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Experimental Aging Research

Malcolm D MacLeod, Jo Saunders
: Background/Study Context: Age-related deficits in inhibitory control are well established in some areas of cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in episodic memory. Two studies examined the extent to which a loss in inhibitory effectiveness-as measured by the extent of retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF)-is only detectable in (1) the very old, and (2) that a failure to control for noninhibitory mechanisms can lead to the misinterpretation of intact inhibition in episodic memory in the very old...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Liqing Zhou, Jia Lu, Guopeng Chen, Li Dong, Yujia Yao
: Background/Study Context: Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) states that the positivity effect is a result of older adults' emotion regulation and that older adults derive more emotional satisfaction from prioritizing positive information processing. The authors explored whether the positivity effect appeared when the negative aging stereotype was activated in older adults and also whether the effect differed between mixed and unmixed valence conditions. METHODS: Sixty younger (18-23 years of age) and 60 older (60-87 years of age) adults were randomly assigned to a control group and a priming group, in which the negative aging stereotype was activated...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Bert Hayslip, Raymond E Sanders, Richard S Herrington, Martin D Murphy, Amanda K Moske
: Background/Study Context: This study examined the potential impact of self-reported depressive symptoms on the age-related capacity for inhibition and suppression, utilizing a negative priming paradigm. METHODS: One hundred eighty-five community-residing adults varying in age (98 younger adults, Mage = 22; 87 older adults, Mage = 69) completed a nonconscious priming task, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI), the Depression Sensitivity Scale (DSS), a free thought suppression task, as well as several measures indexing overall cognitive ability and psychomotor speed...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace, Kristen M Clark
: Background/Study Context: Whereas computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CR) programs show promise as tools for improving cognition in certain populations, there is not a consensus regarding their efficacy. This study focuses on restorative CR, a treatment designed to improve cognitive functioning affected by progressive brain changes due to disease or aging, through computer-assisted cognitive exercises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a computer-assisted restorative CR intervention for improving cognitive functioning in older rehabilitation patients with relatively mild cognitive deficits...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Elizabeth G Conlon, Garry F Power, Trevor J Hine, Nicole Rahaley
: Background/Study Context: Reports of age-related differences on motion discrimination tasks have produced inconsistent findings concerning the influence of sex. Some studies have reported that older women have higher thresholds than older men, with others finding that women have higher motion thresholds regardless of age group. Reports of the age at which declines in motion discrimination first occur also differ, with some studies reporting declines only in groups aged over 70 years, with others reporting that age-related decline occurs at a younger age...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Natalie Richer, Nadia Polskaia, Yves Lajoie
: Background/Study Context: Recent evidence suggests that removing attention from postural control using either an external focus or a cognitive task will improve stability in healthy young adults. Due to increases in attentional requirements of upright stance in older adults, it is unclear if similar benefits would be observed in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of attentional focus and of a continuous cognitive task on postural control in older adults...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Javier Jerez-Roig, Nayara Priscila Dantas de Oliveira, Bartolomeu Fagundes de Lima Filho, Maria Amanda de Farias Bezerra, Monayane Grazielly Leite Matias, Lidiane Macedo Ferreira, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Dos Santos Amaral, Dyego Leandro Bezerra Souza, Kenio Costa Lima
: Background/Study Context: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in the elderly that leads to a decrease in quality of life and functional impairment, among other health problems. The study of depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly is scarce in Latin America and can contribute to plan prevention and treatment actions in order to improve health conditions for the residents as well as quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and identify its associated factors in institutionalized elderly...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Johann Lebon, Razieh Barsalani, Hélène Payette, Martin Brochu, Isabelle J Dionne
: Background/Study context: Determining whether C-reactive protein (CRP), blood lipids, total and trunk fat mass (FM), and waist circumference (WC) are associated with changes in physical capacity over 3 years (Δ) in elderly. METHODS: One hundred twenty-two men and women 68-83 years of age participated in a 3-year follow-up study. Physical capacity was measured using five objective tests: (1) Timed Up and Go (TUG), (2) chair stand (CS), (3) normal walking speed (NWS), (4) fast walking speed (FWS), and (5) one-leg stand (LS), along with physical performance score (PPS) at baseline (T1) and 3 years later (T4)...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
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October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Robert G Franklin, Leslie A Zebrowitz
: Background/Study Context: Many studies have found age-related declines in emotion recognition, with older adult (OA) deficits strongest for negative emotions. Some evidence suggests that OA also show worse performance in decoding complex mental states. However, no research has investigated whether those deficits are stronger for negative states. METHODS: The authors investigated OA (ages 65-93) and younger adult (YA; ages 18-22) performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RME), a well-validated measure of the ability to decode complex mental states from faces...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Pierre Bordaberry, Christian Gerlach, Quentin Lenoble
: Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281-301). This view assumes that the structural similarity/dissimilarity inherent in living and nonliving objects, respectively, can account for a wide range of category-specific effects. METHODS: In two experiments on object recognition, young (36 participants, 18-27 years) and older (36 participants, 53-69 years) adult participants' performances were compared...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Chun Liang Hsu, Jennifer C Davis, John R Best, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
: Background/Study Context: With our aging population, understanding determinants of healthy aging is a priority. One essential component of healthy aging is mobility. Although self-efficacy can directly impact mobility in older adults, it is unknown what role brain health may play in this relationship. METHODS: The authors conducted a cross-sectional pilot analysis of community-dwelling women (N = 80, mean age = 69 years) to examine whether brain volume mediates the relationship between falls-related self-efficacy, as measured by the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale, and mobility, as measured by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Erika Zemková, Michal Jeleň, Peter Schickhofer, Dušan Hamar
: Background/Study Context: The study estimates the reliability of peak velocity and peak power during chair rising and chair jumping tests and their ability to discriminate between different age and physical activity level groups. METHODS: Physically active and sedentary individuals (N = 262) of different ages (young: 22.9 ± 2.0 years, range: 21-25 years; older: 63.1 ± 1.8 years, range: 61-65 years) performed, in random order, chair rising and chair jumping tests on a force plate...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Aurélia Bugaiska, Alain Méot, Patrick Bonin
: Background/Study Context: It has been found that young adults remember animates better than inanimates. According to the adaptive view of human memory, this is due to the fact that animates are more important for fitness purposes than inanimates. This effect has been ascribed to episodic memory, where older people exhibit difficulties. METHODS: Here the authors investigated whether the animacy effect in memory also occurs for healthy older adults. Older and young adults categorized words for their animacy characteristics and were then given an unexpected recognition test on the words using the Remember/Know paradigm...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Kimiko Kato, Akinori Nakamura, Takashi Kato, Izumi Kuratsubo, Misako Yamagishi, Kaori Iwata, Kengo Ito
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Older adults tend to be affected by task-irrelevant distracters. However, whether or not this aging effect is evident when task-irrelevant and relevant stimuli are presented across different sensory modalities is still a subject of debate. The purpose of the present study was to clarify age-related differences in the effects of auditory distraction on visual information processing. METHODS: Participants included 20 young individuals, 20 younger-old individuals in their 60s, and 20 older-old individuals in their 70s...
July 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Efraim Jaul, Oded Meiron, Jacob Menczel
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The mortality rates for many leading causes of death have declined over the past decade. Advanced dementia with comorbidities has steadily increased to become one of the leading causes of death in the elderly population. Therefore, this study examined the effect of pressure ulcers on the survival time of patients with advanced dementia and comorbidities. METHODS: Data were reviewed from all the files of 147 patients hospitalized over a period of 3½ years...
July 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Lisa Geraci, Matthew L Hughes, Tyler M Miller, Ross L De Forrest
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. Yet, memory performance can be improved if older adults have a single successful experience on a cognitive test prior to participating in a memory experiment (Geraci & Miller, 2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 340-345). The current study examined the effects of different types of prior task experience on subsequent memory performance. METHODS: Before participating in a verbal free recall experiment, older adults in Experiment 1 successfully completed either a verbal or a visual cognitive task or no task...
July 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Min-Fang Zhao, Hubert D Zimmer, Xunbing Shen, Wenfeng Chen, Xiaolan Fu
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Elderly people do not categorize emotional facial expressions as accurately as younger people, particularly negative emotions. Although age-related impairments in decoding emotions in facial expressions are well documented, the causes of this deficit are poorly understood. This study examined the potential mechanisms that account for this age-related categorization deficit by assessing its dependence on presentation time. METHODS: Thirty young (19-27 years old) and 31 older (68-78 years old) Chinese adults were asked to categorize the six basic emotions in facial expressions, each presented for 120, 200, 600, or 1000 ms, before and after exposure to a neutral facial expression...
July 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Caroline Giraudeau, Céline Musielak, Catherine Hervé, Delphine Seren, Gérard Chasseigne, Etienne Mullet
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The study compared the learning performance of younger and older adults in situations differing in the number of cues that could be relied on for predicting the value of a criterion. Two hypotheses were tested: one based on the assumption that the greater the inhibition effort needed in the task, the greater the difference between younger and older participants, and the other based on the fact that the context in which inhibition occurs plays a role, and consequently that the level of difficulty of the four learning conditions can be better predicted from the number of possible sets of valid cues...
July 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Lisa D Hankee, Sarah R Preis, Ryan J Piers, Alexa S Beiser, Sherral A Devine, Yulin Liu, Sudha Seshadri, Philip A Wolf, Rhoda Au
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: To provide baseline normative data on tests of verbal memory and executive function for nondemented younger- and middle-aged adults. METHODS: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease word list memory task (CERAD-WL) and Victoria Stroop Test (VST) were administered to 3362 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) volunteer participants aged 24-78 years. Analyses of the effects of age, gender, and education were conducted. Normative data on traditional measures and error responses are reported for each test...
July 2016: Experimental Aging Research
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