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Experimental Aging Research

Jed A Diekfuss, Jessica De Larwelle, Susan H McFadden
Background/Study Context: Employing the stereotype content model and terror management theory, we examined whether stereotypes and feelings about persons with dementia vary depending on the type of dementia diagnosis and purported causes of the dementia. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes that depicted a man who consulted his doctor because of memory problems. All vignettes described the same symptoms and diagnostic tests, but each of four groups read a different result: all tests normal (Normal); Alzheimer's disease (AD); Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) associated with alcohol abuse; and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) associated with head injuries from playing football in high school and college...
February 5, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Markus Janczyk, Patrik Mittelstädt, Carolin Wienrich's
Background/Study Context: The study investigated the Backward Crosstalk Effect (BCE) in dual-task situations, that is, the observation that Task 2 characteristics can even influence Task 1 processing. This observation suggests that the tasks are processed in parallel. Besides determining the existence of a BCE in a group of older adults, the size of the BCE was compared to that in a group of younger adults. Importantly, recent studies yielded unclear results. METHODS: Twenty-four younger and older adults (19-27 and 58-71 years of age, respectively) performed a dual-task experiment, where Task 1 required a left/right manual response and Task 2 required a left/right foot response...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Dana R Murphy, Helen Bailey, Marlena Pearson, Graham Albert
BACKGROUND: Aging could exacerbate the decreases in cognitive functioning already caused by noise pollution. According to the inhibitory deficit hypothesis, older adults have more difficulty than do younger adults keeping irrelevant information from interfering with processing of relevant information. However, irrelevant speech studies typically fail to support this hypothesis. The present study aimed to quantify the effects of age and noise pollution on reading comprehension. METHODS: Seventeen younger (age 21-29) and 15 older (age 62-77) adults completed a reading task (reading discourse material for a follow-up comprehension test) in the presence of six irrelevant background noise conditions...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Nikita L Frankenmolen, Luciano Fasotti, Roy P C Kessels, Joukje M Oosterman
BACKGROUND: Whether older adults use effective memory strategies to compensate for their memory decline partly depends on their executive functioning (EF). However, many studies have overlooked the role of cognitive reserve (CR). This study examines the effects of age, EF, and CR on memory strategy use. METHODS: A total of 83 participants (aged 18-85 years) were included. Strategy use was assessed using three measures: (1) self-reported strategy use in daily life, (2) self-reported and observed strategy use in a simulated daily life situation, and (3) self-reported strategy use during a word-pair task...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Alden L Gross, Brennan R Payne, Ramon Casanova, Pega Davoudzadeh, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Sarah Farias, Tania Giovannetti, Edward H Ip, Michael Marsiske, George W Rebok, K Warner Schaie, Kelsey Thomas, Sherry Willis, Richard N Jones
Background/Study Context: Conceptual frameworks are analytic models at a high level of abstraction. Their operationalization can inform randomized trial design and sample size considerations. METHODS: The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) conceptual framework was empirically tested using structural equation modeling (N=2,802). ACTIVE was guided by a conceptual framework for cognitive training in which proximal cognitive abilities (memory, inductive reasoning, speed of processing) mediate treatment-related improvement in primary outcomes (everyday problem-solving, difficulty with activities of daily living, everyday speed, driving difficulty), which in turn lead to improved secondary outcomes (health-related quality of life, health service utilization, mobility)...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Phoebe E Bailey, Craig J Gonsalvez, Michelle Maiuolo, Tarren Leon, Gülten Benedek
BACKGROUND: Older adults are increasingly spending time and money playing electronic gambling machines (EGMs). The current study assessed whether the age-related positivity effect influences responding to various EGM outcomes, including wins and losses of equivalent magnitude and frequency. We also explored cognitive mechanisms potentially underpinning the positivity effect. METHODS: We recorded the skin conductance response (SCR) of healthy older and younger adults while they played for wins, losses, and fake wins (losses disguised as wins)...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Odelia Elkana, Vitali Dayman, Motty Franko, Ariel Israel, Ramit Ravona Springer, Shlomo Segev, Michal Schnaider Beeri
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the nature of the association of normal levels of total cholesterol with cognitive function and the contribution of age to this association. METHODS: A sample of 61 senior executives, who were summoned for an annual medical examination with approximately four measurements of total cholesterol during 4 years, were examined with a computerized cognitive battery assessing mental processing speed as a sensitive measure of cognitive decline...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Andrea C Smyth, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
Background/Study Context: Older adults show lower memory performance than younger adults when a task requires them to create associations (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1170-1187). In this study, associative memory was examined in order to assess whether age differences in performance were mitigated when the word pairs to be learned utilized a familiar pattern seen in everyday language (adjective-noun), which we propose as a type of schematic support that capitalizes upon linguistic structure...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Tara L Johnson, Susan C Jefferson
Background/Study Context: Nascent research on destination memory-remembering to whom we tell particular information-suggested that older adults have deficits in destination memory and are more confident on inaccurate responses than younger adults. This study assessed the effects of age, attentional resources, and mental imagery on destination memory accuracy and confidence in younger and older adults. METHODS: Using computer format, participants told facts to pictures of famous people in one of four conditions (control, self-focus, refocus, imagery)...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Seyedeh Ameneh Motalebi, Loke Seng Cheong, Jamileh Amirzadeh Iranagh, Fatemeh Mohammadi
Background/Study Context: Given the rapid increase in the aging population worldwide, fall prevention is of utmost importance. It is essential to establish an efficient, simple, safe, and low-cost intervention method for reducing the risk of falls. This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of progressive elastic resistance training on lower-limb muscle strength and balance in seniors living in the Rumah Seri Kenangan, social welfare home in Cheras, Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 51 subjects qualified to take part in this quasi-experimental study...
January 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Christopher Hertzog, R Marit Smith, Robert Ariel
Background/Study Context: This study evaluated adult age differences in the original three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42) and an expanded seven-item version of that test (Toplak et al., 2013, Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168). The CRT is a numerical problem-solving test thought to capture a disposition towards either rapid, intuition-based problem solving (Type I reasoning) or a more thoughtful, analytical problem-solving approach (Type II reasoning)...
November 22, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Alan Hartley, Lucie Angel, Alan Castel, André Didierjean, Lisa Geraci, Joellen Hartley, Eliot Hazeltine, Patrick Lemaire, François Maquestiaux, Eric Ruthruff, Laurence Taconnat, Catherine Thevenot, Dayna Touron
This commentary explores the relationships between the construct of successful aging and the experimental psychology of human aging-cognitive gerontology. What can or should cognitive gerontology contribute to understanding, defining, and assessing successful aging? Standards for successful aging reflect value judgments that are culturally and historically situated. Fundamentally, they address social policy; they are prescriptive. If individuals or groups are deemed to be aging successfully, then their characteristics or situations can be emulated...
November 21, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Eric G James, Suzanne G Leveille, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Bruce Barton, Sarah Cote, Murat Karabulut, Phillip Conatser, David N Kennedy, Katherine L Tucker, Soham Al Snih, Kyriakos S Markides, Jonathan F Bean
Background/Study Context: Approximately one third of older adults over the age of 65, and over 40% of those over 80 years, fall each year, leading to fractures, morbidity, and mortality. Annual direct medical costs due to falls in the United States are approximately $19.2 billion. The identification of new treatable risk factors for falls has the potential to advance their prevention and rehabilitation. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 127 community-dwelling adults aged 67-99 years was conducted...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Robert G Franklin, Leslie A Zebrowitz
Background/Study Context: Older adults (OA) have consistently shown lower accuracy compared with younger adults (YA) when labeling facial expressions of emotion in multiple choice tasks. However, OA do not show lower accuracy when judging psychological attributes from faces in rating tasks. The authors investigated whether the cognitive demands of multiple choice tasks yields an underestimation of OA emotion recognition ability and whether lower scores by OA in emotion recognition tasks are an instance of age-related dedifferentiated face perception...
October 12, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Wonkyoung Shin, Minyong Park
Background/Study Context: The increasing longevity and health of older users as well as aging populations has created the need to develop senior-oriented product interfaces. This study aims to find user interface (UI) priorities according to older user groups based on their lifestyle and develop quality of UI (QUI) models for large electronic home appliances and mobile products. METHODS: A segmentation table designed to show how older users can be categorized was created through a review of the literature to survey 252 subjects with a questionnaire...
October 9, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Gaën Plancher, Hélène Boyer, Benoît Lemaire, Sophie Portrat
Background/Study Context: Age-related deficits in working memory (WM) are commonly described in the literature. However, age-related deficits in WM maintenance mechanisms have received less attention. Based on recent models of WM, the present study aims at determining the conditions under which older adults are able to maintain information. More precisely, we wondered whether the cognitive load effect, taken as evidence for active maintenance in WM, is observed in normal aging and whether it interacts with the level of interference of a concurrent task...
September 26, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Fabiana Teixeira de Carvalho, Laiana Sepúlveda de Andrade Mesquita, Rafael Pereira, Osmar Pinto Neto, Renato Amaro Zangaro
Background/Study Context: The aging process is associated with a decline in muscle mass, strength, and conditioning. Two training methods that may be useful to improve muscle function are Pilates and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Thus, the present study aimed to compare the influence of training programs using Pilates and PNF methods with elderly women. METHODS: Sixty healthy elderly women were randomly divided into three groups: Pilates group, PNF group, and control group...
September 26, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Roger W Simmons, Susan S Levy, Nicole K Simmons
Background/Study Context: The study was a longitudinal assessment of age-related changes in standing balance and response strategy usage in healthy adults. METHODS: Balance of 17 individuals with a mean age of 44.5 years was assessed and then reassessed 19.5 years later. Participants stood on computer-controlled dual-force platforms enclosed by a visual surround and completed six tests in which visual and/or somatosensory information was systematically degraded or eliminated. RESULTS: Results for each test and a weighted composite balance score revealed no significant change in postural control over the time period studied...
September 26, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Manuela Tomai, Lina Pezzuti, Minou Mebane, Maura Benedetti, Annalisa Moro
Background/Study Context: The impact of dispositional characteristic of elders' closest network members on elders' life satisfaction and empowerment has remained largely unexplored. This innovative study aimed to assess the impact of dispositional variables of elders, relatives, and paid caregivers on life satisfaction and empowerment of elders. METHODS: One hundred forty-three triads (one elder, one paid caregiver, and one relative) completed six scales measuring modifiable personality characteristics (loneliness, optimism, regulation of positive and negative emotions), life satisfaction, and sense of empowerment...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
Mohamad El Haj
Background/Study Context: A substantial body of literature suggests that stereotypes can play a determining role in making judgments about the source of information. This study investigated this issue for destination memory or remembering to whom information has been previously told. METHODS: Younger adults and older adults told six medical and six mechanical facts to a picture depicting a physician, and also told six different medical and six different mechanical facts to a picture depicting a mechanic...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
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