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Experimental Aging Research

Mai Bjørnskov Mikkelsen, Mimi Mehlsen, Mia Skytte O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Research on the effect of age on affective reactivity continues to provide inconsistent findings. The present study addresses two potential explanations that may account for these inconsistencies. First, gender may moderate age differences in affective reactivity and second, age differences in affective reactivity may vary according to emotion category. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine age differences in reactions to emotion-inducing images when singling out the effect of gender and emotion category...
May 30, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Nattai R Borges, Peter R Reaburn, Thomas M Doering, Christos K Argus, Matthew W Driller
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare physical performance, perceptual and haematological markers of recovery in well-trained masters and young cyclists across 48 h following a bout of repeated high-intensity interval exercise. METHODS: Nine masters (mean ± SD; age = 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young (age = 25.9 ± 3.0 years) cyclists performed a high-intensity interval exercise session consisting of 6 × 30 s intervals at 175% peak power output with 4...
May 29, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Giulia Galli, Miroslav Sirota, Matthias J Gruber, Bianca Elena Ivanof, Janani Ganesh, Maurizio Materassi, Alistair Thorpe, Vanessa Loaiza, Marinella Cappelletti, Fergus I M Craik
Background/study context: Recent studies have shown that young adults better remember factual information they are curious about. It is not entirely clear, however, whether this effect is retained during aging. Here, the authors investigated curiosity-driven memory benefits in young and elderly individuals. METHODS: In two experiments, young (age range 18-26) and older (age range 65-89) adults read trivia questions and rated their curiosity to find out the answer. They also attended to task-irrelevant faces presented between the trivia question and the answer...
May 22, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Martina Rahe, Vera Ruthsatz, Petra Jansen, Claudia Quaiser-Pohl
BACKGROUND: In mental-rotation tests with cube figures as rotational objects, differences in favor of men are often found (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). Mental-rotation performance often declines with age (Jacewicz & Hartley, 1987), but sex differences usually remain (Herman & Bruce, 1983). METHODS: In this study, male- and female-stereotyped objects were used as rotational stimuli in a mental-rotation paper and pencil test (Ruthsatz, Neuburger, Rahe, Jansen, & Quaiser-Pohl, 2017) for elderly participants (age: 57-88 years)...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Anne C Krendl
BACKGROUND: Although engaging explicit regulatory strategies may reduce negative bias toward outgroup members, these strategies are cognitively demanding and thus may not be effective for older adults (OA) who have reduced cognitive resources. The current study therefore examines whether individual differences in cognitive capacity disrupt OA' ability to explicitly regulate their bias to stigmatized individuals. METHODS: Young and OA were instructed to explicitly regulate their negative bias toward stigmatized individuals by using an explicit reappraisal strategy...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Sara J Margolin
Background/Study context: Previous research has demonstrated that negated text is universally difficult to understand, and while readers are aware of the difficulty, they are not always able to direct this awareness to improve their comprehension of negation. The present research aimed to determine whether this holds true for older adults, even while maintaining good cognitive function through reading activity. METHODS: The study used an online paradigm, where young (age range 19-24) and older (age range 60-87) adults read passages, rated their comprehension, and answered questions about what they read...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Alessandra Girardi, Sergio Della Sala, Sarah E MacPherson
BACKGROUND: The Ultimatum Game assesses decision-making involved in cooperative interactions with others. However, little is known about the role that the ability to understand other people's intentions plays in these interactions. METHODS: This study examined performance on the Ultimatum Game and theory of mind (ToM) tasks in younger and older adults. RESULTS: Age differences were not found on the ToM tasks, and a lack of variability in performance prevented analyses of the relationships between performance on the Ultimatum Game and ToM...
May 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Snezana Kusljic, Sachin Perera, Elizabeth Manias
Background/Study context: We investigated various parameters related to falls including age-dependent physiological changes, regular medicine use and different types of falls experienced. There is a lack of research investigating the impact of health status, sex, polypharmacy and ageing on different types of falls such as unspecified fall on the same level, mechanical fall on the same level relating to slipping, tripping or loosing balance, fall from a chair, vehicle and fall as a result of syncope, fall from steps or stairs and fall from the height...
May 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Marcellin Dupart, Nicolas Auzou, Stéphanie Mathey
BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by cognitive changes such as a potential inhibition deficit. However, growing evidence shows that positive valence stimuli enhance performances in older adults to a greater degree than in younger adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the emotional valence of words on lexical activation and inhibition in aging by using a new Emotional Hayling Task. METHODS: Thirty-eight younger adults (mean age = 20...
May 2018: Experimental Aging Research
James R Houston, Joshua W Pollock, Mei-Ching Lien, Philip A Allen
Background/Study context: Adult age differences in emotion processing have been attributed to age-related decline in earlier emotional perception and age-related bias in later emotional regulation. Yet, the relationship between the processes of early emotion perception and bias in emotional regulation and their influence on behavioral outcomes remains unclear. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have the temporal precision to allow for the online measure of neurophysiological activity and provide potential insight into the complex dynamics of emotion processing and aging...
May 2018: Experimental Aging Research
André Bonadias Gadelha, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira, Martim Bottaro, Ana Cristina de David, Baruch Vainshelboim, Ricardo M Lima
Background/Study context: Falls represent the leading cause of accidental deaths in the elderly. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome defined as the loss of muscle mass and strength. However, the association between falls and sarcopenia is still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between different stages of sarcopenia and postural balance, risk of falls, and fear of falling in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: A total of 196 women (68.6 ± 6...
May 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Mahmoud A Alomari, Hanan Khalil, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi, Esraa H Dersieh
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to cardiovascular health and function, however, the exact role is yet to be understood. The current study examined the relationship of circulatory BDNF with vascular function in Parkinson's disease (PD). ELISA was used to determine plasma BDNF in PD patients and healthy control (CT). Additionally, forearm resting blood flow (RBf), vascular resistance (RVr), venous capacitance (RVc), and venous outflow (RVo) as well as post occlusion blood flow (OcBf), vascular resistance (OcVr), venous capacitance (OcVc), and venous outflow (OcVo) were obtained using strain-gauge plethysmography...
May 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Jed A Diekfuss, Jessica De Larwelle, Susan H McFadden
Background/Study Context: Employing the stereotype content model and terror management theory, we examined whether stereotypes and feelings about persons with dementia vary depending on the type of dementia diagnosis and purported causes of the dementia. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes that depicted a man who consulted his doctor because of memory problems. All vignettes described the same symptoms and diagnostic tests, but each of four groups read a different result: all tests normal (Normal); Alzheimer's disease (AD); Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) associated with alcohol abuse; and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) associated with head injuries from playing football in high school and college...
March 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Markus Janczyk, Patrik Mittelstädt, Carolin Wienrich's
Background/Study Context: The study investigated the Backward Crosstalk Effect (BCE) in dual-task situations, that is, the observation that Task 2 characteristics can even influence Task 1 processing. This observation suggests that the tasks are processed in parallel. Besides determining the existence of a BCE in a group of older adults, the size of the BCE was compared to that in a group of younger adults. Importantly, recent studies yielded unclear results. METHODS: Twenty-four younger and older adults (19-27 and 58-71 years of age, respectively) performed a dual-task experiment, where Task 1 required a left/right manual response and Task 2 required a left/right foot response...
March 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Dana R Murphy, Helen Bailey, Marlena Pearson, Graham Albert
BACKGROUND: Aging could exacerbate the decreases in cognitive functioning already caused by noise pollution. According to the inhibitory deficit hypothesis, older adults have more difficulty than do younger adults keeping irrelevant information from interfering with processing of relevant information. However, irrelevant speech studies typically fail to support this hypothesis. The present study aimed to quantify the effects of age and noise pollution on reading comprehension. METHODS: Seventeen younger (age 21-29) and 15 older (age 62-77) adults completed a reading task (reading discourse material for a follow-up comprehension test) in the presence of six irrelevant background noise conditions...
March 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Nikita L Frankenmolen, Luciano Fasotti, Roy P C Kessels, Joukje M Oosterman
BACKGROUND: Whether older adults use effective memory strategies to compensate for their memory decline partly depends on their executive functioning (EF). However, many studies have overlooked the role of cognitive reserve (CR). This study examines the effects of age, EF, and CR on memory strategy use. METHODS: A total of 83 participants (aged 18-85 years) were included. Strategy use was assessed using three measures: (1) self-reported strategy use in daily life, (2) self-reported and observed strategy use in a simulated daily life situation, and (3) self-reported strategy use during a word-pair task...
March 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Phoebe E Bailey, Craig J Gonsalvez, Michelle Maiuolo, Tarren Leon, Gülten Benedek
BACKGROUND: Older adults are increasingly spending time and money playing electronic gambling machines (EGMs). The current study assessed whether the age-related positivity effect influences responding to various EGM outcomes, including wins and losses of equivalent magnitude and frequency. We also explored cognitive mechanisms potentially underpinning the positivity effect. METHODS: We recorded the skin conductance response (SCR) of healthy older and younger adults while they played for wins, losses, and fake wins (losses disguised as wins)...
March 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Odelia Elkana, Vitali Dayman, Motty Franko, Ariel Israel, Ramit Ravona Springer, Shlomo Segev, Michal Schnaider Beeri
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the nature of the association of normal levels of total cholesterol with cognitive function and the contribution of age to this association. METHODS: A sample of 61 senior executives, who were summoned for an annual medical examination with approximately four measurements of total cholesterol during 4 years, were examined with a computerized cognitive battery assessing mental processing speed as a sensitive measure of cognitive decline...
March 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Seyedeh Ameneh Motalebi, Loke Seng Cheong, Jamileh Amirzadeh Iranagh, Fatemeh Mohammadi
Background/Study Context: Given the rapid increase in the aging population worldwide, fall prevention is of utmost importance. It is essential to establish an efficient, simple, safe, and low-cost intervention method for reducing the risk of falls. This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of progressive elastic resistance training on lower-limb muscle strength and balance in seniors living in the Rumah Seri Kenangan, social welfare home in Cheras, Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 51 subjects qualified to take part in this quasi-experimental study...
January 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Alden L Gross, Brennan R Payne, Ramon Casanova, Pega Davoudzadeh, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Sarah Farias, Tania Giovannetti, Edward H Ip, Michael Marsiske, George W Rebok, K Warner Schaie, Kelsey Thomas, Sherry Willis, Richard N Jones
Background/Study Context: Conceptual frameworks are analytic models at a high level of abstraction. Their operationalization can inform randomized trial design and sample size considerations. METHODS: The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) conceptual framework was empirically tested using structural equation modeling (N=2,802). ACTIVE was guided by a conceptual framework for cognitive training in which proximal cognitive abilities (memory, inductive reasoning, speed of processing) mediate treatment-related improvement in primary outcomes (everyday problem-solving, difficulty with activities of daily living, everyday speed, driving difficulty), which in turn lead to improved secondary outcomes (health-related quality of life, health service utilization, mobility)...
January 2018: Experimental Aging Research
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