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Veterinary Parasitology

Ruo Dan Liu, Xin Qi, Ge Ge Sun, Peng Jiang, Xi Zhang, Li Ang Wang, Xiao Lin Liu, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui
At the intestinal stage of a Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection, the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens produced by adult worms (AWs) result in an early exposure to the host's immune system and elicit the production of specific antibodies; the AW ES proteins might provide early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to identify early serodiagnostic markers from T. spiralis AW ES antigens. T. spiralis AWs were collected at 72h post infection, and their ES antigens were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Karsten Nöckler, Edoardo Pozio, Ray Gamble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Irina M Odoevskaya, Sergei E Spiridonov
Partial nucleotide sequences of the two mitochondrial genes (cytB and COI) were obtained for 13 Trichinella isolates from different regions of the Russian Federation. All the cytB mtDNA sequences were identical with the sequences of T. nativa from Canada, showing no nucleotide differences between isolates. Analysis of partial COI mtDNA sequence confirmed the species identification and revealed differences between the studied isolates. Two T. nativa haplotypes, represented in the studied material by four samples, demonstrate limited geographical distribution...
August 16, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
X Bai, X L Wang, B Tang, H N Shi, P Boireau, B Rosenthal, X P Wu, M Y Liu, X L Liu
The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) released by the muscle-larvae (ML) stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ML-ESPs modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. Macrophages exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for skeletal muscle repair, notably, via their actions on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions during T...
July 29, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Pietro Badagliacca, Daria Di Sabatino, Stefania Salucci, Gianfranco Romeo, Micaela Cipriani, Nadia Sulli, Francesca Dall'Acqua, Marco Ruggieri, Paolo Calistri, Daniela Morelli
: During the period 2004-2014 in the Abruzzi region (Central Italy), muscle samples gathered from hunted wild boars (n=16,323) and retrieved from carcasses of other susceptible wild mammals (n=838) and birds (n=438) were tested for Trichinella larvae according to European Union regulations. Although no positive samples were found from wild birds, 91 wild mammals tested positive. Six species were found to harbor Trichinella spp. infections, namely wolf (Canis lupus, 59 positive samples out of 218), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 24/480), wild boar (Sus scrofa, 3/16,323), stone marten (Martes foina, 2/27), pine marten (Martes martes, 2/6) and wildcat (Felis silvestris, 1/8)...
July 26, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Surapan Jitviriyanon, Phanida Phanthong, Pattamapan Lomarat, Nuntavan Bunyapraphatsara, Sarthorn Porntrakulpipat, Nuanchan Paraksa
This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro anticoccidial properties against Eimeria tenella of different essential oils and their major active components. Efficacy of ten essential oils from different Thai indigenous plants were preliminarily screened and only those with potential were further tested for effective concentrations and identifying their active compounds. Oocysticidal property was evaluated in term of sporulation inhibition of oocysts and the percentage of unsporulated, sporulated and degenerated oocysts, after treatment with 125μg/ml of the selected essential oil, the sample was enumerated by haemocytometer, while coccidiocidal activity was assessed by the inhibition of sporozoite invasion in MDBK cell lines...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Mario Santoro, Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón, Vincenzo Veneziano, Anna Cerrone, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Domenico Otranto, Isabel Hagnauer, Mauricio Jiménez, Giorgio Galiero
Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is a roundworm of rodents, which may cause a severe or fatal zoonosis in several countries of the Americas. A single report indicated that the white-nosed coati (Nasua narica), acts as a potential free-ranging wildlife reservoir. Here we investigated the prevalence and features of A. costaricensis infection in two procyonid species, the white-nosed coati and the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from Costa Rica to better understand their possible role in the epidemiology of this zoonotic infection...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Vincenzo Lorusso, Michiel Wijnveld, Maria S Latrofa, Akinyemi Fajinmi, Ayodele O Majekodunmi, Abraham G Dogo, Augustine C Igweh, Domenico Otranto, Frans Jongejan, Susan C Welburn, Kim Picozzi
In April 2008, whole blood samples were collected from 36 dromedary camels in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria. Following PCR and reverse line blotting, twenty-two samples (61%) resulted positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and three (8%) for Theileria/Babesia spp., with three (8%) cases of co-infections being found. Both sequence and BLAST analyses identified Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Theileria/Babesia spp. positive cases as Anaplasma platys and Theileria ovis, respectively. This is the first report of the detection of A...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Aleksandra Kornacka, Aleksandra Cybulska, Justyna Bień, Katarzyna Goździk, Bożena Moskwa
The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of two antibody-based methods, the direct agglutination test (DAT) and enzyme linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA), with that of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting anti-Toxoplasma gondii in samples derived from naturally-infected wild animals. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in meat juice samples collected from 129 free- living carnivores and omnivores. T. gondii seroprevalence was confirmed in 73,6% of examined samples when DAT and ELISA were used separately, but in only 88,4% samples when both immunological tests were used in parallel...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Ömer Orkun, Hasan Emir, Zafer Karaer
We aimed to determine the ticks of the Anatolian wild sheep and to define their tick-borne pathogens while molecularly studying their relationships with those of the domestic sheep. Furthermore, another aim of this study is to investigate tick paralysis resulting in the death of the Anatolian wild sheep. Ticks and blood samples were collected from the wild sheep whilst tick samples were also collected from hares, guinea fowls, chickens, and a turkey living in the Anatolian wild sheep breeding area. While PCR amplification was carried out for the detection of Babesia spp...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Luis E Ferreira, Bruno I Benincasa, Ana L Fachin, Suzelei C França, Silvia S H T Contini, Ana C S Chagas, Rene O Beleboni
Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Fuhuang Li, Haiyan Wang, Zhenjie Zhang, Junqiang Li, Chenrong Wang, Jinfeng Zhao, Suhui Hu, Rongjun Wang, Longxian Zhang, Ming Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Silvia Belinchón-Lorenzo, Juan Carlos Parejo, Virginia Iniesta, Javier Fernández-Cotrina, Rubén Muñoz-Madrid, Isabel Monroy, Victoria Baz, Adela Gómez-Luque, Francisco Javier Serrano-Aguilera, José Luis Barneto, Luis Carlos Gómez-Nieto
Nowadays, searching for alternative non-invasive methods for molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis is getting increasingly important. We previously described the presence of Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) in canine hair; in this case we hypothesized whether foreign DNA might be present in cerumen of dogs with leishmaniosis, and be detected by Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR). A population of 38 dogs that lived in Leishmania endemic areas was divided in two groups: A (33 dogs with confirmed leishmaniosis by serological techniques) and B (5 healthy dogs)...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Livio M Costa-Júnior, Robert J Miller, Péricles B Alves, Arie F Blank, Andrew Y Li, Adalberto A Pérez de León
Plant-derived natural products can serve as an alternative to synthetic compounds for control of ticks of veterinary and medical importance. Lippia gracilis is an aromatic plant that produces essential oil with high content of carvacrol and thymol monoterpenes. These monoterpenes have high acaricidal activity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. However, there are no studies that show efficacy differences of essential oils between susceptible and organophosphate resistant strains of R. (B.) microplus...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Silvia Viviana Soriano, María Florencia Debiaggi, Nora Beatriz Pierangeli, Luis Alfredo Pianciola, Héctor Fabián Jesús Bergagna, Lorena Evelina Lazzarini, Melina Leonor Mazzeo, Juan Angel Basualdo
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus sl) must be considered as a species complex, comprising Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (E. granulosus ss, genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus canadensis (G6-G10) although the species status of E. canadensis is still controversial. These genotypes closely match the intermediate hosts associated strains described in earlier times among which E. canadensis G6 corresponds to the camel strain. As there are no studies concerning the development of adult stages of the G6 genotype from non-camel origin, the aims of the present study were: to characterize for the first time the development of E...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
L A J Haydock, W E Pomroy, M A Stevenson, K E Lawrence
Infections of ruminants with Fasciola hepatica are considered to be of regional importance within New Zealand but there is very little recent information on its prevalence or severity other than anecdotal reports. Generally they are considered to be of secondary importance compared to gastrointestinal nematode infections. Utilizing data from Virtual Climate Stations (n=11491) distributed on a 5km grid around New Zealand a growing degree-day model was used to describe the risk of infection with liver fluke from 1972 to 2012 and then to apply the predictions to estimate the risk of fluke infections within New Zealand for the years 2040 and 2090...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Caroline Jacobson, Andrew Williams, Rongchang Yang, Una Ryan, Ian Carmichael, Angus J Campbell, Graham E Gardner
Associations between intensity and frequency of Cryptosporidium and Giardia shedding with growth, carcase weight and dressing% were investigated using a longitudinal study of 1182 lambs on eight Australian farms. Live weight was recorded and faecal samples were collected on three sampling occasions; weaning (approximately 12 weeks of age), post-weaning (approximately 19 weeks) and pre-slaughter (approximately 29 weeks). Hot standard carcase weight (HSCW) and dressing% were measured at slaughter. Faecal samples were screened for presence and concentration of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Haemonchus oocysts using a quantitative PCR...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
T Westers, A Jones-Bitton, P Menzies, J Van Leeuwen, Z Poljak, A S Peregrine
In Ontario, Canada, widespread resistance to ivermectin and fenbendazole, the only readily available ovine anthelmintics, has been documented, primarily in Haemonchus sp. In other parts of the world, closantel has been used to control such infections; however, the drug was not currently licensed for use in Canada and the USA. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on six client-owned farms in Ontario in 2013 and 2014 to determine the efficacy of closantel (Flukiver(®) 5% Oral Suspension, Elanco Animal Health, 10mg/kg bodyweight) against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
L E Peachey, G L Pinchbeck, J B Matthews, F A Burden, J M Behnke, J E Hodgkinson
The control of equid gastrointestinal nematodes in developed countries, in particular the cyathostomins, is threatened by high levels of anthelmintic resistance. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the evaluation of traditional 'ethnoveterinary' medicines as alternatives to chemical anthelmintics. The cysteine proteinases (CPs), a group of enzymes derived from fruits such as papaya (Carica papaya), pineapple (Ananas comosus) and figs (Ficus spp.), have shown good efficacy against adult stages of a range of parasitic nematodes, in vitro and in vivo...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Narelle Sales, Stephen Love
Early in 2015, sheep in a summer rainfall area of NSW, Australia, displayed signs of haemonchosis despite treatment with monepantel. A faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed on yearlings with natural field infections using various anthelmintics. Only a four-way combination drench achieved a reduction in faecal egg count (FEC) greater than 95%. The combination contained abamectin, albendazole, levamisole and closantel. Treatments with a derquantel/abamectin combination, monepantel and moxidectin reduced FECs by 93, 31, and 30% respectively...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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