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Addictive Behaviors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214433/anxiety-and-cannabis-related-problem-severity-among-dually-diagnosed-outpatients-the-impact-of-false-safety-behaviors
#1
Julia D Buckner, Michael J Zvolensky, Anthony H Ecker, Emily R Jeffries, Austin W Lemke, Kimberlye E Dean, Michael S Businelle, Matthew W Gallagher
Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with anxiety disorders at high rates. Little is known about the mechanisms linking CUD and anxiety disorders. One theoretically-driven perspective is that individuals with anxiety disorders may be more apt to use FSBs (i.e., behaviors that may be effective in decreasing anxiety in the short-term, but can maintain and even exacerbate anxiety in the long-term), which can perpetuate cannabis use despite cannabis-related problems. The present study tested whether FSB use explained the relation of anxiety symptom severity with cannabis quantity and related problems among 77 adults with CUD and comorbid anxiety disorders seeking outpatient CUD treatment...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214434/an-examination-of-alcohol-risk-profiles-and-co-occurring-mental-health-symptoms-among-oef-oif-veterans
#2
Jennifer M Cadigan, Alicia K Klanecky, Matthew P Martens
INTRODUCTION: Compared to the general population, veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (OEF/OIF) are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol use and meet criteria for mental health disorders including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder. Less is known how distinct profiles of alcohol use behavior relate to mental health symptoms. METHOD: The current study examined the extent that indicators of alcohol use (i.e., drinks per week, peak blood alcohol concentration, and alcohol-related problems) are categorized into different alcohol risk profiles utilizing a person-centered approach...
February 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189937/assessing-the-role-of-impulsivity-in-smoking-non-smoking-disordered-gamblers
#3
Célina A Boothby, Hyoun S Kim, Nicole K Romanow, David C Hodgins, Daniel S McGrath
BACKGROUND: Co-morbidity with other addictive behaviors is common in disordered gambling (DG). In particular, tobacco dependence has been found to be among the most prevalent disorders co-morbid with DG. While the extant literature has firmly established the co-occurrence of DG and smoking, there is a paucity of research examining factors that differentiate DGs who smoke from those who do not. OBJECTIVES: To address this empirical gap, the current study tested whether dimensions of trait impulsivity as measured by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking), discriminated between non-DGs and DGs based on their present smoking status: non-smoker, occasional smoker, and daily smoker...
February 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192688/bidirectional-relationship-between-time-preference-and-adolescent-smoking-and-alcohol-use-evidence-from-longitudinal-data
#4
Young Kyung Do, Eunhae Shin
INTRODUCTION: Scholarly interest in time preference as a potential predictor of risky health behaviors in adolescents has increased in recent years. However, most of the existing literature is limited due to the exclusive reliance on cross-sectional data, precluding the possibility of establishing the direction of causality. Using longitudinal data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey (2003-7), which followed up a nationally representative sample of 3449 adolescents aged 14years for five years, this study examines a bidirectional relationship between time preference and smoking and drinking behaviors among adolescents...
February 2, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182965/simultaneous-use-of-alcohol-with-methamphetamine-but-not-ecstasy-linked-with-aggression-among-young-adult-stimulant-users
#5
Ellen M Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Adrian Cherney, Helene Wells, Margot Legosz, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
INTRODUCTION: Illicit stimulants are often combined with alcohol in nightlife entertainment districts, an environment where aggressive behaviour commonly occurs. While alcohol and methamphetamine use are each associated with aggressive behaviour, relatively little is known about the impact of the combined use of alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulants (i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) on aggression. METHOD: Analysis of longitudinal data from a population-based sample of Australian young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users (n=248) to examine: (a) prevalence and timing of simultaneous alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulant use and (b) predictors of ecstasy- and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility...
February 2, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161617/attentional-bias-to-alcohol-stimuli-predicts-elevated-cue-induced-craving-in-young-adult-social-drinkers
#6
Linda Manchery, Devorah E Yarmush, Peter Luehring-Jones, Joel Erblich
Considerable evidence has identified biased cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli as an important factor in the maintenance of alcohol-seeking and relapse among individuals suffering from alcohol use-disorders (AUDs). In addition, a large body of research has demonstrated that exposure to alcohol cues can elicit powerful alcohol cravings. Little is known, however, about the possible relationship between attentional bias and cue-induced cravings, and even less is known about these processes in social drinkers without a personal history of AUDs...
January 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190651/people-are-not-mushrooms-challenges-in-communicating-risk
#7
Ron Borland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161620/prevalence-and-harm-perceptions-of-hookah-smoking-among-u-s-adults-2014-2015
#8
Ban A Majeed, Kymberle L Sterling, Scott R Weaver, Terry F Pechacek, Michel P Eriksen
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hookah smoking and perceptions of harm among U.S. adults. Data were pooled from the Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Surveys conducted separately in the summers of 2014 and 2015, among a probability sample selected from an online research panel. Descriptive, logistic regression, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted. In 2014/2015, prevalence of ever and past 30-day hookah smoking among U.S. adults were 15.8% (95% C...
January 26, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161618/financial-strain-and-cognitive-based-smoking-processes-the-explanatory-role-of-depressive-symptoms-among-adult-daily-smokers
#9
Zuzuky Robles, Sahar Anjum, Lorra Garey, Brooke Y Kauffman, Rubén Rodríguez-Cano, Kirsten J Langdon, Clayton Neighbors, Lorraine R Reitzel, Michael J Zvolensky
Little work has focused on the underlying mechanisms that may link financial strain and smoking processes. The current study tested the hypothesis that financial strain would exert an indirect effect on cognitive-based smoking processes via depressive symptoms. Three clinically significant dependent variables linked to the maintenance of smoking were evaluated: negative affect reduction motives, negative mood abstinence expectancies, and perceived barriers for quitting. Participants included 102 adult daily smokers (Mage=33...
January 26, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161153/communicating-accurate-and-complete-information
#10
REVIEW
David T Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160661/measuring-youth-beliefs-about-the-harms-of-e-cigarettes-and-smokeless-tobacco-compared-to-cigarettes
#11
Alexander Persoskie, Erin Keely O'Brien, Anh B Nguyen, Cindy Tworek
This study examined validity of direct and indirect measures of perceived harm of e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) compared to cigarettes. On direct measures, people compare one product to another, whereas on indirect measures, people rate each product separately and the researcher compares these ratings. Data from youth in Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (2013-2014) were analyzed (N=13,651 youth aged 12-17years). The study included direct measures of perceived harm of e-cigarettes and SLT compared to cigarettes, and indirect measures were created by comparing ratings of the products...
January 26, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161154/insufficient-knowledge-about-use-of-multiple-tobacco-nicotine-products
#12
Lars Ramström
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153393/-not-harmless-messages-without-comparisons-disserve-consumers-potential-consumers-and-public-health-approaches-to-tobacco-nicotine-products
#13
Lynn T Kozlowski, David T Sweanor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153392/communicating-differences-in-tobacco-product-risks-timing-is-of-the-essence
#14
Ray Niaura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148394/young-or-adult-users-of-multiple-tobacco-nicotine-products-urgently-need-to-be-informed-of-meaningful-differences-in-product-risks
#15
Lynn T Kozlowski, David T Sweanor
Previously, it has been argued that health information efforts need to inform the public about meaningful differential risks from tobacco/nicotine products. The fact of multiple product use by the same individual further supports this need. When the majority of youth, for example, who use smokeless tobacco are also current tobacco smokers, it makes little sense to mount a smokeless prevention campaign that fails to include clear messages about the much greater risks from smoking. In April 2016, The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) announced a $36 million campaign for youth that "smokeless doesn't mean harmless...
January 25, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135609/distress-tolerance-dimensions-and-smoking-behavior-among-mexican-daily-smokers-a-preliminary-investigation
#16
Brooke Y Kauffman, Lorra Garey, Jafar Bakhshaie, Rubén Rodríguez, Samuel Jurado Cárdenas, Patricia Edith Campos Coy, Michael J Zvolensk
INTRODUCTION: Distress intolerance has been implicated in various aspects of smoking maintenance and quit behavior, although past work has been conducted almost exclusively among European American samples. METHOD: The present study sought to extend past work by exploring distinct subdimensions of distress tolerance (Tolerance, Appraisal, Regulation, and Absorption) among a sample of 113 (53.1% female; Mage=22.81, SD=2.13) adult daily smokers from Mexico City, Mexico in regard to multiple indices of problematic smoking...
January 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131932/common-and-differential-brain-abnormalities-in-gambling-disorder-subtypes-based-on-risk-attitude
#17
Hideaki Takeuchi, Kosuke Tsurumi, Takuro Murao, Ariyoshi Takemura, Ryosaku Kawada, Shin-Ichi Urayama, Toshihiko Aso, Gen-Ichi Sugihara, Jun Miyata, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Studying brain abnormalities in behavioral addiction including GD enables us to exclude possible confounding effects of exposure to neurotoxic substances, which should provide important insight that can lead to a better understanding of addiction per se. There have been a few brain structural magnetic resonance imaging studies for GD, although the results have been inconsistent. On the other hand, GD was suggested to be a heterogeneous disorder in terms of risk attitude. We aimed to examine the heterogeneity of GD by combining a behavioral economics task and voxel-based morphometry...
January 22, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178589/the-breathtaking-truth-about-breath-alcohol-readings-of-zero
#18
Joris C Verster, Marlou Mackus, Aurora Jae van de Loo, Johan Garssen, Andrew Scholey
INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the hangover state, despite breath analyser readings of zero. DISCUSSION: As ethanol is still present in the body despite zero breath alcohol readings, the current consensus to postpone cognitive testing in hangover studies until breath alcohol concentration is zero should be reconsidered...
January 21, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126511/efficacy-of-mindfulness-meditation-for-smoking-cessation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Margaret A Maglione, Alicia Ruelaz Maher, Brett Ewing, Benjamin Colaiaco, Sydne Newberry, Ryan Kandrack, Roberta M Shanman, Melony E Sorbero, Susanne Hempel
BACKGROUND: Smokers increasingly seek alternative interventions to assist in cessation or reduction efforts. Mindfulness meditation, which facilitates detached observation and paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, has recently been studied as a smoking cessation intervention. AIMS: This review synthesizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness meditation (MM) interventions for smoking cessation. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2016 to identify English-language RCTs evaluating the efficacy and safety of MM interventions for smoking cessation, reduction, or a decrease in nicotine cravings...
January 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160660/altered-default-mode-fronto-parietal-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-with-internet-addiction
#20
Lubin Wang, Hui Shen, Yu Lei, Ling-Li Zeng, Fenglin Cao, Linyan Su, Zheng Yang, Shuqiao Yao, Dewen Hu
Internet addiction (IA) is a condition characterized by loss of control over Internet use, leading to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to identify IA-related changes in specific brain regions and connections. However, whether and how the interactions within and between the large-scale brain networks are disrupted in individuals with IA remain largely unexplored. Using group independent component analysis, we extracted five intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) from the resting-state fMRI data of 26 adolescents with IA and 43 controls, including the anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN), left and right fronto-parietal network (FPN), and salience network (SN)...
January 15, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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