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Molecular Aspects of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802834/vegetable-derived-bioactive-nitrate-and-cardiovascular-health
#1
REVIEW
Catherine P Bondonno, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Alex H Liu, Nicola P Bondonno, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Jonathan M Hodgson
Vegetable derived nitrate is now recognised as an important bioactive phytochemical with cardioprotective properties. Nitrate, through the recently described enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, increases NO, a molecule pivotal for cardiovascular health. Clinical trials have observed that dietary nitrate has similar effects to NO when supplied exogenously. These effects include reduced blood pressure and improvements in other markers of vascular health such as endothelial function, arterial stiffness, ischemia reperfusion injury, blood flow, and platelet aggregation...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802833/new-pro-resolving-n-3-mediators-bridge-resolution-of-infectious-inflammation-to-tissue-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan, Nan Chiang, Jesmond Dalli
While protective, the acute inflammatory response when uncontrolled can lead to further tissue damage and chronic inflammation that is now widely recognized to play important roles in many commonly occurring diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and many other diseases of significant public health concern. The ideal response to initial challenges of the host is complete resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which is now recognized to be a biosynthetically active process governed by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM)...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765077/resolution-of-vascular-injury-specialized-lipid-mediators-and-their-evolving-therapeutic-implications
#3
REVIEW
Bian Wu, Giorgio Mottola, Melinda Schaller, Gilbert R Upchurch, Michael S Conte
Acute vascular injury occurs in a number of important clinical contexts, including spontaneous disease-related events (e.g. plaque rupture, thrombosis) and therapeutic interventions such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery. Endothelial cell (EC) disruption exposes the underlying matrix, leading to a rapid deposition of platelets, coagulation proteins, and leukocytes. A thrombo-inflammatory response ensues characterized by leukocyte recruitment, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activation, and the elaboration of cytokines, reactive oxygen species and growth factors within the vessel wall...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756182/technical-aspects-and-recommendations-for-single-cell-qpcr
#4
REVIEW
Anders Ståhlberg, Mikael Kubista
Single cells are basic physiological and biological units that can function individually as well as in groups in tissues and organs. It is central to identify, characterize and profile single cells at molecular level to be able to distinguish different kinds, to understand their functions and determine how they interact with each other. During the last decade several technologies for single-cell profiling have been developed and used in various applications, revealing many novel findings. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is one of the most developed methods for single-cell profiling that can be used to interrogate several analytes, including DNA, RNA and protein...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754496/single-cell-rna-sequencing-technical-advancements-and-biological-applications
#5
REVIEW
Eva Hedlund, Qiaolin Deng
Cells are the basic building blocks of organisms and each cell is unique. Single-cell RNA sequencing has emerged as an indispensable tool to dissect the cellular heterogeneity and decompose tissues into cell types and/or cell states, which offers enormous potential for de novo discovery. Single-cell transcriptomic atlases provide unprecedented resolution to reveal complex cellular events and deepen our understanding of biological systems. In this review, we summarize and compare single-cell RNA sequencing technologies, that were developed since 2009, to facilitate a well-informed choice of method...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712804/identifying-cell-populations-with-scrnaseq
#6
REVIEW
Tallulah S Andrews, Martin Hemberg
Single-cell RNASeq (scRNASeq) has emerged as a powerful method for quantifying the transcriptome of individual cells. However, the data from scRNASeq experiments is often both noisy and high dimensional, making the computational analysis non-trivial. Here we provide an overview of different experimental protocols and the most popular methods for facilitating the computational analysis. We focus on approaches for identifying biologically important genes, projecting data into lower dimensions and clustering data into putative cell-populations...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669592/personalized-microbiome-dynamics-cytometric-fingerprints-for-routine-diagnostics
#7
REVIEW
Christin Koch, Susann Müller
Microbiomes convoy human life in countless ways. They are an essential part of the human body and interact with its host in countless ways. Currently, extensive microbiome analyses assessing the microbiomes' composition and functions based on sequencing information are still far away from being routine analyses due to the complexity of applied techniques and data analysis, their time demand as well as high costs. With the growing demand for on-time community assessment and monitoring of its dynamic behavior with high resolution, alternative high-throughput methods such as microbial community flow cytometry come into focus...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624328/adenosine-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-pathophysiology
#8
EDITORIAL
Luis Sobrevia, Bertil Fredholm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 17, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624327/many-tocopherols-one-vitamin-e
#9
REVIEW
Angelo Azzi
Four tocopherols are available in nature and are absorbed with the diet, but only one RRR-α-tocopherol satisfies the criteria of being a vitamin. The biological activity of the different tocopherols studied in the rat by the resorption-gestation test has been inconsistently extrapolated to human beings where the tocopherols have no influence on a successful pregnancy. Diminution of RRR-α-tocopherol intake results in diseases characterized by ataxia, whose pathogenetic mechanism, despite vigorous claims, has not been clarified...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711135/bile-acids-roles-in-integrative-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#10
EDITORIAL
David H Volle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606651/mechanisms-of-bile-acid-mediated-inflammation-in-the-liver
#11
REVIEW
Man Li, Shi-Ying Cai, James L Boyer
Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and are the major component in bile. Impaired bile flow leads to cholestasis that is characterized by elevated levels of bile acid in the liver and serum, followed by hepatocyte and biliary injury. Although the causes of cholestasis have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms as to how bile acids initiate liver injury remain controversial. In this chapter, we summarize recent advances in the pathogenesis of bile acid induced liver injury. These include bile acid signaling pathways in hepatocytes as well as the response of cholangiocytes and innate immune cells in the liver in both patients with cholestasis and cholestatic animal models...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602676/interactions-between-gut-bacteria-and-bile-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Sarah L Long, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the intestine to aid the digestion of dietary lipids. The host enzymes that contribute to bile acid synthesis in the liver and the regulatory pathways that influence the composition of the total bile acid pool in the host have been well established. In addition, the gut microbiota provides unique contributions to the diversity of bile acids in the bile acid pool. Gut microbial enzymes contribute significantly to bile acid metabolism through deconjugation and dehydroxylation reactions to generate unconjugated bile acids and secondary bile acids...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511935/bile-acids-and-male-fertility-from-mouse-to-human
#13
REVIEW
Lauriane Sèdes, Emmanuelle Martinot, Marine Baptissart, Silvère Baron, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H Volle
Next to their involvement in digestion, bile acids have been defined as signaling molecules. They have been demonstrated to control many physiological functions among which lipid homeostasis, glucose and energy metabolisms. Bile acids are ligands of several receptors and multiple studies using transgenic mouse models defined the major roles of their respective nuclear and membrane receptors namely the Farnesoid-X-Receptor (FXRα) and the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1(GPBAR1; TGR5). Here we review the reports highlighting the impacts of bile acids on testicular physiology and on male reproductive functions...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506676/bile-acids-and-gestation
#14
REVIEW
Saraid McIlvride, Peter H Dixon, Catherine Williamson
There are numerous profound maternal physiological changes that occur from conception onwards and adapt throughout gestation in order to support a healthy pregnancy. By the time of late gestation, when circulating pregnancy hormones are at their highest concentrations, maternal adaptations include relative hyperlipidemia, hypercholanemia and insulin resistance. Bile acids have now been established as key regulators of metabolism, and their role in gestational changes in metabolism is becoming apparent. Bile acid homeostasis is tightly regulated by the nuclear receptor FXR, which has been shown to have reduced activity during pregnancy...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442273/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#15
REVIEW
Monica D Chow, Yi-Horng Lee, Grace L Guo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is growing in prevalence worldwide. It is marked by the presence of macrosteatosis on liver histology but is often clinically asymptomatic. However, it can progress into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis which is a more severe form of liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. Further progression leads to cirrhosis, which predisposes patients to hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure. The mechanism by which simple steatosis progresses to steatohepatitis is not entirely clear...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400119/bile-acids-and-colon-cancer-is-fxr-the-solution-of-the-conundrum
#16
REVIEW
Raffaella Maria Gadaleta, Oihane Garcia-Irigoyen, Antonio Moschetta
Diet and lifestyle habits have a profound impact on the pathophysiology of many diseases. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and its etiology is strongly influenced by nutrition and high fat/high carbohydrate Western-style diet. Human epidemiological and animal studies have shown that colonic cancer risk is also related to faecal bile acid concentration. Abnormally high levels of bile acids (BA) trigger the colonic mucosa with a plethora of detrimental effects such as DNA oxidative damage, inflammation and hyperproliferation that highly promote CRC progression in post-initiation phase...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390813/bile-acids-and-bariatric-surgery
#17
REVIEW
Vance L Albaugh, Babak Banan, Hana Ajouz, Naji N Abumrad, Charles R Flynn
Bariatric surgery, specifically Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are the most effective and durable treatments for morbid obesity and potentially a viable treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The resolution rate of T2D following these procedures is between 40 and 80% and far surpasses that achieved by medical management alone. The molecular basis for this improvement is not entirely understood, but has been attributed in part to the altered enterohepatic circulation of bile acids...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322867/bile-acid-analysis-in-human-disorders-of-bile-acid-biosynthesis
#18
REVIEW
Frédéric M Vaz, Sacha Ferdinandusse
Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular organelles and requires at least 17 enzymes in addition to different metabolite transport proteins to synthesize the two primary bile acids, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Disorders of bile acid synthesis can present from the neonatal period to adulthood and have very diverse clinical symptoms ranging from cholestatic liver disease to neuropsychiatric symptoms and spastic paraplegias...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302491/bile-acids-and-their-receptors-during-liver-regeneration-dangerous-protectors
#19
REVIEW
Grégory Merlen, José Ursic-Bedoya, Valeska Jourdainne, Nicolas Kahale, Mathilde Glenisson, Isabelle Doignon, Dominique Rainteau, Thierry Tordjmann
Tissue repair is orchestrated by a finely tuned interplay between processes of regeneration, inflammation and cell protection, allowing organisms to restore their integrity after partial loss of cells or organs. An important, although largely unexplored feature is that after injury and during liver repair, liver functions have to be maintained to fulfill the peripheral demand. This is particularly critical for bile secretion, which has to be finely modulated in order to preserve liver parenchyma from bile-induced injury...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153453/bile-acids-and-their-receptors
#20
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Martinot, Lauriane Sèdes, Marine Baptissart, Jean-Marc Lobaccaro, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H Volle
Primary bile acids are synthetized from cholesterol within the liver and then transformed by the bacteria in the intestine to secondary bile acids. In addition to their involvement in digestion and fat solubilization, bile acids also act as signaling molecules. Several receptors are sensors of bile acids. Among these receptors, this review focuses on the nuclear receptor FXRα and the G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5. This review briefly presents the potential links between bile acids and cancers that are discussed in more details in the other articles of this special issue of Molecular Aspects of Medicine focused on "Bile acids, roles in integrative physiology and pathophysiology"...
August 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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