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Veterinary Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329629/estimates-of-repeatability-and-correlations-of-hemoparasites-infection-levels-for-cattle-reared-in-endemic-areas-for-rhipicephalus-microplus
#1
Rodrigo Giglioti, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Talita Barban Bilhassi, Amanda Izeli Portilho, Cintia Hiromi Okino, Cintia Righetti Marcondes, Marcia Cristina de Sena Oliveira
Rhipicephalus microplus is a vector of cattle tick fever, a disease caused by the protozoans Babesia bovisand B. bigemina, and also anaplasmosis, produced by the Rickettsiales Anaplasma marginale. These tick-borne pathogens cause considerable losses to Brazilian livestock breeders and represent an obstacle to the expanded use of taurine breeds due to their higher sensitivity to ticks and hemoparasites compared to zebu breeds. Differences in the susceptibility to hemoparasites were also verified within breeds, suggesting that may be possible to select a most resistant phenotype...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329628/spirocerca-lupi-induced-oesophageal-neoplasia-predictors-of-surgical-outcome
#2
Paolo Pazzi, Anastasia Kavkovsky, Anna Shipov, Gilad Segev, Eran Dvir
Canine spirocercosis is caused by the nematode Spirocerca lupi. Migration results in oesophageal fibro-inflammatory nodules that may undergo neoplastic transformation. No studies have assessed pre- or post-surgical prognostic indicators in dogs that undergo intervention for S. lupi induced oesophageal neoplasia. This observational, multi-center study aimed to assess the outcome of dogs with Spirocerca induced sarcoma undergoing endoscopic-guided ablation (n = 12) or surgery (n = 18), and identify prognostic indicators...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329627/comparative-efficacy-of-curcumin-and-paromomycin-against-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-in-a-balb-c-model
#3
Mohammad Asadpour, Fatemeh Namazi, Seyed Mostafa Razavi, Saeed Nazifi
Cryptosporidium is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite causing gastrointestinal disorder in various hosts worldwide. The disease is self-limiting in the immunocompetent but life-threatening in immunodeficient individuals. Investigations to find an effective drug for the complete elimination of the Cryptosporidium infection are ongoing and urgently needed. The current study was undertaken to examine the anti-cryptosporidial efficacy of curcumin in experimentally infected mice compared with that of paromomycin. Oocysts were isolated from a pre-weaned dairy calf and identified as Cryptosporidium parvum using a nested- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on Small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene and sequencing analysis...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329626/applicability-of-flotac%C3%A2-technique-in-recovering-equine-strongyle-larvae-in-the-pasture-a-comparison-study
#4
Ingrid Carla do Nascimento Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento Ramos, Victor Fernando de Santana Lima, Alessio Giannelli, Irma Yaneth Torres López, Leucio Câmara Alves
The FLOTAC® technique represents a highly sensitive method for the isolation of oocysts, eggs, and larvae of parasites in faeces. This assay could be used for detecting free-living stages of nematodes in the pasture but no attempt has been assessed so far. Therefore, the performance of FLOTAC® technique for isolating infective larvae of nematodes in the environment was investigated and compared with the spontaneous sedimentation (SST) and centrifugal sedimentation (CST) techniques. The study was conducted in a horse farm located in northeastern Brazil, where the occurrence of strongyle larvae had been previously reported...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329625/immune-development-and-performance-characteristics-of-romney-sheep-selected-for-either-resistance-or-resilience-to-gastrointestinal-nematodes
#5
A W Greer, J L McKenzie, R W McAnulty, J F Huntley, T N McNeilly
Immunological and performance characteristics were explored in Romney sheep from lines selected for either resistance or resilience to parasite infection. At a mean 78 days-of-age, twin lambs from a line selected for resistance (RT) and lambs from a line selected for resilience (RL) were infected with the intestinal nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis for 100 days (I) while their twin remained as an uninfected control (C). Compared with RL, RT animals had lower levels of circulating CD4+ T-cells (P = 0...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329624/apparent-prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-infection-with-ostertagia-ostertagi-fasciola-hepatica-and-dictyocaulus-viviparus-in-swiss-dairy-herds
#6
C F Frey, R Eicher, K Raue, C Strube, M Bodmer, B Hentrich, B Gottstein, N Marreros
Infections with helminth parasites can negatively affect performance of dairy cows. Knowledge on infection intensity, spatial distributions and risk factors are key to develop targeted treatment strategies. Canada and most EU countries have conducted large investigations, but respective data for Switzerland were missing. We now performed a bulk tank milk serosurvey for Ostertagia ostertagi, Fasciola hepatica, and Dictyocaulus viviparus on a total of 1036 voluntarily participating dairy herds that were sampled at confinement periods, i...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329623/parasite-control-strategies-used-by-equine-owners-in-the-united-states-a-national-survey
#7
M K Nielsen, M A Branan, A M Wiedenheft, R Digianantonio, L P Garber, C A Kopral, A M Phillippi-Taylor, J L Traub-Dargatz
The widespread occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites across the world has led to recommendations of fecal egg count-based parasite programs to reduce treatment intensity and thereby delay further development of resistance as much as possible. The most recent study describing equine parasite control in the United States was conducted 20 years ago, and little is known about current strategies employed. This study was part of the National Animal Health Monitoring Systems (NAHMS) Equine 2015 Study, and aimed to describe equine parasite control strategies in the U...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329622/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-cattle-and-sheep-from-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-area-qtpa-northwestern-china
#8
Yingna Jian, Xueyong Zhang, Xiuping Li, Gabriele Karanis, Liqing Ma, Panagiotis Karanis
Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan parasite with a wide range of hosts, including humans, livestock and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of G. duodenalis infections among cattle and sheep in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Area (QTPA) and to assess the potential risk of the zoonotic transmission of this pathogen. A total of 454 stool specimens were collected and examined using the nested PCR method based on the G. duodenalis SSUrRNA gene fragment. Thirty-nine out of 389 cattle specimens examined were positive (10%) for the G...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329621/first-parasitological-histopathological-and-molecular-characterization-of-echinococcus-vogeli-rausch-and-bernstein-1972-from-cuniculus-paca-linnaeus-1766-in-the-cerrado-biome-mato-grosso-do-sul-brazil
#9
Fernanda Bittencourt-Oliveira, Paulo Teixeira, Alba Alencar, Rodrigo Menezes, Christiane Corrêa, Leandro Neves, Fernanda Almeida, Daniel Daipert-Garcia, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Rosângela Rodrigues-Silva
Polycystic echinococcosis (PE) is caused by Echinococcus vogeli metacestodes (larval stage) in Neotropical countries. E. vogeli is trophically-transmitted between predators bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) and prey pacas (Cuniculus paca). In Brazil, reported PE cases are restricted to the Amazon biome. In this study, metacestodes from a paca hunted in Mato Grosso do Sul state (Cerrado biome) were identified morphological and histopathological techniques and further confirmed by molecular testing (sequencing of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene) for the first time...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329620/determination-and-validation-of-discriminating-concentration-of-ivermectin-against-rhipicephalus-microplus
#10
Abhijit Nandi, Sharath V Sagar, Gajanan Chigure, Ashutosh Fular, Anil Kumar Sharma, Gaurav Nagar, Sachin Kumar, B C Saravanan, Srikant Ghosh
Rhipicephalus microplus, the major cattle tick species of India is prevalent all over the country and causes huge economic loss directly or indirectly to the dairy industries. Chemical acaricides are playing an important role in managing tick infestations on livestock for many years and consequently, resistance to commonly used organophosphate (OP) and synthetic pyrethroid (SP) compounds has been reported. Subsequently, ivermectin (IVM) has been emerged as an alternative to manage OP and SP resistant ticks...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329619/hepatic-fibropoiesis-in-dogs-naturally-infected-with-leishmania-leishmania-infantum-treated-with-liposome-encapsulated-meglumine-antimoniate-and-allopurinol
#11
R S Castro, I F G de Amorim, R A Pereira, S M Silva, L J Pinheiro, A J W Pinto, E G Azevedo, C Demicheli, M M V Caliari, D M Mosser, M S M Michalick, Frédéric J G Frezard, Wagner L Tafuri
Hepatic fibropoiesis in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) were evaluated by histological (morphometrical collagen deposition) and immunohistochemical assays characterizing alpha-actin (α-SMA), vimentin, calprotectin (L1 antigen), and TGF-β in 46 naturally infected dogs with Leishmania infantum treated with liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol separately and in combination. Six treatment groups were defined: meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in nanometric liposomes (LMA), allopurinol (ALLOP); liposome-encapsulated meglumine antomoniate combined with allopurinol (LMA+ALLOP); empty liposomes (LEMP); empty liposomes combined with allopurinol (LEMP+ALLOP) and saline...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329618/vaccination-against-fasciola-hepatica-using-cathepsin-l3-and-b3-proteases-delivered-alone-or-in-combination
#12
Agnieszka Wesołowska, Katarzyna Basałaj, Luke J Norbury, Alicja Sielicka, Halina Wędrychowicz, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak
No licensed vaccine is currently available for prevention of Fasciola hepatica infections. However, considering the alarming increase in drug resistance, there is an urgent need for a safe and fully effective vaccine against fasciolosis. Here, we tested if cathepsins L (FhCL3-1, FhCL3-2) and B (FhCB3) secreted by juvenile liver flukes are viable vaccine targets when delivered alone or in combination in a rat model. Since control over the early immune response is crucial for parasite's establishment in its host, it was hypothesised that targeting fluke juvenile stages may prove beneficial...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329617/dna-detection-of-trypanosoma-evansi-diagnostic-validity-of-a-new-assay-based-on-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp
#13
Qunbo Tong, Rui Chen, Qingming Kong, Julie Goossens, Magdalena Radwanska, Di Lou, Jianzu Ding, Bin Zheng, Yixiu Fu, Tianping Wang, Magez Stefan, Shaohong Lu
Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is the most widely spread pathogenic trypanosome in the world. The control of trypanosomiasis depends on accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. Focusing on the presence of T. evansi in Asia, we developed a detection assay based on tracing phosphate ions (Pi) generated during LAMP targeting the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene of Rode Trypanozoon antigenic type 1.2 (RoTat 1.2 VSG). The diagnostic potential as well as the use of the assay as a test-of-cure method after berenil treatment, was assessed in mice at different time points of infection...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279094/entamoeba-histolytica-infection-in-wild-lemurs-associated-with-proximity-to-humans
#14
Leo J Ragazzo, Sarah Zohdy, Mamitiana Velonabison, James Herrera, Patricia C Wright, Thomas R Gillespie
Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, affects 50 million people worldwide, and results in 100,000 deaths annually. It is particularly prevalent in developing nations where poverty and poor sanitation contribute to contamination of food and water. E. histolytica is also a zoonotic protozoan parasite with the potential to infect non-human primates. Lemurs, primates endemic to Madagascar, are the most threatened mammalian group in the world due to habitat loss. As forests disappear, humans and lemurs come into more frequent contact, and the potential for E...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279093/synergic-in-vitro-combinations-of-artemisinin-pyrimethamine-and-methylene-blue-against-neospora-caninum
#15
Luiz Miguel Pereira, Gabriela de Luca, Nathália de Lima Martins Abichabki, Cássia Mariana Bronzon da Costa, Ana Patrícia Yatsuda
Neospora caninum is a member of Apicomplexa phylum, the causative agent of neosporosis. The neosporosis combat is not well established and several strategies related to vaccine, chemotherapy and immune modulation are under development. In this work, we evaluated the effects of artemisinin (Art), methylene blue (MB) and pyrimethamine (Pyr) alone or associated, on N. caninum proliferation and elimination using LacZ tagged tachyzoites. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after incubation with Art were also performed...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279092/weight-gain-and-resistance-to-gastrointestinal-nematode-infections-in-two-genetically-diverse-groups-of-cattle
#16
Johan Höglund, Anna Hessle, Konstantinos Zaralis, Katarina Arvidsson-Segerkvist, Spiridoula Athanasiadou
Body weight gain (BWG) and gastrointestinal nematode challenge (GIN) were investigated in two genetically diverse groups of cattle. Thirty-two dairy calves (D=Swedish Red/Holstein) and 31 dairy×beef crosses (C=Swedish Red/Holstein×Charolais) pairwise matched by dam breed and birth dates, were monitored for ≈20 weeks on a pasture grazed by cattle in the previous year. At turn-out, animals (between 6 and 12 months age) from each genotype were either infected with 5000 third stage (L3) Ostertagia ostertagi (50%) and Cooperia oncophora (50%) larvae (H, high-exposure); or treated monthly with 0...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279091/molecular-genotyping-of-echinococcus-granulosus-in-the-north-of-iraq
#17
Salam Jumaah Hammad, Serena Cavallero, Giovanni Luigi Milardi, Simona Gabrielli, Stefano D Amelio, Fatima Shihab Al-Nasiri
Cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is an important cosmopolitan zoonotic disease that causes large economic losses and human suffering. The larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus are the etiological agents of cystic echinococcosis that showed different genotypes in different regions in the world. The present study was aimed at the detection of E. granulosus strains circulating in two cities from north of Iraq (Kirkuk and Sulaimania). A total of 47 specimens of hydatid cysts were collected from patients and from different domestic intermediate hosts including cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo from slaughterhouses...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279090/evaluation-of-saccharum-officinarum-l-bagasse-derived-polysaccharides-as-native-immunomodulatory-and-anticoccidial-agents-in-broilers
#18
Mian Muhammad Awais, Masood Akhtar, Muhammad Irfan Anwar, Kashfa Khaliq
Coccidiosis is one of the most important protozoal diseases of the poultry industry, inflicting heavy economic losses in the form of high mortality and morbidity in affected birds. Under these circumstances, the development of nonchemical consumer-friendly strategies for its effective control is of paramount importance. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse-derived polysaccharides as native immunomodulatory and anticoccidial agents in commercial broilers...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279089/neospora-caninum-bioassay-in-gerbils-using-placental-tissues-from-naturally-infected-goats
#19
R C Costa, L P Mesquita, M V L Nunes, I M Oliveira, L F S Oliveira, Alinne R Souza, P C Maiorka, M S Varaschin
Neospora caninum is one of the main agents that causes abortions in cattle worldwide. However, little is known about the pathogenesis of neosporosis in small ruminants, especially goats. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have been used as a model for neosporosis, and this species is highly susceptible to infection by bovine N. caninum strains. The present study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of gerbils to a N. caninum isolate from goats. The placentas were obtained from naturally infected goats, that presented with mild to severe lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic infiltrate, foci of necrosis, calcification and protozoan-like structures...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279088/procyanidin-a2-in-the-australian-plant-alectryon-oleifolius-has-anthelmintic-activity-against-equine-cyathostomins-in-vitro
#20
S E Payne, G R Flematti, A Reeder, A C Kotze, Z Durmic, P E Vercoe
There is a need to investigate new methods of controlling cyathostomins in horses due to increasing anthelmintic resistance amongst these parasites. In a previous study we identified the Australian plant Alectryon oleifolius as having anthelmintic activity towards cyathostomins. This study aimed to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for all or part of this anthelmintic activity and quantify its activity in vitro. The condensed tannin procyanidin A2 was isolated from the plant through a process of bioassay guided fractionation and identified using 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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