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Molecular Aspects of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890600/folate-status-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-2016-update
#1
REVIEW
Joel B Mason, San Yuan Tang
The consensus of epidemiologic evidence indicates that an abundant intake of foodstuffs rich in folate conveys protection against the development of colorectal cancer, and perhaps some other common cancers as well. Pre-clinical models substantiate that the relationship is a genuinely causal one. Pre-clinical models have also lent mechanistic insights into the biochemical and molecular pathways by which adequate folate exposure conveys these protective effects, although human studies are beginning to establish the relevance of our mechanistic understanding to human cancer biology...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890599/adenosine-in-sperm-physiology
#2
REVIEW
Ilaria Bellezza, Alba Minelli
It has long been known that ATP and cAMP are deeply involved in sperm function whereas the role of adenosine and adenosine receptors is still far from being totally construed. The presence of adenosine in male reproductive tract and adenosine receptors on spermatozoa is strongly suggestive of a functional role of these receptors in sperm physiology and function. Spermatozoa are highly differentiated cells with fertility as the only goal. This paper, by an extensive review of the literature, outlines our current understanding of the role and effects of adenosine and adenosine receptors in spermatogenesis and in the acquisition of sperm fertilizing capacity which occurs in the femal genital tract, where the motile sperm fertilize an egg to form a zygote...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889327/epigenetics-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jooho Lee, Yuri Kim, Simonetta Friso, Sang-Woon Choi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common hepatic disorder ranging from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis, is an emerging health concern. NAFLD is a pathologic condition characterized by the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol consumption. Excess hepatic fat accumulation results from increased delivery of triglycerides (TG) to the liver or conversion of surplus carbohydrates to TG. Importantly, a subgroup of NAFLD results in hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and may progress to irreversible cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876557/targeting-nuclear-thymidylate-biosynthesis
#4
REVIEW
James Chon, Patrick J Stover, Martha S Field
Thymidylate (dTMP) biosynthesis plays an essential and exclusive function in DNA synthesis and proper cell division, and therefore has been an attractive therapeutic target. Folate analogs, known as antifolates, and nucleotide analogs that inhibit the enzymatic action of the de novo thymidylate biosynthesis pathway and are commonly used in cancer treatment. In this review, we examine the mechanisms by which the antifolate 5-fluorouracil, as well as other dTMP synthesis inhibitors, function in cancer treatment in light of emerging evidence that dTMP synthesis occurs in the nucleus...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876556/homocysteine-and-disease-causal-associations-or-epiphenomenons
#5
REVIEW
Luciana Hannibal, Henk J Blom
Nutritional and genetic deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 lead to elevation of cellular homocysteine (Hcy), which translates in increased plasma Hcy. The sources and role of elevated plasma Hcy in pathology continues to be a subject of intense scientific debate. Whether a cause, mediator or marker, little is known about the molecular mechanisms and interactions of Hcy with cellular processes that lead to disease. The use of folic acid reduces the incidence of neural tube defects, but the effect of Hcy-lowering interventions with folic acid in cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment remains controversial...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876555/one-carbon-metabolism-and-epigenetics
#6
REVIEW
Simonetta Friso, Silvia Udali, Domenica De Santis, Sang-Woon Choi
The function of one-carbon metabolism is that of regulating the provision of methyl groups for biological methylation reactions including that of DNA and histone proteins. Methylation at specific sites into the DNA sequence and at histone tails are among the major epigenetic feature of mammalian genome for the regulation of gene expression. The enzymes within one-carbon metabolism are dependent from a number of vitamins or nutrients that serve either as co-factors or methyl acceptors or donors among which folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, betaine, choline and methionine have a major role...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876554/interaction-between-excess-folate-and-low-vitamin-b12-status
#7
REVIEW
Ligi Paul, Jacob Selhub
Current epidemiological evidence suggests that an imbalance of high folate status and low vitamin B12 status is associated with negative health outcomes in older adults and children. Such an imbalance during pregnancy also predisposes women to diabetes and their offspring to insulin resistance and adiposity and low birthweight. In older adults, vitamin B12 status can remain low despite adequate intake due to age-related decline in vitamin B12 absorption. Pregnant women are exposed to folic acid at varying doses depending on the prenatal care prescribed in different countries...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876553/why-devote-an-entire-issue-to-the-topic-of-how-nutrients-in-one-carbon-metabolism-play-roles-in-modern-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Joel Mason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871900/insulin-adenosine-axis-linked-signalling
#9
REVIEW
Luis Silva, Mario Subiabre, Joaquín Araos, Tamara Sáez, Rocío Salsoso, Fabián Pardo, Andrea Leiva, Rody San Martín, Fernando Toledo, Luis Sobrevia
Regulation of blood flow depends on systemic and local release of vasoactive molecules such as insulin and adenosine. These molecules cause vasodilation by activation of plasma membrane receptors at the vascular endothelium. Adenosine activates at least four subtypes of adenosine receptors (A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR, A3AR), of which A2AAR and A2BAR activation leads to increased cAMP level, generation of nitric oxide, and relaxation of the underlying smooth muscle cell layer. Vasodilation caused by adenosine also depends on plasma membrane hyperpolarization due to either activation of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in vascular smooth muscle or activation of ATP-activated K(+) channels in the endothelium...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865887/effects-of-altered-parental-folate-and-one-carbon-nutrient-status-on-offspring-growth-and-metabolism
#10
REVIEW
Jimmy W Crott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825818/neuroglobin-from-structure-to-function-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Paolo Ascenzi, Alessandra di Masi, Loris Leboffe, Marco Fiocchetti, Maria Teresa Nuzzo, Maurizio Brunori, Maria Marino
In 2000, the third member of the globin family was discovered in human and mouse brain and named neuroglobin (Ngb). Ngb is a monomeric 3/3 globin structurally similar to myoglobin and to the α- and β-chains of hemoglobin, however it displays a bis-histidyl six-coordinate heme-Fe atom. Therefore, ligand binding to the Ngb metal center is limited from the dissociation of the distal His(E7)64-Fe bond. From its discovery, more than 500 papers on Ngb structure, expression, reactivity, and localization have been published to highlight its biochemical properties and its role(s) in health and disease...
November 4, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825817/influence-of-maternal-obesity-diet-and-exercise-on-epigenetic-regulation-of-adipocytes
#12
REVIEW
Archana Dhasarathy, James N Roemmich, Kate J Claycombe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720780/epigenetics-in-fibrosis
#13
Steven O'Reilly
Fibrosis is a common and important disease. It is a pathological state due to excessive scar formation mediated by an increase in activated fibroblasts that express alpha smooth muscle actin and copious amounts of extracellular matrix molecules. Epigenetics is an area of research that encompasses three main mechanisms: methylation, histone modifications to the tails of histones and also non-coding RNAs including long and short non-coding RNAs. These three mechanisms all seek to regulate gene expression without a change in the underlying DNA sequence...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720779/riboflavin-mthfr-genotype-and-blood-pressure-a-personalized-approach-to-prevention-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#14
Helene McNulty, J J Strain, Catherine F Hughes, Mary Ward
Hypertension is the leading risk factor contributing to mortality worldwide, primarily from cardiovascular disease (CVD), while effective treatment of hypertension is proven to reduce CVD events. Along with the well recognized nutrition and lifestyle determinants, genetic factors are implicated in the development and progression of hypertension. In recent years genome-wide association studies have identified a region near the gene encoding the folate-metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) among eight loci associated with blood pressure...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697603/metabolism-and-chromatin-dynamics-in-health-and-disease
#15
Hanah Rodriguez, Haloom Rafehi, Mrinal Bhave, Assam El-Osta
The regulation of gene expression in response to environmental and behavioural cues is critical for many biological processes. Histone tail modifications are dynamic and, as such, can regulate gene expression in response to extracellular conditions. Many of the enzymes involved in adding and removing these modifications require cofactors that are products of intermediary metabolism pathways, thus linking cellular metabolism to the regulation of gene expression. Furthermore, the expression and activity of such enzymes are influenced by the cellular concentrations of metabolic products...
September 30, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670623/the-microbial-epigenome-in-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Marlene Remely, Alexander G Haslberger
Dietary habits, lifestyle, medication, and food additives affect the composition and functions of the GI microbiota. Metabolic syndrome is already known to be associated with an aberrant gut microbiota affecting systemic low-grade inflammation, which is also outlined by differing epigenetic patterns. Thus, structural changes and compositional evaluation of gut microbial differences affecting epigenetic patterns in metabolic syndrome are of research interest. In the present review we focus on the disparities in the gut microbiota composition of metabolic syndrome and the resulting aberrant profile of bioactive microbial metabolites known to affect epigenetic modifications such as G-protein coupled receptors and inflammatory pathways...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664775/the-proton-coupled-folate-transporter-pcft-slc46a1-and-the-syndrome-of-systemic-and-cerebral-folate-deficiency-of-infancy-hereditary-folate-malabsorption
#17
Rongbao Zhao, Srinivas Aluri, I David Goldman
The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1) is the mechanism by which folates are absorbed across the brush-border membrane of the small intestine. The transporter is also expressed in the choroid plexus and is required for transport of folates into the cerebrospinal fluid. Loss of PCFT function, as occurs in the autosomal recessive disorder "hereditary folate malabsorption" (HFM), results in a syndrome characterized by severe systemic and cerebral folate deficiency. Folate-receptor alpha (FRα) is expressed in the choroid plexus, and loss of function of this protein, as also occurs in an autosomal recessive disorder, results solely in "cerebral folate deficiency" (CFD), the designation for this disorder...
September 21, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620316/metabolic-interactions-with-cancer-epigenetics
#18
Xia Gao, Michael A Reid, Mei Kong, Jason W Locasale
Cancer cells have epigenetic alterations that are known to drive cancer progression. The reversibility of the epigenetic posttranslational modifications on chromatin and DNA renders targeting these modifications an attractive means for cancer therapy. Cellular epigenetic status interacts with cell metabolism, and we are now beginning to understand the nature of how this interaction occurs and the biological contexts that mediate its function. Given the tremendous interest in understanding and targeting metabolic reprogramming in cancer, this nexus also provides opportunities for exploring the liabilities of cancers...
September 9, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421909/human-risk-of-diseases-associated-with-red-meat-intake-analysis-of-current-theories-and-proposed-role-for-metabolic-incorporation-of-a-non-human-sialic-acid
#19
REVIEW
Frederico Alisson-Silva, Kunio Kawanishi, Ajit Varki
One of the most consistent epidemiological associations between diet and human disease risk is the impact of red meat consumption (beef, pork, and lamb, particularly in processed forms). While risk estimates vary, associations are reported with all-cause mortality, colorectal and other carcinomas, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and possibly other inflammatory processes. There are many proposed explanations for these associations, some long discussed in the literature. Attempts to explain the effects of red meat consumption have invoked various red meat-associated agents, including saturated fat, high salt intake, Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) generation by microbiota, and environmental pollutants contaminating red meat, none of which are specific for red meat...
October 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421908/mechanistic-aspects-of-the-formation-of-%C3%AE-dystroglycan-and-therapeutic-research-for-the-treatment-of-%C3%AE-dystroglycanopathy-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Ichiro Morioka, Kazumoto Iijima, Tatsushi Toda
α-Dystroglycanopathy, an autosomal recessive disease, is associated with the development of a variety of diseases, including muscular dystrophy. In humans, α-dystroglycanopathy includes various types of congenital muscular dystrophy such as Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), muscle eye brain disease (MEB), and the Walker Warburg syndrome (WWS), and types of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I). α-Dystroglycanopathy share a common etiology, since it is invariably caused by gene mutations that are associated with the O-mannose glycosylation pathway of α-dystroglycan (α-DG)...
October 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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