and dynamin bind to SH3 domains of either endophilin (Enph) or intersectin 1 (ITSN1) harbouring one or five SH3 domains A-E, respectively. We followed diurnal variations by pull down experiments using SH3 fusion protein and brains from mice entrained in a strict 24 h light dark cycle (12 h light Zeitgeber (ZT) 0, 6; 12 h dark ZT 12 and 18)...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199068/same-same-but-different-processing-words-in-the-aging-brain
#6
Eva Froehlich, Johanna Liebig, Carmen Morawetz, Johannes C Ziegler, Mario Braun, Hauke R Heekeren, Arthur M Jacobs
Reading is not only one of the most appreciated leisure activities of the elderly but it clearly helps older people to maintain functional independence, which has a significant impact on life quality. Yet, very little is known about how aging affects the neural circuits of the processes that underlie skilled reading. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to systematically investigate the neural correlates of sublexical, orthographic, phonological and lexico-semantic processing in the aging brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded brain activity of younger (N = 20; 22-35 years) and older (N = 38; 65-76 years) adults during letter identification, visual lexical decision, phonological decision and semantic categorization...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197559/disruption-of-semantic-network-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-revealed-by-resting-state-fmri
#7
Daniele Mascali, Mauro DiNuzzo, Laura Serra, Silvia Mangia, Bruno Maraviglia, Marco Bozzali, Federico Giove
Subtle semantic deficits can be observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients even in the early stages of the illness. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the semantic control network is deregulated in mild AD patients. We assessed the integrity of the semantic control system using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of patients with mild AD (n = 38; mean Mini-Mental State Examination=20.5) and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (n = 19). Voxel-wise analysis spatially constrained in the left fronto-temporal semantic control network identified two regions with altered functional connectivity in AD patients, specifically in the pars opercularis (POp, BA44) and in the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG, BA21)...
November 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196028/serum-response-factor-promotes-dopaminergic-neuron-survival-via-activation-of-beclin-1-dependent-autophagy
#8
Xiao-Yu Cheng, Si-Yue Li, Cheng-Jie Mao, Mei-Xia Wang, Jing Chen, Fen Wang, Guang-Hui Wang, Wen-Bin Deng, Xiao-Kang Li, Chun-Feng Liu
Serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor highly expressed in neurons, is involved in neuronal survival and the pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative disorders. The ablation of SRF renders the midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons vulnerable to 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report decreased SRF levels in the substantia nigra (SN) of rotenone-treated rats that was associated with the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons...
November 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196027/cancer-chemotherapy-in-early-life-significantly-alters-the-maturation-of-pain-processing
#9
G J Hathway, Emily Murphy, Joseph Lloyd, Charles Greenspon, R P Hulse
Advances in paediatric cancer treatment have led to a ten year survival rate greater than 75%. Platinum-based chemotherapies (e.g.cisplatin) induce peripheral sensory neuropathy in adult and paedriatric cancer patients. The period from birth through to adulthood represents a period of maturation within nociceptive systems. Here we investigated how cisplatin impacts upon postnatal maturation of nociceptive systems. Neonatal Wistar rats (Postnatal day (P) 7) were injected (i.p.) daily with either vehicle (PBS) or cisplatin (1mg/kg) for five consecutive days...
November 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196026/long-term-changes-in-the-nigrostriatal-pathway-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Dongping Huang, Zishan Wang, Jiabin Tong, Mo Wang, Jinghui Wang, Jing Xu, Xiaochen Bai, Heng Li, Yulu Huang, Yufei Wu, Yuanyuan Ma, Mei Yu, Fang Huang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD is widely used to study the progression of this disease. Behavior impairment is closely related to the damage of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia. Here, MPTP-induced changes in mouse behavior and glial activation were evaluated at different time points after the treatment and the long-term changes in the nigrostriatal pathway were analyzed. We found that mice exposed to MPTP displayed a full recovery in the rotarod test and the pole test but not in the wire hanging test at 65 days post-injection...
November 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191463/raphe-pallidus-is-not-important-to-central-chemoreception-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Luiz M Oliveira, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura
Central chemoreceptors are primarily sensitive to changes in CO2/H+, and such changes lead to intense breathing activity. Medullary raphe and retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) neurons are candidates for central chemoreceptors because they are unusually pH sensitive. The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to the reduction of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) that express dopamine, although other neurons can also be degenerated in this pathology. In rodent models of PD, we showed an impairment of the hypercapnia ventilatory response due to a reduction in the number of RTN chemosensitive neurons...
November 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183826/developmental-ethanol-induced-sleep-fragmentation-behavioral-hyperactivity-cognitive-impairment-and-parvalbumin-cell-loss-are-prevented-by-lithium-co-treatment
#12
M Lewin, M Ilina, J Betz, K Masiello, M Hui, D A Wilson, M Saito
Developmental ethanol exposure is a well-known cause of lifelong cognitive deficits, behavioral hyperactivity, emotional dysregulation, and more. In healthy adults, sleep is thought to have a critical involvement in each of these processes. Our previous work has demonstrated that some aspects of cognitive impairment in adult mice exposed at postnatal day 7 (P7) to ethanol (EtOH) correlate with slow-wave sleep (SWS) fragmentation (Wilson et al., 2016). We and others have also previously demonstrated that co-treatment with LiCl on the day of EtOH exposure prevents many of the anatomical and physiological impairments observed in adults...
November 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183829/the-rodent-versus-wild-snake-paradigm-as-a-model-for-studying-anxiety-and-panic-like-behaviors-face-construct-and-predictive-validities
#13
Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Jade Pissamiglio Cysne Coimbra, Carlos Júlio Laure, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Using an innovative approach to study the neural bases of psychiatric disorders, this study investigated the behavioral, morphological and pharmacological bases of panic attack-induced responses in a prey-versus-coral snake paradigm. Mesocricetus auratus was chronically treated with intraperitoneal administration of the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor paroxetine or the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor agonist alprazolam at three different doses and were then confronted with a venomous coral snake (Micrurus frontalis, Reptilia, Colubridae)...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183828/musical-expectations-enhance-auditory-cortical-processing-in-musicians-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#14
Jeong Mi Park, Chun Kee Chung, June Sic Kim, Kyung Myun Lee, Jaeho Seol, Suk Won Yi
The present study investigated the influence of musical expectations on auditory representations in musicians and non-musicians using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Neuroscientific studies have demonstrated that musical syntax is processed in the inferior frontal gyri, eliciting an early right anterior negativity (ERAN), and anatomical evidence has shown that interconnections occur between the frontal cortex and the belt and parabelt regions in the auditory cortex (AC). Therefore, we anticipated that musical expectations would mediate neural activities in the AC via an efferent pathway...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183827/complex-environmental-rearing-enhances-social-salience-and-affects-hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-crhr-1-crhr2-expression-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#15
Amanda C Kentner, Erika Lima, Mattia M Migliore, Junyoung Shin, Stephanie Scalia
Methods for understanding the neurocircuitry of ethologically relevant behaviors have advanced substantially; however renovations to standard animal laboratory housing, in the form of enhanced enrichment, have lagged behind. This is despite evidence that environmental enrichment (EE) reduces stress, stereotypy, and promotes healthy species typical behaviors. While many scientists express interest for increased EE as a standard for animal caging systems, there are concerns that its effects on brain, behavior, and cognition are not well characterized...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183825/chronic-intranasal-oxytocin-has-dose-dependent-effects-on-central-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-systems-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#16
C D Guoynes, T C Simmons, G M Downing, S Jacob, M Solomon, K L Bales
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a neuropeptide with many functions, including modulation of social behavior(s) and anxiety. Due to its notable pro-social effects, it has been proposed as a treatment in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and social anxiety; however, effects of long-term daily treatment are still being explored. Previously, we have shown that in male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) exposure to Oxt during the peri-adolescent period impaired adult pair bonding in a dose-dependent fashion...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175156/il-33-st2-pathway-as-a-rational-therapeutic-target-for-cns-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Li-Xia Du, Yan-Qing Wang, Guo-Qiang Hua, Wen-Li Mi
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family that is produced by many different types of tissues including the central nervous system (CNS). IL-33 mediates its effects via its heterodimeric receptor complex, comprised of ST2 and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcp). As a pleiotropic nuclear cytokine, IL-33 is a crucial actor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, allergic diseases, infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases. Recently, accumulated evidence show that the IL-33/ST2 axis plays a crucial and diverse role in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, infectious diseases, traumatic CNS injury, chronic pain, etc...
November 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175155/neuroanatomical-distribution-of-dek-protein-in-corticolimbic-circuits-associated-with-learning-and-memory-in-adult-male-and-female-mice
#18
Valentina Ghisays, Elizabeth T Nguyen, Joshua Streicher, Nicholas A Pease, Maureen Fitzgerald, Christina M Estrada, Ana Franco-Villanueva, Lisa Privette Vinnedge, Matia B Solomon
DEK, a chromatin-remodeling gene expressed in most human tissues, is known for its role in cancer biology and autoimmune diseases. DEK depletion in vitro reduces cellular proliferation, induces DNA damage subsequently leading to apoptosis, and down-regulates canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a molecular pathway essential for learning and memory. Despite a recognized role in cancer (non-neuronal) cells, DEK expression and function is not well characterized in the central nervous system. We conducted a gene ontology analysis (ToppGene), using a cancer database to identify genes associated with DEK deficiency, which pinpointed several genes associated with cognitive-related diseases (i...
November 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175154/immature-status-epilepticus-in-vitro-models-reveal-differences-in-cholinergic-control-and-hfo-properties-of-adult-ca3-interictal-discharges-in-temporal-vs-septal-hippocampus
#19
Apostolos Mikroulis, Christos Panagiotis Lisgaras, Caterina Psarropoulou
We have earlier demonstrated that a Status Epilepticus (SE) during CNS development has long lasting effects on cholinergic neurotransmission, detectable in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we aimed to localize changes in temporal (T) vs septal (S) hippocampus and to correlate adult CA3 interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) frequency changes to those of Ripples (R) and Fast Ripples (FR) of the High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs). Spontaneous IEDs were induced by bathing slices in Mg2+-free ACSF or in 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 50µM) and data were analyzed separately for each model...
November 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175153/novel-distinctive-roles-of-docking-proteins-in-short-term-synaptic-plasticity-of-frog-neuromuscular-transmission-revealed-by-botulinum-neurotoxins
#20
Yasuhiro Imafuku, Koh-Ichi Enomoto, Hiroko Kataoka, Isao Ito, Takashi Maeno
Short-term synaptic plasticity (SSP) is a basic mechanism for temporal processing of neural information in synaptic transmission. Facilitation, the fastest component of SSP, has been extensively investigated with regard to Ca2+ signalling and other relevant substances. However, systematic analyses on the slower components of SSP, originated by Magleby and Zengel, have remained stagnant for decades, as few chemicals directly modifying these slower components have been identified. In combination with refined experimental protocols designed to study the stimulation frequency-dependence of SSP and botulinum neurotoxins A and C (BoNT-A and BoNT-C), we investigated SSP of frog neuromuscular transmission to clarify the roles of synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and syntaxin, SNARE proteins exclusively participating in vesicular events including docking, priming and exocytosis...
November 23, 2017: Neuroscience
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