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Veterinary Parasitology

Ana Cantos-Barreda, Damián Escribano, José J Cerón, Luis J Bernal, Tommaso Furlanello, Fernando Tecles, Luis Pardo-Marín, Silvia Martínez-Subiela
This study examined the relationship between two serologic assays which quantify anti-Leishmania antibodies (a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR-IFMA)) and selected acute phase proteins (APPs) and analytes related to protein concentration. Data were obtained from 205 canine serum samples from different veterinary clinics located in an area in which canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is endemic. The samples were submitted to the Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Clinical Analysis (Interlab-UMU), University of Murcia, Spain, for analysis...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Angela Ruffell, Ali Raza, Timothy P Elliott, Andrew C Kotze
The larval development assay has been used for many years to measure the sensitivity of the free-living life stages of trichostrongylid nematodes to anthelmintics. The assay has applications in both drug discovery and the diagnosis of drug resistance. We revisited the usefulness of the larval development assay for diagnosis of resistance to levamisole using field-derived isolates of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis showing varying levels of resistance to this drug in vivo. Each of the resistant isolates showed a plateau in their larval development assay dose-response at the highest drug concentrations tested, representing a highly-resistant fraction, amounting to between 6...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Cecilia Miraballes, Javier Sanchez, Antonio Thadeu M Barros, Sebastian Hitateguy, Pablo Moreno, Tatiana Saporiti, Franklin Riet-Correa
The distribution of Hematobia irritans is not homogeneous in cattle populations. Generally, between 15% and 30% of bovines carry more than 50% of the flies, and higher infestations occur in bulls. In this study, the effect of treating the bulls with ear tags containing 40% diazinon on the infestation of flies on the herd during the breeding season was evaluated. Four groups of cattle were made, each containing one bull and 35 Braford cows. Groups 1 and 2 were on pastures in highlands. Groups 3 and 4 were on pastures in lowlands...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Bashir Salim, Kyoko Hayashida, Ehab Mossaad, Ryo Nakao, Junya Yamagishi, Chihiro Sugimoto
Non-tsetse transmitted Trypanosoma evansi infection (Surra) is one of the most important diseases of camels in north and east Africa and of buffalo and cattle in Asia. Early, accurate and feasible diagnosis is a crucial step towards the control of Surra. Dry format of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) diagnostics for the detection of T. evansi was developed, where the detection limit was determined as to equivalent to one parasite per reaction. The assay was validated by testing blood from 48 camels clinically diagnosed to have Surra, which all tested negative microscopically and revealed 43 (89...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Natalia M Cardillo, Mariano Ercole, Fernando Fariña, Mariana Pasqualetti, Yanina Loiza, Matías Pérez, Ayelén Bonboni, Mabel Ribicich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Daisy Woellner Santos, Luis Manuel Madeira de Carvalho, Marcelo Beltrão Molento
Cyathostomins comprise around 50 parasite species of equids, offering a great challenge regarding their individual identification. The objective of our work was to improve identification of infective third stage larvae (L3) with a morphological key supplemented with detailed scientific illustrations based on our research and available literature. The highlighted features were; the number, arrangement, and shape of intestinal cells (IC), general features and the total body length of the eight different Cyathostomin sensu latum types (Type A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H), Gyalocephalus capitatus, and Posteriostomum spp...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Jamie K Norris, Ashley E Steuer, Holli S Gravatte, Paul Slusarewicz, Jennifer L Bellaw, Jessica A Scare, Martin K Nielsen
Given the ever-increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites globally, it is recommended to use parasite fecal egg counts to make treatment decisions and to evaluate treatment efficacy. The consensus in equine parasitology is to use a flotation medium with a specific gravity (SG) of ≥ 1.20 to float the main parasite egg types of interest in egg counting techniques. However, the density of common equine endoparasite eggs has been sparsely investigated. Equine tapeworm eggs are known to be particularly difficult to determine and count in fecal samples...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
F Ibarra-Velarde, Y Vera-Montenegro, M Flores-Ramos, G J Cantó-Alarcon, A Hernández-Campos, Yazmin Alcala-Canto, R Castillo
The effective dose of an injectable prodrug, named compound alpha prodrug, against immature and adult Fasciola hepatica in experimentally infected sheep was determined. In a first experiment, 30 sheep were infected with Fasciola hepatica on day 0 and 50. After microscopic detection of faecal eggs on day 80, groups (n = 6) 1 to 3 were treated with 6, 8 and 10 mg/kg of the experimental water-soluble prodrug compound alpha intramuscularly, respectively. Group 4 was treated with closantel and group 5 remained untreated...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Caroline Jacobson, Khalid Al-Habsi, Una Ryan, Andrew Williams, Fiona Anderson, Rongchang Yang, Sam Abraham, David Miller
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common parasites of ruminant livestock worldwide. These parasites are associated with diarrhoea outbreaks in young goats (pre-weaning), but the impacts on health and productivity for older goats (post-weaning) are not well understood. Here we show Cryptosporidium faecal shedding is associated with reduced growth and diarrhoea in goats aged approximately 9-15 months. Goats were sampled four times at one-month intervals. Faecal shedding for a range of pathogens were determined using quantitative PCR and sequencing (Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Eimeria, Salmonella, Campylobacter), and microscopy (trichostrongylid nematode worm egg count and Entamoeba)...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
P Defauw, S Daminet, A L Leisewitz, A Goddard, D Paepe, L Duchateau, J P Schoeman
The occurrence of acute kidney injury in canine babesiosis is not well documented. Furthermore, interpretation of urine specific gravity (USG) to assess renal concentrating ability is hampered by the frequent presence of hemoglobinuria in this disease. This cross-sectional study aimed to test the hypothesis that renal azotemia (RA) is underdiagnosed according to current canine babesiosis literature by determining its occurrence at presentation, using urine osmolality instead of USG to measure urinary concentration...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Zhenchao Zhang, Yuhua Li, Yuanyuan Liang, Shuai Wang, Qing Xie, Xiaoxu Nan, Pengju Li, Gaigai Hong, Qingqing Liu, Xiangrui Li
Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry proteins (TgROPs) have been considered the main targets and indicator molecules for immune diagnosis and prophylaxis because they present during the initial process of invasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a TgROP35 DNA vaccine on experimental mice subjected to T. gondii challenge. The effect of intramuscularly injecting the genetic vaccine pVAX-ROP35 into BALB/c mice was evaluated, by first inserting the TgROP35 sequence into the pVAX I eukaryotic expression vector...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Tatiane Novato, Geovany Amorim Gomes, Viviane Zeringóta, Cristiane Teixeira Franco, Débora Ramos de Oliveira, Diego Melo, Mário Geraldo de Carvalho, Erik Daemon, Caio Márcio de Oliveira Monteiro
This study reports the comparative evaluation of the activity of carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and their respective acetylated derivatives (carvacrol acetate, thymol acetate and eugenol acetate) on Rhipicephalus microplus, to verify the possible influence of the acetate group. The acetylated derivatives were prepared from reactions of the phenolic compounds with acetic anhydride/pyridine. The formation of the products was confirmed by analysis of hydrogen and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H and 13 C NMR) spectra...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Tauana de Sousa Ferreira, Renata Velôzo Timbó, Thaís T C Minuzzi-Souza, Douglas de Almeida Rocha, Mariana Neiva, Joana de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Paulo Silva de Almeida, Mariana Hecht, Nadjar Nitz, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
Leishmaniases are endemic in Brazil, where Leishmania infantum has been detected in humans, dogs, cats, and phlebotomine vectors. Monitoring synanthropic vector populations is critical for leishmaniasis control-surveillance in such transmission-prone areas. Here, a suite of molecular approaches were used to assess Leishmania infection prevalence and to identify blood-meal sources in a large sample of sand flies collected in anthropic environments of a Leishmania-transmission area in Mato Grosso do Sul State (Rio Verde de Mato Grosso municipality), Central-West Brazil...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Debora Azevedo Borges, Paula de Abreu Moraes, Jaime Dias Cardoso, Priscila Cardim de Oliveira, Anne Marie Yasui, Isabella Maxwell Paulino Fernandes, Monique Moraes Lambert, Thaís Ribeiro Correia, Fabio Barbour Scott
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an insecticidal product in rabbits that combines the neonicotinoid dinotefuran with the pyrethroid permethrin plus the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen. Adult New Zealand rabbits (n = 12) were infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis (50 males and 50 females per rabbit) at days -7, -2, +5, +12 and +19. The control group (n = 6) received no treatment and the treated group (n = 6) received the commercial formulation, indicated for use in dogs, which was applied topically on day 0...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Uri Donnett, Kristina Hubbard, Kimberly Woodruff, Andrea Varela-Stokes
Understanding diagnosis of heartworm disease in the context of animal shelters' needs and expectations is crucial for developing guidelines that specifically address the unique shelter population. Accurate and economical heartworm testing strategies are essential. However, current comprehensive guidelines for the management of heartworm disease in dogs are directed toward client-owned animals and do not address needs of animal shelters and other resource-scarce facilities. Additionally, testing recommendations do not take into account regional and local differences in heartworm prevalence across the United States that occur due to abiotic and biotic factors...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
J Risueño, M Ortuño, P Pérez-Cutillas, E Goyena, C Maia, S Cortes, L Campino, L J Bernal, C Muñoz, I Arcenillas, F J Martínez-Rondán, M Gonzálvez, F Collantes, J Ortiz, C Martínez-Carrasco, E Berriatua
Leishmania infantum infection was investigated in 202 wild carnivores, rodents and lagomorphs in Southeast Spain using a real-time PCR (rtPCR) in skin and organ samples, mostly spleen. Lesions compatible with leishmaniosis were not observed in any of the animals. Prevalence defined as the percentage of rtPCR-positive animals was 32% overall, and 45% in foxes (n = 69), 30% in rabbits (n = 80) and stone martens (n = 10), 19% in wood mice (n = 16), 0% in black rats (n = 10) and ranged between 0% and 100% in other minoritarian species including badgers, wild cats, wolves, raccoons, genets and hares...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
A M Becher, D C van Doorn, K Pfister, R M Kaplan, M Reist, M K Nielsen
Experts recommend a change in the control of equine parasites across the world in order to adopt a surveillance-based approach utilizing parasite faecal egg counts (FEC). Several European countries have implemented prescription-only restrictions of anthelmintic usage by law, which is in stark contrast to US, where all anthelmintic products continue to be available over the counter. This study aimed to describe and compare equine parasite control strategies employed in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, US, and Denmark...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
M K Nielsen, M A Branan, A M Wiedenheft, R Digianantonio, J A Scare, J L Bellaw, L P Garber, C A Kopral, A M Phillippi-Taylor, J L Traub-Dargatz
Equine strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing equids across the world. Anthelmintic resistance is widely developed in cyathostomin populations, but very few surveys have evaluated anthelmintic efficacy in equine populations in the United States, and most of these are over 15 years old. The present study was carried out as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring Systems (NAHMS) Equine 2015-2016 study. The aims were to investigate anthelmintic treatment efficacy by means of the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and identify parameters associated with decreased efficacy...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
María Teresa Galán-Puchades, Joan Sanxis-Furió, Jordi Pascual, Rubén Bueno-Marí, Sandra Franco, Víctor Peracho, Tomás Montalvo, Màrius V Fuentes
The brown rat, Rattus norvegicus, with a worldwide distribution, is the most commensal species among synanthropic rodents, since its main habitat, in urban as well as in rural areas, is always linked to humans. Therefore, people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Whereas bacteria and viruses are the best known rat-associated zoonoses in urban environments, the role of brown rats as reservoirs for helminth parasites and the associated risk for humans are less well known...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Yuko Iijima, Naoyuki Itoh, Yoichi Ito, Yuya Kimura
Giardia duodenalis is a pathogenic protozoan that causes diarrhea in mammalian hosts including humans and companion animals, and the host specificity differs depending on the genetic assemblages. The purpose of the present study is to perform multilocus genotyping at four loci of G. duodenalis isolates from household cats and pet shop kittens in Japan and evaluate the zoonotic potential. Fifty-seven fecal samples from cats (household cats: 13, pet shop kittens: 44), which were positive for Giardia-specific antigen as determined by an ELISA kit, were the subjects of our analysis...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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