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Veterinary Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838087/molecular-characterization-of-trichinella-species-from-wild-animals-in-israel
#1
Oran Erster, Asael Roth, Roni King, Alex Markovics
Trichinellosis is a worldwide disease caused by nematode worms of the genus Trichinella, frequently diagnosed in Israel. However, the identity of the Israeli isolates have not been studied. Here we describe the molecular characterization of 58 isolates collected from jackals (Canis aureus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and a wolf (Canis lupus) in central and northern Israel. Isolates were analyzed using the multiplex PCR analysis encompassing expansion segment V (ESV) and internal sequence 1 (ITS-1) markers, which identified 52 of the 58 samples...
November 4, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760716/proteomic-analysis-of-trichinella-spiralis-adult-worm-excretory-secretory-proteins-recognized-by-early-infection-sera
#2
Ruo Dan Liu, Xin Qi, Ge Ge Sun, Peng Jiang, Xi Zhang, Li Ang Wang, Xiao Lin Liu, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui
At the intestinal stage of a Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection, the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens produced by adult worms (AWs) result in an early exposure to the host's immune system and elicit the production of specific antibodies; the AW ES proteins might provide early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to identify early serodiagnostic markers from T. spiralis AW ES antigens. T. spiralis AWs were collected at 72h post infection, and their ES antigens were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890084/comparison-of-molecular-and-conventional-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-fasciola-hepatica-infection-in-the-field
#3
Maria Immaculata Arifin, Johan Höglund, Adam Novobilský
The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is one of the major parasite threats to livestock industries world-wide. In sheep and cattle, F. hepatica infection is commonly diagnosed using a range of methods. Aside from conventional coprological and serological diagnostic methods, there are also several molecular methods available based on the detection of liver fluke DNA in faeces. In this study, the outcomes of faecal egg count (FEC), serology and coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) were compared with the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in diagnosis of F...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890083/anticoccidial-efficacy-of-naringenin-and-a-grapefruit-peel-extract-in-growing-lambs-naturally-infected-with-eimeria-spp
#4
Agustín Pérez-Fonseca, Yazmin Alcala-Canto, Abdelfattah Z M Salem, Aldo B Alberti-Navarro
The current study aimed to determine the anti-Eimeria efficacy of an extract of grapefruit peels (GF) and commercial naringenin (NAR) in naturally-infected lambs, as well as the influence of these flavonoids on the oxidative status during ovine coccidiosis. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined. Extracts were administered per os to Eimeria naturally infected growing lambs during 90 consecutive days. The commercial anticoccidial drug toltrazuril (TTZ) was included in this trial as a standard. Twenty-four lambs were divided into four groups: NAR, lambs given a daily dose of 5mg of a commercial naringenin extract of 98% higher purity per kg body weight; GF, lambs that recived a daily dose of 5mg of ethanolic extract of grapefruit peels per kg body weight; TTZ, lambs treated with 20mg of toltrazuril/kg body weight on days 0 and 15 of the experiment; and CTRL, untreated lambs that received daily dose of 30ml of water...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890082/rap-1a-is-the-main-rhoptry-associated-protein-1-rap-1-recognized-during-infection-with-babesia-sp-bq1-lintan-b-motasi-like-phylogenetic-group-a-pathogen-of-sheep-in-china
#5
Qingli Niu, Claire Bonsergent, Hélène Rogniaux, Guiquan Guan, Laurence Malandrin, Emmanuelle Moreau
Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) is one of the parasites isolated from infected sheep in China that belongs to the B. motasi-like phylogenetic group. The rhoptry-associated-protein 1 (rap-1) locus in this group consists of a complex organization of 12 genes of three main types: 6 rap-1a variants intercalated with 5 identical copies of rap-1b and a single 3' ending rap-1c gene. In the present study, transcription analysis performed by standard RT-PCR demonstrated that the three different rap-1 gene types and the four rap-1a variants were transcribed by the parasite cultivated in vitro...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890081/association-between-leishmania-infantum-dna-in-the-hair-of-dogs-and-their-infectiousness-to-lutzomyia-longipalpis
#6
Rafaela de Sousa Gonçalves, Carlos R Franke, Jairo T Magalhães-Junior, Bárbara M P S Souza, Manuela S Solcà, Daniela F Larangeira, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo
Diagnosis of infection with Leishmania infantum by DNA detection in the hair has been recently demonstrated in dogs and wild animals. Our objective was to investigate if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hair might be used to identify infectious dogs. Thus, we assessed the infectiousness to Lutzomyia longipalpis by xenodiagnosis in comparison with the detection of L. infantum DNA by PCR in the hair, and with serology for anti-Leishmania IgG by ELISA in 15 positive dogs for L. infantum infection. Eight healthy dogs were included as negative controls...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890080/antibodies-against-dictyocaulus-viviparus-major-sperm-protein-in-bulk-tank-milk-association-with-clinical-appearance-herd-management-and-milk-production
#7
Johannes Charlier, Aklilu Ghebretinsae, Tom Meyns, Guy Czaplicki, Jozef Vercruysse, Edwin Claerebout
The objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive field survey using a Dictyocaulus viviparus major sperm protein ELISA on bulk tank milk samples from Belgian dairy herds to gain insights in: (1) the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the test under field conditions; (2) the value of the test to predict a future clinical lungworm outbreak; (3) its associations with milk production parameters and (4) its associations with herd management factors. A total of 1248 herds were sampled, with samplings occurring in the middle ("August") and towards the end ("October") of the grazing season...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890079/detection-of-theileria-parva-in-tissues-of-cattle-undergoing-severe-east-coast-fever-disease-show-significant-parasite-dna-accumulation-in-the-spleen
#8
Cassandra L Olds, Tasha Paul, Glen A Scoles
Infiltration and proliferation of Theileria parva infected lymphocytes in bovine host lymphoid organs is one of the hallmarks of T. parva infection. The relative abundance of parasites within infected host tissues, both lymphoid and non-lymphoid is however unknown. Using quantitative PCR, we have shown that significantly higher concentrations of T. parva DNA are detected in the spleens of cattle undergoing severe disease compared to other organs.
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890078/animal-fascioliasis-perspectives-from-high-altitudinal-regions
#9
Damanbha Lyngdoh, Sunil Sharma, Bishnupada Roy, Veena Tandon
The parasitic flukes of the genus Fasciola (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) cause fascioliasis or liver-rot disease in ruminant livestock in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Classically, two species of Fasciola- F. hepatica and F. gigantica, are universally recognized as taxonomically valid species. Our survey studies on ovid and bovid animals including yak and mithun from high altitudinal mountainous regions in Northeast India revealed the occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and also Fasciola sp...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890077/t-lymphocyte-immunophenotypes-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#10
Fernanda G Grano, José Eduardo Dos S Silva, Guilherme D Melo, Juliana Perosso, Valéria M F Lima, Gisele F Machado
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease causing several clinical manifestations in dogs, including neurological disorders. Nevertheless, there are few studies related to the evaluation of the brain alterations during VL. Evidences of the involvement of cerebral barriers in infected dogs was reported, including the presence of brain inflammatory infiltrate, with a predominance of CD3+ T cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the immunophenotypes of T lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as in peripheral blood, and to correlate with brain alterations in dogs with VL...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890076/dirofilaria-immitis-exhibits-sex-and-stage-specific-differences-in-excretory-secretory-mirna-and-protein-profiles
#11
Lucienne Tritten, Damian Clarke, Scott Timmins, Tom McTier, Timothy G Geary
The canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis releases excretory/secretory molecules into its host and in culture. We report analyses of the types, amounts and stage-dependence of microRNAs and proteins found in D. immitis culture media recovered after incubating 800,000 microfilariae for 6days, 500L3 and 500L4 for 7days, as well as 40 adult females and 40 adult males for 48h, all separately. In addition, the presence of exosome-like particles was established by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Our results are in concordance with the D...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27425574/trichinella-spiralis-adaptation-and-parasitism
#12
Dante Zarlenga, Zhengyuan Wang, Makedonka Mitreva
Publication of the genome from the clade I organism, Trichinella spiralis, has provided us an avenue to address more holistic problems in parasitology; namely the processes of adaptation and the evolution of parasitism. Parasitism among nematodes has evolved in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspects of parasitism and adaptation in nematodes; however, data is now coming available to investigate adaptation, host switching and parasitism at the genomic level...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884445/taenia-hydatigena-in-pigs-in-burkina-faso-a-cross-sectional-abattoir-study
#13
Veronique Dermauw, Rasmané Ganaba, Assana Cissé, Boubacar Ouedraogo, Athanase Millogo, Zékiba Tarnagda, Anke Van Hul, Sarah Gabriël, Hélène Carabin, Pierre Dorny
Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884444/dynamics-of-parascaris-and-strongylus-spp-parasites-in-untreated-juvenile-horses
#14
J V Fabiani, E T Lyons, M K Nielsen
Parasite control in foals is of utmost importance due to the high susceptibility to parasitic infection and disease in this age group. Foals are commonly co-infected with strongyle and ascarid parasites, which complicate parasite control strategies. The present study retrospectively investigated necropsy records of foals born into a university herd kept without anthelmintic treatment since 1979. The aims were to statistically analyze the relationship between fecal egg counts, worm burdens, foal age, sex, and season with specific focus on Parascaris and Strongylus spp...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884443/effect-of-uncertainty-in-total-parasite-infestation-on-accuracy-and-precision-of-estimates-of-ectoparasiticide-efficacy
#15
Robert Schall, Divan A Burger, Theo P Erasmus
In animal studies of ectoparasiticide efficacy the total number of parasites with which experimental animals are infested is not always equal to the intended number of parasites (usually n=50 per experimental animal in the case of ticks, and n=50 or n=100 in the case of fleas). That is, in the practical implementation of a study protocol, the infestation of experimental animals may be subject to variability so that total infestation is not known precisely. The purpose of the present study is to assess the impact of this variability on the accuracy and precision of efficacy estimates...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884442/the-induction-of-the-collagen-capsule-synthesis-by-trichinella-spiralis-is-closely-related-to-protease-activated-receptor-2
#16
Mi Kyung Park, Min Kyoung Cho, Shin Ae Kang, Bo Young Kim, Hak Sun Yu
The muscle-stage larvae of the parasite Trichinella spiralis have the ability to survive within host muscle tissue by virtue of the formation a nurse cell-parasite complex, which is surrounded by collagen. The formation of the complex is initiated by excretory-secretory (ES) proteins produced by the parasite. To determine the mechanisms underlying collagen capsule formation, we investigated the expression levels of several types of collagen genes and TGF-βI signaling-related genes (Smad2 and Smad3) in muscle cells...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884441/trypanosoma-vivax-in-water-buffalo-of-the-venezuelan-llanos-an-unusual-outbreak-of-wasting-disease-in-an-endemic-area-of-typically-asymptomatic-infections
#17
Herakles A Garcia, Oneyda J Ramírez, Carla M F Rodrigues, Rafael G Sánchez, Angelica M Bethencourt, Gabriela Del M Pérez, Antonio H H Minervino, Adriana C Rodrigues, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma vivax has been associated with asymptomatic infections in African and South American buffalo. In this study, T. vivax was analyzed in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Venezuela in a molecular survey involving 293 blood samples collected from 2006 to 2015 across the Llanos region. Results demonstrated constant infections (average 23%) during the years analyzed. In general, animals were healthy carriers of T. vivax with low levels of parasitemia and were diagnosed exclusively by TviCATL-PCR. However, an outbreak of severe acute infections mostly in dairy animals was reported during a prolonged drought affecting 30...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884440/re-infection-with-fasciola-gigantica-6-month-post-treatment-with-triclabendazole-in-cattle-from-mobile-pastoralist-husbandry-systems-at-lake-chad
#18
Helena Greter, Annour A Batil, Idriss O Alfaroukh, Felix Grimm, Bongo N Ngandolo, Jennifer Keiser, Jürg Utzinger, Jakob Zinsstag, Jan Hattendorf
At Lake Chad in central Africa, livestock fascioliasis caused by Fasciola gigantica represents a major veterinary health problem, particularly in cattle reared in mobile pastoralist husbandry systems. We assessed re-infection after a single dose of triclabendazole with fascioliasis in cattle in a mobile pastoralist setting towards the end of the dry season. Within the cattle herds of 14 groups of mobile pastoralists, 375 cattle were randomly selected. A faecal sample was obtained from each animal to determine the prevalence of F...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884439/genetic-parameters-for-tick-count-and-udder-health-in-commercial-and-indigenous-ewes-in-south-africa
#19
S W P Cloete, J J E Cloete, A J Scholtz
The genetics of tick infestation in sheep need study, as host resistance often forms part of integrated pest control programs. Repeated udder health scores, site-specific tick count, mating weight and reproduction records (N=879-1204) were recorded annually from 2010 to 2015 on ewes of the indigenous Namaqua Afrikaner (NA) fat-tailed breed, as well as the commercial Dorper and SA Mutton Merino (SAMM) breeds. Udders were scored subjectively on a 1-5 scale (1 - udder intact and 5 - udder damaged severely) and ticks were counted on three locations...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884438/toxoplasma-gondii-in-stranded-marine-mammals-from-the-north-sea-and-eastern-atlantic-ocean-findings-and-diagnostic-difficulties
#20
Norbert van de Velde, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Mardik Leopold, Lineke Begeman, Lonneke IJsseldijk, Sjoukje Hiemstra, Jooske IJzer, Andrew Brownlow, Nicholas Davison, Jan Haelters, Thierry Jauniaux, Ursula Siebert, Pierre Dorny, Stéphane De Craeye
The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Germany, were tested for the presence of T. gondii. Brain samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of parasite DNA. Blood and muscle fluid samples were tested for specific antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT), a commercial multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA)...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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