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Molecular Aspects of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455109/bronchoprotective-mechanisms-for-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-the-resolution-of-lung-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Melody G Duvall, Thayse R Bruggemann, Bruce D Levy
Bronchi are exposed daily to irritants, microbes and allergens as well as extremes of temperature and acid. The airway mucosal epithelium plays a pivotal role as a sentinel, releasing alarmins when danger is encountered. To maintain homeostasis, an elaborate counter-regulatory network of signals and cellular effector mechanisms are needed. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are chemical mediators that enact resolution programs in response to injury, infection or allergy. SPMs are enzymatically derived from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids with potent cell-type specific immunoresolvent properties...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511935/bile-acids-and-male-fertility-from-mouse-to-human
#2
REVIEW
Lauriane Sèdes, Emmanuelle Martinot, Marine Baptissart, Silvère Baron, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H Volle
Next to their involvement in digestion, bile acids have been defined as signaling molecules. They have been demonstrated to control many physiological functions among which lipid homeostasis, glucose and energy metabolisms. Bile acids are ligands of several receptors and multiple studies using transgenic mouse models defined the major roles of their respective nuclear and membrane receptors namely the Farnesoid-X-Receptor (FXRα) and the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1(GPBAR1; TGR5). Here we review the reports highlighting the impacts of bile acids on testicular physiology and on male reproductive functions...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506676/bile-acids-and-gestation
#3
REVIEW
Saraid McIlvride, Peter H Dixon, Catherine Williamson
There are numerous profound maternal physiological changes that occur from conception onwards and adapt throughout gestation in order to support a healthy pregnancy. By the time of late gestation, when circulating pregnancy hormones are at their highest concentrations, maternal adaptations include relative hyperlipidemia, hypercholanemia and insulin resistance. Bile acids have now been established as key regulators of metabolism, and their role in gestational changes in metabolism is becoming apparent. Bile acid homeostasis is tightly regulated by the nuclear receptor FXR, which has been shown to have reduced activity during pregnancy...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479307/specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-renal-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Eoin P Brennan, Antonino Cacace, Catherine Godson
Inflammation and its timely resolution play a critical role in effective host defence and wound healing. Unresolved inflammatory responses underlie the pathology of many prevalent diseases resulting in tissue fibrosis and eventual organ failure as typified by kidney, lung and liver fibrosis. The role of autocrine and paracrine mediators including cytokines, prostaglandins and leukotrienes in initiating and sustaining inflammation is well established. More recently a physiological role for specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators [SPMs] in modulating inflammatory responses and promoting the resolution of inflammation has been appreciated...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483533/berry-anthocyanin-intake-and-cardiovascular-health
#5
REVIEW
Aedín Cassidy
Over half of all cardiovascular (CV) events could be prevented by improved diet. This is reflected in government targets for fruit/vegetable intake, yet these are variable across the world (UK: 5-a-day; USA: 9-a-day), do not identify specific fruits/vegetables, and prove hard to achieve. Mounting evidence from prospective studies, supported by recent randomised controlled trials suggest that the benefits of fruits/vegetables may be due to bioactive substances called flavonoids. Specifically one sub-class of flavonoids, the anthocyanins, responsible for the red/blue hue, are receiving growing attention...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483532/pro-resolving-mediators-in-the-regulation-of-periodontal-disease
#6
REVIEW
Thomas E Van Dyke
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the dentition that is initiated by bacterial that form a biofilm on the surface of the teeth. The pathogenesis of the disease is a result of complex interactions between the biofilm and the host response that results in dysbiosis of the microbiome and dysregulation of the inflammatory response. Current data suggest that the excess inflammation associated with periodontitis is due to a failure of resolution of inflammation pathways. In this review, the relationship between inflammation and microbial dysbiosis is examined in the context of pro-inflammation and pro-resolution mediators and their ability to modify the course of disease...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456616/actions-of-spm-in-regulating-host-responses-in-arthritis
#7
REVIEW
Mauro Perretti, Lucy V Norling
The discovery and identification of omega-3 fatty acid derived specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) provides a molecular mechanism for the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation in patients suffering from arthritis. Here we review the plethora of bioactions of SPM in the context of joint diseases, focusing on both cellular targets and molecular mechanisms. Whenever possible, a parallel to clinical and preclinical data produced with fish oil supplementation is made to strengthen the mechanistic link between omega-3 fatty acids and SPM biosynthesis...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442273/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#8
REVIEW
Monica D Chow, Yi-Horng Lee, Grace L Guo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is growing in prevalence worldwide. It is marked by the presence of macrosteatosis on liver histology but is often clinically asymptomatic. However, it can progress into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis which is a more severe form of liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. Further progression leads to cirrhosis, which predisposes patients to hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure. The mechanism by which simple steatosis progresses to steatohepatitis is not entirely clear...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390813/bile-acids-and-bariatric-surgery
#9
REVIEW
Vance L Albaugh, Babak Banan, Hana Ajouz, Naji N Abumrad, Charles R Flynn
Bariatric surgery, specifically Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are the most effective and durable treatments for morbid obesity and potentially a viable treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The resolution rate of T2D following these procedures is between 40 and 80% and far surpasses that achieved by medical management alone. The molecular basis for this improvement is not entirely understood, but has been attributed in part to the altered enterohepatic circulation of bile acids...
April 17, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400119/bile-acids-and-colon-cancer-is-fxr-the-solution-of-the-conundrum
#10
REVIEW
Raffaella Maria Gadaleta, Oihane Garcia-Irigoyen, Antonio Moschetta
Diet and lifestyle habits have a profound impact on the pathophysiology of many diseases. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and its etiology is strongly influenced by nutrition and high fat/high carbohydrate Western-style diet. Human epidemiological and animal studies have shown that colonic cancer risk is also related to faecal bile acid concentration. Abnormally high levels of bile acids (BA) trigger the colonic mucosa with a plethora of detrimental effects such as DNA oxidative damage, inflammation and hyperproliferation that highly promote CRC progression in post-initiation phase...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366638/the-role-of-pro-resolving-lipid-mediators-in-ocular-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Jessica Wei, Karsten Gronert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365269/does-promoting-resolution-instead-of-inhibiting-inflammation-represent-the-new-paradigm-in-treating-infections
#12
REVIEW
Jesmond Dalli
Infections arise when the host response is overwhelmed by pathogens leading to organ dysfunction. In some instances patients progress to more severe conditions, including septic shock, that are associated with increased mortality. Current strategies in treating infections aim at either blocking inflammation using inhibitors to pro-inflammatory molecules and/or inhibiting bacterial growth using antibiotics. These approaches find their origins in studies conducted by Joseph Lister who demonstrated that applying carbolic acid to wounds promoted wound healing without suppuration, reducing both the necessity of amputation and mortality...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336292/structural-elucidation-and-physiologic-functions-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-and-their-receptors
#13
REVIEW
Nan Chiang, Charles N Serhan
The acute inflammatory response is host-protective to contain foreign invaders. Many of today's pharmacopeia that block pro-inflammatory chemical mediators can cause serious unwanted side effects such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered a pathophysiologic basis associated with many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity and asthma, as well as the classic inflammatory diseases, e.g. arthritis, periodontal diseases...
March 31, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341541/pro-resolving-actions-of-spm-in-adipose-tissue-biology
#14
REVIEW
Joan Clària, Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, Esther Titos
White adipose tissue plays an important endocrine role in balancing metabolic homeostasis. During conditions of nutrient excess, as occurs in obesity, there is an expansion of adipose tissue mass associated with a state of "low-grade" inflammation in this tissue. This chronic, unresolved inflammation of adipose tissue is deleterious and leads to many pathological sequelae associated with obesity including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recently, a novel genus of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators endogenously generated from membrane phospholipid-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids has been identified during the resolution phase of acute inflammation...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302491/bile-acids-and-their-receptors-during-liver-regeneration-dangerous-protectors
#15
REVIEW
Grégory Merlen, José Ursic-Bedoya, Valeska Jourdainne, Nicolas Kahale, Mathilde Glenisson, Isabelle Doignon, Dominique Rainteau, Thierry Tordjmann
Tissue repair is orchestrated by a finely tuned interplay between processes of regeneration, inflammation and cell protection, allowing organisms to restore their integrity after partial loss of cells or organs. An important, although largely unexplored feature is that after injury and during liver repair, liver functions have to be maintained to fulfill the peripheral demand. This is particularly critical for bile secretion, which has to be finely modulated in order to preserve liver parenchyma from bile-induced injury...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322867/bile-acid-analysis-in-human-disorders-of-bile-acid-biosynthesis
#16
REVIEW
Frédéric M Vaz, Sacha Ferdinandusse
Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular organelles and requires at least 17 enzymes in addition to different metabolite transport proteins to synthesize the two primary bile acids, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Disorders of bile acid synthesis can present from the neonatal period to adulthood and have very diverse clinical symptoms ranging from cholestatic liver disease to neuropsychiatric symptoms and spastic paraplegias...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263773/discovery-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-marks-the-dawn-of-resolution-physiology-and-pharmacology
#17
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
It is with great pleasure that I write this foreword and introduction to this Special Issue dedicated to the protective actions of the pro-resolving mediators and edited by my colleague Dr. Jesmond Dalli. Many of my collaborators and colleagues that helped to uncover the actions and clinical potential of the resolvins and other specialized proresolving mediators (SPM), namely, the superfamily of pro-resolving mediators that includes the resolvin (E-series, D-series and DPA-derived), protectin and maresin families, as well as the arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, join me in this special issue...
March 3, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257820/specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Gabrielle Fredman, Matthew Spite
The resolution of inflammation is a highly regulated process enacted by endogenous mediators including specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs): the lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. SPMs activate specific cellular receptors to temper the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, diminish the recruitment of neutrophils, and promote the clearance of dead cells by macrophages. These mediators also enhance host-defense and couple resolution of inflammation to subsequent phases of tissue repair...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216432/epigenetic-modification-by-dietary-factors-implications-in-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Jae-Ho Park, Soon-Hee Kim, Myeong Soo Lee, Myung-Sunny Kim
Dietary factors play a role in normal biological processes and are involved in the regulation of pathological progression over a lifetime. Evidence has emerged indicating that dietary factor-dependent epigenetic modifications can significantly affect genome stability and the expression of mRNA and proteins, which are involved in metabolic dysfunction. Since metabolic syndrome is a progressive phenotype characterized by insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or type 2 diabetes, gene-diet interactions are important processes involved in the initiation of particular symptoms of metabolic syndrome and their progression...
April 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889327/epigenetics-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Jooho Lee, Yuri Kim, Simonetta Friso, Sang-Woon Choi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common hepatic disorder ranging from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis, is an emerging health concern. NAFLD is a pathologic condition characterized by the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol consumption. Excess hepatic fat accumulation results from increased delivery of triglycerides (TG) to the liver or conversion of surplus carbohydrates to TG. Importantly, a subgroup of NAFLD results in hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and may progress to irreversible cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
April 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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