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Molecular Aspects of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#1
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329794/redox-signals-and-macrophage-biology-for-the-upcoming-issue-of-molecular-aspects-of-medicine-on-signaling-by-reactive-oxygen-species
#2
REVIEW
Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard Brüne
Macrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of 'altered self', which explains the role of macrophages during innate immune reactions and inflammation. However, there is also another side of macrophages when they turn into a tissue regenerative, pro-resolving, and healing phenotype...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325757/the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-their-endocannabinoid-like-derivatives-in-the-molecular-regulation-of-appetite
#3
REVIEW
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317252/flavonoids-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract-local-and-systemic-effects
#4
REVIEW
P I Oteiza, C G Fraga, D A Mills, D H Taft
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of flavonoids, which ultimately define the health effects of these bioactives. These aspects are modulated by the interactions of flavonoids with other dietary components, environmental factors, the host, and the GI microbiota. Flavonoid can target molecules in the luminal content, the different GI tract cell types, and the microbiota. Importantly, flavonoid actions at the GI tract can have an impact systemically, e...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305120/brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-uptake-and-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
R J Scott Lacombe, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Richard P Bazinet
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the brain with DHA, recent evidence suggests non-esterified-DHA and lysophosphatidylcholine-DHA are the primary sources...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222068/foetoplacental-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-in-normal-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#6
REVIEW
Delia I Chiarello, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Intercellular communication is a critical process in biological mechanisms. During pregnancy foetoplacental tissues release a heterogeneous group of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and syncytial nuclear aggregates. These vesicles contain a complex cargo (proteins, DNA, mRNA transcripts, microRNAs, noncoding RNA, lipids, and other molecules) that actively participate in the maternal-foetal communication by modulating different processes during gestation for a successful foetal development...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222067/role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-glioma-progression
#7
REVIEW
Claudia Quezada, Ángelo Torres, Ignacio Niechi, Daniel Uribe, Susana Contreras Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Rody San Martín, Jaime Gutiérrez, Luis Sobrevia
The role of extracellular vesicles in cancer biology has emerged as a focus of the study of great importance and has been shown to directly influence tumour development in several cancers including brain tumours, such as gliomas. Gliomas are the most aggressive brain tumours, and in the last time, a considerable effort has been made to understand their biology. Studies focus in the signalling pathways involved in the processes of angiogenesis, viability, drug resistance and immune response evasion, as well as gliomas ability to infiltrate healthy tissue, a phenomenon regulated by the migratory and invasive capacity of the cells within a tumour...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222066/large-scale-randomized-clinical-trials-of-bioactives-and-nutrients-in-relation-to-human-health-and-disease-prevention-lessons-from-the-vital-and-cosmos-trials
#8
REVIEW
Susanne Rautiainen, Howard D Sesso, Joann E Manson
Several bioactive compounds and nutrients in foods have physiological properties that are beneficial for human health. While nutrients typically have clear definitions with established levels of recommended intakes, bioactive compounds often lack such a definition. Although a food-based approach is often the optimal approach to ensure adequate intake of bioactives and nutrients, these components are also often produced as dietary supplements. However, many of these supplements are not sufficiently studied and have an unclear role in chronic disease prevention...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196098/exosomes-as-carrier-of-prion-proteins
#9
REVIEW
Lesley Cheng, Wenting Zhao, Andrew F Hill
Over the past decade, small extracellular vesicles called exosomes have been observed to harbour vital and harmful cargo that can assist in health and also cause disease. Many groups are extensively investigating the mechanisms involved that regulate the trafficking and packaging of exosomal contents and how these processes may be deregulated in disease. Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders and are characterized by the presence of detectable misfolded prion proteins. The disease associated form of the prion protein can be found in exosomes and its transmissible properties have provided a reliable experimental read out that can be used to understand how exosomes and their cargo are involved in cell-cell communication and in the spread of diseases...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196097/the-influence-of-tumour-derived-extracellular-vesicles-on-local-and-distal-metastatic-dissemination
#10
REVIEW
Laura Nogués, Alberto Benito-Martin, Marta Hergueta-Redondo, Héctor Peinado
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key mediators of intercellular communication that have been ignored for decades. Tumour cells benefit from the secretion of vesicles as they can influence the behaviour of neighbouring tumour cells within the tumour microenvironment. Several studies have shown that extracellular vesicles play an active role in pre-metastatic niche formation and importantly, they are involved in the metastatic organotropism of different tumour types. Tumour-derived EVs carry and transfer molecules to recipient cells, modifying their behaviour through a process known as "EV-driven education"...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175307/extracellular-vesicles-in-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Fabián Pardo, Roberto Villalobos-Labra, Bastián Sobrevia, Fernando Toledo, Luis Sobrevia
Cell-to-cell communication happens via diverse mechanisms including the synthesis, release and transfer to target cells of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs include nanovesicles (i.e., exosomes) and microvesicles, including apoptotic bodies. The amount and cargo of released EVs, which consist of microRNAs (miRNAs), mRNA, proteins, DNA, among other molecules, are altered in obesity and diabetes mellitus. EVs from these diseases show with altered cargo including several miRNAs and the enrichment with molecules involved in inflammation, immune efficiency, and cell activation...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146100/emerging-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-as-a-senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-lung-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Tsukasa Kadota, Yu Fujita, Yusuke Yoshioka, Jun Araya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Takahiro Ochiya
Aging is a major risk factor for the development of chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lung cancer. A main aspect of aging is the impaired function of maintaining homeostasis in the organs and body, which is associated with cellular senescence. Cellular senescence is recognized as the state of irreversible cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of cellular stresses. Senescent cells are not simply cell cycle-arrested cells; they also affect bystander cells through the secretion of bioactive molecules, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155161/extracellular-vesicles-compartment-in-liquid-biopsies-clinical-application
#13
REVIEW
Noemi Garcia-Romero, Susana Esteban-Rubio, Gorjana Rackov, Josefa Carrión-Navarro, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso-Sacido
Liquid biopsy is becoming a new source of biomarkers that complement and resolve some of the most important limitations of surgical biopsy, which are the accessibility to the diseased tissue and its heterogeneity, especially relevant for tumors. The diseased tissues release their molecule content to the bloodstream in free form, inside a cell or within extracellular vesicles (EVs). While the identification of molecular alterations in total DNA isolated from peripheral blood is already in use for some tumors that secrete large amounts of DNA, it is challenging to assay those secreting lower amounts of molecules as well as for many other non-tumoral pathologies like immunological and cardiovascular diseases...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146101/nutrition-epidemiology-of-flavan-3-ols-the-known-unknowns
#14
REVIEW
Gunter G C Kuhnle
Nutritional epidemiology has an important role, as it can provide long-term data from large populations and does not rely on surrogate markers for morbidity/mortality. Meaningful interpretation and applications of outcomes from epidemiological studies depend on the accurate assessment of dietary intake, which is currently mainly based on a combination of self-reporting and food composition data. Flavan-3-ols are a group of bioactives (non-essential dietary components with significant impact on health) that is a possible candidate for the development of dietary recommendations...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155002/pdgf-in-organ-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Mara Klinkhammer, Jürgen Floege, Peter Boor
Fibrosis is part of a tissue repair response to injury, defined as increased deposition of extracellular matrix. In some instances, fibrosis is beneficial; however, in the majority of diseases fibrosis is detrimental. Virtually all chronic progressive diseases are associated with fibrosis, representing a huge number of patients worldwide. Fibrosis occurs in all organs and tissues, becomes irreversible with time and further drives loss of tissue function. Various cells types initiate and perpetuate pathological fibrosis by paracrine activation of the principal cellular executors of fibrosis, i...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137923/the-pdgf-pdgfr-pathway-as-a-drug-target
#16
REVIEW
Natalia Papadopoulos, Johan Lennartsson
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) promotes cell proliferation, survival and migration, primarily of cells of mesenchymal origin. Dysfunction of PDGF signaling has been observed in a wide array of pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, neurological conditions and atherosclerosis. Reported abnormalities of the PDGF pathway include overexpression or amplification of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs), gain of function point mutations or activating chromosomal translocations. Current development of therapeutic drugs often aims at producing compounds that specifically target interaction between PDGFs and their receptors by specific DNA aptamers and ligand traps, or downregulate PDGFRs with blocking antibodies, or inhibit tyrosine kinase activity of PDGFRs with small molecules...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137922/extracellular-vesicles-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Tommaso Croese, Roberto Furlan
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by all neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. The lack of adequate technology has not halted neuroscientists from investigating EVs as a mean to decipher neurodegenerative disorders, still in search of comprehensible pathogenic mechanisms and efficient treatment. EVs are thought to be one of ways neurodegenerative pathologies spread in the brain, but also one of the ways the brain tries to displace toxic proteins, making their meaning in pathogenesis uncertain...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122679/extracellular-vesicles-novel-mediator-for-cell-to-cell-communications-in-liver-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Pradip B Devhare, Ratna B Ray
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane derived nanometer-sized vesicles. EVs are released by normal, diseased, and transformed cells in vitro and in vivo, and carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. Transferring biological information via EVs to neighboring cells and inter-cellular communication not only maintain physiological functions, but also involve in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging role of EVs in viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic or alcoholic liver disease and liver cancers...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927943/laser-microdissection-a-powerful-tool-for-genomics-at-cell-level
#19
REVIEW
Claudia Bevilacqua, Bertrand Ducos
Laser microdissection (LM) has become widely democratized over the last fifteen years. Instruments have evolved to offer more powerful and efficient lasers as well as new options for sample collection and preparation. Technological evolutions have also focused on the post-microdissection analysis capabilities, opening up investigations in all disciplines of experimental and clinical biology, thanks to the advent of new high-throughput methods of genome analysis, including RNAseq and proteomics, now globally known as microgenomics, i...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117513/mechanisms-of-dietary-flavonoid-action-in-neuronal-function-and-neuroinflammation
#20
REVIEW
Baptiste N Jaeger, Sarah L Parylak, Fred H Gage
Flavonoids are a class of plant-derived dietary polyphenols that have attracted attention for their pro-cognitive and anti-inflammatory effects. The diversity of flavonoids and their extensive in vivo metabolism suggest that a variety of cellular targets in the brain are likely to be impacted by flavonoid consumption. Initially characterized as antioxidants, flavonoids are now believed to act directly on neurons and glia via the interaction with major signal transduction cascades, as well as indirectly via interaction with the blood-brain barrier and cerebral vasculature...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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