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Experimental Aging Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358298/confidence-moderates-the-role-of-control-beliefs-in-the-context-of-age-related-changes-in-misinformation-susceptibility
#1
Margeaux V Auslander, Ayanna K Thomas, Angela H Gutchess
Background/Study Context: The present experiment investigated the role of confidence and control beliefs in susceptibility to the misinformation effect in young and older adults. Control beliefs are perceptions about one's abilities or competence and the extent to which one can influence performance outcomes. It was predicted that level of control beliefs would influence misinformation susceptibility and overall memory confidence. METHODS: Fifty university students (ages 18-26) and 37 community-dwelling older adults (ages 62-86) were tested...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358297/spatial-updating-of-haptic-arrays-across-the-life-span
#2
Nicholas A Giudice, Christopher R Bennett, Roberta L Klatzky, Jack M Loomis
Background/Study Context: Aging research addressing spatial learning, representation, and action is almost exclusively based on vision as the input source. Much less is known about how spatial abilities from nonvisual inputs, particularly from haptic information, may change during life-span spatial development. This research studied whether learning and updating of haptic target configurations differs as a function of age. METHODS: Three groups of participants, ranging from 20 to 80 years old, felt four-target table-top circular arrays and then performed several tasks to assess life-span haptic spatial cognition...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358296/identifying-frailty-and-its-outcomes-in-older-people-in-rural-tanzania
#3
William K Gray, Golda Orega, Aloyce Kisoli, Jane Rogathi, Stella-Maria Paddick, Anna R Longdon, Richard W Walker, Felicity Dewhurst, Matthew Dewhurst, Paul Chaote, Catherine Dotchin
Background/Study Context: Interest in frailty is growing in low- and middle-income countries, due to demographic aging and resource limitations. However, there is a paucity of data on the nature of frailty in Africa. METHODS: The study collected frailty data from people aged 70 years and over living in six villages in the rural Hai District of northern Tanzania. At baseline, a limited data set was collected for 1198 people and a more comprehensive data set for a stratified sample of 296 people...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358295/body-adiposity-index-but-not-visceral-adiposity-index-correlates-with-inflammatory-markers-in-sarcopenic-obese-elderly-women
#4
Maurílio Tiradentes Dutra, André Bonadias Gadelha, Otávio Toledo Nóbrega, Ricardo Moreno Lima
Background/Study Context: The association of body adiposity index (BAI) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) with inflammatory markers has yet to be understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the association of BAI and VAI with inflammatory markers in elderly women with sarcopenic obesity (SO). METHODS: A total of 130 women (age: 66.7 ± 5.2 years) underwent body composition analysis by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Volunteers were classified according to SO definition...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358294/online-modulation-of-selective-attention-is-not-impaired-in-healthy-aging
#5
Robert Sekuler, Jie Huang, Allison B Sekuler, Patrick J Bennett
Background/Study Context: Reduced processing speed pervades a great many aspects of human aging and cognition. However, little is known about one aspect of cognitive aging in which speed is of the essence, namely, the speed with which older adults can deploy attention in response to a cue. METHODS: The authors compared rapid temporal modulation of cued visual attention in younger (Mage = 22.3 years) and older (Mage = 68.9 years) adults. On each trial of a short-term memory task, a cue identified which of two briefly presented stimuli was task relevant and which one should be ignored...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358293/older-and-younger-adults-strategic-control-of-metacognitive-monitoring-the-role-of-consequences-task-experience-and-prior-knowledge
#6
Shannon McGillivray, Alan D Castel
Background/Study Context: Although explicit memory abilities decline during older adulthood, there is evidence that suggests that metacognitive capabilities are relatively well preserved. However, it is unclear what effect aging, consequences of forgetting, prior knowledge, and task experience have on the strategic control and use of one's metacognitive capabilities. METHODS: In the current study, older and younger adults were presented with six unique lists of words (Experiment 1), related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 2), or items within specific scenarios (e...
May 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230422/effects-of-arousal-and-context-on-recognition-memory-for-emotional-pictures-in-younger-and-older-adults
#7
Yang Wang, Jiongjiong Yang
Background/Study Context: Previous studies found that older adults tend to remember more positive than negative information (i.e., positivity bias), leading to an age-related positivity effect. However, the extent to which factors of arousal and contextual information influence the positivity bias in older adults remains to be determined. METHODS: In this study, 27 Chinese younger adults (20.00 ± 1.75 years) and 33 Chinese older adults (70.76 ± 5.49) learned pictures with negative, positive, and neutral valences...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230421/medicare-expenditure-correlates-of-atrophy-and-cerebrovascular-disease-in-older-adults
#8
Briana S Last, Maria-José García Rubio, Carolyn W Zhu, Stephanie Cosentino, Jennifer J Manly, Charles DeCarli, Yaakov Stern, Adam M Brickman
Background/Study Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebrovascular disease and atrophy are common in older adults and are associated with cognitive and medical burden. However, the extent to which they are related to health care expenditures has not been examined. We studied whether increased Medicare expenditures were associated with brain markers of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease in older adults. METHODS: A subset of participants (n = 592; mean age = 80 years; 66% women) from the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a community-based observational study of aging in upper Manhattan, received high-resolution MRI and had Medicare expenditure data on file...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230420/age-related-effects-on-memory-for-social-stimuli-the-role-of-valence-arousal-and-emotional-responses
#9
Thomas M Hess, Lauren E Popham, Claire M Growney
Background/Study Context: Previous research (Hess et al., 2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 853-863) suggested that age-based positivity effects in memory were attenuated with social stimuli. This research examined the degree to which this generalized across arousal levels associated with social images. Variations in approach and avoidance responses to individual images were also examined, along with age differences in their relationship to memory performance. METHODS: In Experiment 1, young (22-43 years) and older (65-85 years) adults recalled positive and negative social scenes that were high or low in arousal...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230419/the-association-between-physical-performance-and-executive-function-in-a-sample-of-rural-older-adults-from-south-carolina-usa
#10
Ryan S Falck, Sara Wilcox, John R Best, Jessica L Chandler, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Mobility and executive functions (EFs) decline with age, although associations between mobility and EFs are less clear. This study examined relationships between different mobility measures and EFs among rural older adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 56 older adults (60+ years) in rural South Carolina. Mobility was assessed via gait speed, timed up-and-go, chair stand, and as a composite physical performance score (PPS). EFs was assessed via Trail Making Test, semantic fluency, and phonemic fluency...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230418/effect-of-age-on-attentional-control-in-dual-tasking
#11
Bianca Bier, Nick Corriveau Lecavalier, Dominique Malenfant, Isabelle Peretz, Sylvie Belleville
Background/Study Context: The age-related differences in divided attention and attentional control have been associated with several negative outcomes later in life. However, numerous questions remain unanswered regarding the nature of these age differences and the role of attentional control abilities in dual-tasking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sources for age differences in dual-tasking and more specifically: (1) whether they occur because of differences in attentional control skills, or (2) whether the age-related decrement in dual-tasking is due to a general resource reduction that would affect the ability to complete any demanding task...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230417/aging-and-half-ironman-performance
#12
M J Stones, Adric Hartin
Background/Study Context: Previous research on triathlon performance analyzed age trends for the Top Ten or Top Five finishers in world championship or national races at Olympic, Half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. The findings indicated higher age declines and/or earlier onset of decline in swimming and running than cycling. However, the designs of those studies took no account of possible differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal trends (i.e., cohort differences versus age changes). METHODS: This study analyzed performance times over the inaugural 5 years of the Half-Ironman world championship held in Clearwater, Florida, from 2006 to 2010...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230416/corrigendum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067613/episodic-memory-and-age-related-deficits-in-inhibitory-effectiveness
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Malcolm D MacLeod, Jo Saunders
Background/Study Context: Age-related deficits in inhibitory control are well established in some areas of cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in episodic memory. Two studies examined the extent to which a loss in inhibitory effectiveness-as measured by the extent of retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF)-is only detectable in (1) the very old, and (2) that a failure to control for noninhibitory mechanisms can lead to the misinterpretation of intact inhibition in episodic memory in the very old. METHODS: In Study 1, the authors employed a modified independent cue test-to provide as clean a measure of inhibitory functioning as possible-and examined whether there were significant differences in inhibitory effectiveness between younger-old (60-64 years), old (65-69 years), and older-old (70-74 years) adults...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067612/is-there-a-paradox-of-aging-when-the-negative-aging-stereotype-meets-the-positivity-effect-in-older-adults
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Liqing Zhou, Jia Lu, Guopeng Chen, Li Dong, Yujia Yao
Background/Study Context: Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) states that the positivity effect is a result of older adults' emotion regulation and that older adults derive more emotional satisfaction from prioritizing positive information processing. The authors explored whether the positivity effect appeared when the negative aging stereotype was activated in older adults and also whether the effect differed between mixed and unmixed valence conditions. METHODS: Sixty younger (18-23 years of age) and 60 older (60-87 years of age) adults were randomly assigned to a control group and a priming group, in which the negative aging stereotype was activated...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067611/depressive-symptomatology-and-priming-effects-among-younger-and-older-adults
#16
Bert Hayslip, Raymond E Sanders, Richard S Herrington, Martin D Murphy, Amanda K Moske
Background/Study Context: This study examined the potential impact of self-reported depressive symptoms on the age-related capacity for inhibition and suppression, utilizing a negative priming paradigm. METHODS: One hundred eighty-five community-residing adults varying in age (98 younger adults, Mage = 22; 87 older adults, Mage = 69) completed a nonconscious priming task, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI), the Depression Sensitivity Scale (DSS), a free thought suppression task, as well as several measures indexing overall cognitive ability and psychomotor speed...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067610/the-efficacy-of-a-computer-assisted-cognitive-rehabilitation-program-for-patients-with-mild-cognitive-deficits-a-pilot-study
#17
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace, Kristen M Clark
Background/Study Context: Whereas computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CR) programs show promise as tools for improving cognition in certain populations, there is not a consensus regarding their efficacy. This study focuses on restorative CR, a treatment designed to improve cognitive functioning affected by progressive brain changes due to disease or aging, through computer-assisted cognitive exercises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a computer-assisted restorative CR intervention for improving cognitive functioning in older rehabilitation patients with relatively mild cognitive deficits...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067609/the-impact-of-older-age-and-sex-on-motion-discrimination
#18
Elizabeth G Conlon, Garry F Power, Trevor J Hine, Nicole Rahaley
Background/Study Context: Reports of age-related differences on motion discrimination tasks have produced inconsistent findings concerning the influence of sex. Some studies have reported that older women have higher thresholds than older men, with others finding that women have higher motion thresholds regardless of age group. Reports of the age at which declines in motion discrimination first occur also differ, with some studies reporting declines only in groups aged over 70 years, with others reporting that age-related decline occurs at a younger age...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067608/continuous-cognitive-task-promotes-greater-postural-stability-than-an-internal-or-external-focus-of-attention-in-older-adults
#19
Natalie Richer, Nadia Polskaia, Yves Lajoie
Background/Study Context: Recent evidence suggests that removing attention from postural control using either an external focus or a cognitive task will improve stability in healthy young adults. Due to increases in attentional requirements of upright stance in older adults, it is unclear if similar benefits would be observed in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of attentional focus and of a continuous cognitive task on postural control in older adults. METHODS: Sixteen healthy older adults (71...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749211/depressive-symptoms-and-associated-factors-in-institutionalized-elderly
#20
Javier Jerez-Roig, Nayara Priscila Dantas de Oliveira, Bartolomeu Fagundes de Lima Filho, Maria Amanda de Farias Bezerra, Monayane Grazielly Leite Matias, Lidiane Macedo Ferreira, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Dos Santos Amaral, Dyego Leandro Bezerra Souza, Kenio Costa Lima
Background/Study Context: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in the elderly that leads to a decrease in quality of life and functional impairment, among other health problems. The study of depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly is scarce in Latin America and can contribute to plan prevention and treatment actions in order to improve health conditions for the residents as well as quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and identify its associated factors in institutionalized elderly...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
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