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Veterinary Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734669/demodex-mites-in-lymph-nodes
#1
LETTER
Melissa A Nashat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624132/schizogony-and-gametogony-of-oocyst-deficient-t-263-strain-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#2
J P Dubey
Oocysts are important stage for the spread of Toxoplasma gondii because they are environmentally resistant. Among all hosts of T. gondii, only felids can excrete oocysts. Cats that have excreted T. gondii oocysts after primary infection develop immunity to re-excretion of oocysts, and this immunity appears to be long-lasting. It would be desirable to have a non-infectious vaccine for the prevention of T. gondii infection in cats and to understand mechanism of immunity to excretion of oocysts. An initial step will be to indentify stage/stages of the parasite for induction of immunity...
May 27, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807318/application-of-a-specific-quantitative-real-time-pcr-qpcr-to-identify-leishmania-infantum-dna-in-spleen-skin-and-hair-samples-of-wild-leporidae
#3
María Victoria Ortega, Inmaculada Moreno, Mercedes Domínguez, María Luisa de la Cruz, Ana Belén Martín, Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos, Raúl López, Alejandro Navarro, Sergio González, María Mazariegos, Joaquín Goyache, Lucas Domínguez, Nerea García
The aim of this study was to compare a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) validated for the detection of Leishmania infantum in dogs with a nested PCR but in wild Leporidae. Additionally, L. infantum results from indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and in vitro culture were also compared with qPCR. Different samples (spleen, skin and hair) recovered from 224 European rabbits and 70 Iberian hares from two green areas of Madrid Council were analysed for the detection of L. infantum. The presence of Leishmania kDNA was detected by qPCR in 58 out of 221 (26...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807317/validation-of-the-famacha%C3%A2-system-in-south-american-camelids
#4
Bobby E Storey, Lisa H Williamson, Sue B Howell, Thomas H Terrill, Roy Berghaus, Anand N Vidyashankar, Ray M Kaplan
Haemonchus contortus resistant to multiple anthelmintics threaten the viability of the small ruminant industry in areas where this parasite is prevalent. In response to this situation, the FAMACHA© system was developed and validated for use with small ruminants as a way to detect clinical anemia associated with haemonchosis. Given that H. contortus and multiple anthelmintic resistance is a similar problem in camelids, the FAMACHA© system might also provide the same benefits. To address this need, a validation study of the FAMACHA© system was conducted on 21 alpaca and llama farms over a 2-year period...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807316/vaccination-with-eimeria-tenella-elongation-factor-1%C3%AE-recombinant-protein-induces-protective-immunity-against-e-tenella-and-e-maxima-infections
#5
Rui-Qing Lin, Hyun S Lillehoj, Seung Kyoo Lee, Sungtaek Oh, Alfredo Panebra, Erik P Lillehoj
Avian coccidiosis is caused by multiple species of the apicomplexan protozoan, Eimeria, and is one of the most economically devastating enteric diseases for the poultry industry worldwide. Host immunity to Eimeria infection, however, is relatively species-specific. The ability to immunize chickens against different species of Eimeria using a single vaccine will have a major beneficial impact on commercial poultry production. In this paper, we describe the molecular cloning, purification, and vaccination efficacy of a novel Eimeria vaccine candidate, elongation factor-1α (EF-1α)...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807315/genetic-homogeneity-of-fascioloides-magna-in-austria
#6
Christian Husch, Helmut Sattmann, Christoph Hörweg, Josef Ursprung, Julia Walochnik
The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is an economically relevant parasite of both domestic and wild ungulates. F. magna was repeatedly introduced into Europe, for the first time already in the 19th century. In Austria, a stable population of F. magna has established in the Danube floodplain forests southeast of Vienna. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of F. magna in Austria. A total of 26 individuals from various regions within the known area of distribution were investigated for their cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene haplotypes...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807314/a-candidate-gene-approach-to-study-nematode-resistance-traits-in-naturally-infected-sheep
#7
Hazel Wilkie, Valentina Riggio, Oswald Matika, Louise Nicol, Kathryn A Watt, Rona Sinclair, Alexandra M Sparks, Daniel H Nussey, Josephine M Pemberton, Ross D Houston, John Hopkins
Sheep naturally acquire a degree of resistant immunity to parasitic worm infection through repeated exposure. However, the immune response and clinical outcome vary greatly between animals. Genetic polymorphisms in genes integral to differential T helper cell polarization may contribute to variation in host response and disease outcome. A total of twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were sequenced in IL23R, RORC2 and TBX21 from genomic DNA of Scottish Blackface lambs. Of the twelve SNPs, six were non-synonymous (missense), four were within the 3' UTRs and two were intronic...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807313/severe-impact-of-sarcoptic-mange-on-the-movements-and-space-use-for-one-of-its-most-important-vector-species-the-raccoon-dog
#8
Karmen Süld, Egle Tammeleht, Harri Valdmann, Urmas Saarma
Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious zoonotic skin disease that can have severe effect on population dynamics of many wild mammals. However, very little is known about its effect on the activity and space use of infected animals. In this study we equipped two raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in a mange outbreak area with radio-collars and observed the spatial and temporal effects of sarcoptic mange to these individuals. Initially, the raccoon dogs had no external symptoms of mange infection, but developed these during the study period...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807312/ectoparasite-caligus-rogercresseyi-modifies-the-lactate-response-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-and-coho-salmon-oncorhynchus-kisutch
#9
L Vargas-Chacoff, J L P Muñoz, C Hawes, R Oyarzún, J P Pontigo, J Saravia, M P González, O Mardones, B S Labbé, F J Morera, C Bertrán, J Pino, S Wadsworth, A Yáñez
Although Caligus rogercresseyi negatively impacts Chilean salmon farming, the metabolic effects of infection by this sea louse have never been completely characterized. Therefore, this study analyzed lactate responses in the plasma, as well as the liver/muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and gene expression, in Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus kisutch infested by C. rogercresseyi. The lactate responses of Atlantic and Coho salmon were modified by the ectoparasite. Both salmon species showed increasing in plasma levels, whereas enzymatic activity increased in the muscle but decreased in the liver...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807311/mitochondrial-genomes-of-australian-chicken-eimeria-support-the-presence-of-ten-species-with-low-genetic-diversity-among-strains
#10
Jess A T Morgan, Rosamond M Godwin
Modern molecular approaches have vastly improved diagnostic capabilities for differentiating among species of chicken infecting Eimeria. Consolidating information from multiple genetic markers, adding additional poultry Eimeria species and increasing the size of available data-sets is improving the resolving power of the DNA, and consequently our understanding of the genus. This study adds information from 25 complete mitochondrial DNA genomes from Australian chicken Eimeria isolates representing all 10 species known to occur in Australia, including OTU-X, -Y and -Z...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807310/the-sustained-speed-of-kill-of-ticks-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-and-fleas-ctenocephalides-felis-felis-on-dogs-by-a-spot-on-combination-of-fipronil-and-permethrin-effitix-%C3%A2-compared-with-oral-afoxolaner-nexgard-%C3%A2
#11
Dejan Cvejić, Claudia Schneider, Willem Neethling, Klaus Hellmann, Julian Liebenberg, Christelle Navarro
The rapid speed of kill of a spot-on, combination of fipronil-permethrin (Effitix(®), Virbac) was shown against infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis on dogs. Efficacy was determined against new infestations at weekly intervals for one month after treatment. Dogs were allocated randomly to either an untreated control or to a single administration, given on Day 0, of either topical fipronil-permethrin (6.7-13.4mg/kg and 60-120mg/kg, respectively) or oral afoxolaner (2.72-6.8mg/kg), based on pre-treatment, host-suitability flea counts...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807309/synergistic-interaction-of-ten-essential-oils-against-haemonchus-contortus-in-vitro
#12
L M Katiki, A M E Barbieri, R C Araujo, C J Veríssimo, H Louvandini, J F S Ferreira
Anthelmintic resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes is a worldwide problem. Multi-drug resistant haemonchosis is the most serious impediment for small ruminant systems, and there are no new drug candidates currently under development. Molecules from natural sources have demonstrated anthelmintic activity against parasites. In this work, the monoterpenoids carvacrol, carvone, cineole, linalool, limonene, and thymol and the phenylpropanoids cinnamaldehyde, anethole, vanillin, and eugenol were assessed individually or in mixtures of ten binary, three ternary, and three quaternary combinations using the in vitro egg hatch assay with eggs of a multi-drug resistant strain of Haemonchus contortus...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807308/presence-and-species-identity-of-rumen-flukes-in-cattle-and-sheep-in-the-netherlands
#13
H W Ploeger, L Ankum, L Moll, D C K van Doorn, G Mitchell, P J Skuce, R N Zadoks, M Holzhauer
The purpose of the study was to gain knowledge about the prevalence and identity of rumen flukes (RF) in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands. Routine faecal examinations of diagnostic submissions between May 2009 and September 2014 showed a mean annual herd or flock RF prevalence of 15.8% for cattle and 8.0% for sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher after 2012 than before, which may reflect a change in detection method as well as an increase in true prevalence. During November and December 2014, an abattoir survey was conducted to allow for scoring of rumen fluke burden and to obtain specimens for molecular species characterization...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807307/significance-of-anti-carla-salivary-iga-antibody-in-first-grazing-season-cattle-naturally-infected-with-gastrointestinal-nematodes
#14
Aurélie Merlin, Richard Shaw, Alain Chauvin, Nathalie Bareille, Christophe Chartier
A carbohydrate larval surface antigen (CarLA) present on infective larvae of all trichostrongylid nematodes is a target antigen for host immunoglobulins (Ig). Levels of anti-CarLA salivary IgA antibody (CarLA-IgA) have been shown to be correlated to the level of protective immunity to GIN in sheep and deer but no information is available in cattle. The first objective of this study was to assess the pattern of CarLA-IgA response in 7 groups (G1-G7) of first grazing season cattle (FGSC) naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807306/managing-anthelmintic-resistance-variability-in-the-dose-of-drug-reaching-the-target-worms-influences-selection-for-resistance
#15
Dave M Leathwick, Dongwen Luo
The concentration profile of anthelmintic reaching the target worms in the host can vary between animals even when administered doses are tailored to individual liveweight at the manufacturer's recommended rate. Factors contributing to variation in drug concentration include weather, breed of animal, formulation and the route by which drugs are administered. The implications of this variability for the development of anthelmintic resistance was investigated using Monte-Carlo simulation. A model framework was established where 100 animals each received a single drug treatment...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807305/evaluation-of-the-priocheck%C3%A2-trichinella-aad-kit-for-the-digestion-and-recovery-of-larvae-in-pork-horse-meat-and-wild-meat
#16
Kelly Konecsni, Cheryl Scheller, Brad Scandrett, Patrik Buholzer, Alvin Gajadhar
The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807304/association-between-mast-cells-tissue-remodelation-and-parasite-burden-in-the-skin-of-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#17
Jamille Mirelle de Oliveira Cardoso, Henrique Gama Ker, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares, Nádia das Dores Moreira, Fernando Augusto Siqueira Mathias, Levi Eduardo Soares Reis, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, Wendel Coura-Vital, Cláudia Martins Carneiro, Alexandre Barbosa Reis
Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) is a zoonosis of major public health impact caused by organisms of the genus Leishmania which is transmitted to human and animals by phlebotomine sand flies. The skin is the first point of contact with Leishmania parasites for sandy fly vectors and it is considered an important reservoir compartment in infected dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the main histophatologic alterations in ear skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum with different clinical status and different degrees of parasitism...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807303/helminth-egg-excretion-in-horses-kept-under-tropical-conditions-prevalence-distribution-and-risk-factors
#18
J Salas-Romero, K A Gómez-Cabrera, L A Aguilera-Valle, J A Bertot, J E Salas, A Arenal, M K Nielsen
Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance observed in equine cyathostomin parasites have led to recommendations of selective anthelmintic treatment strategies to lower the selection pressure favoring resistant populations. This principle is based on determining strongyle fecal egg counts from all herd members, and treating those exceeding a predetermined treatment cutoff. However, epidemiological information is lacking from horses kept under tropical conditions, where parasite burdens may be of a different composition and magnitude compared to those of horses kept under temperate climate conditions...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807302/targeted-overexpression-of-cyclic-amp-dependent-protein-kinase-subunit-in-toxoplasma-gondii-promotes-replication-and-virulence-in-host-cells
#19
Hongchao Sun, Suhua Wang, Xianfeng Zhao, Chaoqun Yao, Haohan Zhuang, Yechuan Huang, Xueqiu Chen, Yi Yang, Aifang Du
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the most common parasite that can infect almost any warm-blooded animals including humans. The cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates a spectrum of intracellular signal pathways in many organisms. Protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKAC) is the core of the whole protein, and plays an important role in the life cycle of T.gondii. Here, T.gondii PKAC (TgPKAC) overexpression strain (TgPKAC-OE) was constructed. The growth of the TgPKAC-OE, RH△Ku80, and TgPKAC inhibition strains (TgPKAC-H89) were analysed by SYBR-green real-time PCR, and the ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807301/a-candidate-recombinant-antigen-for-diagnosis-of-schistosomiasis-japonica-in-domestic-animals
#20
Jintao Feng, Rui Xu, Xin Zhang, Yu Han, Chuanchuan He, Chao Lu, Yang Hong, Ke Lu, Hao Li, Yamei Jin, Jiaojiao Lin, Jinming Liu
Domestic animals infected with Schistosoma japonicum are a major source of infection and play an important role in transmission to humans. A key strategy for the elimination of schistosomiasis is to control the sources of infection. In the present study, we identified a candidate diagnostic antigen-encoding gene, SjMRP1, the putative multidrug resistance protein 1 gene, by screening a cDNA phage display library from 44-day-old S. japonicum worms using IgGs from goat, cattle, and buffalo infected with S. japonicum...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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