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Molecular Aspects of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958900/organ-and-tissue-fibrosis-molecular-signals-cellular-mechanisms-and-translational-implications
#1
REVIEW
Ralf Weiskirchen, Sabine Weiskirchen, Frank Tacke
Fibrosis denotes excessive scarring, which exceeds the normal wound healing response to injury in many tissues. Although the extracellular matrix deposition appears unstructured disrupting the normal tissue architecture and subsequently impairing proper organ function, fibrogenesis is a highly orchestrated process determined by defined sequences of molecular signals and cellular response mechanisms. Persistent injury and parenchymal cell death provokes tissue inflammation, macrophage activation and immune cell infiltration...
June 26, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909119/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-kidney-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Sonja Djudjaj, Peter Boor
Renal fibrosis is the final pathological process common to any ongoing, chronic kidney injury or maladaptive repair. It is considered as the underlying pathological process of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which affects more than 10% of world population and for which treatment options are limited. Renal fibrosis is defined by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which disrupts and replaces the functional parenchyma that leads to organ failure. Kidney's histological structure can be divided into three main compartments, all of which can be affected by fibrosis, specifically termed glomerulosclerosis in glomeruli, interstitial fibrosis in tubulointerstitium and arteriosclerosis and perivascular fibrosis in vasculature...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409855/pdgf-pdgfr-axis-in-the-neural-systems
#3
REVIEW
Susmita Sil, Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ernest T Chivero, Shilpa Buch
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are expressed in several cell types including the brain cells such as neuronal progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Emerging evidence shows that PDGF-mediated signaling regulates diverse functions in the central nervous system (CNS) such as neurogenesis, cell survival, synaptogenesis, modulation of ligand-gated ion channels, and development of specific types of neurons. Interestingly, PDGF/PDFGR signaling can elicit paradoxical roles in the CNS, depending on the cell type and the activation stimuli and is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases...
August 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907195/bioactives-and-their-impact-on-human-health
#4
EDITORIAL
Cesar G Fraga, Patricia I Oteiza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427606/recommending-flavanols-and-procyanidins-for-cardiovascular-health-revisited
#5
REVIEW
Javier I Ottaviani, Christian Heiss, Jeremy P E Spencer, Malte Kelm, Hagen Schroeter
The last 8 years have seen significant developments in our understanding of dietary flavanols and procyanidins in the context of human health and nutrition. During the same time, recognition of the importance of nutrition in primary disease prevention and health maintenance has increased. In addition, the concept of dietary bioactives (food constituents that although not essential to human life and procreation, may nevertheless play an important role in disease risk reduction, primary disease prevention, and healthy aging) has been created and developed...
June 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421170/plant-bioactives-and-redox-signaling-epicatechin-as-a-paradigm
#6
REVIEW
Cesar G Fraga, Patricia I Oteiza, Monica Galleano
Polyphenols are bioactives claimed to be responsible for some of the health benefits provided by fruit and vegetables. It is currently accepted that the bioactivities of polyphenols can be mostly ascribed to their interactions with proteins and lipids. Such interactions can affect cell oxidant production and cell signaling, and explain in part the ability of polyphenols to promote health. EC can modulate redox sensitive signaling by: i) defining the extent of oxidant levels that can modify cell signaling, function, and fate, e...
June 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483533/berry-anthocyanin-intake-and-cardiovascular-health
#7
REVIEW
Aedín Cassidy
Over half of all cardiovascular (CV) events could be prevented by improved diet. This is reflected in government targets for fruit/vegetable intake, yet these are variable across the world (UK: 5-a-day; USA: 9-a-day), do not identify specific fruits/vegetables, and prove hard to achieve. Mounting evidence from prospective studies, supported by recent randomised controlled trials suggest that the benefits of fruits/vegetables may be due to bioactive substances called flavonoids. Specifically one sub-class of flavonoids, the anthocyanins, responsible for the red/blue hue, are receiving growing attention...
June 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627343/omega-3-fatty-acids-membrane-remodeling-and-cancer-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Natividad R Fuentes, Eunjoo Kim, Yang-Yi Fan, Robert S Chapkin
Proteins are often credited as the macromolecule responsible for performing critical cellular functions, however lipids have recently garnered more attention as our understanding of their role in cell function and human health becomes more apparent. Although cellular membranes are the lipid environment in which many proteins function, it is now apparent that protein and lipid assemblies can be organized to form distinct micro- or nanodomains that facilitate signaling events. Indeed, it is now appreciated that cellular function is partly regulated by the specific spatiotemporal lipid composition of the membrane, down to the nanosecond and nanometer scale...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596842/more-than-a-syllable-in-fib-ros-is-the-role-of-ros-on-the-fibrotic-extracellular-matrix-and-on-cellular-contacts
#9
REVIEW
Julius Grosche, Juliane Meißner, Johannes A Eble
Fibrosis is characterized by excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the ECM changes during fibrosis not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, the composition is altered as the expression of various ECM proteins changes. Moreover, also posttranslational modifications, secretion, deposition and crosslinkage as well as the proteolytic degradation of ECM components run differently during fibrosis. As several of these processes involve redox reactions and some of them are even redox-regulated, reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence fibrotic diseases...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432782/subpopulations-of-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-therapeutic-potential
#10
REVIEW
Cecilia Lässer, Su Chul Jang, Jan Lötvall
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, have over the last 10-15 years been recognized to convey key messages in the molecular communication between cells. Indeed, EVs have the capacity to shuttle proteins, lipids, and nucleotides such as RNA between cells, leading to an array of functional changes in the recipient cells. Importantly, the EV secretome changes significantly in diseased cells and under conditions of cellular stress. More recently, it has become evident that the EV secretome is exceptionally diverse, with many different types of EVs being released by a single cell type, and these EVs can be described in terms of differences in density, molecular cargos, and morphology...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222068/foetoplacental-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-in-normal-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#11
REVIEW
Delia I Chiarello, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Intercellular communication is a critical process in biological mechanisms. During pregnancy foetoplacental tissues release a heterogeneous group of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and syncytial nuclear aggregates. These vesicles contain a complex cargo (proteins, DNA, mRNA transcripts, microRNAs, noncoding RNA, lipids, and other molecules) that actively participate in the maternal-foetal communication by modulating different processes during gestation for a successful foetal development...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222067/role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-glioma-progression
#12
REVIEW
Claudia Quezada, Ángelo Torres, Ignacio Niechi, Daniel Uribe, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Rody San Martín, Jaime Gutiérrez, Luis Sobrevia
The role of extracellular vesicles in cancer biology has emerged as a focus of the study of great importance and has been shown to directly influence tumour development in several cancers including brain tumours, such as gliomas. Gliomas are the most aggressive brain tumours, and in the last time, a considerable effort has been made to understand their biology. Studies focus in the signalling pathways involved in the processes of angiogenesis, viability, drug resistance and immune response evasion, as well as gliomas ability to infiltrate healthy tissue, a phenomenon regulated by the migratory and invasive capacity of the cells within a tumour...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196098/exosomes-and-their-role-in-the-intercellular-trafficking-of-normal-and-disease-associated-prion-proteins
#13
REVIEW
Lesley Cheng, Wenting Zhao, Andrew F Hill
Over the past decade, small extracellular vesicles called exosomes have been observed to harbour protein and genetic cargo that can assist in health and also cause disease. Many groups are extensively investigating the mechanisms involved that regulate the trafficking and packaging of exosomal contents and how these processes may be deregulated in disease. Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders and are characterized by the presence of detectable misfolded prion proteins. The disease associated form of the prion protein can be found in exosomes and its transmissible properties have provided a reliable experimental read out that can be used to understand how exosomes and their cargo are involved in cell-cell communication and in the spread of prion diseases...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196097/the-influence-of-tumour-derived-extracellular-vesicles-on-local-and-distal-metastatic-dissemination
#14
REVIEW
Laura Nogués, Alberto Benito-Martin, Marta Hergueta-Redondo, Héctor Peinado
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key mediators of intercellular communication that have been ignored for decades. Tumour cells benefit from the secretion of vesicles as they can influence the behaviour of neighbouring tumour cells within the tumour microenvironment. Several studies have shown that extracellular vesicles play an active role in pre-metastatic niche formation and importantly, they are involved in the metastatic organotropism of different tumour types. Tumour-derived EVs carry and transfer molecules to recipient cells, modifying their behaviour through a process defined as "EV-driven education"...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175307/extracellular-vesicles-in-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#15
REVIEW
Fabián Pardo, Roberto Villalobos-Labra, Bastián Sobrevia, Fernando Toledo, Luis Sobrevia
Cell-to-cell communication happens via diverse mechanisms including the synthesis, release and transfer to target cells of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs include nanovesicles (i.e., exosomes) and microvesicles, including apoptotic bodies. The amount and cargo of released EVs, which consist of microRNAs (miRNAs), mRNA, proteins, DNA, among other molecules, are altered in obesity and diabetes mellitus. EVs from these diseases show with altered cargo including several miRNAs and the enrichment with molecules involved in inflammation, immune efficiency, and cell activation...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155161/extracellular-vesicles-compartment-in-liquid-biopsies-clinical-application
#16
REVIEW
Noemi Garcia-Romero, Susana Esteban-Rubio, Gorjana Rackov, Josefa Carrión-Navarro, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso-Sacido
Liquid biopsy is becoming a new source of biomarkers that complement and resolve some of the most important limitations of surgical biopsy, which are the accessibility to the diseased tissue and its heterogeneity, especially relevant for tumors. The diseased tissues release their molecule content to the bloodstream in free form, inside a cell or within extracellular vesicles (EVs). While the identification of molecular alterations in total DNA isolated from peripheral blood is already in use for some tumors that secrete large amounts of DNA, it is challenging to assay those secreting lower amounts of molecules as well as for many other non-tumoral pathologies like immunological and cardiovascular diseases...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146100/emerging-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-as-a-senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-lung-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Tsukasa Kadota, Yu Fujita, Yusuke Yoshioka, Jun Araya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Takahiro Ochiya
Aging is a major risk factor for the development of chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lung cancer. A main aspect of aging is the impaired function of maintaining homeostasis in the organs and body, which is associated with cellular senescence. Cellular senescence is recognized as the state of irreversible cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of cellular stresses. Senescent cells are not simply cell cycle-arrested cells; they also affect bystander cells through the secretion of bioactive molecules, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137922/extracellular-vesicles-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Tommaso Croese, Roberto Furlan
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by all neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. The lack of adequate technology has not halted neuroscientists from investigating EVs as a mean to decipher neurodegenerative disorders, still in search of comprehensible pathogenic mechanisms and efficient treatment. EVs are thought to be one of ways neurodegenerative pathologies spread in the brain, but also one of the ways the brain tries to displace toxic proteins, making their meaning in pathogenesis uncertain...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122679/extracellular-vesicles-novel-mediator-for-cell-to-cell-communications-in-liver-pathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Pradip B Devhare, Ratna B Ray
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane derived nanometer-sized vesicles. EVs are released by normal, diseased, and transformed cells in vitro and in vivo, and carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. Transferring biological information via EVs to neighboring cells and inter-cellular communication not only maintain physiological functions, but also involve in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging role of EVs in viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic or alcoholic liver disease and liver cancers...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122678/exosomes-and-cardioprotection-a-critical-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Sean M Davidson, Derek M Yellon
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by numerous cell types that appear to have diverse beneficial effects on the injured heart. Studies using exosomes from stem cells or from the blood have indicated that they are able to protect the heart both in models of acute ischaemia and reperfusion, and during chronic ischaemia. In addition to decreasing initial infarct size, they are able to stimulate angiogenesis, reduce fibrosis and remodelling, alter immune cell function and improve long-term cardiac contractile function...
April 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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