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Ai Koyanagi, Hans Oh, Davy Vancampfort, Andre F Carvalho, Nicola Veronese, Brendon Stubbs, Elvira Lara
BACKGROUND: Perceived stress may be a modifiable risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and ultimately dementia, but studies on this topic from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between perceived stress and MCI in six LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa) using nationally representative data. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based data on individuals aged ≥50 years from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed...
September 10, 2018: Gerontology
Marina Peball, Philipp Mahlknecht, Mario Werkmann, Kathrin Marini, Franziska Murr, Helga Herzmann, Heike Stockner, Roberto de Marzi, Beatrice Heim, Atbin Djamshidian, Peter Willeit, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Dora Valent, Florian Krismer, Gregor Karl Wenning, Michael Nocker, Katherina Mair, Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and frailty are found in up to one-third of the general elderly population. Both are associated with major adverse health outcomes such as nursing home placement, disability, decreased quality of life, and death. Data on the frequency of both syndromes in Parkinson's disease (PD), however, are very limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to screen for sarcopenia and frailty in PD patients and to assess potential associations of both geriatric syndromes with demographic and clinical parameters as well as quality of life...
September 10, 2018: Gerontology
Joseph M Castellano
Dysfunction associated with the aging process positions aging as a leading culprit for development of devastating diseases and mounting health-care costs. Many age-associated conditions for which aging increases risk are neurological disorders with no effective treatments, including Alzhei-mer's disease. As the proportion of aged individuals continues to rise in the coming decades, aging-related costs are expected to increase dramatically. Diverse approaches have emerged to meet the clinical need to treat aging and its associated conditions, including those aimed at increasing longevity, slowing the aging process itself, and improving healthspan...
September 7, 2018: Gerontology
Stefan Kiechl, Johann Willeit
The Bruneck Study is a prospective community-based study enrolling an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 1,000 men and women. It achieved an extraordinary participation rate of 93.4% and a near-complete long-term follow-up exceeding a quarter of a century (1990-2018). High-quality ascertainment of most common human diseases enables reliable evaluation of: disease epidemiology, overlaps between age-related diseases, and risk factors, and discovery of novel biomarkers. Research priorities include atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, aging and longevity, neurological diseases, disorders of the bone, and cancer...
September 4, 2018: Gerontology
Bojana Jakic, Mattias Carlsson, Maja Buszko, Giuseppe Cappellano, Christian Ploner, Elisabeth Onestingel, Maria Foti, Hubert Hackl, Egon Demetz, Hermann Dietrich, Cecilia Wick, Georg Wick
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. The disease development is by and large driven by old age and lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical activity, and smoking. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of exercise and diet on the development of atherosclerosis in young and aged mice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at comparing multiple age-dependent factors that may influence atherosclerosis in a transgenic mouse model...
August 30, 2018: Gerontology
Jeannette M Potts, Christopher K Payne
The last 2 decades have brought an explosion of research, new products, and general attention to the problem of urinary urgency, and yet patients continue to be plagued by this symptom - especially the elderly. What is it? What does it mean? How can we guide patients successfully through this challenge? This paper presents a review of current thinking about urgency relevant to the practicing clinician, including the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of these patients.
August 29, 2018: Gerontology
Rosanne Freak-Poli, Silvan Licher, Joanne Ryan, M Arfan Ikram, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: The ability to engage in sexual activity and better cognitive functioning are both associated with better health. However, the association between cognitive functioning and sexual activity is understudied. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cognitive functioning with sexual activity and physical tenderness among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: From the Rotterdam Study, cognitive impairment and sexual activity were assessed in 4,201 community-dwelling, 60+ year olds between 2008 and 2014 in the Netherlands...
August 23, 2018: Gerontology
Sung Min Nam, Hongik Hwang, Misun Seo, Byung-Joon Chang, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Ginseng has been used to improve brain function and increase longevity. However, little is known about the ingredients of ginseng and molecular mechanisms of its anti-brain aging effects. Gintonin is a novel exogenous ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand; LPA and LPA1 receptors are involved in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. D-galactose (D-gal) is used to induce brain -aging in animal models because long-term treatment with D-gal facilitates hippocampal aging in experimental adult animals by decreasing hippocampal neurogenesis and inducing learning and memory dysfunction...
August 23, 2018: Gerontology
Altaf Engineer, Esther M Sternberg, Bijan Najafi
BACKGROUND: With the increasing global population of older adults, there is a need for environmental interventions that directly affect their physical, psychological, and emotional well-being to help them maintain or regain their independence and autonomy - all of which promote longevity. METHODS: To better understand potential opportunities and challenges associated with interior design and "future homes" that may promote well-being, aging in place, and independent living in older adults, the authors reviewed relevant literature and included their own expert opinions from a multidisciplinary point of view including interior design, wellness, and engineering...
August 21, 2018: Gerontology
Caren J Frost, Nathaniel J Morgan, Hayder Allkhenfr, Susan Dearden, Rebekah Ess, Wafi Fawzan Albalawi, Allyson Berri, L Scott Benson, Lisa H Gren
In 2017, there were over 65 million displaced persons at the global level, with approximately 23 million of these people living as refugees around the world. In this same year, the US resettled 53,716 refugees, with the State of Utah receiving 954 of those refugees. Refugees, in general, often face health-related challenges upon resettlement. Since the health of aging refugee men and women is of growing concern, host communities face significant challenges in accommodating the health needs of a diverse refugee population...
August 21, 2018: Gerontology
Nele Christin Lemke, Christian Werner, Stefanie Wiloth, Peter Oster, Jürgen M Bauer, Klaus Hauer
BACKGROUND: Specific dual-task (DT) training is effective to improve DT performance in trained tasks in patients with dementia (PwD). However, it remains an open research question whether successfully trained DTs show a transfer effect to untrained DT performances. OBJECTIVE: To examine transfer effects and the sustainability of a specific DT training in PwD. METHODS: One hundred and five patients with mild-to-moderate dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination: 21...
July 24, 2018: Gerontology
Gizem Hülür, Henrike Wolf, Florian Riese, Nathan Theill
BACKGROUND: Research on terminal decline has widely documented that cognitive performance steeply declines with nearing death. To date, it is unclear whether these changes are normative, based on pathologies associated with (preclinical) dementia, or both. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed heterogeneity in trajectories of terminal cognitive change in Swiss nursing home residents with the objective of examining whether terminal change is normative or whether one or multiple subgroup(s) with relative stability exist...
July 24, 2018: Gerontology
Marie Herr, Bernard Jeune, Stefan Fors, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Joël Ankri, Yasu Arai, Sarah Cubaynes, Brigitte Santos-Eggimann, Dina Zekry, Marti Parker, Yasuhiko Saito, François Herrmann, Jean-Marie Robine
BACKGROUND: The global number of centenarians is still strongly growing and information about the health and healthcare needs of this segment of the population is needed. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of frailty among centenarians included in a multinational study and to investigate associated factors. METHODS: The 5-COOP study is a cross-sectional survey including 1,253 centenarians in 5 countries (Japan, France, Switzerland, Denmark, and Sweden)...
July 20, 2018: Gerontology
Tammy T Hshieh, Tamara G Fong, Eva M Schmitt, Edward R Marcantonio, Madeline L D Apos Aquila, Jacqueline Gallagher, Guoquan Xu, Yun R Guo, Tatiana F Abrantes, Sylvie E Bertrand, Richard N Jones, Sharon K Inouye
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To describe the design, procedures, and cohort for the Better ASsessment of ILlness -(BASIL) study, which is conducted to develop and test new delirium severity measures, compare them with existing measures, and examine related clinical outcomes. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 1 year follow-up of study participants at a large teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. After brief cognitive testing and the Delirium Symptom Interview, delirium and delirium severity were rated daily in the hospital using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and CAM-Severity score, the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98), and the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS)...
July 20, 2018: Gerontology
Giuseppe Barbesino
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones have significant effects on the cardiovascular systems. In general, hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of dysrhythmias, while hypothyroidism may cause atherosclerosis. Recent large studies have sought to identify aging-associated changes in thyroid function and their relevance to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Conflicting results have often been published, likely due to the heterogeneity of the studied populations...
July 20, 2018: Gerontology
Sangkyu Kim, S Michal Jazwinski
The gut microbiota shows a wide inter-individual variation, but its within-individual variation is relatively stable over time. A functional core microbiome, provided by abundant bacterial taxa, seems to be common to various human hosts regardless of their gender, geographic location, and age. With advancing chronological age, the gut microbiota becomes more diverse and variable. However, when measures of biological age are used with adjustment for chronological age, overall richness decreases, while a certain group of bacteria associated with frailty increases...
July 19, 2018: Gerontology
Helene Benveniste, Xiaodan Liu, Sunil Koundal, Simon Sanggaard, Hedok Lee, Joanna Wardlaw
The glymphatic system is a glial-dependent waste clearance pathway in the brain, in place of lymphatic vessels, dedicated to drain away soluble waste proteins and metabolic products. Specifically, the glymphatic network serves as a "front end" for waste clearance, and is connected downstream to an authentic lymphatic network, associated with dura covering the brain as well as cranial nerves and large vessels at the skull exits. The anatomical and functional interconnections between these two networks are not completely understood...
July 11, 2018: Gerontology
Anisoara Paraschiv-Ionescu, Christophe J Büla, Kristof Major, Constanze Lenoble-Hoskovec, Hélène Krief, Christopher El-Moufawad, Kamiar Aminian
BACKGROUND: Fall-related psychological concerns are common among older adults, potentially contributing to functional decline as well as to restriction of activities and social participation. To effectively prevent such negative consequences, it is important to understand how even very low concern about falling could affect physical activity behavior in everyday life. We hypothesized that concern about falling is associated with a reduction in diversity, dynamics, and performance of daily activities, and that these features can be comprehensively quantified in terms of complexity of physical activity patterns...
July 4, 2018: Gerontology
Jiae Lee, Soong-Nang Jang, Sung-Il Cho
BACKGROUND: The aging of the population will result in an increase in demand for pain management. Pain adversely affects physical and mental functioning in older adults and accounts for a considerable proportion of all medical expenses. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to investigate the patterns of changes in the trajectories of the number of pain sites in older adults and the factors that affect these patterns according to gender. METHODS: Data were extracted for subjects that participated in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing from 2006 to 2014...
July 3, 2018: Gerontology
Ana A Esteban-Burgos, Jamal El Mansouri-Yachou, Rafael Muñoz-Ramirez, Cesar Hueso-Montoro, Maria P Garcia-Caro, Rafael Montoya-Juarez
BACKGROUND: Health status and the needs presented by people admitted to nursing homes make it necessary to contemplate aspects such as prognosis to offer quality palliative care. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prognostic utility in nursing homes of two prognostic models of 6-month survival based on the Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI) or Palliative Performance Status (PPS) instruments and palliative needs indicators. METHODS: A longitudinal prospective observational and analytical cohort study of survival and prognostic models in 88 patients with palliative needs (assessed by the NECPAL-ICO-CCOMS©) from an Andalusian (Spain) nursing home was performed...
June 29, 2018: Gerontology
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