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Veterinary Parasitology

Shiv K Verma, Susan Knowles, Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C Kwok, Tiantian Jiang, Chunlei Su, Jitender P Dubey
Toxoplasmosis in marine mammals is epidemiologically and clinically important. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (by modified agglutination test, cut-off ≥1:25) were detected in serum of 65 of 70 (92.9%) northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State, USA. Brains and/or muscles of 44 sea otters were bioassayed in mice (INF-γ knock-out [KO], Swiss Webster outbred [SW]) and viable T. gondii was isolated from 22 of 44 (50%); T. gondii strains were lethal to KO mice but not SW mice. These T. gondii isolates were further propagated in cell culture...
May 26, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Saralee Srivorakul, Varangpicha Khochakul, Kidsadagon Pringproa
A 12-year-old, female, domestic cat (Felis catus) presented with dehydration, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy. The cat was unresponsive to medical treatment and euthanized; the carcass was submitted for pathological diagnosis. Necropsy revealed icteric mucous membranes. The liver was enlarged, with multinodular, cystic, white masses, 0.5-4.0 cm in diameter, scattered throughout. Microscopically, the biliary epithelium presented with a proliferation of multifocal cystic masses, occasionally with periodic acid-Schiff-positive fluid within the cysts...
May 5, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ioana Raluca Păstrav, Angela Monica Ionică, Cosmin Peştean, Eva Novakova, David Modrý, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are mosquito-borne nematodes, primarily infecting dogs, but also other species of carnivores and even humans. Given their impact on animal and human health, the transmission of these filarioids has been widely studied. The microfilariaemia has been shown to have a circadian variation for both Dirofilaria species infecting dogs. Due to methodological difficulties, the periodicity was only studied using venous blood samples, while the mosquitoes feed, in fact, on capillary blood...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Amit Kumar Jaiswal, Daya Shanker, Vikrant Sudan, Amit Singh
In the present study, the 75% alcoholic fractionation of excretory-secretory (ES) antigen isolated from 200 to 300 live P. epiclitum was assessed for its diagnostic potential for the detection of caprine amphistomosis by using antibody detection enzyme immunoassay. Prior to enzyme immunoassay, 75% alcoholic fractionation of excretory-secretory (ES) antigen was subjected to SDS- PAGE and western blot analysis for the presence of immunoreactive polypeptides. SDS-PAGE analysis of ES antigen resolved a total 7 polypeptides bands of size 56, 27, 25, 22...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Kim Hamer, Dave Bartley, Amy Jennings, Alison Morrison, Neil Sargison
Monepantel resistance was diagnosed during routine monitoring of the effectiveness of a farm's roundworm control strategy. Weaned lambs had become ill thrifty and developed diarrhoea, despite the routine use of monepantel. This clinical presentation was caused by trichostrongylosis. The faecal egg count reduction was 76.7% (95% CI: 55.1-82.2%) following treatment with 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. Predominantly Trichostrongylus vitrinus along with small proportions of Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were identified by deep amplicon sequencing of pools of larvae recovered from pre and post monepantel treatment coprocultures and on postmortem examinations...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ran He, Haojie Zhang, Nengxing Shen, Cheng Guo, Yongjun Ren, Yue Xie, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies is an allergic skin disease that affects millions of mammals worldwide, including humans. It is a neglected tropical disease that represents a significant public health threat, particularly in economically disadvantaged populations. An effective vaccine is not currently available, and the exact mode of pathogenesis remains unclear. Herein, we identified, cloned and recombinantly expressed triosephosphate isomerase from Sarcoptes scabiei (S. scabiei). Immunohistochemical analyses showed that S. scabiei triosephosphate isomerase (Ss-TIM) is localized in the legs and chewing mouthparts of mites, and in infected rabbit skin (keratinized skin and embedded mites)...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
M T Ruiz-Campillo, V Molina-Hernández, J Pérez, I L Pacheco, R Pérez, A Escamilla, F J Martínez-Moreno, A Martínez-Moreno, R Zafra
During Fasciola hepatica infection, the parasite has the capability to modulate the host immune response towards a non-protector Th2 type instead of Th1. This type of immune response is closely related to the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 profile) as has been shown in vivo in murine models. In this study, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the expression of CD68, CD14, CD206 and iNOS in cells present in the peritoneal fluid of sheep during early stages of infection with F. hepatica (1, 3, 9 and 18 days post-infection, dpi) by immunocytochemistry...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Giorgio Meloni, Michela Cossu, Cipriano Foxi, Luigi Vento, Salvatore Circosta, Ernesta Burrai, Sergio Masala, Maria Goffredo, Giuseppe Satta
Culicoides biting midges can transmit viruses such as bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus to ruminants and African horse sickness virus to equines. The control of Culicoides population can be based on physical and/or chemical methods. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of larvicides and adulticides combined treatments to control the vector Culicoides populations. Field trials have been conducted during 2014 on seven farms in northern Sardinia (Italy). Three insecticide treatments (larvicides and adulticides) have been carried out on three farms, whereas four farms remained unsprayed as untreated controls...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Kelsey L Paras, Melissa M George, Anand N Vidyashankar, Ray M Kaplan
Gastrointestinal nematode parasites are important pathogens of all domesticated livestock species. Fecal egg counts (FEC) are routinely used for evaluating anthelmintic efficacy and for making targeted anthelmintic treatment decisions. Numerous FEC techniques exist and vary in precision and accuracy. These performance characteristics are especially important when performing fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT). The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy and precision of three commonly used FEC methods and determine if differences existed among livestock species...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Susan E Little, Anne W Barrett, Yoko Nagamori, Brian H Herrin, Dorothy Normile, Kathleen Heaney, Rob Armstrong
Ticks are an important but under recognized parasitic threat to cats in many areas of the United States. To characterize the species and stages of ticks most commonly recovered from cats and determine the prevalence of disease agents in the ticks, we conducted a survey of ticks removed from cats at veterinary practices in 18 states from April 2016-June 2017. A total of 796 ticks were submitted from 332 cats from 41 different veterinary practices. A single tick was submitted from the majority of cats, with a mean infestation intensity of 2...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Roseclea Chagas Dos Santos, Flaviane Alves de Pinho, Gabriela Porfírio Passos, Daniela Farias Larangeira, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo
The most commonly used culture medium for the in vitro isolation of Leishmania spp. from canine biological samples is biphasic Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium, whose solid phase is prepared using rabbit blood. Leishmania infantum parasites from natural infections are highly sensitive and demanding for growth in axenic conditions when firstly obtained from the dog's body. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether NNN medium (NNN-test) prepared with chicken blood (NNN-C), ox blood (NNN-O), horse blood (NNN-H) or sheep blood (NNN-S) was viable for the isolation of parasites from naturally infected dogs, in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis caused by L...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Naiani Domingos Gasparetto, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira Almeida, Luciano Nakazato, Eduardo Luzía França, Adenilda Cristina Honorio França, Danny Laura Gomes Fagundes, Juliano Bortolini, Valéria Régia Franco Sousa
OBJECTIVES: To quantify (by qPCR) the density of Demodex canis mites in the skin of dogs with demodicosis and in healthy dogs, as well as measuring the serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and tumour necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α). METHODS: Fifty-four dogs were divided into three groups: localized demodicosis (LD, n = 16), generalized demodicosis (GD, n = 22), and control group (CG, n = 16). All dogs were subjected to skin scraping, blood collection, and skin biopsy...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
M K Nielsen, M A Branan, A M Wiedenheft, R Digianantonio, J A Scare, J L Bellaw, L P Garber, C A Kopral, A M Phillippi-Taylor, J L Traub-Dargatz
Equine strongyle parasites are considered ubiquitous in grazing equids across the world, and cyathostomin parasites are known pathogens causing well-described disease complexes in horses. Decades of intensive anthelmintic treatments have led to anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins, and current recommendations are to lower treatment intensity and base control strategies on fecal egg count surveillance. Little is known about risk factors associated with strongyle parasite egg shedding patterns in the United States equine population, as the most recent national survey was conducted 20 years ago...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Nisha Sharma, Peter W Hunt, Brad C Hine, Nishchal K Sharma, Robert A Swick, Isabelle Ruhnke
Reliable methods for detection of A. galli infection using excreta egg count (EEC) and ELISA assays to determine A. galli specific IgY levels in serum and yolk samples were compared from hens infected naturally and artificially. Artificially infected hens were used to generate samples for analysis of preferred detection methods and to generate contaminated ranges for use in the naturally acquired infection study in which Lohmann Brown hens (n = 200) at 16 weeks of age were randomly assigned to four treatments with five replicate pens...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Jitender P Dubey, Christian Bauer
There is considerable confusion concerning validity of Eimeria species in equids, and endogenous developmental stages and pathogenicity of equid Eimeria. This paper summarizes worldwide information on history, structure, life cycle, pathogenicity, prevalence, epidemiology, and diagnosis of Eimeria infections in equids. The following conclusions were drawn. Although three species of Eimeria; E. solipedum, E. uninugulata, and E. leuckarti were named from horses, only E. leuckarti is a valid species infecting equids, including horses, donkeys and zebra...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
J P Dubey
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is important to the economy of several countries in Asia, and South America and there are also isolated herds in Europe. In India, buffalo is the main dairy animal. Coccidiosis due to Eimeria is an important cause of diarrhea in livestock worldwide. Eimeria species are generally considered host specific. More than 11 Eimeria species are considered common in buffaloes and cattle (Bos taurus, Bos indicus). Of the numerous species of Eimeria in cattle, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria auburnensis and Eimeria alabamensis are considered pathogenic in cattle, but there is no report of their pathogenicity in naturally infected water buffaloes...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Candela Canton, Lucila Canton, María Paula Domínguez, Laura Moreno, Carlos Lanusse, Luis Alvarez, Laura Ceballos
The study compared the pharmacokinetic (PK) behaviour and anthelmintic efficacy against susceptible and resistant nematodes following subcutaneous (SC) and oral administration of ivermectin (IVM) to cattle. Six commercial farms were involved: Farms 1 and 2 (IVM-susceptible nematode population) and Farms 3, 4, 5 and 6 (IVM-resistant nematode population). On each farm, forty-five calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 15): untreated control, IVM SC administration, and IVM oral administration (both at 0...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Shawky M Aboelhadid, Waleed M Arafa, A A Wahba, Lilian N Mahrous, Samar M Ibrahium, Patricia J Holman
The activity of high doses of three insect growth regulators (IGRs), lufenuron (MATCH®), pyriproxfen® and hydroprene (Gentrol®), were tested on Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) annulatus adult females, eggs and larvae. Different concentrations of the IGRs were tested on eggs, larvae and adult ticks through immersion, larval packet and adult immersion bioassays, respectively. The tested IGRs did not show adulticidal activity against female ticks even at very high concentration. However, both hydroprene and pyriproxfen caused a significant decrease (P<0...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Adnan Hodžić, Amer Alić, Jovana Šupić, Vedad Škapur, Georg Gerhard Duscher
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, a dog tapeworm is a species complex causing cystic echinococcosis or hydatid disease in a great variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, including humans. This complex comprises five species including Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype or cattle strain). In the present paper, we report the first case of infection with the larval stage of latter cestode in a captive crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata), molecularly confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the cox1 and nad1 genes...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Marília Alves Machado, Diefrey Ribeiro Campos, Natália Lôres Lopes, Isabela Pessôa Barbieri Bastos, Cristiane Bazaga Botelho, Thais Ribeiro Correia, Fábio Barbour Scott, Julio Israel Fernandes
Afoxolaner is a drug belonging to the isoxazolines' family, and it is recommended for ectoparasite control in dogs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of afoxolaner in the treatment of otodectic mange in naturally infested cats. Sixteen cats were divided into two groups (treated and control). The treated group (n = 8) underwent a single oral presentation of afoxolaner at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. The control group (n = 8) received no antiparasitic treatment. The detection of mite infestations were performed by video otoscopy before the medication, 48 h after the medication and at weekly intervals up to 35 days after treatment (+7, +14, +21, +28, +35)...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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