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Addictive Behaviors

Andrew Lac, Nathaniel Brack
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol myopia theory posits that alcohol consumption attenuates information processing capacity, and that expectancy beliefs together with intake level are responsible for experiences in myopic effects (relief, self-inflation, and excess). METHODS: Adults (N=413) averaging 36.39 (SD=13.02) years of age completed the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol questionnaire at baseline, followed by alcohol use measures (frequency and quantity) and the Alcohol Myopia Scale one month later...
October 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Alan K Davis, Maureen A Walton, Kipling M Bohnert, Carrie Bourque, Mark A Ilgen
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain is the most common reason for medical cannabis certification. Data regarding alcohol use and risky drinking among medical cannabis patients with pain is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and risky drinking in this population. METHODS: Participants completed surveys regarding demographics, pain-related variables, anxiety, cannabis use, and past six-month alcohol consumption. Alcohol use groups were defined using the AUDIT-C [i...
October 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Jennifer E Merrill, Holly K Boyle, Nancy P Barnett, Kate B Carey
Correcting misperceptions in drinking norms is an established method of reducing college student drinking; however, delivery of accurate norms has typically been limited to a single dose within the confines of an alcohol intervention. The present study tests the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of using text messages to promote pro-moderation descriptive and injunctive norms. Following a baseline survey, 68 heavy drinking college students were randomly assigned to receive 28 daily messages with either accurate norms information (experimental group, n=34) or fun facts (control group, n=34)...
October 5, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Ryan S Trim, Neal Doran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Emily N Subialka Nowariak, Rebecca K Lien, Raymond G Boyle, Michael S Amato, Laura A Beebe
INTRODUCTION: Emerging literature suggests that frequency of use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be an important moderating variable in the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. However, few studies have focused specifically on treatment-seekers, a group that may differ in important ways from smokers in the general population. This study looks at the relationship between e-cigarette use frequency and abstinence among a sample of treatment-seeking tobacco users...
September 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Paul M Klenowski
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays an important role in high-order executive processes and sends highly organized projections to sub-cortical regions controlling mood, motivation and impulsivity. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated alcohol-induced effects on the activity and composition of the PFC which are implicated in associative learning processes and may disrupt executive control over impulsivity, leading to an inability to self-limit alcohol intake. Animal studies have begun to dissect the role of the mPFC circuitry in alcohol-seeking behavior and withdrawal, and have identified a key role for projections to sub-cortical sites including the extended amygdala and the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
September 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Sharon R Sznitman, Robin Room
INTRODUCTION: Recent rapid changes in medical cannabis policies and increases in medical use of cannabis have raised new research questions related to potential effects of medical cannabis legalization on cannabis use problems. In order to investigate such effects there is a need for screening tools that are sensitive to the fact that people may be using for medical and/or recreational purposes. This article critically assesses whether screening tools designed to measure cannabis use problems in recreational users are meaningful as measures of problems resulting from medical use...
September 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Leanne Hides, Catherine Quinn, Wendell Cockshaw, Stoyan Stoyanov, Oksana Zelenko, Daniel Johnson, Dian Tjondronegoro, Lake-Hui Quek, David J Kavanagh
Mobile apps provide a highly accessible way of reducing alcohol use in young people. This paper determines the 1-month efficacy and 2, 3 and 6month outcomes of the Ray's Night Out app, which aims to increase alcohol knowledge and reduce alcohol use in young people. User-experience design and agile development processes, informed by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model and evidence-based motivational interviewing treatment approaches guided app development. A randomized controlled trial comparing immediate versus 1-month delayed access to the app was conducted in 197 young people (16 to 25years) who drank alcohol in the previous month...
September 29, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Tonya Dodge, Paige Clarke
OBJECTIVES: Test whether weight motives and guilt/shame mediate the positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use among college-attending young adults. DESIGN: A longitudinal design was employed. METHOD: Young adults who were attending college (N=371) completed two self-administered questionnaires separated by approximately one month. Heavy episodic drinking was assessed at Time 1. Vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, weight motives, and guilt/shame were assessed at Time 2...
September 29, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Hye Jeong Choi, Yu Lu, Marya Schulte, Jeff R Temple
BACKGROUND: The prevention and intervention of adolescent substance use is a public health priority. Most adolescents will engage in some form of substance use, and a sizeable minority will transition to using multiple substances. An emerging body of research takes a person-centered approach to model adolescent substance use over time; however, the findings have been equivocal. Our study modeled adolescent substance use transition patterns over three years based on a comprehensive list of substances and examined gender as a moderator...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Kate B Carey, Jennifer E Merrill, Jennifer L Walsh, Sarah A Lust, Seth C Kalichman, Michael P Carey
OBJECTIVE: Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) reduce problematic drinking for some, but not all, college students. Identifying those students who are less responsive can help to guide intervention refinement. Therefore, we examined demographic, personality, and cognitive factors hypothesized to influence change after a BMI. METHOD: Students mandated for intervention following a campus alcohol violation (N=568; 28% female, 38% freshmen) completed a baseline assessment, then received a BMI, and then completed a 1-month follow-up...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Dennis H Li, Blair C Turner, Brian Mustanski, Gregory L Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) may be at disproportionate risk for misusing prescription psychotropic medications compared to their heterosexual peers. However, generalizable studies specific to this age group are lacking. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a nationally representative sample of adolescents as well as to examine key correlates of misuse. METHOD: Using data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we conducted stepwise multivariable weighted logistic regressions, sequentially controlling for demographics, experiences of victimization, mental health, and other illicit substance use...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Daniel W Trone, Teresa M Powell, Lauren M Bauer, Amber D Seelig, Arthur V Peterson, Alyson J Littman, Emily C Williams, Charles C Maynard, Jonathan B Bricker, Edward J Boyko
INTRODUCTION: The associations between stressful military experiences and tobacco use and alcohol misuse among Service members are well documented. However, little is known about whether stressful military experiences are associated with tobacco use and alcohol misuse among military spouses. METHODS: Using 9872 Service member-spouse dyads enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Family Study, we employed logistic regression to estimate the odds of self-reported cigarette smoking, risky drinking, and problem drinking among spouses by Service member deployment status, communication regarding deployment, and stress associated with military-related experiences, while adjusting for demographic, mental health, military experiences, and Service member military characteristics...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
I M Geisner, J Koopmann, P Bamberger, M Wang, M E Larimer, I Nahum-Shani, S Bacharach
BACKGROUND: The transition from college to work is both an exciting and potentially high risk time for young adults. As students transition from academic settings to full-time employment, they must navigate new social demands, work demands, and adjust their drinking behaviors accordingly. Research has shown that there are both protective factors and risk factors associated with starting a new job when it comes to alcohol use, and individual differences can moderate these factors. METHOD: 1361 students were recruited from 4 geographically diverse universities and followed 1month pre- and 1month post-graduation...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Michael R Frone
Organizational downsizing, which represents the reduction of an organization's workforce, results in a stressful work environment for those who survive the downsizing. However, we know little about the association between surviving an organizational downsizing and employee alcohol use. This study explored the association between exposure to organizational downsizing and four dimensions of alcohol use during the Great Recession. Also explored were the moderating influences of length of recession exposure, state drinking culture, gender, age, education, family income, and financial demands...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Thomas Ganz, Michael Braun, Marion Laging, Karin Schermelleh-Engel, Johannes Michalak, Thomas Heidenreich
BACKGROUND: Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Christina M Luberto, Alison C McLeish
Brief, single session mindfulness training has been shown to reduce emotional distress, craving, and withdrawal symptoms among smokers when they are nicotine-deprived. However, no research has examined the efficacy of brief mindfulness training for non-nicotine-deprived smokers, or explored its effects on smokers' ability to tolerate emotional distress. Smokers progress differently through various stages as they attempt to change their smoking behavior and evidence-based strategies are needed for smokers at all levels of nicotine deprivation...
September 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Jessica L King, Beth A Reboussin, John Spangler, Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Erin L Sutfin
BACKGROUND: Individuals with mental health conditions represent a priority population for tobacco control. This population smokes cigarettes at disproportionately higher rates than the general population, but less is known about the relationship between non-cigarette tobacco use and mental health status. METHOD: In 2013, 2370 young adults recruited from 11 colleges in North Carolina and Virginia completed an online survey on tobacco use. We compared past 6-month self-reported mental health diagnosis, past 30-day depression score, and past 7-day stress score to past 30-day cigarette, e-cigarette, waterpipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use...
September 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Freda Patterson, Michael A Grandner, Alicia Lozano, Aditi Satti, Grace Ma
INTRODUCTION: Inadequate sleep (≤6 and ≥9h) is more prevalent in smokers than non-smokers but the extent to which sleep duration in smokers relates to smoking behaviors and cessation outcomes, is not yet clear. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we investigated the extent to which sleep duration predicted smoking behaviors and quitting intention in a population sample. METHODS: Data from current smokers who completed the baseline (N=635) and 5-year follow-up (N=477) assessment in the United Kingdom Biobank cohort study were analyzed...
September 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Alicia M Allen, Nermine M Abdelwahab, Samantha Carlson, Tyler A Bosch, Lynn E Eberly, Kola Okuyemi
INTRODUCTION: Although smoking urges have been demonstrated to vary by gender and also be influenced by exercise, it is unknown if exercise has a differential effect on smoking urges by gender. This study aimed to explore gender-specific effects of an acute bout of exercise on cessation-related symptoms in men and women smokers during acute abstinence. METHODS: We enrolled smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day) who were 18-40years old for a study on exercise and smoking behavior...
September 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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