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Molecular Aspects of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923782/single-cell-epigenome-sequencing-technologies
#1
REVIEW
Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang
Epigenetic regulation plays crucial roles in the development and disease processes. Since different cell types with distinct epigenetic characteristics are always intermingled together in the tissues or organs, the single cell analysis provides a universal resolution for dissecting their intrinsic complexities. In this review, we discuss recent advances of developing single cell epigenome sequencing techniques for profiling DNA modifications (5mC, 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC), chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, protein-DNA interactions and three-dimensional genome architecture (Hi-C) in an individual mammalian cell...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927943/laser-microdissection-a-powerful-tool-for-genomics-at-cell-level
#2
REVIEW
Claudia Bevilacqua, Bertrand Ducos
Laser microdissection (LM) has become considerably democratized over the last fifteen years. Instruments have evolved to offer more powerful and efficient lasers as well as new options for sample collection and preparation. Technological evolutions have also focused on the post-microdissection analysis capabilities, opening up investigations in all disciplines of experimental and clinical biology, thanks to the advent of new high-throughput methods of genome analysis, including RNAseq and proteomics, now globally known as microgenomics, i...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927942/microfluidic-single-cell-technology-in-immunology-and-antibody-screening
#3
REVIEW
Yu Fen Samantha Seah, Hongxing Hu, Christoph A Merten
Single-cell technology has a major impact on the field of immunology. It enables the kinetics and logic of immune signaling and immune cell migration to be elucidated, facilitates antibody screening and allows massively parallelized analysis of B- and T-cell repertoires. Impressive progress has been made over the last decade, strongly boosted by microfluidic approaches. In this review, we summarize the most powerful microfluidic systems based on continuous-flow, nanowells, valves and droplets and we analyze their benefits for phenotypic characterization, drug discovery and next generation sequencing experiments...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887275/ffa4-gpr120-as-a-fatty-acid-sensor-involved-in-appetite-control-insulin-sensitivity-and-inflammation-regulation
#4
REVIEW
Dong-Soon Im
Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been suggested to be beneficial in the context of cardiovascular disorders based in epidemiologic studies conducted in Greenland and Mediterranean. DHA and EPA are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are plentiful in fish oil, and oleic acid is an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, rich in olive oil. Dietary intake of these unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been associated with insulin sensitivity and weight loss, which contrasts with the impairment of insulin sensitivity and weight gain associated with high intakes of saturated long-chain fatty acids...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802834/vegetable-derived-bioactive-nitrate-and-cardiovascular-health
#5
REVIEW
Catherine P Bondonno, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Alex H Liu, Nicola P Bondonno, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Jonathan M Hodgson
Vegetable derived nitrate is now recognised as an important bioactive phytochemical with cardioprotective properties. Nitrate, through the recently described enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, increases NO, a molecule pivotal for cardiovascular health. Clinical trials have observed that dietary nitrate has similar effects to NO when supplied exogenously. These effects include reduced blood pressure and improvements in other markers of vascular health such as endothelial function, arterial stiffness, ischemia reperfusion injury, blood flow, and platelet aggregation...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802833/new-pro-resolving-n-3-mediators-bridge-resolution-of-infectious-inflammation-to-tissue-regeneration
#6
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan, Nan Chiang, Jesmond Dalli
While protective, the acute inflammatory response when uncontrolled can lead to further tissue damage and chronic inflammation that is now widely recognized to play important roles in many commonly occurring diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and many other diseases of significant public health concern. The ideal response to initial challenges of the host is complete resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which is now recognized to be a biosynthetically active process governed by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM)...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863981/single-cell-analysis-of-normal-and-leukemic-hematopoiesis
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin J Povinelli, Alba Rodriguez-Meira, Adam J Mead
The hematopoietic system is well established as a paradigm for the study of cellular hierarchies, their disruption in disease and therapeutic use in regenerative medicine. Traditional approaches to study hematopoiesis involve purification of cell populations based on a small number of surface markers. However, such population-based analysis obscures underlying heterogeneity contained within any phenotypically defined cell population. This heterogeneity can only be resolved through single cell analysis. Recent advances in single cell techniques allow analysis of the genome, transcriptome, epigenome and proteome in single cells at an unprecedented scale...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823596/high-dimension-single-cell-analysis-applied-to-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Lili Wang, Kenneth J Livak, Catherine J Wu
High-dimension single-cell technology is transforming our ability to study and understand cancer. Numerous studies and reviews have reported advances in technology development. The biological insights gleaned from single-cell technology about cancer biology are less reviewed. Here we focus on research studies that illustrate novel aspects of cancer biology that bulk analysis could not achieve, and discuss the fresh insights gained from the application of single-cell technology across basic and clinical cancer studies...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826729/the-secrets-of-the-cell
#9
EDITORIAL
Mikael Kubista, Jacqueline Dreyer-Lamm, Anders Ståhlberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822596/corrigendum-to-extracellular-atp-and-adenosine-the-yin-and-yang-in-immune-responses-molecular-aspects-of-medicine-55-2017-9-19
#10
M M Faas, T Saez, P de Vos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765077/resolution-of-vascular-injury-specialized-lipid-mediators-and-their-evolving-therapeutic-implications
#11
REVIEW
Bian Wu, Giorgio Mottola, Melinda Schaller, Gilbert R Upchurch, Michael S Conte
Acute vascular injury occurs in a number of important clinical contexts, including spontaneous disease-related events (e.g. plaque rupture, thrombosis) and therapeutic interventions such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery. Endothelial cell (EC) disruption exposes the underlying matrix, leading to a rapid deposition of platelets, coagulation proteins, and leukocytes. A thrombo-inflammatory response ensues characterized by leukocyte recruitment, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activation, and the elaboration of cytokines, reactive oxygen species and growth factors within the vessel wall...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756182/technical-aspects-and-recommendations-for-single-cell-qpcr
#12
REVIEW
Anders Ståhlberg, Mikael Kubista
Single cells are basic physiological and biological units that can function individually as well as in groups in tissues and organs. It is central to identify, characterize and profile single cells at molecular level to be able to distinguish different kinds, to understand their functions and determine how they interact with each other. During the last decade several technologies for single-cell profiling have been developed and used in various applications, revealing many novel findings. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is one of the most developed methods for single-cell profiling that can be used to interrogate several analytes, including DNA, RNA and protein...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754496/single-cell-rna-sequencing-technical-advancements-and-biological-applications
#13
REVIEW
Eva Hedlund, Qiaolin Deng
Cells are the basic building blocks of organisms and each cell is unique. Single-cell RNA sequencing has emerged as an indispensable tool to dissect the cellular heterogeneity and decompose tissues into cell types and/or cell states, which offers enormous potential for de novo discovery. Single-cell transcriptomic atlases provide unprecedented resolution to reveal complex cellular events and deepen our understanding of biological systems. In this review, we summarize and compare single-cell RNA sequencing technologies, that were developed since 2009, to facilitate a well-informed choice of method...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712804/identifying-cell-populations-with-scrnaseq
#14
REVIEW
Tallulah S Andrews, Martin Hemberg
Single-cell RNASeq (scRNASeq) has emerged as a powerful method for quantifying the transcriptome of individual cells. However, the data from scRNASeq experiments is often both noisy and high dimensional, making the computational analysis non-trivial. Here we provide an overview of different experimental protocols and the most popular methods for facilitating the computational analysis. We focus on approaches for identifying biologically important genes, projecting data into lower dimensions and clustering data into putative cell-populations...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669592/personalized-microbiome-dynamics-cytometric-fingerprints-for-routine-diagnostics
#15
REVIEW
Christin Koch, Susann Müller
Microbiomes convoy human life in countless ways. They are an essential part of the human body and interact with its host in countless ways. Currently, extensive microbiome analyses assessing the microbiomes' composition and functions based on sequencing information are still far away from being routine analyses due to the complexity of applied techniques and data analysis, their time demand as well as high costs. With the growing demand for on-time community assessment and monitoring of its dynamic behavior with high resolution, alternative high-throughput methods such as microbial community flow cytometry come into focus...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711135/bile-acids-roles-in-integrative-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#16
EDITORIAL
David H Volle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606651/mechanisms-of-bile-acid-mediated-inflammation-in-the-liver
#17
REVIEW
Man Li, Shi-Ying Cai, James L Boyer
Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and are the major component in bile. Impaired bile flow leads to cholestasis that is characterized by elevated levels of bile acid in the liver and serum, followed by hepatocyte and biliary injury. Although the causes of cholestasis have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms as to how bile acids initiate liver injury remain controversial. In this chapter, we summarize recent advances in the pathogenesis of bile acid induced liver injury. These include bile acid signaling pathways in hepatocytes as well as the response of cholangiocytes and innate immune cells in the liver in both patients with cholestasis and cholestatic animal models...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602676/interactions-between-gut-bacteria-and-bile-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Sarah L Long, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the intestine to aid the digestion of dietary lipids. The host enzymes that contribute to bile acid synthesis in the liver and the regulatory pathways that influence the composition of the total bile acid pool in the host have been well established. In addition, the gut microbiota provides unique contributions to the diversity of bile acids in the bile acid pool. Gut microbial enzymes contribute significantly to bile acid metabolism through deconjugation and dehydroxylation reactions to generate unconjugated bile acids and secondary bile acids...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511935/bile-acids-and-male-fertility-from-mouse-to-human
#19
REVIEW
Lauriane Sèdes, Emmanuelle Martinot, Marine Baptissart, Silvère Baron, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H Volle
Next to their involvement in digestion, bile acids have been defined as signaling molecules. They have been demonstrated to control many physiological functions among which lipid homeostasis, glucose and energy metabolisms. Bile acids are ligands of several receptors and multiple studies using transgenic mouse models defined the major roles of their respective nuclear and membrane receptors namely the Farnesoid-X-Receptor (FXRα) and the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1(GPBAR1; TGR5). Here we review the reports highlighting the impacts of bile acids on testicular physiology and on male reproductive functions...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506676/bile-acids-and-gestation
#20
REVIEW
Saraid McIlvride, Peter H Dixon, Catherine Williamson
There are numerous profound maternal physiological changes that occur from conception onwards and adapt throughout gestation in order to support a healthy pregnancy. By the time of late gestation, when circulating pregnancy hormones are at their highest concentrations, maternal adaptations include relative hyperlipidemia, hypercholanemia and insulin resistance. Bile acids have now been established as key regulators of metabolism, and their role in gestational changes in metabolism is becoming apparent. Bile acid homeostasis is tightly regulated by the nuclear receptor FXR, which has been shown to have reduced activity during pregnancy...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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