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Anamaria Balic
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, became more evident...
March 13, 2018: Gerontology
Patrick Lemaire, Fleur Brun, Isabelle Régner
BACKGROUND: Age-based cognitive deficits are exacerbated by stereotype threat effects (i.e., the threat of being judged as cognitively incapable due to aging). We tested whether age-based stereotype threat effects can occur via impair- ing older adults' ability to select the best strategy and/or to execute strategies efficiently. METHODS: Older adults (age range: 64.3-89.5 years) were randomly assigned to a stereotype threat or control condition before taking an episodic memory task...
February 14, 2018: Gerontology
Sanghee Moon, Maud Ranchet, Abiodun Emmanuel Akinwuntan, Mark Tant, David Brian Carr, Mukaila Ajiboye Raji, Hannes Devos
BACKGROUND: Adults aged 85 and older, often referred to as the oldest-old, are the fastest-growing segment of the population. The rapidly increasing number of older adults with chronic and multiple medical conditions poses challenges regarding their driving safety. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of advanced age on driving safety in drivers with medical conditions. METHODS: We categorized 3,425 drivers with preexisting medical conditions into four age groups: middle-aged (55-64 years, n = 1,386), young-old (65-74 years, n = 1,013), old-old (75-84 years, n = 803), or oldest-old (85 years and older, n = 223)...
February 14, 2018: Gerontology
Hyuma Makizako, Hiroyuki Shimada, Ryo Hotta, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Sho Nakakubo, Keitaro Makino
BACKGROUND: Attention and executive function may play an important role in ensuring safe driving as they involve paying attention to complex information and making an instantaneous judgment during driving. We hypothesized that poor performance in attention and executive function may increase the risk of near-miss incidents among older drivers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine associations of current experience of near-miss traffic incidents with attention and executive function among older Japanese drivers...
February 9, 2018: Gerontology
Nortin M Hadler
"Overtreatment" is a neologism coined some 15 years ago to denote medical and surgical interventions that are unnecessary. It is a topical term for an old concept. However, it has rapidly become a shibboleth for those inclined toward finger-pointing and blaming in matters of health policy. As such, it is a "foe" that heats up rather than modulates debate. But if one examines the notion in the context of the contemporary patient-physician dialogue, it is anything but a foe. Overtreatment and its fellow travelers, overutilization and overprescription, face off with contrary notions when a patient contends with the challenge of evaluating any clinical option...
February 9, 2018: Gerontology
Amber Watts, Shea J Andrews, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may preserve cognitive function in older adults, but benefits vary by sex and genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: We tested the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognitive performance to de termine whether a common genetic polymorphism for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF Val66Met) moderated this effect. METHODS: In a 12-year longitudinal population-based sample of older adults (n = 2,218), we used growth curve modeling to investigate whether the benefits of physical activity on cognitive preservation differed by BDNF genotype and sex across multiple cognitive domains including processing speed, attention, working memory, and episodic verbal memory...
February 2, 2018: Gerontology
Walther Parson
Forensic genetics developed from protein-based techniques a quarter of a century ago and became famous as "DNA fingerprinting," this being based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of high-molecular-weight DNA. The amplification of much smaller short tandem repeat (STR) sequences using the polymerase chain reaction soon replaced RFLP analysis and advanced to become the gold standard in genetic identification. Meanwhile, STR multiplexes have been developed and made commercially available which simultaneously amplify up to 30 STR loci from as little as 15 cells or fewer...
January 23, 2018: Gerontology
Andreas Ihle, Rafal Albiński, Kamila Gurynowicz, Matthias Kliegel
BACKGROUND: So far, training of prospective memory (PM) focused on very short instances (single sessions) and targeted the intention-formation phase only. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of 2 different 4-week strategy-based PM training types, namely imagery training (targeting the encoding of the PM intention in the intention-formation phase) versus rehearsal training (targeting the maintenance of the PM intention in the intention-retention phase) in older adults...
January 19, 2018: Gerontology
Jun Aida, Noriko Cable, Paola Zaninotto, Toru Tsuboya, Georgios Tsakos, Yusuke Matsuyama, Kanade Ito, Ken Osaka, Katsunori Kondo, Michael G Marmot, Richard G Watt
BACKGROUND: A rapidly ageing population presents major challenges to health and social care services. Cross-country comparative studies on survival among older adults are limited. In addition, Japan, the country with the longest life expectancy, is rarely included in these cross-country comparisons. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relative contributions of social and behavioural factors on the differences in survival among older people in Japan and England. METHODS: We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES; n = 13,176) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; n = 5,551) to analyse all-cause mortality up to 9...
January 18, 2018: Gerontology
Ryan T Crews, Abagayle L King, Sai V Yalla, Noah J Rosenblatt
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a substantial dilemma for geriatric individuals with diabetes. The breakdown in tissue associated with DFU is typically a result of repetitive cycles of physical stress placed on the feet during weight-bearing activity. Accordingly, a key tenet in healing as well as preventing DFU is the use of offloading footwear to redistribute physical stress away from high stress locations such as bony prominences. Over the last several years there has been a substantial amount of effort directed at better understanding and implementing the practice of offloading...
January 16, 2018: Gerontology
Joshua D Preston, Leryn J Reynolds, Kevin J Pearson
BACKGROUND: A vast body of research has demonstrated that disease susceptibility and offspring health can be influenced by perinatal factors, which include both paternal and maternal behavior and environment. Offspring disease risk has the potential to affect the health span and life span of offspring. KEY FINDINGS: Various maternal factors, such as environmental toxicant exposure, diet, stress, exercise, age at conception, and longevity have the potential to influence age-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer risk in offspring...
January 12, 2018: Gerontology
Candice E Van Skike, Veronica Galvan
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is detected prior to the onset of cognitive and histopathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the initiation and progression of AD. Recent studies identified the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a critical effector of cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD. mTOR has a key role in the regulation of metabolism, but some mTOR-dependent mechanisms are uniquely specific to the regulation of cerebrovascular function...
January 11, 2018: Gerontology
Regina Brunauer, Ken Muneoka
Aging is associated with a significant decline of tissue repair and regeneration, ultimately resulting in tissue dysfunction, multimorbidity, and death. Salamanders possess remarkable regenerative abilities and have been studied with the prospect of inducing regeneration in humans and counteracting regenerative decline with aging. However, epimorphic regeneration, the full replacement of amputated structures, also occurs in mammals. One of the best studied models is digit tip regeneration, which is described for mice, and occurs in humans in a comparable manner...
January 10, 2018: Gerontology
Mengting Li, Xinqi Dong
BACKGROUND: Social network has been identified as a protective factor for cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between social network and global and subdomains of cognitive function remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide an analytic framework to examine quantity, composition, and quality of social network and investigate the association between social network, global cognition, and cognitive domains among US Chinese older adults. METHODS: Data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE), a community-engaged, population-based epidemiological study of US Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area, with a sample size of 3,157...
December 22, 2017: Gerontology
Hans Drenth, Sytse U Zuidema, Wim P Krijnen, Ivan Bautmans, Cees van der Schans, Hans Hobbelen
BACKGROUND: Paratonia is a distinctive form of hypertonia, causing loss of functional mobility in early stages of dementia to severe high muscle tone and pain in the late stages. For assessing and evaluating therapeutic interventions, objective instruments are required. OBJECTIVE: Determine the psychometric properties of the MyotonPRO, a portable device that objectively measures muscle properties, in dementia patients with paratonia. METHODS: Muscle properties were assessed with the MyotonPRO by 2 assessors within one session and repeated by the main researcher after 30 min and again after 6 months...
December 22, 2017: Gerontology
Claudia Recksiedler, Katharina Loter, Hannah S Klaas, Betina Hollstein, Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello
BACKGROUND: Losing one's spouse is one of the most stressful life events in old age, yet research on positive consequences of overcoming critical life events describes experiences of personal growth for survivors. OBJECTIVE: Because prior studies conceptualized personal growth as a stable accomplishment of an individual, our study challenges this assumption by examining trajectories of personal growth and its links to two aspects of social support. We assume that personal growth is boosted by heightened levels of loss-related social support seeking during early years of widowhood...
December 19, 2017: Gerontology
Corinna E Löckenhoff
Age differences in decision-making are of theoretical interest and have important practical implications, but relevant lines of work are distributed across multiple disciplines and often lack integration. The present review proposes an overarching conceptual framework with the aim of connecting disjointed aspects of this field of research. The framework builds on process models of decision-making and specifies potential mechanisms behind age effects as well as relevant moderators including task characteristics and contextual factors...
2018: Gerontology
Martin A Nowak, Karl Sigmund
This paper summarizes the Opening Lecture of the European Forum Alpbach 2017 in Tyrol/Austria ( It deals with the evolution of cooperation throughout the history of life on Earth, and in particular human cooperation based on partnership. It emphasizes the role of institutions providing incentives for cooperation, and the role of praise and blame in guiding our actions. This helps for a better understanding of the social contract, based on evolutionary biology and psychology.
2018: Gerontology
Thomas Weichhart
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) network is an evolutionary conserved signaling hub that senses and integrates environmental and intracellular nutrient and growth factor signals to coordinate basic cellular and organismal responses such as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation depending on the individual cell and tissue. A growing list of evidence suggests that mTOR signaling influences longevity and aging. Inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) with rapamycin is currently the only known pharmacological treatment that increases lifespan in all model organisms studied...
2018: Gerontology
Maximilian König, Maik Gollasch, Dominik Spira, Nikolaus Buchmann, Werner Hopfenmüller, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Ilja Demuth
BACKGROUND: Mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD G3a) is prevalent in older adults. Substantial evidence suggests that individuals with advanced CKD face a high risk for common geriatric conditions, like functional impairment and cognitive decline, whereas the relationships between mild-to-moderate CKD and functional impairment and cognitive decline, but also poor nutritional status and mood disorders, are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore associations between mild-to-moderate CKD and impairments in the core domains of geriatric assessment (GA) in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults...
2018: Gerontology
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