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General Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11922965/endothelium-dependent-vasorelaxant-and-antiproliferative-effects-of-apigenin
#1
Y H Zhang, Y S Park, T J Kim, L H Fang, H Y Ahn, J T Hong, Y Kim, C K Lee, Y P Yun
This study was designed to determine whether the relaxant effect of apigenin was endothelium dependent and to examine the possible antiproliferative effect of apigenin. Apigenin relaxed the phenylephrine-precontracted endothelium-intact aortic rings with IC(50) value of 3.7+/-0.5 microM and removal of a functional endothelium significantly attenuated this relaxation (IC(50)=8.2+/-0.9 microM). However, apigenin did not affect the 0.1 microM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-induced contraction (IC(50)=34.6+/-1.2 microM) within the concentration range that relaxed the phenylephrine-contracted arteries, suggesting that apigenin did not influence protein kinase C-mediated contractile mechanisms in rat aorta...
December 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11922964/reversal-of-hypercapnia-induces-endothelin-dependent-constriction-of-basilar-artery-in-rabbits-with-acute-metabolic-alkalosis
#2
S H Yoon, M Zuccarello, R M Rapoport
We recently concluded that constriction of basilar artery due to respiration-induced hypocapnia in rabbits with acute metabolic alkalosis and accompanying compensatory hypercapnia was independent of NO and K(ATP) channels. Based on reports that endothelin-1-mediated hypocapnic constriction of the rabbit basilar artery in vitro, we further investigated whether the respiration-induced hypocapnic constriction was endothelin-1 mediated. Metabolic alkalosis was induced acutely following ketamine/xylazine injection...
December 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11922963/reversal-of-hypercapnia-induces-katp-channel-and-no-independent-constriction-of-basilar-artery-in-rabbits-with-acute-metabolic-alkalosis
#3
S H Yoon, M Zuccarello, R M Rapoport
The mechanism of hypocapnic constriction of the cerebral vasculature under conditions of altered acid-base balance has not been investigated. As K(ATP) channels and NO have been implicated in hypocapnic constriction, this study investigated their roles in the constriction due to lowered pCO(2) in hypercapnic rabbits with acute metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was induced acutely following ketamine/xylazine injection. Lowering blood pCO(2) from initial baseline hypercapnic levels to near normocapnic and hypocapnic levels constricted basilar artery by 10...
December 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11922962/contractile-responses-in-spontaneously-diabetic-mice-ii-effect-of-cholestyramine-on-enhanced-contractile-response-of-aorta-to-norepinephrine-in-c57bl-ksj-db-db-mice
#4
N Kanie, K Kamata
To examine the possible role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the enhanced norepinephrine (NE)-induced contractile response seen in spontaneously diabetic mice (db/db mice), we examined the effect of chronic administration of cholestyramine on the NE-induced contraction. Although chronic cholestyramine (300 mg/kg, po for 1 month) significantly lowered total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride, the plasma glucose and insulin levels were unaffected...
December 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11922961/contractile-responses-in-spontaneously-diabetic-mice-i-involvement-of-superoxide-anion-in-enhanced-contractile-response-of-aorta-to-norepinephrine-in-c57bl-ksj-db-db-mice
#5
N Kanie, K Kamata
This study investigated the influence of superoxide anion on the norepinephrine (NE)-induced contractile response in spontaneously diabetic mice. In aortic rings with intact endothelium, NE elicited only a slight increase in tension in nondiabetic mice (db/+M), but a much greater dose-dependent contraction in spontaneously diabetic mice (db/db mice). The NE-induced contractile response was significantly reduced by pretreatment with SOD (180 U/ml) in diabetic mice, but not in control mice. The NE-induced contraction was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, 10(-3) M), a Cu/Zn SOD inhibitor, in control mice, but not in diabetic mice...
December 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11922960/investigation-of-basal-endothelial-function-in-the-obese-zucker-rat-in-vitro
#6
D W Laight, E E AnggÄrd, M J Carrier
(a) We studied basal endothelial function in the insulin-resistant, obese Zucker rat, including the influence of superoxide anion on the regulation of contractile reactivity by nitric oxide (NO), following treatment in vivo with the antioxidant tiron or the pro-oxidant combination hydroquinone+buthionine sulfoximine. (b) The leftward shift in the contractile potency of phenylephrine due to NO synthase inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was greater in the isolated aorta of the obese Zucker rat relative to its insulin-sensitive littermate, the lean Zucker rat...
December 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11922959/responses-of-isolated-perfused-uterine-vascular-beds-of-nonpregnant-and-pregnant-rats-to-endogenous-and-exogenous-nitric-oxide
#7
E E Fulep, Y P Vedernikov, G R Saade, R E Garfield
The responses to endothelial vasodilators and exogenous nitric oxide (NO) were characterized in intact isolated uterine vascular beds of nonpregnant, midpregnant and late-pregnant rats perfused with Kreb's buffer (37 degrees C, 5% CO(2) in air, pH approximately 7.4) containing 2% dextran and indomethacin. Phenylephrine increased perfusion pressure in the vascular beds equally in all three groups. In the presence of phenylephrine, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly augmented perfusion pressure in the order: nonpregnant<midpregnant<late-pregnant uterine vascular bed...
December 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11922958/bisphosphonates-and-atherosclerosis
#8
REVIEW
R Ylitalo
Bisphosphonates are used for the treatment of bone resorption, hypercalcemia, osteoporosis and Paget's disease. Etidronate, pamidronate and clodronate also inhibit the development of experimental atherosclerosis without altering serum lipid profile. Bisphosphonates inhibit the arterial calcification, lipid accumulation and fibrosis. They accumulate extensively in arterial walls and suppress macrophages in atheromatous lesions. In macrophage cultures, bisphosphonates inhibit the cellular accumulation and degradation of atherogenic LDL-cholesterol and foam cell formation...
December 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11888684/effects-of-microenvironmental-extracellular-ph-and-extracellular-matrix-proteins-on-angiostatin-s-activity-and-on-intracellular-ph
#9
M L Wahl, D S Grant
Antiangiogenic agents target migratory and proliferative endothelial cells (EC) in the process of forming new vessels, resulting in growth inhibition or cell death. Here we have shown that the antiangiogenic activity of angiostatin on EC is enhanced in culture when the microenvironmental extracellular pH (pH(e)) is reduced to levels similar to that of many tumors. In a migration/scratch assay and during tube formation, angiostatin in combination with reduced pH(e) synergistically resulted in an increased EC death--an effect not seen with either stimulus individually...
November 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11888683/the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-in-bladder-cancer-in-relation-to-angiogenesis-and-progression
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
L Possati, R Rocchetti, S Talevi, V Beatrici, C Margiotta, L Ferrante, R Calza, D Sagrini, A Ferri
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) immunohistochemical expression was analyzed in 75 human bladder tumor specimens, where the expression of some angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PDECGF), and tumor progression markers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr), p16, mutated p53, and normal pRB, were also analyzed. The results were then compared to the clinical and pathological characteristics of the disease...
November 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11888682/locating-the-active-site-for-angiogenesis-and-cell-proliferation-due-to-fibrin-fragment-e-with-a-phage-epitope-display-library
#11
C M Stirk, A Reid, W T Melvin, W D Thompson
The plasmin-mediated lysis of fibrin present in a wound, or in chronic inflammatory disease, results in the release of fibrin degradation products. One of the two major products is fibrin fragment E, which has been shown to stimulate cell proliferation in many cell types including endothelium, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells, and to be angiogenic in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) system. The activity of fibrin fragment E is dependent on N-terminus thrombin action. Antibodies against fibrin E, which block the cell proliferative activity, were used to locate the active site...
November 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11888681/thrombin-regulates-the-expression-of-proangiogenic-cytokines-via-proteolytic-activation-of-protease-activated-receptor-1
#12
A Naldini, D H Carney, A Pucci, A Pasquali, F Carraro
In addition to its central role in blood coagulation and hemostasis, human alpha-thrombin is a growth factor for a variety of cell types, including monocytes and endothelial cells, involved in the control of angiogenesis. Different cytokines produced by mononuclear cells have been implicated in angiogenic processes associated with tissue repair and certain human malignancies. We have previously shown that thrombin enhances proliferative responses in T lymphocytes. More recently, we reported that interferon-gamma-differentiated monocytes have increased expression of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and increased thrombin binding...
November 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11888680/thrombin-peptide-tp508-stimulates-angiogenic-responses-in-animal-models-of-dermal-wound-healing-in-chick-chorioallantoic-membranes-and-in-cultured-human-aortic-and-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#13
REVIEW
A M Norfleet, J S Bergmann, D H Carney
The alpha-thrombin peptide, TP508, accelerates the healing of full-thickness wounds in both normal and ischemic skin. In wounds treated with TP508, a pattern of increased vascularization is consistently observed both grossly and microscopically when compared to wounds treated with saline. One possible mechanism by which the peptide accelerates wound healing is by promoting revascularization of granulation tissue at the injured site. To evaluate the angiogenic potential of TP508, the peptide was tested in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), where it increased the density and size of CAM blood vessels relative to controls...
November 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11888679/effects-of-thrombin-and-of-the-phospholipase-c-inhibitor-d609-on-the-vascularity-of-the-chick-chorioallantoic-membrane
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
C Dimitropoulou, M E Maragoudakis, M A Konerding
Microvascular corrosion casting was used to assess the effects of thrombin and D609, a phospholipase C inhibitor, on the vascularity of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Discs containing vehicle, thrombin or D609 were placed on the CAM of fertilized white Leghorn eggs on Day 9 of gestation and vascularity was assessed on Day 11. Thrombin caused significant increases in the numbers (43%), diameters (5%) and lengths (17%), of both pre- and postcapillaries (first-order vessels by centripetal ordering)...
November 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11888678/experimental-models-of-growth-factor-mediated-angiogenesis-and-blood-retinal-barrier-breakdown
#15
REVIEW
S A Vinores, M S Seo, N Okamoto, J D Ash, E F Wawrousek, W H Xiao, T Hudish, N L Derevjanik, P A Campochiaro
Following chronic ischemia, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is induced primarily in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. This often results in neovascularization (NV) that originates from the vascular bed closest to the ganglion cell layer. To study the effects of VEGF, independent lines of transgenic mice that express VEGF in the lens and in the retina have been generated. Expression in the lens results in excessive proliferation and accumulation of angioblasts and endothelial cells in proximity to the lens...
November 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11888677/the-discovery-of-angiogenic-factors-a-historical-review
#16
REVIEW
D Ribatti, A Vacca, M Presta
Angiogenesis is a biological process by which new capillaries are formed and it occurs in many physiological and pathological conditions. It is controlled by the net balance between molecules that have positive and negative regulatory activity and this concept had led to the notion of the "angiogenic switch," depending on an increased production of one or more of the positive regulators of angiogenesis. Numerous inducers of angiogenesis have been identified and this review offers a historical account of the relevant literature concerning the discovery of the best-characterized angiogenic factors...
November 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11888676/angiogenesis-in-health-and-disease
#17
EDITORIAL
M E Maragoudakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11827729/influences-of-nonselective-beta-1-selective-and-vasodilatory-beta-1-selective-beta-blockers-on-arterial-pulse-wave-velocity-in-normotensive-subjects
#18
M Kahonen, R Ylitalo, T Koobi, V Turjanmaa, P Ylitalo
beta-Adrenoceptor blockers with disparate properties may have differential influences on arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV). Therefore, influences of single medium doses of bisoprolol, propranolol and celiprolol on PWV were compared in healthy subjects. Arterial PWV was obtained from the time delay between flow pulses measured from the root of the aorta and the popliteal artery. Bisoprolol and propranolol decreased arterial PWV more than placebo (P less-than-or-equal to .002) and celiprolol (P<.0001). In conclusion, the acute effects of bisoprolol and propranolol on arterial PWV in normotensive subjects seem to differ from that of celiprolol...
October 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11827728/quantification-of-pulmonary-capillary-endothelium-bound-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-in-man
#19
A Cziraki, I Horvath, J W Rubin, M Theodorakis, J D Catravas
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II) is an endothelial luminal ectoenzyme expressed abundantly on the pulmonary capillary endothelium and recognized as the site for the conversion of circulating angiotensin I to II. In the present study, we have applied recently developed methodologies for assaying pulmonary capillary endothelium-bound (PCEB) ACE activity in man, to estimate the interaction of an ACE inhibitor (enalaprilat) with PCEB ACE in human subjects. Trace amounts of the specific ACE substrate, 3H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro (3H-BPAP; 40 Ci or 2 nmol), was injected as a bolus into the subclavian vein and immediately blood was withdrawn from a radial arterial catheter...
October 2000: General Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11827727/pentoxifylline-potentiates-nitric-oxide-production-in-interleukin-1beta-stimulated-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-cyclic-amp-dependent-protein-kinase-a-pathway
#20
N Y Kim, H O Pae, Y C Kim, C K Choi, J S Rim, H S Lee, Y M Kim, H T Chung
In the present study, we observed that pentoxifylline (PTX) significantly augmented the nitric oxide (NO) production and the iNOS gene expression by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The enhancing effects of PTX on the IL-1beta-induced NO production was associated with an increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, and the synergistic effects of PTX on the IL-1beta-induced NO production was blocked by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors. PKA inhibitors, KT5720 and H89, markedly decreased the augmented expression of iNOS gene whereas ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, did not affect the enhancing effect...
October 2000: General Pharmacology
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