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Addictive Behaviors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622616/treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-effects-on-patients-with-higher-or-lower-levels-of-ptsd-symptoms
#1
Carol E M Wieferink, Hein A de Haan, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Martine Fledderus, Tim Kok
While guidelines advise integrated treatment of patients with substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), recent studies and reviews find no convincing evidence of different outcomes following treatment between non-trauma focused integrated programs and SUD treatment alone. In this study, we analyzed whether SUD patients with higher levels of PTSD symptoms receiving standard, non-integrated SUD treatment (N=145) differed in outcomes compared to patients with lower levels of PTSD symptoms (N=152)...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618391/daily-level-associations-between-ptsd-and-cannabis-use-among-young-sexual-minority-women
#2
Emily R Dworkin, Debra Kaysen, Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Isaac C Rhew, Christine M Lee
INTRODUCTION: Sexual minority women have elevated trauma exposure and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to heterosexual women and they are also more likely to use cannabis, although no research has examined relationships between PTSD and cannabis use in this population. Daily-level methodologies are necessary to examine proximal associations between PTSD and use. METHODS: This study included 90 trauma-exposed young adult women who identified as sexual minorities (34...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609724/diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-two-item-drug-abuse-screening-test-dast-2
#3
Quyen Q Tiet, Yani E Leyva, Rudolf H Moos, Brandy Smith
OBJECTIVE: Drug use is prevalent and costly to society, but individuals with drug use disorders (DUDs) are under-diagnosed and under-treated, particularly in primary care (PC) settings. Drug screening instruments have been developed to identify patients with DUDs and facilitate treatment. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) is one of the most well-known drug screening instruments. However, similar to many such instruments, it is too long for routine use in busy PC settings. This study developed and validated a briefer and more practical DAST for busy PC settings...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609723/a-rural-urban-comparison-of-privacy-and-confidentiality-concerns-associated-with-providing-sensitive-location-information-in-epidemiologic-research-involving-persons-who-use-drugs
#4
Abby E Rudolph, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
BACKGROUND: Analyses that link contextual factors with individual-level data can improve our understanding of the "risk environment"; however, the accuracy of information provided by participants about locations where illegal/stigmatized behaviors occur may be influenced by privacy/confidentiality concerns that may vary by setting and/or data collection approach. METHODS: We recruited thirty-five persons who use drugs from a rural Appalachian town and a Mid-Atlantic city to participate in in-depth interviews...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601749/waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-among-sexual-minorities-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-the-national-adult-tobacco-survey-2012-2014
#5
Kasim Ortiz, Jamal Mamkherzi, Ramzi Salloum, Alicia K Matthews, Wasim Maziak
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined differences in waterpipe smoking (both lifetime and current) comparing sexual minority populations - those identifying with lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity - to their heterosexual counterparts using a nationally representative dataset. METHODS: The current study used pooled data from the 2012-2013 & 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). Log-Poisson multivariable regression models were deployed to determine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking behavior among sexual minority individuals controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and stratified by current gender status...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624697/waterpipe-smoking-patterns-and-symptoms-of-nicotine-dependence-the-waterpipe-dependence-in-lebanese-youth-study
#6
Raed Bahelah, Joseph R DiFranza, Kenneth D Ward, Thomas Eissenberg, Fouad M Fouad, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Rana Jaber, Wasim Maziak
INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe typically is smoked intermittently over long smoking sessions. Waterpipe is addictive and its users show symptoms of nicotine dependence (ND). This study examined the risk of developing ND symptoms across waterpipe use patterns among Lebanese youth. METHODS: Waterpipe use patterns (length of smoking session, smoking a whole waterpipe without sharing, past-30day use frequency, number of waterpipes smoked) were assessed. Symptoms of ND were assessed using the 10-item Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC; endorsement of ≥1 symptom) and the 6 criteria of the International Classification of Diseases-10th revision (ICD-10 ND; presence of ≥3 criteria during 12months)...
June 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628871/patterns-of-high-intensity-drinking-among-young-adults-in-the-united-states-a-repeated-measures-latent-class-analysis
#7
Megan E Patrick, Yvonne M Terry-McElrath, John E Schulenberg, Bethany C Bray
OBJECTIVE: Using a national sample of young adults, this study identified latent classes of alcohol use including high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) from ages 18 to 25/26, and explored associations between time-invariant covariates measured at age 18 and class membership. METHOD: Longitudinal data from the national Monitoring the Future study were available for 1078 individuals (51% female) first surveyed as 12th grade students in 2005-2008, and followed through modal age 25/26...
June 5, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599165/modelling-the-contribution-of-negative-affect-outcome-expectancies-and-metacognitions-to-cigarette-use-and-nicotine-dependence
#8
Ana V Nikčević, Leyla Alma, Claudia Marino, Daniel Kolubinski, Adviye Esin Yılmaz-Samancı, Gabriele Caselli, Marcantonio M Spada
BACKGROUND: Both positive smoking outcome expectancies and metacognitions about smoking have been found to be positively associated with cigarette use and nicotine dependence. The goal of this study was to test a model including nicotine dependence and number of daily cigarettes as dependent variables, anxiety and depression as independent variables, and smoking outcome expectancies and metacognitions about smoking as mediators between the independents and dependents. METHODS: The sample consisted of 524 self-declared smokers who scored 3 or above on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND: Uysal et al...
June 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578206/is-internet-addiction-transitory-or-persistent-incidence-and-prospective-predictors-of-remission-of-internet-addiction-among-chinese-secondary-school-students
#9
Joseph T F Lau, Anise M S Wu, Danielle L Gross, Kit-Man Cheng, Mason M C Lau
BACKGROUND: Internet addiction (IA) is prevalent among adolescents but it is potentially revertible. Only three Taiwan adolescent studies reported IA remission and a few related factors. We investigated incidence and predictors of remission among Hong Kong Chinese secondary school students with a 12-month longitudinal study. METHODS: IA was defined as Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) score>63. Validated measures were used to assess students' psychosocial wellbeing at baseline and follow-up...
May 29, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575738/perceived-parental-monitoring-and-adolescent-internet-addiction-a-moderated-mediation-model
#10
Qingwen Ding, Dongping Li, Yueyue Zhou, Hongning Dong, Jinjing Luo
Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model focuses on the interrelation between different contexts and the interaction between individuals and their proximal contexts. Based on this theory, the present study tested a moderated mediation model of family, peer, and individual characteristics to investigate how they impact adolescent Internet addiction. Specifically, we examined whether deviant peer affiliation partially mediated the relation between perceived parental monitoring and adolescent Internet addiction, and whether this indirect relation was moderated by effortful control...
May 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558336/psychometric-properties-of-the-chinese-internet-gaming-disorder-scale
#11
Leif Sigerson, Angel Y-L Li, Mike W-L Cheung, Jeremy W Luk, Cecilia Cheng
To develop a consensus on the definition and measurement of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), several recent studies have used the DSM-5's proposed criteria for IGD as the basis in scale construction. This study contributes to this emerging consensus by developing and validating a new Chinese Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (C-IGDS) based on the DSM-5 criteria. A representative sample of Hong Kong community adults (n=502, 50% men, mean age=37.1, age range=18-60) was recruited for a telephone survey with random digit dialing...
May 25, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600927/diverging-effects-of-nicotine-on-motor-learning-performance-improvement-in-deprived-smokers-and-attenuation-in-non-smokers
#12
J Grundey, R Amu, G Batsikadze, W Paulus, M A Nitsche
Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young smokers and non-smokers on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm. 20 nicotine-deprived smokers and 20 non-smokers participated in the study and were exposed to nicotine or placebo medication...
May 24, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570913/impulsivity-and-history-of-behavioral-addictions-are-associated-with-drug-use-in-adolescents
#13
Cheng-Wei I Chuang, Steve Sussman, Matthew D Stone, Raina D Pang, Chih-Ping Chou, Adam M Leventhal, Matthew G Kirkpatrick
BACKGROUND: Previous literature suggests that trait impulsivity and engagement in non-drug-related behavioral addictions (e.g., Internet addiction, food addiction) are two risk factors for drug use. Here we further investigated the potential impact of having one or both of these risk factors on drug use in Los Angeles area adolescents. METHOD: High school students (N=1612; Mean age=14.1) completed self-report surveys measuring two potential risk factors (impulsivity, lifetime history of several behavioral addictions), and past 6-month use of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana...
May 24, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570912/current-suicidal-ideation-in-treatment-seeking-individuals-in-the-united-kingdom-with-gambling-problems
#14
Silvia Ronzitti, Emiliano Soldini, Neil Smith, Marc N Potenza, Massimo Clerici, Henrietta Bowden-Jones
BACKGROUND: Studies show higher lifetime prevalence of suicidality in individuals with pathological gambling. However, less is known about the relationship between pathological gambling and current suicidal ideation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated socio-demographic, clinical and gambling-related variables associated with suicidality in treatment-seeking individuals. METHODS: Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were generated on data from 903 individuals to identify measures associated with aspects of suicidality...
May 24, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645092/examining-effectiveness-of-tailorable-computer-assisted-therapy-programmes-for-substance-misuse-programme-usage-and-clinical-outcomes-data-from-breaking-free-online
#15
Sarah Elison, Andrew Jones, Jonathan Ward, Glyn Davies, Stephanie Dugdale
RATIONALE: When evaluating complex, tailorable digital behavioural interventions, additional approaches may be required alongside established methodologies such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Research evaluating a computer-assisted therapy (CAT) programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Online (BFO), is informed by Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance recommending examination of 'mechanisms of action' of individual intervention strategies, which is relevant when evaluating digital interventions with content that may evolve over time...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595060/parent-adolescent-relationships-in-hispanic-versus-caucasian-families-associations-with-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-onset
#16
Oswaldo Moreno, Tim Janssen, Melissa J Cox, Suzanne Colby, Kristina M Jackson
Parent-adolescent relationship (PAR) factors such as social support and negative interactions are associated with initiation of alcohol and marijuana use during adolescence. However, few studies have examined whether the relationship between PAR, especially the paternal role, and substance use onset varies by ethnicity. This is important given that ethnic group differences have been related to alcohol and marijuana use, cultural values and parenting. This study examines whether ethnicity moderates the prospective prediction of substance use onset by PAR factors...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595059/coming-to-the-new-d-a-r-e-a-preliminary-test-of-the-officer-taught-elementary-keepin-it-real-curriculum
#17
L Edward Day, Michelle Miller-Day, Michael L Hecht, Desiree Fehmie
The present study reports a preliminary evaluation of D.A.R.E.'s new elementary school keepin' it REAL substance abuse prevention program. Given the widespread dissemination of D.A.R.E., this evaluation, even though of short term effects, has important implications for national prevention efforts. The new prevention curriculum teaches social and emotional competencies such as decision making and resistance skills. Social and emotional competencies and other risk factors were examined among students (N=943) in 26 classrooms, 13 classrooms in the treatment condition (n=359) and 13 classrooms in the control condition (n=584) using a quasi-experimental matched group design...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582659/increased-use-of-heroin-as-an-initiating-opioid-of-abuse
#18
Theodore J Cicero, Matthew S Ellis, Zachary A Kasper
INTRODUCTION: Given the relatively recent growth in access to heroin and a more permissive atmosphere surrounding its use, we hypothesized that an increasing number of persons with limited experience and tolerance to opioids would experiment with heroin as their first opioid rather than more common prescription opioid analgesics. METHODS: Individuals entering substance abuse treatment for an opioid use disorder in the period 2010-2016 (N=5885) were asked about the specific opioid they first regularly used to get high...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558337/relationship-between-substance-use-and-attitudes-towards-seeking-professional-psychological-help-among-veterans-filing-ptsd-claims
#19
Sarah Meshberg-Cohen, Lorig Kachadourian, Anne C Black, Marc I Rosen
INTRODUCTION: Veterans in distress often do not seek mental health treatment, even when such services are available. Substance use may further undermine treatment-seeking, given its association with negative treatment views. This study examined attitudes towards seeking psychological help in a sample of veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with and without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD). METHODS: Altogether, 143 male OEF/OIF veterans filing service-connected benefits claims for PTSD completed the Attitudes Towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help-Short Form (ATSPPH-SF) and other baseline assessments...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558335/risk-is-still-relevant-time-varying-associations-between-perceived-risk-and-marijuana-use-among-us-12th-grade-students-from-1991-to-2016
#20
Yvonne M Terry-McElrath, Patrick M O'Malley, Megan E Patrick, Richard A Miech
BACKGROUND: Perceived risk of harm has long been a key preventive factor for adolescent marijuana use. However, in recent years, perceived risk has decreased markedly and marijuana use has increased only slightly, leading to new questions about their association. This study investigates the magnitude and stability of the US adolescent marijuana risk/use association from 1991 to 2016, overall and by gender and race/ethnicity. METHODS: Self-reported data on past 12-month marijuana use, perceived risk of regular marijuana use, gender, and race/ethnicity were obtained from 275,768 US 12th grade students participating in the nationally representative Monitoring the Future study...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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