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Veterinary Parasitology

F J Martínez-Rondán, M R Ruiz de Ybáñez, P Tizzani, A M López-Beceiro, L E Fidalgo, C Martínez-Carrasco
The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
J A Scare, P Slusarewicz, M L Noel, K M Wielgus, M K Nielsen
Fecal egg counts are emphasized for guiding equine helminth parasite control regimens due to the rise of anthelmintic resistance. This, however, poses further challenges, since egg counting results are prone to issues such as operator dependency, method variability, equipment requirements, and time commitment. The use of image analysis software for performing fecal egg counts is promoted in recent studies to reduce the operator dependency associated with manual counts. In an attempt to remove operator dependency associated with current methods, we developed a diagnostic system that utilizes a smartphone and employs image analysis to generate automated egg counts...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Jitender P Dubey, John G Trupkiewicz, Shiv K Verma, Joseph D Mowery, Gloria Adedoyin, Tim Georoff, Michael E Grigg
The protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and marine mammals. Isolated reports of clinical EPM-like disease have been documented in a zebra, raccoon, domestic cat, domestic dog, ferret, skunk, mink, lynx, red panda and fisher. The predominant disease is encephalomyelitis associated with schizonts in neural tissues. Here, we report highly disseminated sarcocystosis, in many tissues of a captive White-nosed coati (Nasua narica molaris)...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Rafael Heredia Cardenas, Camilo Romero Núñez, Laura Miranda Contreras
Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Yue Jin, Jilan Fei, Jinzhong Cai, Xiaolan Wang, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal protozoon in mammals. Although many studies have been reported on the distribution of G. duodenalis genotypes in sheep and cattle raised under intensive farming, few studies are available on the distribution of G. duodenalis in Tibetan sheep and yaks, which are raised free ranging in a continental plateau climate. In this study, 495 fecal specimens from Tibetan sheep and 605 from yaks were collected from eight counties in Qinghai, China and analyzed for G. duodenalis by PCR targeting the β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Maurice Mahieu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Alicia Diosdado, Paula Josefina Gómez, Rodrigo Morchón, Fernando Simón, Javier González-Miguel
Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne parasite that produces an inflammatory process in the wall of the blood vessels of its definitive host during cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis, known as proliferative endarteritis. Parasite antigens participate in the appearance of this inflammatory event, among other mechanisms through the over-activation of the host fibrinolytic system. Since Wolbachia, endosymbiont bacteria of filarial nematodes, is released into the vertebrate host when worms die, the aim of this work was to analyse the interaction between this bacteria and the host fibrinolytic system to complete the study of this part of the host-parasite relationships...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Patricia Oliveira Maciel, Celli Rodrigues Muniz, Rosiana Rodrigues Alves
Within the production chain of the Arapaima gigas (pirarucu), sanitary issues are still faced at the fingerling phase regarding infestations by the monogenean Dawestrema cycloancistrium. The present study had the objectives of describing the morphology and development phases of this parasite's eggs and oncomiracidia and determining the hatching time and lifespan of the oncomiracidia at different temperatures. D. cycloancistrium eggs were oval and elongated and had a single long appendage at one pole. The egg development was divided into four phases: embryonated egg, developing egg, larva appearance and ecloded egg...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Ceren Dinler, Bulent Ulutas, Huseyin Voyvoda, Pinar Alkim Ulutas, Kerem Ural, Tulin Karagenc
This study aimed to evaluate the acute phase response (APR) through haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in serum and to examine the correlation between these acute phase proteins (APPs) and oocyst shedding using experimental Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) infection model in neonatal lambs. Twenty lambs were divided into two equal groups: group CON remained uninfected as negative control and lambs of the group EXP were inoculated orally with 1×10(6)C. parvum oocysts. Blood and faecal samples were obtained from both groups before colostrum intake and prior to inoculation (day-1), and at 2, 6, 13, and 20days post-inoculation (dpi)...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Zoe Whitfield, Mark Kelman, Michael P Ward
Tick paralysis has a major impact on pet dog and cat populations in southeastern Australia. It results from envenomation by Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus ticks, the role of Ixodes cornuatus in the epidemiology of this disease in Australia being unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the geographical distribution of tick paralysis cases in southeastern Australia using data from a national disease surveillance system and to compare characteristics of "endemic" cases with those reported outside this endemic zone ("sporadic" cases)...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
William J A Saville, Jitender P Dubey, Antoinette E Marsh, Stephen M Reed, Robert O Keene, Daniel K Howe, Jennifer Morrow, Jeffrey D Workman
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is an important equine neurologic disorder, and treatments for the disease are often unrewarding. Prevention of the disease is the most important aspect for EPM, and a killed vaccine was previously developed for just that purpose. Evaluation of the vaccine had been hampered by lack of post vaccination challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine if the vaccine could prevent development of clinical signs after challenge with Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in an equine challenge model...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Laura Stancampiano, Federica Usai, Andrea Marigo, Riccardo Rinnovati
Strongyle infections have been traditionally regarded as a possible cause of colic in horses. Aim of the study was the comparison of parasitological status between subjects with or without colic syndrome, with particular attention to small strongyle infections. Coprological analyses were performed on 86 horses: 43 with colic and 43 controls. Strongyle eggs were found in 34/86 horses (prevalence 39.5%), the mean number of strongyles eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)(2) was 145.34 (standard deviation 398.28). All those 34 positive animals had small strongyles infections...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
José F Palacios-Abella, Javier Rodríguez-Llanos, María Víllora-Montero, Salvatore Mele, Juan A Raga, Francisco E Montero
Trematode blood flukes of the genus Cardicola are potentially lethal in bluefin tuna cultures. The present study proposed a new method to detect aporocotylid eggs in tuna gills. Aporocotylid eggs were detected by analysing a pair of gill filaments of five transversal areas of the eight holobranches of one hundred Atlantic bluefin tuna and observed with glycerol and a stereomicroscope with an oblique brightfield. Data were gathered according to holobranches, transversal areas and their combination. Eggs were uniformly distributed among the holobranches, but they had the highest prevalence in the second and fifth transversal areas, which is controversial with respect to previous studies of egg distribution...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
W M F Rêgo, J G L Costa, R C A Baraviera, L V Pinto, G L Bessa, R E N Lopes, R W A Vitor
Recent studies indicate that proteins GRA15, ROP5, ROP16, ROP17, and ROP18 of Toxoplasma gondii are involved in the process of interaction, cellular invasion, and immune response of the host. Among these proteins, alleles of the polymorphic ROP18 and ROP5 seem to be directly associated with T. gondii virulence in mice. The purpose of this work was to isolate and genotype T. gondii from pig, goat, and sheep slaughtered for human consumption in the state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil and relate the variability of genes that express virulence proteins of the parasite to virulence in mice...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Paulo Henrique Costa de Lima, Rafael Mazioli Barcelos, Raphael Contelli Klein, Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal, Carlos Emmanuel Montandon, Mary Hellen Fabres-Klein, Jorge Abdala Dergam, Cláudio Mafra
The mitogenome of Amblyomma sculptum was sequenced, providing important information for understanding the evolutionary relationships among species of the A. cajennense complex. The mitochondrial genome has a circular structure with 37 genes, including 13 coding DNA sequences, two ribosomal RNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and 22 tRNA genes. Comparative analysis with the mitogenomes of six reference species of the genus Amblyomma revealed that the ND5 gene, which is related to energy metabolism, and control regions 1 and 2 of the mitogenomes have polymorphisms that can be exploited as molecular markers to differentiate A...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Kanapadinchareveetil Sreelekha, Leena Chandrasekhar, Harikumar S Kartha, Reghu Ravindran, Sanis Juliet, Karapparambu G Ajithkumar, Suresh N Nair, Srikanta Ghosh
The present study utilizes the ultrastructural analysis of the fully engorged female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks, as a tool to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of deltamethrin and amitraz on the germinative cells. The ultrastructural analysis of the ovary of the normal (untreated) R (B.) annulatus revealed, oocytes in different stages of development, attached to the ovary wall by pedicel cells. The attachment site of oocyte to the pedicel cell was characterized by indentations of the plasma membrane...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Chris Adolph, Sharon Barnett, Melissa Beall, Jason Drake, David Elsemore, Jennifer Thomas, Susan Little
Intestinal helminths are common in dogs in the United States, particularly non-treated dogs in animal shelters, but surveys by fecal flotation may underestimate their prevalence. To determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation and detection of nematode antigen to identify those infections, contents of the entire gastrointestinal tract of 97 adult (>1year) dogs previously identified for humane euthanasia at two animal control shelters in northeastern Oklahoma, USA, were screened...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Stefanie Wiedmer, Alaa Aldin Alnassan, Beate Volke, Ahmed Thabet, Arwid Daugschies, Matthias Lendner, Michael Kurth
Eimeria species cause avian coccidiosis leading to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Hence, anticoccidial drugs and vaccines have been used to combat this devitalizing disease. An effective vaccine based on gametocyte recombinant proteins would be very useful in terms of cost, labor and ethics (no animal experimentation). A mouse derived monoclonal antibody against Eimeria tenella gametocyte antigen 56 (EtGAM56) was used to immunize peritoneally E. tenella infected chicken a reduction of oocyst shedding by up to 78% was observed...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
C Diezma-Díaz, A Jiménez-Meléndez, M Fernández, D Gutiérrez-Expósito, P García-Lunar, L M Ortega-Mora, J A Pérez-Salas, J Blanco-Murcia, I Ferre, G Álvarez-García
Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the apicomplexan Besnoitia besnoiti, is a chronic and debilitating disease characterized by cutaneous and systemic manifestations that primarily affects adult beef cattle. Previous studies have reported that clinical besnoitiosisis is rare in calves. However, we isolated B. besnoiti from a chronically infected calf for the first time. The identity of the Besnoitia species was determined after parasite isolation and molecular genotyping. According to the results obtained in vitro the new isolate, named as Bb-Spain3, was characterized in a reproducible in vitro model and was categorized as a low invader and low prolific isolate with a slower lytic cycle compared to Bb-Spain 1 isolate...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
M A Zoral, K Futami, M Endo, M Maita, T Katagiri
Monogenean parasites are important ectoparasites of fish, and are responsible for severe economic impacts in the aquaculture industry. They are usually treated with chemicals, but the chemicals can have harmful side effects in the fish and may pose threats to human health. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a common medicinal herb, with antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Here, we examined the anthelmintic activity of rosemary extract against the monogenean (Dactylogyrus minutus) in vitro and in vivo using bath treatment and oral administration...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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