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Veterinary Parasitology

Martín Orensanz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Pedro Mendoza-de Gives, María Eugenia López-Arellano, Liliana Aguilar-Marcelino, Sara Olazarán-Jenkins, David Reyes-Guerrero, Gabriel Ramírez-Várgas, Vicente E Vega-Murillo
This research assessed the dose/response to Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores (Df-C) administered to calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), and its effect in reducing the infective larvae (L3 ) population in faeces in a farm in the Mexican tropics. Forty zebu calves, between 6 and 12 months of age, were randomly distributed into four groups of 10 calves. One control and three groups treated with different oral doses of Df-C based on their body weight (BW) were established as follows: group 1 (control); group 2, 0...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Amel Abidi, Essia Sebai, Mokhtar Dhibi, Dhouha Alimi, Mourad Rekik, Fatma B'chir, R M Maizels, Hafidh Akkari
The present study aimed at analyzing the chemical composition and evaluating the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Artemisia campestris essential oil aerial parts. The chemical composition was analysed by gaz chromatography/mass chromatography (GC/MS). Fifty compounds were identified representing 99.98% of the total oil. A. campestris essential oil was dominated by beta-pinene (36.40%) and 2-undecanone (14.7%). The in vitro anthelmintic activity tests of A. campestris essential oil were performed on Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and adult worm's motility assay (AWMA) compared with a reference drug albendazole...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
T Carrau, L M R Silva, D Pérez, K Failing, C Martínez-Carrasco, J Macías, A Taubert, C Hermosilla, R Ruiz de Ybáñez
Eimeria infections are common in sheep industry worldwide nonetheless very little is known on infection dynamics and associated risk factors influencing the outcome of clinical ovine coccidiosis. The aim of the present work was to analyse intrinsic (e. g. host age) and extrinsic (flock size, farm size and animal density) risk factors influencing dynamics of Eimeria spp. infections in sheep farms of the semi-arid region of Murcia in southern Spain. Overall, 64 ovine flocks in Murcia were surveyed and a total of 396 faecal samples were collected between May and July 2015...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Carla Maria Mariano Fernandez, Fabiana Brusco Lorenzetti, Karine Zanoli Bernuci, Camila Cristina Iwanaga, Wanessa de Campos Bortolucci, Mariza Barion Romagnolo, Márcia Regina Simões, Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Zilda Cristiani Gazim, Benedito Prado Dias Filho
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important ectoparasites in cattle breeding worldwide, causing direct and indirect losses to animals and producers. Chemical acaricides are utilized in the control of cattle tick and the increase in the development of resistance by ectoparasites makes new alternative necessary. Therefore, research studies have been carried out using bioactive molecules that are quickly degraded and that reduce poisoning to appliers and non-target organisms, environmental contamination and development of resistance...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Daven B Khana, David S Peterson, James B Stanton, Megan E Schreeg, Adam J Birkenheuer, Jaime L Tarigo
Cytauxzoonosis is a highly fatal disease of domestic cats caused by the apicomplexan protozoan Cytauxzoon felis, which is most closely related to Theileria spp. The growing prevalence, high morbidity and mortality, and treatment cost of cytauxzoonosis emphasize the need for vaccine development. Traditional approaches for vaccine development, however, have been hindered by the inability to culture C. felis in vitro. Recent availability of the annotated C. felis genome combined with genome-based vaccine design and protein microarray immunoscreening allowed for high-throughput identification of C...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Jitender P Dubey
Until the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in cat feces in 1970, little was known of coccidiosis in cats. Until 1970, three coccidian parasites based on different sized oocysts were recognized, the parasite with large oocysts (∼40 μm long and called Isospora felis), medium sized oocysts (∼25 μm long, called Isospora rivolta), and small sized oocysts (14 μm or less, called Isospora bigemina) were known and they were considered not host-specific. Later, it was demonstrated that these parasites were host-specific and had also extra-intestinal stages...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Laurent Hébert, Edouard Guitton, Anthony Madeline, Tristan Géraud, David Carnicer, Latifa Lakhdar, Pierre-Hugues Pitel, Margaux Coste, Eve Laloy, Aude Giraudet, Stéphan Zientara, Philippe Büscher, Claire Laugier, Aymeric Hans, Sandrine Petry, Julien Cauchard
Trypanosoma equiperdum, the causative agent of dourine, may affect the central nervous system, leading to neurological signs in infected horses. This location protects the parasite from most (if not all) existing chemotherapies. In this context, the OIE terrestrial code considers dourine as a non-treatable disease and imposes a stamping-out policy for affected animals before a country may achieve its dourine-free status. The use of practices as drastic as euthanasia remains controversial, but the lack of a suitable tool for studying a treatment's efficacy against dourine hampers the development of an alternative strategy for dourine infection management...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Tibebu Hailesillassie, Daniel Bisrat, Kaleab Asres
The leaf latex of Aloe yavellana Reynolds is traditionally used for the treatment of various illnesses of humans and domestic animals in Ethiopia. In the present study, the latex and two major compounds isolated from it, namely, aloin A/B and microdontin A/B were assessed for their larvicidal activity against Amblyomma variegatum tick larvae using a larval packet test (LPT). The LC50 and LC99 of the latex were found to be 35.82 ± 2.27 and 83.48 ± 3.95 mg/ml, respectively. Although microdontin A/B showed better larvicidal activity (LC50 = 89...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
A Lifschitz, C Fiel, P Steffan, C Cantón, S Muchiut, P Dominguez, C Lanusse, L Alvarez
Psoroptic mange is an important parasitic disease that mainly affects beef cattle producing marked economic losses. Ivermectin (IVM) is considered one of the most effective treatments against psoroptic mange and is used worldwide to control both endo and ectoparasites in different species. The current work assessed the relationship between pharmacokinetic behavior of IVM and its efficacy against Psoroptes ovis after the subcutaneous administration of two commercial formulations in a cattle feedlot. Aberdeen Angus and Hereford steers were selected based on the presence of active mite infestations...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Mireia Fernandez, María Dolores Tabar, Antonio Arcas, Cristina Mateu, Josep Homedes, Xavier Roura
The best preventive strategy for canine leishmaniasis is, to date, unknown. In the last few years, new preventive measures have become available in Europe, including vaccination against leishmaniasis and the use of domperidone. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the different preventive measures available against leishmaniasis in client-owned dogs. A database search of medical records was carried out in 52 private veterinary practices located in endemic areas of canine leishmaniasis in Spain, Italy and Portugal...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Hirohisa Mekata, Tomoya Minamino, Yoko Mikurino, Mari Yamamoto, Ayako Yoshida, Nariaki Nonaka, Yoichiro Horii
Bovine theileriosis, caused by Theileria orientalis, is endemic from East Asia to Oceania. Even though the disease is mainly transmitted by Haemaphysalis ticks, the T. orientalis parasite can also be transmitted vertically. To develop proper control measures, the frequency of each transmission route must be elucidated. However, the frequency of vertical transmission, including transplacental transmission, of T. orientalis in naturally infected cattle is still controversial. This study aimed to clarify the frequency of the vertical transmission of T...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
J P Dubey, R K Schuster
Domesticated Old World camels (Camelus dromedarius and C. bactrianus) are important for the economy of several countries in Asia, Africa, and the Arabian Peninsula, and coccidiosis is important as a cause of mortality in juvenile camels. There is confusion concerning the species of coccidian parasites in camels and their life cycles. The objective of the present paper is to review biology of the Eimeria and Cystoisospora species in camels. The following conclusions were drawn. Although five species of Eimeria; E...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Kush Shrivastava, Pushpendra Kumar, Mohd Faheem Khan, Nihar Ranjan Sahoo, Om Prakash, Amit Kumar, Manjit Panigrahi, Anuj Chauhan, Bharat Bhushan, Arvind Prasad, Abdul Nasir, Bhimnere Hanumanthagouda Manjunatha Patel
The present investigation was carried out with the objective to identify putative candidate genes / Quantitative trait loci for resistance / susceptibility towards Haemonchus infestation in tropical goat breed (Rohilkhandi goat) of India. The mean faecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) of the population were 142.78 ± 22.54 epg (eggs per gram) and 31.73% ± 0.49, respectively. Grouping of animals as per dot ELISA test showed 41.33% (n = 124) positive and 58.66% (n = 176) negative for Haemonchus infestation...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Xin-Yu Li, Yi-Ou Chen, Qi-Ke Wang, Kai Li, Thomas Pape, Dong Zhang
Species of Gasterophilus are obligate parasites of equids and may induce severe, even lethal myiasis. However, identification of the third instar Gasterophilus larva at the species level is still problematic predominantly due to a shortage of diagnostic morphological features and incomplete molecular libraries. Testing the suitability of three different molecular markers showed that the traditional 650 bp barcode region near the 5' terminus of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) served as a better tool for species-level identification than a 663 bp region near the 3' terminus of COI and a 554 bp region near the 5' terminus of the large subunit ribosomal RNA...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Bindu Lakshmanan, K Devada, Siju Joseph, V L Gleeja, T V Aravindakshan, K Himachala, Surya Sankar
Intestinal schistosmosis caused by Schistosoma spindale and S. indicum is an important snail borne trematode infection that adversely affects the production and productivity of bovines in India. The present communication reports the high seroprevalence of infection among dairy cattle and buffaloes, under field conditions, utilizing a sensitive and specific excretory-secretory antigen based ELISA. Comparison of ELISA with copro-PCR, microscopy and post-mortem mesentery examination revealed the diagnostic superiority of ELISA...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Aleksandra Kornacka, Aleksandra Cybulska, Marcin Popiołek, Natalia Kuśmierek, Bożena Moskwa
The studies were carried on raccoons from Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic. Tissue samples from raccoon hearts, lungs and brains were used for molecular examination while meat juice was collected for immunological tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in six out of 44 raccoons (13.6%), while T. gondii DNA was found in 18 (40.9%). Antibodies against N. caninum were found in seven raccoons (15.9%) but no parasite DNA was observed in any sample. DNA of T. gondii was observed in raccoons of both sexes (in 42...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Berta Blanch-Lázaro, Zoe Mitton, Catherine Tudor, Joanna Hindle, Henny Martineau, Mark Fox, Damer P Blake
Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode parasite of the pulmonary arteries and heart that infects domestic and wild canids. Dogs (Canis familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most commonly affected definitive hosts. Recent studies suggest that angiostrongylosis is an emerging disease, and that red foxes may play an important role in the epidemiology of the parasite. Genetic analyses of parasites collected from dogs and foxes throughout Europe have shown that the same parasite haplotypes are commonly shared between different host species...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Adel Spotin, Belgees Boufana, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Adriano Casulli, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Soheila Rouhani, Amirreza Javadi-Mamaghani, Firooz Shahrivar, Paria Khoshakhlagh
The aim of this review was to assess our current knowledge on phylogeography and global genetic structure of Echinococcus multilocularis populations originating from rodents, wild canid hosts, and human. Six bibliographic databases were searched from 1990 to 2017, identifying a total of 110 publications. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) sequences of E. multilocularis from Asia, Europe, and North Americas were analyzed to estimate the diversity and neutrality indices, and genetic differentiation...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ozcan Ozkan, Mehmet Eray Alcigir
Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a zoonotic and opportunistic pathogen, can cause latent infection, especially in lagomorphs. Nowadays, this member of the Eukaryotes has drawn significant attention in the fields of veterinary and public health. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of infection in a New Zealand rabbit farm that has a clinical history of neurological manifestations including head tilt ataxia, aggressiveness, seizures, and circling and rotational movements around the body length axis, but the general conditions and food intake were normal...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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