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Helene Benveniste, Xiaodan Liu, Sunil Koundal, Simon Sanggaard, Hedok Lee, Joanna Wardlaw
The glymphatic system is a glial-dependent waste clearance pathway in the brain, in place of lymphatic vessels, dedicated to drain away soluble waste proteins and metabolic products. Specifically, the glymphatic network serves as a "front end" for waste clearance, and is connected downstream to an authentic lymphatic network, associated with dura covering the brain as well as cranial nerves and large vessels at the skull exits. The anatomical and functional interconnections between these two networks are not completely understood...
July 11, 2018: Gerontology
Anisoara Paraschiv-Ionescu, Christophe J Büla, Kristof Major, Constanze Lenoble-Hoskovec, Hélène Krief, Christopher El-Moufawad, Kamiar Aminian
BACKGROUND: Fall-related psychological concerns are common among older adults, potentially contributing to functional decline as well as to restriction of activities and social participation. To effectively prevent such negative consequences, it is important to understand how even very low concern about falling could affect physical activity behavior in everyday life. We hypothesized that concern about falling is associated with a reduction in diversity, dynamics, and performance of daily activities, and that these features can be comprehensively quantified in terms of complexity of physical activity patterns...
July 4, 2018: Gerontology
Jiae Lee, Soong-Nang Jang, Sung-Il Cho
BACKGROUND: The aging of the population will result in an increase in demand for pain management. Pain adversely affects physical and mental functioning in older adults and accounts for a considerable proportion of all medical expenses. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to investigate the patterns of changes in the trajectories of the number of pain sites in older adults and the factors that affect these patterns according to gender. METHODS: Data were extracted for subjects that participated in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing from 2006 to 2014...
July 3, 2018: Gerontology
Ana A Esteban-Burgos, Jamal El Mansouri-Yachou, Rafael Muñoz-Ramirez, Cesar Hueso-Montoro, Maria P Garcia-Caro, Rafael Montoya-Juarez
BACKGROUND: Health status and the needs presented by people admitted to nursing homes make it necessary to contemplate aspects such as prognosis to offer quality palliative care. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prognostic utility in nursing homes of two prognostic models of 6-month survival based on the Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI) or Palliative Performance Status (PPS) instruments and palliative needs indicators. METHODS: A longitudinal prospective observational and analytical cohort study of survival and prognostic models in 88 patients with palliative needs (assessed by the NECPAL-ICO-CCOMS©) from an Andalusian (Spain) nursing home was performed...
June 29, 2018: Gerontology
Belen Corbacho, Sarah Cockayne, Caroline Fairhurst, Catherine E Hewitt, Kate Hicks, Anne-Maree Kenan, Sarah E Lamb, Caroline MacIntosh, Hylton B Menz, Anthony C Redmond, Sara Rodgers, Arabella Scantlebury, Judith Watson, David J Torgerson
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major cause of morbidity among older people. Multifaceted interventions may be effective in preventing falls and related fractures. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness alongside the REducing Falls with Orthoses and a Multifaceted podiatry intervention (REFORM) trial. METHODS: REFORM was a pragmatic multicentre cohort randomised controlled trial in England and Ireland; 1,010 participants (> 65 years) were randomised to receive either a podiatry intervention (n = 493), including foot and ankle strengthening exercises, foot orthoses, new footwear if required, and a falls prevention leaflet, or usual podiatry treatment plus a falls prevention leaflet (n = 517)...
June 26, 2018: Gerontology
Georg Wick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Gerontology
Erwin Stolz, Hannes Mayerl, Éva Rásky, Wolfgang Freidl
BACKGROUND: Frailty constitutes an important risk factor for adverse outcomes among older adults. In longitudinal studies on frailty, selective sample attrition may threaten the validity of results. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of sample attrition on frailty index trajectories and gaps related to socio-economic status (education) therein among older adults in Europe. METHODS: A total of 64,143 observations from 21,044 respondents (50+) from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe across 12 years of follow-up (2004-2015) and subject to substantial sample attrition (59%) were analysed...
June 19, 2018: Gerontology
Nina Kohn, Maria Brown, Israel Doron
BACKGROUND: Academics have long called for greater interaction between gerontologists and legal scholars. However, prior studies have suggested that disciplinary borders remain a barrier to such interaction, hampering gerontology's ability to function as a truly multi- or interdisciplinary field. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to understand the nature of current interactions between legal scholars and gerontologists, and to identify opportunities to advance scientific dialogue and cooperation between the two...
June 19, 2018: Gerontology
Tanja Engel, Marieke Raffenberg, Catia Marzolini, Matthias Cavassini, Helen Kovari, Barbara Hasse, Philip E Tarr
Ever since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1995, HIV infection has been linked to "metabolic" complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis, and others). Studies suggested increased rates of myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency, neurocognitive dysfunction, and fractures in HIV-postitive patients. Even long-term suppression of HIV seemed to be accompanied by an excess of deleterious inflammation that could promote these complications. The aims of this viewpoint paper are to summarize recent data and to examine the possibility that the problem of aging-related morbidity in HIV might not be as dramatic as previously believed...
June 15, 2018: Gerontology
Gonzalo Luis Alonso Salinas, Marcelo Sanmartin, Marina Pascual Izco, Luis M Rincon, Alba Martin-Acuna, Pablo Pastor Pueyo, David Del Val Martín, Álvaro Marco Del Castillo, Alejandro Recio-Mayoral, Roberto Martin-Asenjo, Alberto Garcia-Guerrero, Pedro Caravaca-Perez, Asunción Camino Lopez, Manuel Jimenez-Mena, José Luis Zamorano
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) patients are increasingly older, and common risk scores include chronological age, but do not consider chronic comorbidity or biological age. Frailty status reflects these variables and may be independently correlated with prognosis in this setting. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact of frailty on the prognosis of elderly patients admitted due to MI. METHODS: This prospective and observational study included patients ≥75 years admitted to three tertiary hospitals in Spain due to MI...
June 1, 2018: Gerontology
Ossama Moujaber, Ursula Stochaj
Cytoplasmic RNA granules represent subcellular compartments that are enriched in protein-bound RNA species. RNA granules are produced by evolutionary divergent eukaryotes, including yeast, mammals, and plants. The functions of cytoplasmic RNA granules differ widely. They are dictated by the cell type and physiological state, which in turn is determined by intrinsic cell properties and environmental factors. RNA granules provide diverse cellular functions. However, all of the granules contribute to aspects of RNA metabolism...
May 30, 2018: Gerontology
Stephen W Farrell, Aidin R Abramowitz, Benjamin L Willis, Carolyn E Barlow, Myron Weiner, Jed Falkowski, David Leonard, Andjelka Pavlovic, Laura F DeFina
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known regarding the association between objective measures of physical function such as cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cognitive function tests in healthy older adults. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between CRF and cognitive function in adults aged 55 and older. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2017, 4,931 men and women underwent a comprehensive preventive physical exam at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas...
May 29, 2018: Gerontology
Zhaochen Ning, Yihan Li, Dongyan Liu, John Owoicho Orgah, Jie Zhu, Yan Wang, Yan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) is a main bioactive component of Polygonum multiflorum, a traditional Chinese medicine known for certain anti-aging effects. Since TSG has been found to extend lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we hypothesized that TSG might produce anti-aging benefits in mammals. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the anti-aging potential of TSG and to explore its relative molecular mechanism. METHODS: Mice were maintained on standard diet, high-calorie diet (HC), or high-calorie plus TSG diet...
May 25, 2018: Gerontology
Gloria Brombo, Francesco Bonetti, Beatrice Ortolani, Mario Luca Morieri, Cristina Bosi, Angelina Passaro, Giovanni B Vigna, Caterina Borgna, Maria Vittoria Arcidicono, Veronica Tisato, Giovanni Zuliani
BACKGROUND: The protein Klotho is involved in biological processes related to longevity, cardiovascular health, and cognition. Serum Klotho levels have been associated with better cognition in animal models; moreover, lower Klotho concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid from subjects with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) have been reported. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to examine the possible relationship between Klotho plasma concentrations and cognitive status in the elderly...
May 16, 2018: Gerontology
Deirdre A Robertson, David Weiss
BACKGROUND: Social status is the standing of a person or group in the social hierarchy, and is perceived to change across the life span from low social status in early life, to peak in midlife, and to a decline thereafter. As threats to subjective social status are known to be detrimental to individuals' health, it is important to better understand how older adults perceive themselves and others in terms of age-related social status. OBJECTIVE: We examined status ambivalence - the potential discrepancy between how older adults' perceive social status for themselves compared to older adults in general...
May 9, 2018: Gerontology
Sheng-Feng Tsai, Nai-Wen Ku, Tzu-Feng Wang, Yan-Hsiang Yang, Yao-Hsiang Shih, Shih-Ying Wu, Chu-Wan Lee, Megan Yu, Ting-Ting Yang, Yu-Min Kuo
BACKGROUND: Aging impairs hippocampal neuroplasticity and hippocampus-related learning and memory. In contrast, exercise training is known to improve hippocampal neuronal function. However, whether exercise is capable of restoring memory function in old animals is less clear. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the effects of exercise on the hippocampal neuroplasticity and memory functions during aging. METHODS: Young (3 months), middle-aged (9-12 months), and old (18 months) mice underwent moderate-intensity treadmill running training for 6 weeks, and their hippocampus-related learning and memory, and the plasticity of their CA1 neurons was evaluated...
May 7, 2018: Gerontology
Hiroyuki Shimada, Ryo Hotta, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Sho Nakakubo, Keitaro Makino
BACKGROUND: Driving cessation is strongly associated with adverse health outcomes in the older adults. Although there were numerous documentations of driving rehabilitation in disabled adults, the effects of interventions on safe driving were not clear in older adults with cognitive impairment who had low driving skills. OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine whether a safe driving skill program consisting of classroom and on-road training could enhance driving performance of older drivers with cognitive impairment in Japan...
April 12, 2018: Gerontology
Ryan Best, Alexandra M Freund
BACKGROUND: Older adults are stereotypically considered to be risk averse compared to younger age groups, although meta-analyses on age and the influence of gain/loss framing on risky choices have not found empirical evidence for age differences in risk-taking. OBJECTIVE: The current study extends the investigation of age differences in risk preference by including analyses on the effect of the probability of a risky option on choices in gain versus loss situations...
April 5, 2018: Gerontology
Laura B Zahodne, A Zarina Kraal, Afsara Zaheed, Ketlyne Sol
BACKGROUND: Subjective social status (SSS) is associated with mental and physical health, independent of objective socioeconomic status (SES), but its association with late-life cognitive decline is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study characterizes the association between SSS and late-life memory trajectories in a large, nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States. METHODS: Using data from 8,530 participants aged 65 years and older in the Health and Retirement Study, structural equation models tested associations between SSS, objective SES (i...
March 29, 2018: Gerontology
Nattayaporn Apaiajai, Titikorn Chunchai, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that testosterone deprivation at a very young age accelerated, but did not aggravate, left-ventricular (LV) dysfunction in obese insulin-resistant rats. However, the effects of testosterone deprivation during adulthood on LV function in obese insulin-resistant rats remains unclear. We hypothesized that testosterone deprivation aggravates LV dysfunction and cardiac autonomic imbalance via the impairment of cardiac mitochondrial function and dynamics proteins, a reduction in insulin receptor function, and an increase in apoptosis in obese insulin-resistant rats...
March 22, 2018: Gerontology
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