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Gerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346791/social-and-behavioural-determinants-of-the-difference-in-survival-among-older-adults-in-japan-and-england
#1
Jun Aida, Noriko Cable, Paola Zaninotto, Toru Tsuboya, Georgios Tsakos, Yusuke Matsuyama, Kanade Ito, Ken Osaka, Katsunori Kondo, Michael G Marmot, Richard G Watt
BACKGROUND: A rapidly ageing population presents major challenges to health and social care services. Cross-country comparative studies on survival among older adults are limited. In addition, Japan, the country with the longest life expectancy, is rarely included in these cross-country comparisons. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relative contributions of social and behavioural factors on the differences in survival among older people in Japan and England. METHODS: We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES; n = 13,176) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; n = 5,551) to analyse all-cause mortality up to 9...
January 18, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324453/developmental-origins-of-health-span-and-life-span-a-mini-review
#2
Joshua D Preston, Leryn J Reynolds, Kevin J Pearson
BACKGROUND: A vast body of research has demonstrated that disease susceptibility and offspring health can be influenced by perinatal factors, which include both paternal and maternal behavior and environment. Offspring disease risk has the potential to affect the health span and life span of offspring. KEY FINDINGS: Various maternal factors, such as environmental toxicant exposure, diet, stress, exercise, age at conception, and longevity have the potential to influence age-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer risk in offspring...
January 12, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320772/a-perfect-storm-the-role-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-in-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-mini-review
#3
Candice E Van Skike, Veronica Galvan
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is detected prior to the onset of cognitive and histopathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the initiation and progression of AD. Recent studies identified the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a critical effector of cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD. mTOR has a key role in the regulation of metabolism, but some mTOR-dependent mechanisms are uniquely specific to the regulation of cerebrovascular function...
January 11, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316544/the-impact-of-aging-on-mechanisms-of-mammalian-epimorphic-regeneration
#4
Regina Brunauer, Ken Muneoka
Aging is associated with a significant decline of tissue repair and regeneration, ultimately resulting in tissue dysfunction, multimorbidity, and death. Salamanders possess remarkable regenerative abilities and have been studied with the prospect of inducing regeneration in humans and counteracting regenerative decline with aging. However, epimorphic regeneration, the full replacement of amputated structures, also occurs in mammals. One of the best studied models is digit tip regeneration, which is described for mice, and occurs in humans in a comparable manner...
January 10, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268272/is-social-network-a-protective-factor-for-cognitive-impairment-in-us-chinese-older-adults-findings-from-the-pine-study
#5
Mengting Li, Xinqi Dong
BACKGROUND: Social network has been identified as a protective factor for cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between social network and global and subdomains of cognitive function remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide an analytic framework to examine quantity, composition, and quality of social network and investigate the association between social network, global cognition, and cognitive domains among US Chinese older adults. METHODS: Data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE), a community-engaged, population-based epidemiological study of US Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area, with a sample size of 3,157...
December 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268250/psychometric-properties-of-the-myotonpro-in-dementia-patients-with-paratonia
#6
Hans Drenth, Sytse U Zuidema, Wim P Krijnen, Ivan Bautmans, Cees van der Schans, Hans Hobbelen
BACKGROUND: Paratonia is a distinctive form of hypertonia, causing loss of functional mobility in early stages of dementia to severe high muscle tone and pain in the late stages. For assessing and evaluating therapeutic interventions, objective instruments are required. OBJECTIVE: Determine the psychometric properties of the MyotonPRO, a portable device that objectively measures muscle properties, in dementia patients with paratonia. METHODS: Muscle properties were assessed with the MyotonPRO by 2 assessors within one session and repeated by the main researcher after 30 min and again after 6 months...
December 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232671/predicting-trajectories-of-functional-decline-in-60-to-70-year-old-people
#7
Nini H Jonkman, Vieri Del Panta, Trynke Hoekstra, Marco Colpo, Natasja M van Schoor, Stefania Bandinelli, Luca Cattelani, Jorunn L Helbostad, Beatrix Vereijken, Mirjam Pijnappels, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Early identification of people at risk of functional decline is essential for delivering targeted preventive interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify and predict trajectories of functional decline over 9 years in males and females aged 60-70 years. METHODS: We included 403 community-dwelling participants from the InCHIANTI study and 395 from the LASA study aged 60-70 years at baseline, of whom the majority reported no functional decline at baseline (median 0, interquartile range 0-1)...
December 13, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212073/age-induced-changes-in-white-brite-and-brown-adipose-depots-a-mini-review
#8
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Christian Wolfrum, Marcel Scheideler
Aging is a time-related process of functional decline at organelle, cellular, tissue, and organismal level that ultimately limits life. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent growth arrest in response to stress and one of the major drivers of aging and age-related disorders. Senescent cells accumulate with age, and removal of these cells delays age-related disorders in different tissues and prolongs healthy lifespan. One of the most studied aging mechanisms is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species damage in cells, organs, and organisms over time...
December 7, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212070/aging-and-decision-making-a-conceptual-framework-for-future-research-a-mini-review
#9
Corinna E Löckenhoff
Age differences in decision-making are of theoretical interest and have important practical implications, but relevant lines of work are distributed across multiple disciplines and often lack integration. The present review proposes an overarching conceptual framework with the aim of connecting disjointed aspects of this field of research. The framework builds on process models of decision-making and specifies potential mechanisms behind age effects as well as relevant moderators including task characteristics and contextual factors...
December 7, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207393/how-virtue-was-born
#10
Martin A Nowak, Karl Sigmund
This paper summarizes the Opening Lecture of the European Forum Alpbach 2017 in Tyrol/Austria (https://www.alpbach.org/de/). It deals with the evolution of cooperation throughout the history of life on Earth, and in particular human cooperation based on partnership. It emphasizes the role of institutions providing incentives for cooperation, and the role of praise and blame in guiding our actions. This helps for a better understanding of the social contract, based on evolutionary biology and psychology.
December 6, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190625/mtor-as-regulator-of-lifespan-aging-and-cellular-senescence-a-mini-review
#11
Thomas Weichhart
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) network is an evolutionary conserved signaling hub that senses and integrates environmental and intracellular nutrient and growth factor signals to coordinate basic cellular and organismal responses such as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation depending on the individual cell and tissue. A growing list of evidence suggests that mTOR signaling influences longevity and aging. Inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) with rapamycin is currently the only known pharmacological treatment that increases lifespan in all model organisms studied...
December 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183035/user-oriented-evaluation-of-a-robotic-rollator-that-provides-navigation-assistance-in-frail-older-adults-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#12
Christian Werner, George P Moustris, Costas S Tzafestas, Klaus Hauer
BACKGROUND: Navigational skills decline with age, and this decline is even more pronounced in cognitively impaired (CI) older adults. Navigation assistance is an emerging functionality of robotic rollators (RRs). The evidence on the effectiveness of RR-integrated navigation systems in potential end-users is, however, scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether RR-provided navigation assistance improves navigation within a real-life environment in the intended user group of frail older adults with and without cognitive impairment currently using a rollator in daily life...
November 29, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183010/mild-to-moderate-chronic-kidney-disease-and-geriatric-outcomes-analysis-of-cross-sectional-data-from-the-berlin-aging-study-ii
#13
Maximilian König, Maik Gollasch, Dominik Spira, Nikolaus Buchmann, Werner Hopfenmüller, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Ilja Demuth
BACKGROUND: Mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD G3a) is prevalent in older adults. Substantial evidence suggests that individuals with advanced CKD face a high risk for common geriatric conditions, like functional impairment and cognitive decline, whereas the relationships between mild-to-moderate CKD and functional impairment and cognitive decline, but also poor nutritional status and mood disorders, are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore associations between mild-to-moderate CKD and impairments in the core domains of geriatric assessment (GA) in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults...
November 29, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176316/toward-using-a-smartwatch-to-monitor-frailty-in-a-hospital-setting-using-a-single-wrist-wearable-sensor-to-assess-frailty-in-bedbound-inpatients
#14
Hyoki Lee, Bellal Joseph, Ana Enriquez, Bijan Najafi
BACKGROUND: While various objective tools have been validated for assessing physical frailty in the geriatric population, these are often unsuitable for busy clinics and mobility-impaired patients. Recently, we have developed a frailty meter (FM) using two wearable sensors, which allows capturing key frailty phenotypes (weakness, slowness, and exhaustion), by testing 20-s rapid elbow flexion-extension test. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we proposed an enhanced automated algorithm to identify frailty using a single wrist-worn sensor...
November 25, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166632/how-old-are-you-it-s-on-your-face
#15
Georg Wick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136617/prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-an-implanted-pacemaker-after-80-years-of-age-in-a-4-year-follow-up
#16
Krystyna Krzemień-Wolska, Andrzej Tomasik, Celina Wojciechowska, Karolina Barańska-Pawełczak, Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska, Wojciech Jacheć
BACKGROUND: The controversy over electrotherapy for patients aged >80 years occurs already at the stage of qualification for this treatment type and concerns optimal device selection, the implantation strategy, and the overall benefit from pacemaker therapy. The group also has a considerable number of cardiovascular risk factors, and the data from the literature on the impact of the pacing mode on the remote prognosis of this group are ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the risk factors for death among patients with implanted pacemakers >80 years of age in a 4-year follow-up...
November 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130976/discontinued-information-and-communication-technology-usage-among-older-adults-in-continuing-care-retirement-communities-in-the-united-states
#17
R V Rikard, Ronald W Berkowsky, Shelia R Cotten
BACKGROUND: Older adults are increasingly using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Recent studies show beneficial effects of using ICTs for older adults, particularly in terms of reducing loneliness and depression. However, little is known about the factors that may prevent discontinued ICT use in populations that may be at greater risk, such as those in continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to examine a range of factors that may influence discontinued (1) ICT use, (2) searching for health information, and (3) searching for general information over time among CCRC residents...
November 9, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130977/effects-of-wearable-sensor-based-balance-and-gait-training-on-balance-gait-and-functional-performance-in-healthy-and-patient-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Katharina Gordt, Thomas Gerhardy, Bijan Najafi, Michael Schwenk
BACKGROUND: Wearable sensors (WS) can accurately measure body motion and provide interactive feedback for supporting motor learning. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to summarize current evidence for the effectiveness of WS training for improving balance, gait and functional performance. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using a WS exercise program were included...
November 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065419/cognitive-aging-in-dogs
#19
Durga Chapagain, Friederike Range, Ludwig Huber, Zsófia Virányi
A decline in the physical or mental health of older dogs can be a challenge for the owners, whose relationship with their dog is compromised by the cognitive and behavioral changes in their dogs. Although dog owners tend to consider many physiological and behavioral changes in old dogs as part of the normal aging process, it is important to differentiate between normal aging and pathologic aging, since behavioral changes may be the first indication of declining health and welfare in old dogs. Most reviews on cognitive aging in dogs have focused on translational approaches to human Alzheimer's disease; from a practical perspective, however, understanding normal cognitive aging in pet dogs and screening cognitively affected dogs are important in their own right...
October 25, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055946/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-frailty-among-older-adults-results-from-a-10-year-longitudinal-study-in-the-netherlands
#20
Emiel O Hoogendijk, Martijn W Heymans, Dorly J H Deeg, Martijn Huisman
BACKGROUND: Frailty is an important risk factor for adverse outcomes in older people. Substantial variation in frailty prevalence between socioeconomic groups exists, but longitudinal evidence for the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and frailty is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the course of socioeconomic inequalities in frailty among older adults during 10 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n = 1,509)...
October 21, 2017: Gerontology
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