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Addictive Behaviors

Nicholas J Felicione, Paul Enlow, Daniel Elswick, Dustin Long, C Rolly Sullivan, Melissa D Blank
INTRODUCTION: Compared to the general population, smoking rates are 2-4 times higher among individuals with opioid use disorders (OUDs). These smokers also have poor long-term cessation rates, even with pharmacotherapy or other interventions. Low success rates with traditional approaches may prompt smokers with OUDs to try more novel products like electronic cigarettes (ECIGs). This pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and effect of ECIGs on smoking behavior among smokers with OUD...
July 5, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
A Chinneck, K Thompson, I T Mahu, P Davis-MacNevin, K Dobson, S H Stewart
Emerging adults (18-25 year olds) endorse the highest rates of prescription drug misuse. Attending college or university may confer additional risk. Previous research suggests that personality is an important predictor of many addictive behaviours. Four traits have been consistently implicated: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity. Published studies on personality as a predictor of prescription drug abuse are limited, however, by a primary focus on overall prescription drug use, inconsistent operationalisation of misuse, and failure to control for alcohol use...
July 4, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Kathleen R Case, MeLisa R Creamer, Maria R Cooper, Alexandra Loukas, Cheryl L Perry
INTRODUCTION: Hookah use is particularly prevalent among U.S. college students; however, few studies have investigated whether hookah use is a risk factor for the initiation of other tobacco products. This study examined whether hookah use predicted subsequent initiation of other combustible tobacco products (conventional cigarettes and cigar products) and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) among Texas college students during a 2.5-year study period. METHODS: This study involved a longitudinal analysis of data from Waves 1-6, with 6 months between each wave, of the Marketing and Promotions Across Colleges in Texas Project (Project M-PACT)...
June 30, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Maria Angeli, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Nikos Comoutos, Charalampos Krommidas, Ioannis D Morres, Yannis Theodorakis
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-regulation strategies can further extend the effect of moderate intensity exercise on smoking delay. METHOD: Participants were 40 adult smokers who were randomly assigned into two groups: control and self-regulation. A repeated measures design was adopted including a neutral condition (20 min video) and an exercise condition (20 min moderate intensity exercise). RESULTS: The results showed that smoking delay increased significantly for both groups; however, the increase for the self-regulation group was significantly larger than that of the control group...
June 30, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Marcela Fu, Raúl Pérez-Ortuño, Montse Ballbè, Ariadna Feliu, Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez, Nuria Matilla-Santander, José A Pascual, Esteve Fernández, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the Spanish tobacco control legislation on smoking behavior and salivary cotinine concentration among smokers. METHODS: We used data from a longitudinal study, before (2004-2005) and after (2013-2014) the implementation of the two national smoking bans (in 2006 and 2011), in a representative sample of adults (≥16 years old) from Barcelona (Spain). We only analyzed a subsample of continuing smokers (n = 116)...
June 27, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Elena Bilevicius, Alanna Single, Karli K Rapinda, Lindsay A Bristow, Matthew T Keough
INTRODUCTION: Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid conditions that are associated with harmful drinking. Social learning theory proposes that depressed or anxious individuals learn that drinking can reduce negative affect, which makes them susceptible to harmful drinking. Consistent with theory, evidence suggests that negative affect increases risk for harmful drinking. But, less is known about mediators of negative affect-pathways to harmful drinking. Research has demonstrated that solitary drinking is an underlying mechanism of harmful drinking among emerging adults with high levels of negative affect...
June 26, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Matthew J Gullo, Kate Irvine, Gerald F X Feeney, Jason P Connor
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Poor attendance increases the likelihood of relapse in alcohol dependence treatment. Evidence for improved attendance rates following introduction of short message service (SMS) appointment reminders is available in other health care domains. Patients high in impulsivity, characterized by a lack of planning, may particularly benefit from reminders. The study investigated the impact of SMS reminders on outpatient treatment attendance for alcohol dependence, and whether effects were moderated by impulsivity...
June 26, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Meghan Morean, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie S O'Malley
INTRODUCTION: The 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank is a psychometrically sound measure for assessing cigarette (PROMIS) and e-cigarette dependence (PROMIS-E). We evaluated whether dual-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes self-report experiencing different levels of dependence on each product. We subsequently examined whether cigarette and e-cigarette dependence are associated with the frequency of using each product in dual-users...
June 26, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Lucy Popova, Ban Majeed, Daniel Owusu, Claire Adams Spears, David L Ashley
INTRODUCTION: Smoking cigarettes is the most harmful way to use tobacco. Smokers who do not plan to quit present a particular challenge in reducing the morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Switching to a lower harm product might encourage them to end their use of combusted cigarettes. This study aimed to better understand smokers who do not intend to quit (including their demographic and worldviews as indicators of their social, cultural, and political dispositions) and their perceived risks of cigarettes and possible lower-risk products such as e-cigarettes...
June 26, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Melissa A Lewis, Dana M Litt, Kevin M King, Tracey A Garcia, Katja A Waldron, Christine M Lee
The Prototype Willingness Model is a dual-processing (i.e., intentional and socially reactive) health-risk behavior model. The socially reactive path includes behavioral willingness, descriptive normative perceptions, and favorable images of individuals who engage in health-risk behavior (prototype favorability) as important predictors of health behaviors. Individual differences (such as consideration of future consequences) may potentiate the effects of behavioral willingness on health-risk outcomes, such as marijuana use...
June 22, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Maria R Dekker, Michelle I Jongenelis, Melanie Wakefield, Kypros Kypri, Penelope Hasking, Simone Pettigrew
Previous studies suggest that employing specific behavioral strategies when drinking can prevent excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. However, these studies have typically examined these 'protective behavioral strategies' (PBSs) in combination, limiting understanding of whether individual strategies differ in their effectiveness. Further, most existing research is cross-sectional in design, precluding the determination of causal relationships between PBS use and alcohol consumption. To address these research gaps, the present study sought to longitudinally (i) identify which individual PBSs are significantly related to reduced alcohol consumption over time and (ii) explore the effectiveness of individual PBSs among specific population groups...
June 21, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Jamie E Parnes, Mark A Prince, Bradley T Conner
Marijuana use holds a curvilinear relation to sexual orientation, whereby bisexual individuals reporter higher frequency of use than exclusively hetero- or homosexual individuals. This relation differs by gender, with more pronounced differences among women. Bisexual individuals are at greater risk for negative consequences of marijuana use, such as dependence. To mitigate potential risks, individuals employ protective behavioral strategies (PBS). While differences in use are known, research has yet to examine if consequences and PBS use vary by sexual orientation...
June 19, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Wan-Ting Chen, Nadia Wang, Kuan-Chia Lin, Chieh-Yu Liu, Wei J Chen, Chuan-Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: The study aims to (i) identify the evolving profile of endorsed alcohol expectancies (AEs) during the transition from late childhood into early adolescence, and (ii) examine the connection between such profiles and subsequent alcohol drinking and purchasing in adolescence. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 928 sixth graders was recruited from 17 elementary schools in northern Taiwan in 2006 with follow-ups conducted in seventh and eighth grade. Information concerning AEs, individual characteristics, and social attributes were collected by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and in seventh grade; drinking behaviors and alcohol purchasing were assessed in eighth grade...
June 19, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Jennifer L Pearson, Michael S Amato, George D Papandonatos, Kang Zhao, Bahar Erar, Xi Wang, Sarah Cha, Amy M Cohn, Amanda L Graham
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of online peer interactions on health behavior change. This study examined the relationship between exposure to peer sentiment about nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in an online social network for smoking cessation and NRT use. METHODS: Participants were 3297 current smokers who enrolled in an Internet smoking cessation program, participated in a randomized trial, and completed a 3-month follow-up. Half received free NRT as part of the trial...
June 19, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Sylvie Messer, Atara Siegel, Lauren Bertin, Joel Erblich
INTRODUCTION: Smoking lapses during a cessation attempt are common and are thought to be a key predictor of full relapse. Positive and negative affective states have been hypothesized as important precipitants of lapses during quit attempts, although findings have been mixed. Accumulating evidence suggests that women may smoke more when experiencing negative affective states, while men may smoke more when experiencing positive affective states. The possibility that these sex differences may play a role in predicting lapses during a smoking cessation attempt, however, has not been well-investigated...
June 18, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Brandon G Bergman, M Claire Greene, Bettina B Hoeppner, John F Kelly
Online technologies are well integrated into the day-to-day lives of individuals with alcohol and other drug (i.e., substance use) problems. Interventions that leverage online technologies have been shown to enhance outcomes for these individuals. To date, however, little is known about how those with substance use problems naturally engage with such platforms. In addition, the scientific literatures on health behavior change facilitated by technology and harms driven by technology engagement have developed largely independent of one another...
June 18, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Jenny E Ozga, Nicholas J Felicione, Melissa D Blank, Nicholas A Turiano
Fixating on the present moment rather than considering future consequences of behavior is considered to be a hallmark of drug addiction. As an example, cigarette smokers devalue delayed consequences to a greater extent than nonsmokers, and former smokers devalue delayed consequences more than nonsmokers, but less than current smokers. Further, cigarette smokers have higher norepinephrine levels than nonsmokers, which is indicative of poor future health outcomes. It is unclear how duration of cigarette smoking may impact these associations...
June 18, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Noel A Vest, Kyle T Murphy, Sarah L Tragesser
INTRODUCTION: Drinking motives have shown meaningful associations with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. However, it is unknown whether other common substances of abuse (namely cannabis and prescription opioids) have the same associations with BPD features. In the present study, we tested associations between BPD features and motives across three substances: alcohol, cannabis, and prescription opioids. The purpose of the study was to determine whether BPD showed similar patterns of associations across drugs, or whether some substances serve particular functions for individuals with BPD features, and whether this also varies by sex in a college student sample...
June 13, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Mark J Van Ryzin, Cary J Roseth
BACKGROUND: Peer influence processes have been linked to escalation in substance use during the middle school years, particularly among at-risk youth. In this study, we report on an approach to prevention that attempts to counteract peer influence by interrupting the process of deviant peer clustering, in which socially marginalized youth self-aggregate and reinforce delinquent behavior, including substance use. We aimed to interrupt this process by implementing collaborative, group-based learning activities in school (i...
June 13, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Ty S Schepis, Christian J Teter, Linda Simoni-Wastila, Sean Esteban McCabe
BACKGROUND: Prescription tranquilizer/sedative (e.g., alprazolam, zolpidem) misuse (i.e., use in ways not intended by the prescriber or without a prescription) is understudied, with little research identifying misuse correlates. Identification of key correlates could identify subgroups more likely to engage in misuse, allowing for targeted treatment. This work examines tranquilizer/sedative use and misuse prevalence rates and misuse correlates across U.S. age cohorts, using nationally representative data...
June 12, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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