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Experimental Aging Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718757/the-impact-of-dispositional-variables-of-elders-relatives-and-paid-caregivers-on-elders-empowerment-and-life-satisfaction
#1
Manuela Tomai, Lina Pezzuti, Minou Mebane, Maura Benedetti, Annalisa Moro
Background/Study Context: The impact of dispositional characteristic of elders' closest network members on elders' life satisfaction and empowerment has remained largely unexplored. This innovative study aimed to assess the impact of dispositional variables of elders, relatives, and paid caregivers on life satisfaction and empowerment of elders. METHODS: One hundred forty-three triads (one elder, one paid caregiver, and one relative) completed six scales measuring modifiable personality characteristics (loneliness, optimism, regulation of positive and negative emotions), life satisfaction, and sense of empowerment...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718756/stereotypes-influence-destination-memory-in-normal-aging
#2
Mohamad El Haj
Background/Study Context: A substantial body of literature suggests that stereotypes can play a determining role in making judgments about the source of information. This study investigated this issue for destination memory or remembering to whom information has been previously told. METHODS: Younger adults and older adults told six medical and six mechanical facts to a picture depicting a physician, and also told six different medical and six different mechanical facts to a picture depicting a mechanic...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718755/preliminary-evidence-for-the-effects-of-aging-and-multiple-sclerosis-on-cognitive-performance-an-analysis-based-on-effect-size-estimates
#3
Rachel E Bollaert, Julia M Balto, Brian M Sandroff, Gioella Chaparro, Manuel E Hernandez, Robert W Motl
Background/Study Context: Although cognitive impairment is common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), there are limited data on older adults with MS. The current pilot study involved a preliminary examination of cognitive impairments across a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in older adults with MS compared with older adults without MS. METHODS: Twenty older adults with MS and 20 older adults without MS (≥60 years of age) underwent cognitive assessments, including the Trail Making Test (TMT) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718754/rhythmic-interlimb-coordination-impairments-are-associated-with-mobility-limitations-among-older-adults
#4
Eric G James, Suzanne G Leveille, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Thomas Travison, Sarah Cote, Philip Conatser, Murat Karabulut, Andrea C Mendes, David N Kennedy, Katherine L Tucker, Soham Al Snih, Kyriakos S Markides, Jonathan F Bean
Background/Study Context: Mobility limitations affect more than 25% of adults aged 70 years or older. This study tested the hypothesis that impairments in ankle and shoulder coordination are associated with mobility limitations among older adults. METHODS: his study consisted of conducted a cross-sectional analysis from a sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 130) aged ≥67 years. Motion capture equipment was used to collect kinematic data during rhythmic antiphase coordination of the right and left: (a) ankles moving in dorsi-plantarflexion; and (b) glenohumeral ("shoulder") moving in flexion-extension while paced by an auditory metronome...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718753/aging-and-list-wide-modulations-of-strategy-execution-a-study-in-arithmetic
#5
Thomas Hinault, Patrick Lemaire
Background/Study Context: This study aimed at further our understanding of the cognitive processes involved during strategy execution, and how the processes involved change with age. More specifically, the main goal was to investigate whether poorer-strategy effects (i.e., poorer performance when a cued strategy is not the best) and sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects (i.e., decreased poorer-strategy effects on current problems following poorer-strategy problems compared with after better-strategy problems) are influenced by proportions of poorer-strategy problems...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718752/the-impact-of-presentation-format-on-younger-and-older-adults-self-regulated-learning
#6
Jodi Price
Background/Study Context: Self-regulated learning involves deciding what to study and for how long. Debate surrounds whether individuals' selections are influenced more by item complexity, point values, or if instead people select in a left-to-right reading order, ignoring item complexity and value. The present study manipulated whether point values and presentation format favored selection of simple or complex Chinese-English pairs to assess the impact on younger and older adults' selection behaviors. METHODS: One hundred and five younger (Mage = 20...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718751/aging-strikes-the-self-face-advantage-in-featural-processing
#7
Haoyue Qian, Zhiguo Wang, Lingyue Yan, Xiangping Gao
Background/Study Context: The face is the most distinctive physical feature of a person. Previous work has shown that one's own face (self-face) is advantageous in perception. Here the authors investigate how aging influences the configural and featural processing of self-face. METHODS: Older and young adults searched for their own faces and faces of strangers (Experiment 1) or acquaintances (Experiment 2) among distractor faces. The configural and featural processing of faces was assessed with face inversion in Experiment 1 and with changes in point of view in Experiment 2...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358298/confidence-moderates-the-role-of-control-beliefs-in-the-context-of-age-related-changes-in-misinformation-susceptibility
#8
Margeaux V Auslander, Ayanna K Thomas, Angela H Gutchess
Background/Study Context: The present experiment investigated the role of confidence and control beliefs in susceptibility to the misinformation effect in young and older adults. Control beliefs are perceptions about one's abilities or competence and the extent to which one can influence performance outcomes. It was predicted that level of control beliefs would influence misinformation susceptibility and overall memory confidence. METHODS: Fifty university students (ages 18-26) and 37 community-dwelling older adults (ages 62-86) were tested...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358297/spatial-updating-of-haptic-arrays-across-the-life-span
#9
Nicholas A Giudice, Christopher R Bennett, Roberta L Klatzky, Jack M Loomis
Background/Study Context: Aging research addressing spatial learning, representation, and action is almost exclusively based on vision as the input source. Much less is known about how spatial abilities from nonvisual inputs, particularly from haptic information, may change during life-span spatial development. This research studied whether learning and updating of haptic target configurations differs as a function of age. METHODS: Three groups of participants, ranging from 20 to 80 years old, felt four-target table-top circular arrays and then performed several tasks to assess life-span haptic spatial cognition...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358296/identifying-frailty-and-its-outcomes-in-older-people-in-rural-tanzania
#10
William K Gray, Golda Orega, Aloyce Kisoli, Jane Rogathi, Stella-Maria Paddick, Anna R Longdon, Richard W Walker, Felicity Dewhurst, Matthew Dewhurst, Paul Chaote, Catherine Dotchin
Background/Study Context: Interest in frailty is growing in low- and middle-income countries, due to demographic aging and resource limitations. However, there is a paucity of data on the nature of frailty in Africa. METHODS: The study collected frailty data from people aged 70 years and over living in six villages in the rural Hai District of northern Tanzania. At baseline, a limited data set was collected for 1198 people and a more comprehensive data set for a stratified sample of 296 people...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358295/body-adiposity-index-but-not-visceral-adiposity-index-correlates-with-inflammatory-markers-in-sarcopenic-obese-elderly-women
#11
Maurílio Tiradentes Dutra, André Bonadias Gadelha, Otávio Toledo Nóbrega, Ricardo Moreno Lima
Background/Study Context: The association of body adiposity index (BAI) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) with inflammatory markers has yet to be understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the association of BAI and VAI with inflammatory markers in elderly women with sarcopenic obesity (SO). METHODS: A total of 130 women (age: 66.7 ± 5.2 years) underwent body composition analysis by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Volunteers were classified according to SO definition...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358294/online-modulation-of-selective-attention-is-not-impaired-in-healthy-aging
#12
Robert Sekuler, Jie Huang, Allison B Sekuler, Patrick J Bennett
Background/Study Context: Reduced processing speed pervades a great many aspects of human aging and cognition. However, little is known about one aspect of cognitive aging in which speed is of the essence, namely, the speed with which older adults can deploy attention in response to a cue. METHODS: The authors compared rapid temporal modulation of cued visual attention in younger (Mage = 22.3 years) and older (Mage = 68.9 years) adults. On each trial of a short-term memory task, a cue identified which of two briefly presented stimuli was task relevant and which one should be ignored...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358293/older-and-younger-adults-strategic-control-of-metacognitive-monitoring-the-role-of-consequences-task-experience-and-prior-knowledge
#13
Shannon McGillivray, Alan D Castel
Background/Study Context: Although explicit memory abilities decline during older adulthood, there is evidence that suggests that metacognitive capabilities are relatively well preserved. However, it is unclear what effect aging, consequences of forgetting, prior knowledge, and task experience have on the strategic control and use of one's metacognitive capabilities. METHODS: In the current study, older and younger adults were presented with six unique lists of words (Experiment 1), related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 2), or items within specific scenarios (e...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230422/effects-of-arousal-and-context-on-recognition-memory-for-emotional-pictures-in-younger-and-older-adults
#14
Yang Wang, Jiongjiong Yang
Background/Study Context: Previous studies found that older adults tend to remember more positive than negative information (i.e., positivity bias), leading to an age-related positivity effect. However, the extent to which factors of arousal and contextual information influence the positivity bias in older adults remains to be determined. METHODS: In this study, 27 Chinese younger adults (20.00 ± 1.75 years) and 33 Chinese older adults (70.76 ± 5.49) learned pictures with negative, positive, and neutral valences...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230421/medicare-expenditure-correlates-of-atrophy-and-cerebrovascular-disease-in-older-adults
#15
Briana S Last, Maria-José García Rubio, Carolyn W Zhu, Stephanie Cosentino, Jennifer J Manly, Charles DeCarli, Yaakov Stern, Adam M Brickman
Background/Study Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebrovascular disease and atrophy are common in older adults and are associated with cognitive and medical burden. However, the extent to which they are related to health care expenditures has not been examined. We studied whether increased Medicare expenditures were associated with brain markers of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease in older adults. METHODS: A subset of participants (n = 592; mean age = 80 years; 66% women) from the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a community-based observational study of aging in upper Manhattan, received high-resolution MRI and had Medicare expenditure data on file...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230420/age-related-effects-on-memory-for-social-stimuli-the-role-of-valence-arousal-and-emotional-responses
#16
Thomas M Hess, Lauren E Popham, Claire M Growney
Background/Study Context: Previous research (Hess et al., 2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 853-863) suggested that age-based positivity effects in memory were attenuated with social stimuli. This research examined the degree to which this generalized across arousal levels associated with social images. Variations in approach and avoidance responses to individual images were also examined, along with age differences in their relationship to memory performance. METHODS: In Experiment 1, young (22-43 years) and older (65-85 years) adults recalled positive and negative social scenes that were high or low in arousal...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230419/the-association-between-physical-performance-and-executive-function-in-a-sample-of-rural-older-adults-from-south-carolina-usa
#17
Ryan S Falck, Sara Wilcox, John R Best, Jessica L Chandler, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Mobility and executive functions (EFs) decline with age, although associations between mobility and EFs are less clear. This study examined relationships between different mobility measures and EFs among rural older adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 56 older adults (60+ years) in rural South Carolina. Mobility was assessed via gait speed, timed up-and-go, chair stand, and as a composite physical performance score (PPS). EFs was assessed via Trail Making Test, semantic fluency, and phonemic fluency...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230418/effect-of-age-on-attentional-control-in-dual-tasking
#18
Bianca Bier, Nick Corriveau Lecavalier, Dominique Malenfant, Isabelle Peretz, Sylvie Belleville
Background/Study Context: The age-related differences in divided attention and attentional control have been associated with several negative outcomes later in life. However, numerous questions remain unanswered regarding the nature of these age differences and the role of attentional control abilities in dual-tasking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sources for age differences in dual-tasking and more specifically: (1) whether they occur because of differences in attentional control skills, or (2) whether the age-related decrement in dual-tasking is due to a general resource reduction that would affect the ability to complete any demanding task...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230417/aging-and-half-ironman-performance
#19
M J Stones, Adric Hartin
Background/Study Context: Previous research on triathlon performance analyzed age trends for the Top Ten or Top Five finishers in world championship or national races at Olympic, Half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. The findings indicated higher age declines and/or earlier onset of decline in swimming and running than cycling. However, the designs of those studies took no account of possible differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal trends (i.e., cohort differences versus age changes). METHODS: This study analyzed performance times over the inaugural 5 years of the Half-Ironman world championship held in Clearwater, Florida, from 2006 to 2010...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230416/corrigendum
#20
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March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
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