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Ryota Matsuzawa, Kentaro Kamiya, Nobuaki Hamazaki, Kohei Nozaki, Shinya Tanaka, Emi Maekawa, Atsuhiko Matsunaga, Takashi Masuda, Junya Ako
BACKGROUND: The detection of impaired physical performance in older adults with cardiovascular disease is essential for clinical management and therapeutic decision-making. There is a requirement for an assessment tool that can be used conveniently, rapidly, and securely in clinical practice for screening decreased physical performance. OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to evaluate the association of office-based physical assessments with decreased physical performance and to compare the prognostic capability of these assessments in older adults with cardiovascular disease...
January 16, 2019: Gerontology
Jung-Hoon Koo, Eun-Bum Kang, Joon-Yong Cho
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple muscular diseases, including sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM), the most common aging-related muscle disease. However, the factors causing mitochondrial dysfunction in s-IBM are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that resistance exercise (RE) may alleviate muscle impairment by improving mitochondrial function via reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized to a saline-injection control group (sham, n = 8), a chloroquine (CQ) control group (CQ-CON, n = 8), and a CQ plus RE group (CQ-RE, n = 8) in which rats climbed a ladder with weight attached to their tails 9 weeks after starting CQ treatment...
January 14, 2019: Gerontology
Johan Rehnberg, Stefan Fors, Johan Fritzell
BACKGROUND: Do inequalities in health by income increase or decrease with age? The empirical evidence is not conclusive and competing theories arrive at different conclusions. OBJECTIVE: This study examined inequality in mortality by income over the adult life course with longitudinal data on people aged 30-99 between the years 1990 and 2009. Each person was followed for 19 years. METHODS: We used Swedish total population data with 5,011,414 individual observations...
January 11, 2019: Gerontology
Charikleia Lampraki, Daniela S Jopp, Dario Spini, Davide Morselli
BACKGROUND: Critical events in the second half of life, such as divorce, pose a significant threat to well-being. Individuals undergoing divorce often experience feelings of social loneliness and may benefit differently from available resources depending on how much time has passed since the event. Personality traits have been found to be related to adaptation, with particularly strong effects immediately after the critical event. Other resources, such as identity-stabilizing mechanisms (i...
January 3, 2019: Gerontology
Jonathan J Rolison, Yaniv Hanoch, Alexandra M Freund
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Proxy decision-making may be flawed by inaccurate perceptions of risk. This may be particularly true when older adults are the targets of the decisions, given the pervasive negative stereotypes about older adults. METHODS: In study 1, individuals aged 18- to 87 years (as target persons) as well as one of their close social partners (as informants) reported on the risks they perceived for the target person in various life domains. Study 2 additionally explored potential differences in how people make risky decisions on behalf of younger and older adult targets...
December 19, 2018: Gerontology
Sunyoung Cho, Sungjin Park, Shin Takahashi, Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi, Roy J Shephard, Yukitoshi Aoyagi
BACKGROUND: An age-related decrease in functional capacity is consistently reported, but it is not consistently related to a worsening of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) or psychological adjustment. A poor functional capacity and HRQOL have been associated with anxiety or depression, but the possible causal nature and direction of the relationship remain to be explored using long-term longitudinal data. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine age-related changes in functional capacity, HRQOL, and scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and possible causal interrelationships between these variables...
December 19, 2018: Gerontology
Vegard F Skirbekk, Ursula M Staudinger, Joel E Cohen
Usually, population aging is measured to inform fiscal and social planning because it is considered to indicate the burden that an elderly population presents to the economic, social security, and health systems of a society. Measures of population aging are expected to indicate shifts in the distribution of individuals' attributes (e.g., chronological age, health) within a population that are relevant to assessing the burden. We claim that chronological age - even though it is the attribute most broadly used - may frequently not be the best measure to satisfy this purpose...
December 13, 2018: Gerontology
Lingzhi Zhao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects nearly 50 million people worldwide, and currently no disease-modifying treatment is available. With continuous failure of anti-amyloid-beta- or tau-based therapies, identification of new targets has become an urgent necessity for AD prevention and therapy. Recently, conventional genetic approaches and computational strategies have converged on immune-inflammatory pathways as key events in the pathogenesis of AD. A number of genes have been highly linked to the onset and development of late-onset sporadic AD, the most common form of AD...
December 12, 2018: Gerontology
Changhong Wang, Rahul Goel, Hadi Rahemi, Qianzi Zhang, Brian Lepow, Bijan Najafi
BACKGROUND: Foot problems are prevalent in older adults, which may increase the risk and concern for falls. Ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) have been shown to be effective in the stabilization of lower extremities, but their long-term effectiveness in improving balance and their potential to encourage older adults to become more physically active are still debated. OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of daily use of a custom-made AFO on balance, fear of falling, and physical activity in older adults...
November 30, 2018: Gerontology
Claudia Recksiedler, Robert S Stawski
BACKGROUND: Later decades of the life course have undergone rapid transformations due to demographic changes in ageing societies, such as more frequent occurrences of later-life marital transitions. Adaption to these transitions, even when welcomed, brings novel chances and challenges in negotiating new social roles in old age, which could reinforce preexisting disparities in the acquisition and mastery of resources, social ties, and coping strategies. OBJECTIVES: Because the ability to weather later-life marital transitions may depend on the long arm of education acquired earlier in the life course, the present study aims to identify and track trends in the prevalence of marriage, divorce/separation, and widowhood among sociodemographic subgroups; link the occurrence of those transitions with mental health; and test the influence of educational attainment on these associations...
November 27, 2018: Gerontology
Haritz Arrieta, Gotzone Hervás, Chloe Rezola-Pardo, Fátima Ruiz-Litago, Miren Iturburu, José Javier Yanguas, Susana María Gil, Ana Rodriguez-Larrad, Jon Irazusta
BACKGROUND: Myostatin has been proposed as a candidate biomarker for frailty and sarcopenia. However, the relationship of myostatin with these conditions remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of serum myostatin concentration with body composition, physical fitness, physical activity level, and frailty in long-term nursing home residents. We also aimed to ascertain the effect of an exercise program on myostatin levels. METHODS: We obtained study data on 112 participants from long-term nursing homes...
November 21, 2018: Gerontology
Lutz Hamann, Juan S Ruiz-Moreno, Malgorzata Szwed, Malgorzata Mossakowska, Linn Lundvall, Ralf R Schumann, Bastian Opitz, Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka
BACKGROUND: Aging is a multifactorial process driven by several conditions. Among them, inflamm-aging is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation driving aging-related diseases. The aged immune system is characterized by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, resulting in the release of proinflammatory cytokines contributing to inflamm-aging. Another possible mechanism resulting in inflamm-aging could be the increased release of danger- associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by increased cell death in the elderly, leading to a chronic low-grade inflammatory response...
October 26, 2018: Gerontology
József Tollár, Ferenc Nagy, Tibor Hortobágyi
OBJECTIVES: To directly compare the effects of agility exergaming (EXE) and stationary cycling (CYC) exercise training on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' mobility and clinical symptoms. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Outpatient physiotherapy clinic in a hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-four stage 2-3, nondemented PD patients were included in this study. INTERVENTION: The groups were as follows: EXE (n = 25), CYC (n = 25), and a wait-listed control group (CON; n = 24)...
October 26, 2018: Gerontology
He Zhou, Javad Razjouyan, Debopriyo Halder, Anand D Naik, Mark E Kunik, Bijan Najafi
BACKGROUND: The physical frailty assessment tools that are currently available are often time consuming to use with limited feasibility. OBJECTIVE: To address these limitations, an instrumented trail-making task (iTMT) platform was developed using wearable technology to automate quantification of frailty phenotypes without the need of a frailty walking test. METHODS: Sixty-one older adults (age = 72.8 ± 9.9 years, body mass index [BMI] = 27...
October 25, 2018: Gerontology
Tibor Hortobágyi, Azusa Uematsu, Lianne Sanders, Reinhold Kliegl, József Tollár, Renato Moraes, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Dynamic balance keeps the vertical projection of the center of mass within the base of support while walking. Dynamic balance tests are used to predict the risks of falls and eventual falls. The psychometric properties of most dynamic balance tests are unsatisfactory and do not comprise an actual loss of balance while walking. OBJECTIVES: Using beam walking distance as a measure of dynamic balance, the BEAM consortium will determine the psychometric properties, lifespan and patient reference values, the relationship with selected "dynamic balance tests," and the accuracy of beam walking distance to predict falls...
October 18, 2018: Gerontology
Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Yanina Sarquis-Adamson, Manuel Montero-Odasso
BACKGROUND: Older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are at higher risk of falls and injuries, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Inappropriate anticipatory postural adjustments to overcome balance perturbations are affected by cognitive decline. However, it is unknown whether anticipatory gait control to avoid an obstacle is affected in MCI. OBJECTIVE: Using the dual-task paradigm, we aim to assess whether gait control is affected during obstacle negotiation challenges in older adults with MCI...
October 12, 2018: Gerontology
Lee Friedman, Susan Avila, Daniel Friedman, Wendy Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that measures of lower quality of care and associated adverse health effects are more prevalent in for-profit nursing homes compared to not-for-profit facilities. However, these studies omit persons who receive care in the community setting, and exclusively focus on isolated clinical signs that may obscure the true effect size, since these clinical signs rarely occur in isolation. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we use the Clinical Signs of Neglect Scale (CSNS), which is an aggregate measure of clinical signs of neglect and substandard care, to evaluate the association of residence type on health outcomes among individuals living in both private community residences and for-profit and not-for-profit long-term care facilities...
October 9, 2018: Gerontology
Georg Wick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2018: Gerontology
Ai Koyanagi, Hans Oh, Davy Vancampfort, Andre F Carvalho, Nicola Veronese, Brendon Stubbs, Elvira Lara
BACKGROUND: Perceived stress may be a modifiable risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and ultimately dementia, but studies on this topic from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between perceived stress and MCI in six LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa) using nationally representative data. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based data on individuals aged ≥50 years from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed...
September 10, 2018: Gerontology
Marina Peball, Philipp Mahlknecht, Mario Werkmann, Kathrin Marini, Franziska Murr, Helga Herzmann, Heike Stockner, Roberto de Marzi, Beatrice Heim, Atbin Djamshidian, Peter Willeit, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Dora Valent, Florian Krismer, Gregor Karl Wenning, Michael Nocker, Katherina Mair, Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and frailty are found in up to one-third of the general elderly population. Both are associated with major adverse health outcomes such as nursing home placement, disability, decreased quality of life, and death. Data on the frequency of both syndromes in Parkinson's disease (PD), however, are very limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to screen for sarcopenia and frailty in PD patients and to assess potential associations of both geriatric syndromes with demographic and clinical parameters as well as quality of life...
September 10, 2018: Gerontology
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