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Veterinary Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043395/artesunate-tafenoquine-combination-therapy-promotes-clearance-and-abrogates-transmission-of-the-avian-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-gallinaceum
#1
Suchada Tasai, Tawee Saiwichai, Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Sonthaya Tiawsirisup, Prayute Buddhirakkul, Sirintip Chaichalotornkul, Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat
Clinical manifestations of malaria infection in vertebrate hosts arise from the multiplication of the asexual stage parasites in the blood, while the gametocytes are responsible for the transmission of the disease. Antimalarial drugs that target the blood stage parasites and transmissible gametocytes are rare, but are essentially needed for the effective control of malaria and for limiting the spread of resistance. Artemisinin and its derivatives are the current first-line antimalarials that are effective against the blood stage parasites and gametocytes, but resistance to artemisinin has now emerged and spread in various malaria endemic areas...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043394/first-documentation-of-ivermectin-resistance-in-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-sensu-lato-acari-ixodidae
#2
R I Rodriguez-Vivas, M M Ojeda-Chi, I Trinidad-Martinez, A A Pérez de León
: The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille, 1806), is an ectoparasite and disease vector of significant veterinary and public health importance that is distributed widely around the world. The intensive use of synthetic acaricides for tick control exerts a strong selective pressure for brown dog ticks to become resistant to them. Here, we investigated claims from the field regarding treatment failure associated with the use of veterinary products containing ivermectin (IVM) to control brown dog ticks infesting dogs in Yucatan state, Mexico...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043393/anticoccidial-efficacy-testing-in-vitro-eimeria-tenella-assays-as-replacement-for-animal-experiments
#3
Ahmed Thabet, Runhui Zhang, Alaa-Aldin Alnassan, Arwid Daugschies, Berit Bangoura
SCOPE: Availability of an accurate in vitro assay is a crucial demand to determine sensitivity of Eimeria spp. field strains toward anticoccidials routinely. In this study we tested in vitro models of Eimeria tenella using various polyether ionophores (monensin, salinomycin, maduramicin, and lasalocid) and toltrazuril. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC95, MIC50/95) for the tested anticoccidials were defined based on a susceptible reference (Houghton strain), Ref-1. In vitro sporozoite invasion inhibition assay (SIA) and reproduction inhibition assay (RIA) were applied on sensitive laboratory (Ref-1 and Ref-2) and field (FS-1, FS-2, and FS-3) strains to calculate percent of inhibition under exposure of these strains to the various anticoccidials (%ISIA and%IRIA, respectively)...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043392/influence-of-land-use-and-meteorological-factors-on-the-spatial-distribution-of-toxocara-canis-and-toxocara-cati-eggs-in-soil-in-urban-areas
#4
Xiang Gao, Hongbin Wang, Jianxin Li, Hongyu Qin, Jianhua Xiao
Soil which has been contaminated by Toxocara spp. eggs is considered as one of the main infection sources of Toxocariasis in animals and humans. The present study conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial patterns of Toxocara canis (T. canis) and Toxocara cati (T. cati) eggs in soil in urban area of northeastern Mainland China, and assessed the inter-relationships between meteorological factors, land use and the distribution of the Toxocara spp. eggs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the determination of T...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043391/zoonotic-potential-of-enterocytozoon-genotypes-in-humans-and-pigs-in-thailand
#5
Rapeepun Prasertbun, Hirotake Mori, Ai-Rada Pintong, Suparut Sanyanusin, Supaluk Popruk, Chalit Komalamisra, Tanasak Changbunjong, Ruangrat Buddhirongawatr, Yaowalark Sukthana, Aongart Mahittikorn
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic intestinal pathogen infecting humans and a variety of animals. Its mode of transmission and zoonotic potential are not completely understood. E. bieneusi has been frequently identified in pigs. The objective of our study was to investigate E. bieneusi in pigs and humans in Western and Central Thailand to determine its presence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential. A total of 277 human and 210 pig faecal samples were collected and analysed. E. bieneusi was found in 5...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043390/eimeria-species-occurrence-varies-between-geographic-regions-and-poultry-production-systems-and-may-influence-parasite-genetic-diversity
#6
B Chengat Prakashbabu, V Thenmozhi, G Limon, K Kundu, S Kumar, R Garg, E L Clark, A S R Srinivasa Rao, D G Raj, M Raman, P S Banerjee, F M Tomley, J Guitian, D P Blake
Coccidiosis is one of the biggest challenges faced by the global poultry industry. Recent studies have highlighted the ubiquitous distribution of all Eimeria species which can cause this disease in chickens, but intriguingly revealed a regional divide in genetic diversity and population structure for at least one species, Eimeria tenella. The drivers associated with such distinct geographic variation are unclear, but may impact on the occurrence and extent of resistance to anticoccidial drugs and future subunit vaccines...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043389/occurrence-of-blood-parasites-in-seabirds-admitted-for-rehabilitation-in-the-western-cape-south-africa-2001-2013
#7
N J Parsons, N M Voogt, A M Schaefer, M A Peirce, R E T Vanstreels
Blood parasites are generally uncommon in seabirds, and knowledge on their epidemiology is further limited by the fact that they often inhabit remote locations that are logistically difficult or expensive to study. We present a long term data set of blood smear examinations of 1909 seabirds belonging to 27 species that were admitted to a rehabilitation centre in Cape Town (Western Cape, South Africa) between 2001 and 2013. Blood parasites were detected in 59% of species (16/27) and 29% of individuals examined (551/1909)...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043388/first-description-of-cryptosporidium-hominis-gp60-genotype-ika20g1-and-cryptosporidium-parvum-gp60-genotypes-iiaa18g3r1-and-iiaa15g2r1-in-foals-in-brazil
#8
Sandra Valéria Inácio, Giovanni Widmer, Roberta Lomonte Lemos de Brito, Anaiza Simão Zucatto, Monally Conceição Costa de Aquino, Bruno César Miranda Oliveira, Alex Akira Nakamura, Luiz da Silveira Neto, João Gabriel Balizardo Carvalho, Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
The present study focuses on Cryptosporidium infections of foals in Brazil. A total of 92 animals of different breeds from 11 farms in the vicinity of Araçatuba in the state of São Paulo, were examined. According to PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene, Cryptosporidium sp. DNA was detected in 21.7% (20/92) of foals. Good quality 18S rRNA, actin, HSP70 and gp60 genes nPCR amplicons were obtained from five fecal samples. PCR amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the GP60 sporozoite surface glycoprotein gene revealed C...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043387/maternal-protection-against-ascaridia-galli
#9
Shayan Rahimian, Gürbüz Daş, Matthias Gauly
Maternally derived antibodies can provide partial protection against certain bacterial and viral infections. We investigated whether chicks descending from nematode-infected hens are more resistant against Ascaridia galli, a prevalent gastrointestinal nematode, than chicks from nematode-free mothers. One-day-old chicks (N=153) from infected (mab+; maternal antibody+) or uninfected control dams (mab-) were experimentally infected with A. galli at two different levels (100 or 1000 eggs/chick). The worm burdens of the chicks were determined at 6 weeks post infection...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043386/initial-development-of-babesia-ovata-in-the-tick-midgut
#10
Hiroki Maeda, Takeshi Hatta, M Abdul Alim, Daigo Tsubokawa, Fusako Mikami, Kodai Kusakisako, Makoto Matsubayashi, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Naotoshi Tsuji, Tetsuya Tanaka
The initial development of Babesia ovata in the midgut of the vector tick Haemaphysalis longicornis has been demonstrated through in vitro and in vivo studies. Although the research on the partial developmental cycles of B. ovata in the tick midgut was performed in our previous study by using ticks fed on experimentally B. ovata-infected cattle, detailed information on the developmental stages of B. ovata in H. longicornis was limited. This report describes the sequential development of stages of B. ovata in an in vitro study using B...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043385/development-of-a-rapid-antibody-test-for-point-of-care-diagnosis-of-animal-african-trypanosomosis
#11
Alain Boulangé, Davita Pillay, Cyrille Chevtzoff, Nicolas Biteau, Vanessa Comé de Graça, Leonie Rempeters, Dimitrios Theodoridis, Théo Baltz
Trypanosoma congolense and T. vivax are the main causative agents of animal African trypanosomosis (AAT), a disease which hinders livestock production throughout sub-Saharan Africa and in some parts of South America. Although two trypanocidal drugs are currently available, the level of treatment is low due to the difficulty in diagnosing the disease in the field. The major clinical signs of AAT such as anaemia, weight loss, and infertility, are common to several other endemic livestock diseases. Current diagnostic methods, based on the visualization of the parasite in the blood, or on the detection of its DNA or the antibodies it triggers in the host, are not suitable for direct use in the field as they require specialized equipment and personnel...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043384/initial-evaluations-of-the-effectiveness-of-spinetoram-as-a-long-acting-oral-systemic-pulicide-for-controlling-cat-flea-ctenocephalides-felis-infestations-on-dogs
#12
W Hunter White, Kari L Riggs, Michelle L Totten, Daniel E Snyder, Christine M McCoy, David R Young
Spinetoram is a semi-synthetic, spinosyn class natural product derived from fermentation by the actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Based on LD50 (50% lethal dose) values against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) using an in vitro contact assay, spinetoram was approximately 4-fold more potent than spinosad. Subsequently, two parallel-arm, randomized block design laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of orally administered spinetoram against experimental C. felis infestations on dogs, when administered as a single dose or multiple doses over a 6-12h interval...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043383/the-putative-serine-protease-inhibitor-serpin-genes-encoded-on-echinococcus-multilocularis-genome-and-their-expressions-in-metacestodal-stage
#13
Mizuki Sasaki, Yasuhito Sako
Two putative serpin genes were identified in Echinococcus multilocularis, in addition to the already reported serpinEmu, and were designated as serpin2Emu and serpin3Emu. Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against serpinEmu, putative serpin2Emu protein, and putative serpin3Emu protein indicated that all three proteins were localized in both intracellular and excretory-secretory (ES) fractions of E. multilocularis metacestodes. In addition, immune staining of parasite tissue indicated that all three proteins were localized at the germinal layer...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043382/protozoan-and-helminth-parasite-fauna-of-free-living-croatian-wild-wolves-canis-lupus-analyzed-by-scat-collection
#14
Carlos Hermosilla, Sonja Kleinertz, Liliana M R Silva, Jörg Hirzmann, Djuro Huber, Josip Kusak, Anja Taubert
The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043381/characterization-and-vaccine-potential-of-fasciola-gigantica-saposin-like-protein-1-sap-1
#15
Pornanan Kueakhai, Narin Changklungmoa, Pinkamon Waseewiwat, Thanaporn Thanasinpaiboon, Werachon Cheukamud, Pannigan Chaichanasak, Prasert Sobhon
The recombinant Fasciola gigantica Saposin-like protien-1 (rFgSAP-1) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from NEJ cDNA, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and used for production of a polyclonal antibody in rabbits (anti-rFgSAP-1). By immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, rabbit IgG anti-rFgSAP-1 reacted with rFgSAP-1 at a molecular weight 12kDa, but not with rFgSAP-2. The rFgSAP-1 reacted with antisera from mouse infected with F. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after infection...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043380/survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii-tachyzoites-in-simulated-gastric-fluid-and-cow-s-milk
#16
Martin Koethe, Carolin Schade, Karsten Fehlhaber, Martina Ludewig
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most important food-related pathogens worldwide. Besides contact to oocysts or ingestion of tissue cysts mainly by consumption of raw or undercooked meat from infected animals, raw milk is considered to be a risk factor and possible route of transmission for tachyzoites. This stage of the parasite is usually very sensitive to acidic pH and, therefore, considered unlikely to survive stomach passage. However, tachyzoites were shown to survive for several days in milk and there are also reports on transmission of toxoplasmosis via milk...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043379/use-of-a-commercial-serologic-test-for-angiostrongylus-vasorum-for-the-detection-of-a-chabaudi-in-wildcats-and-a-daskalovi-in-badgers
#17
Georgiana Deak, Călin Mircea Gherman, Angela Monica Ionică, Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki, Ioana Adriana Matei, Gianluca D'Amico, Cristian Domşa, Nikola Pantchev, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Vasile Cozma
Three species of the genus Angiostrongylus are known to infect European carnivores: A. vasorum (mainly in canids but also in other carnivores), A. chabaudi (in felids) and A. daskalovi (in mustelids). A. vasorum is responsible for clinically severe disease in domestic dogs, most commonly diagnosed based on fecal examination and serological detection of circulating antigens. Considering the poorly known host range and the challenging larval differentiation in the feces between the three species of Angiostrongylus infecting European carnivores, our aim was to evaluate the cross-reactivity of A...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043378/molecular-evidence-of-a-new-babesia-sp-in-goats
#18
Sezayi Ozubek, Munir Aktas
In this study, a novel Babesia sp. infecting goats was detected and its phylogenetic relationship to related species was determined. A total of 200 blood samples collected from sheep (n=78) and goats (n=122) were examined in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene of the novel Babesia sp. was amplified by PCR and analysed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay adapted for small ruminants. Samples from seven goats hybridized to Theileria/Babesia catch-all and Babesia catch-all probes and did not hybridize to any species-specific probe tested, suggesting the presence of an unrecognized Babesia species or genotype...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916258/the-apicoplast-genomes-of-two-taxonomic-units-of-babesia-from-sheep
#19
Tao Wang, Guiquan Guan, Pasi K Korhonen, Anson V Koehler, Ross S Hall, Neil D Young, Hong Yin, Robin B Gasser
The apicoplast (ap) is a unique, non-photosynthetic organelle found in most apicomplexan parasites. Due to the essential roles that this organelle has, it has been widely considered as target for drugs against diseases caused by apicomplexans. Exploring the ap genomes of such parasites would provide a better understanding of their systematics and their basic molecular biology for therapeutics. However, there is limited information available on the ap genomes of apicomplexan parasites. In the present study, the ap genomes of two operational taxonomic units of Babesia (known as Babesia sp...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890084/comparison-of-molecular-and-conventional-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-fasciola-hepatica-infection-in-the-field
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Maria Immaculata Arifin, Johan Höglund, Adam Novobilský
The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is one of the major parasite threats to livestock industries world-wide. In sheep and cattle, F. hepatica infection is commonly diagnosed using a range of methods. Aside from conventional coprological and serological diagnostic methods, there are also several molecular methods available based on the detection of liver fluke DNA in faeces. In this study, the outcomes of faecal egg count (FEC), serology and coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) were compared with the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in diagnosis of F...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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