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Veterinary Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773232/risk-factors-associated-with-strongylid-egg-count-prevalence-and-abundance-in-the-united-states-equine-population
#1
M K Nielsen, M A Branan, A M Wiedenheft, R Digianantonio, J A Scare, J L Bellaw, L P Garber, C A Kopral, A M Phillippi-Taylor, J L Traub-Dargatz
Equine strongyle parasites are considered ubiquitous in grazing equids across the world, and cyathostomin parasites are known pathogens causing well-described disease complexes in horses. Decades of intensive anthelmintic treatments have led to anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins, and current recommendations are to lower treatment intensity and base control strategies on fecal egg count surveillance. Little is known about risk factors associated with strongyle parasite egg shedding patterns in the United States equine population, as the most recent national survey was conducted 20 years ago...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773145/pathological-and-molecular-characterization-of-systemic-isosporosis-atoxoplasmosis-in-captive-green-winged-saltator-saltator-similis
#2
Ayisa Rodrigues de Oliveira, Tayse Domingues de Souza, Juliana P S Mol, Mayra Cunha Flecher, Emy Hiura, Renato Lima Santos
Systemic isosporosis, also called atoxoplasmosis or visceral coccidiosis, is a disease that affects birds in general. Pathogenesis of systemic isosporosis and its etiologic agent have not been well characterized, but taxonomically Atoxoplasma is currently considered a junior objective synonym of Isospora. The present report aimed to describe pathological and molecular findings of systemic isosporosis in captive green-winged saltators (Saltator similis) from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. In a commercial breeding facility eleven birds with two to nine months of age died from 2015 to 2016...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773144/introduction-to-special-issue-on-canine-and-feline-vector-borne-diseases-and-relative-parasitic-zoonoses-current-status-across-europe-esccap
#3
EDITORIAL
Miró Guadalupe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773143/sex-and-vaccination-insights-from-female-rats-vaccinated-with-juvenile-specific-proteases-from-fasciola-hepatica
#4
Agnieszka Wesołowska, Katarzyna Basałaj, Luke J Norbury, Alicja Sielicka, Halina Wędrychowicz, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak
Most animal research is less evidence-based for females, with the majority of studies conducted on males. Since immune responses vary between males and females, sexual dimorphism in immunity contributes, among other things, to sex-based differences post-vaccination. However, the issue of sex effects in animal vaccine research is rarely considered in vaccine study design. Previously, we have evaluated the efficacy of cathepsin L3 (FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2) and B3 proteases (FhCB3) from juvenile Fasciola hepatica as vaccines against fasciolosis in male rats...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773142/a-climate-driven-model-for-the-dynamics-of-the-free-living-stages-of-cooperia-oncophora
#5
Christian W Sauermann, Dave M Leathwick
Experimental results and published literature data regarding the development, survival and herbage translocation of Cooperia oncophora larvae were used to develop a climate-driven model to simulate the dynamics of the free-living stages. From daily maximum and minimum temperature the model estimated hourly development and survival rates of the pre-infective stages and daily survival of infective third stage larvae (L3) inside the faecal pat and in the herbage. In addition, daily rainfall data were used to calculate the translocation rate of the L3 from the faecal pat into the herbage...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773141/the-application-of-the-hyper-fluorescent-sensor-in-the-real-time-detection-of-h-2-o-2-in-babesia-bovis-merozoites-in-vitro
#6
Masahito Asada, Hassan Hakimi, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu
In recent years, genetically encoded fluorescent probes have allowed a dramatic advancement in time-lapse imaging, enabling this imaging modality to be used to investigate intracellular events in several apicomplexan parasite species. In this study, we constructed a plasmid vector to stably express a genetically encoded H2 O2 sensor probe called HyPer in Babesia bovis. The HyPer-transfected parasite population was successfully developed and subjected to a time-lapse imaging analysis under in vitro culture conditions...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773140/first-ocular-report-of-gurltia-paralysans-wolffh%C3%A3-gel-1933-in-cat
#7
Raquel Udiz-Rodríguez, Katherine Garcia-Livia, Maria Valladares-Salmerón, Maria Naira Dorta-Almenar, Natalia Martín-Carrillo, Aaron Martin-Alonso, Elena Izquierdo-Rodriguez, Carlos Feliu, Basilio Valladares, Pilar Foronda
A two-year-old cat from Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain), presented with two months history of uveitis in the left eye. It had been treated for two months but still showed an active uveitis. After new treatment, eye examination showed a mobile worm in the anterior chamber. Following surgical removal, the worm was obtained. Morphological study revealed that it was a male metastrongyloid nematode (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) with caudal bursa and two similar spicules. Molecular tools based on the 18Sr RNA gene sequence identified the parasite as Gurltia paralysans, which is a neurotropic nematode previously found in South America...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773139/systemic-humoral-immunity-in-beef-bulls-following-therapeutic-vaccination-against-tritrichomonas-foetus
#8
Christopher Alling, D Owen Rae, Xiaojie Ma, Laura Neumann, L Gene Lollis, Elizabeth Steele, John Yelvington, Hemant K Naikare, Heather Stockdale Walden, John Crews, Raoul Boughton
The utility of therapeutic vaccination of bulls against Tritrichomonas foetus has been advocated in previous studies, but anecdotal reports suggest this practice does not clear infections and may additionally confound diagnostic testing by reducing parasite burdens below detectable limits. The objective of this study was to characterize the systemic humoral immune response to therapeutic vaccination in T. foetus-infected bulls over a period of four months using an indirect ELISA and to compare the dynamics of this response to culture and PCR results to establish the existence of a relationship (or lack thereof) between immunization and infection status...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773138/multiplex-hydrolysis-probe-assay-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-theileria-equi-and-babesia-caballi-infections-in-equids
#9
Raksha V Bhoora, Ronel Pienaar, Frances Cornelius, Antoinette Josemans, Olivier Matthee, Ratselane Marumo, Christo Troskie, Ben J Mans
Quantitative real-time PCR assays previously developed for the detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, were combined in a single multiplex TaqMan qPCR platform for the simultaneous detection of both heamoprotozoan parasites in equids. The multiplex equine piroplasmosis (M-EP) qPCR assay was shown to be efficient and specific. The detection limit was determined to be 1.4 × 10-4 % parasitized erythrocytes (PE) for T. equi and 2.8 × 10-4 % PE for B. caballi. The effect of differential DNA concentrations on the outcome of the M-EP qPCR for each target species was also investigated...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773137/microsatellite-pattern-analysis-of-neospora-caninum-from-a-naturally-infected-goat-fetus
#10
Lucía María Campero, María Laura Gos, Dadin Prando Moore, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Juan Manuel Unzaga, Gastón Moré, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, María Cecilia Venturini
Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan responsible for abortion in ruminants. The present study aimed to diagnose an abortion from an Anglo Nubian goat from a dairy herd located in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The goat delivered a fetus of approximately 3 months gestation that was studied by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), Immunoblot (IB), histopathology (HP), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular assays (PCR, sequencing and microsatellite genotyping). Interferon gamma knock-out mice were inoculated with a pool of tissues for isolation attempts...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773136/molecular-characterization-of-echinococcus-species-in-dogs-from-four-regions-of-kenya
#11
Erastus Mulinge, Japhet Magambo, David Odongo, Sammy Njenga, Eberhard Zeyhle, Cecilia Mbae, Dorothy Kagendo, Francis Addy, Dennis Ebi, Marion Wassermann, Peter Kern, Thomas Romig
Cystic echinococcosis is endemic both in livestock and humans in many parts of Kenya. However, very little data exists on Echinococcus infections in dogs, and therefore their role in maintaining the transmission cycles and environmental contamination with eggs of Echinococcus species is unknown. The study aimed to establish the prevalence and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato causing infection in dogs in Kenya. A total of 1621 dog faecal samples were collected from the environment in four different regions and examined microscopically for the presence of taeniid eggs...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773135/discrimination-molecular-characterisation-and-phylogenetic-comparison-of-porcine-eimeria-spp-in-india
#12
Devina Sharma, Nirbhay K Singh, Harkirat Singh, Anja Joachim, Shitanshu S Rath, Damer P Blake
Infections with Eimeria spp. are common in pigs worldwide, occasionally affecting animals clinically after weaning or during the fattening period when diarrhoea and weight loss can be observed upon infection with the more pathogenic species. Molecular characterization of pathogens is valuable to accurately delimit species and development novel diagnostics, although sequences which define Eimeria species that infect pigs are scarce. Only three of the eight common species are currently represented in GenBank...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773134/developmental-capacity-of-ascaridia-galli-eggs-is-preserved-after-anaerobic-storage-in-faeces
#13
B Tarbiat, S Rahimian, D S Jansson, P Halvarsson, J Höglund
The reliability of the results of in vitro studies such as detection of anthelmintic resistance often depends on the ability of the parasite eggs to develop under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the embryonation capability of the chicken roundworm Ascaridia galli eggs after storage under different conditions. Two storage media for parasite eggs were used; faeces or water. Eggs in petri dishes (90 dishes in total) containing faces or water media were first exposed either to aerobic or anaerobic conditions at different temperatures (4 °C /+O2 , 4 °C /-O2 , 25 °C/-O2 ) for a maximum of 72 days...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773133/evaluation-of-tritrichomonas-foetus-infection-clearance-in-heifers-immunized-with-a-single-intravaginal-dose-of-formaldehyde-fixed-strain-b1-cells
#14
Florencia Gracia Martinez, Lumila Fuchs, Rosana Ramirez, Javier Breccia, Jorge Oyhenart
Vaccines against Tritrichomonas foetus have been shown to reduce the time of infection after natural or experimental exposure. The object of this study was to assess the protection against T. foetus infection conferred by a single vaginal instillation of formaldehyde fixed T. foetus cells. Aberdeen Angus virgin heifers were randomly allocated to 3 groups of 12 individuals to receive placebo or formaldehyde fixed T. foetus cells prepared following one of two procedures (formalin or freshly prepared solution) and six weeks later they were challenged with 106 T...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773132/leishmania-in-wolves-in-northern-spain-a-spreading-zoonosis-evidenced-by-wildlife-sanitary-surveillance
#15
Alvaro Oleaga, Stefania Zanet, Alberto Espí, Marcia Raquel Pegoraro de Macedo, Christian Gortázar, Ezio Ferroglio
Leishmaniosis is, to date, considered the second most important emerging vector-borne protozoal disease in the world after malaria. The form of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis found in the Mediterranean basin is caused by Leishmania infantum, and its life cycle includes the domestic dog and a phlebotomine sandfly vector. This complex epidemiological cycle and its high prevalence of subclinical infection, hinder the surveillance and control of L. infantum, and allows it to go unnoticed at the geographical endemicity limits of the parasite or in recently colonized areas...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773131/acute-phase-proteins-interleukin-6-tumor-necrosis-factor-nitric-oxide-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-horses-with-cutaneous-habronemosis-under-field-condition
#16
W El-Deeb, O Iacob, M Fayez, M Elgioushy, T Shawaf, A Ibrahim
Habronemosis is a common parasitic disease of horses worldwide. In order to investigate how haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α), varies in cutaneous habronemosis, 30 horses with the clinical disease and 20 clinically healthy horses were included in the current study. The serum levels of Hp, SAA, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in horses before and after two weeks of treatment...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773130/identification-of-emu-tegp11-an-ef-hand-domain-containing-tegumental-protein-of-echinococcus-multilocularis
#17
Yadong Zheng, Xiaola Guo, Meng Su, Xiaoqian Chen, Xiaoliang Jin, Juntao Ding, Zhengrong Wang, Xinwen Bo, Mazhar Ayaz, Ivan Kutyrev, Wanzhong Jia, Xichen Zhang, Jing Zhang
Tegumental proteins (TegPs) are a group of proteins that coat on the surface of worms, mainly being involved in ion uptake and immune evasion. Echinococcus species have many TegPs, but none of them have been characterized and their role remains unclear. The genome-wide analysis revealed that there were at least 14 tegp genes (tegp1 - 14) in Echinococcus species, the majority of which were found to contain an EF-hand domain or a dynein light chain-like domain or both. Despite low identity, all TegP11 proteins from 25 flatworms were conserved in structure...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773129/in-vitro-acaricide-and-anticholinesterase-activities-of-digitaria-insularis-poaceae-against-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus
#18
Francianne Oliveira Santos, Hélimar Gonçalves Lima, Soraia de Souza Santa Rosa, Nayana Borges das Mercês, Taiane Menezes Serra, Rosângela Soares Uzeda, Isabella Mary Alves Reis, Mariana Borges Botura, Alexsandro Branco, Maria José Moreira Batatinha
Medicinal plants have been proposed as an alternative for acaricide control, aiming to develop lower-cost and eco-friendly ectoparasiticide products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the extracts and fractions obtained from the leaves of Digitaria insularis on the reproductive efficacy of the bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Also, we investigated the possible relation with the anticholinesterase mechanism. The effect of the crude hydroethanolic (CH), hexanic (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), butanolic (BT) and residual hydroethanolic (RH) extracts, as well as four fractions of HE, were evaluated using adult immersion test...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773128/time-and-dose-dependent-development-of-humoral-immune-responses-to-ascaridia-galli-in-experimentally-and-naturally-infected-chickens
#19
Gürbüz Daş, Mark Hennies, Armin Tuchscherer, Matthias Gauly
Factors affecting the development of Ascaridia galli-specific humoral responses and their protective roles are largely unknown. We investigated the effects of time and infection dose on A. galli-specific IgY antibody levels following experimental infection. The acquisition and development of new infections and reinfections were also monitored by using tracer birds. Relationships between the retrospective IgY and the final worm burden of the birds were investigated to determine whether humoral immune responses generated during infection provide protection to the host animal...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773127/taeniid-metacestodes-in-rangeland-goats-in-australia
#20
D J Jenkins, B Cowled, V Brookes
Data on several infections of sheep and goats, including parasite infections, are routinely collected during inspection of harvested rangeland goats after slaughter. This is an important role of the Australian National Sheep Health Monitoring Program (NSHMP). Our study investigated the presence of metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena, T. ovis and Echinococcus granulosus in slaughtered goats from Queensland, New South Wales and Western Australia. During the period of the study (2007-2013) 374,580 goats were slaughtered and inspected by trained abattoir meat inspectors as part of the NSHMP...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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