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Gerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136617/prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-an-implanted-pacemaker-after-80-years-of-age-in-a-4-year-follow-up
#1
Krystyna Krzemień-Wolska, Andrzej Tomasik, Celina Wojciechowska, Karolina Barańska-Pawełczak, Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska, Wojciech Jacheć
BACKGROUND: The controversy over electrotherapy for patients aged >80 years occurs already at the stage of qualification for this treatment type and concerns optimal device selection, the implantation strategy, and the overall benefit from pacemaker therapy. The group also has a considerable number of cardiovascular risk factors, and the data from the literature on the impact of the pacing mode on the remote prognosis of this group are ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the risk factors for death among patients with implanted pacemakers >80 years of age in a 4-year follow-up...
November 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130976/discontinued-information-and-communication-technology-usage-among-older-adults-in-continuing-care-retirement-communities-in-the-united-states
#2
R V Rikard, Ronald W Berkowsky, Shelia R Cotten
BACKGROUND: Older adults are increasingly using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Recent studies show beneficial effects of using ICTs for older adults, particularly in terms of reducing loneliness and depression. However, little is known about the factors that may prevent discontinued ICT use in populations that may be at greater risk, such as those in continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to examine a range of factors that may influence discontinued (1) ICT use, (2) searching for health information, and (3) searching for general information over time among CCRC residents...
November 9, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130977/effects-of-wearable-sensor-based-balance-and-gait-training-on-balance-gait-and-functional-performance-in-healthy-and-patient-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Katharina Gordt, Thomas Gerhardy, Bijan Najafi, Michael Schwenk
BACKGROUND: Wearable sensors (WS) can accurately measure body motion and provide interactive feedback for supporting motor learning. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to summarize current evidence for the effectiveness of WS training for improving balance, gait and functional performance. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using a WS exercise program were included...
November 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065419/cognitive-aging-in-dogs
#4
Durga Chapagain, Friederike Range, Ludwig Huber, Zsófia Virányi
A decline in the physical or mental health of older dogs can be a challenge for the owners, whose relationship with their dog is compromised by the cognitive and behavioral changes in their dogs. Although dog owners tend to consider many physiological and behavioral changes in old dogs as part of the normal aging process, it is important to differentiate between normal aging and pathologic aging, since behavioral changes may be the first indication of declining health and welfare in old dogs. Most reviews on cognitive aging in dogs have focused on translational approaches to human Alzheimer's disease; from a practical perspective, however, understanding normal cognitive aging in pet dogs and screening cognitively affected dogs are important in their own right...
October 25, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055946/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-frailty-among-older-adults-results-from-a-10-year-longitudinal-study-in-the-netherlands
#5
Emiel O Hoogendijk, Martijn W Heymans, Dorly J H Deeg, Martijn Huisman
BACKGROUND: Frailty is an important risk factor for adverse outcomes in older people. Substantial variation in frailty prevalence between socioeconomic groups exists, but longitudinal evidence for the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and frailty is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the course of socioeconomic inequalities in frailty among older adults during 10 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n = 1,509)...
October 21, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050012/mission-statement
#6
Georg Wick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045947/prediction-of-the-future-need-for-institutional-care-in-finnish-older-people-a-comparison-of-two-birth-cohorts
#7
Marika Salminen, Sini Eloranta, Jenni Vire, Paula Viikari, Laura Viikari, Tero Vahlberg, Aapo Lehtonen, Seija Arve, Maarit Wuorela, Matti Viitanen
BACKGROUND: More recent birth cohorts of older people have better physical and cognitive status than earlier cohorts. As such, this could be expected to diminish the need for institutional care. The prediction of the future need for institutional care provides essential information for the planning and delivery of future care and social services as well as the resources needed. OBJECTIVE: To predict the future need for institutional care among older Finnish people born in 1940...
October 19, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934747/untangling-longevity-dauer-and-healthspan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-insulin-igf-1-signalling
#8
Collin Yvès Ewald, Jorge Iván Castillo-Quan, T Keith Blackwell
The groundbreaking discovery that lower levels of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) can induce lifespan extension was reported 24 years ago in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this organism, mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor gene daf-2 or other genes in this pathway can double lifespan. Subsequent work has revealed that reduced IIS (rIIS) extends lifespan across diverse species, possibly including humans. In C. elegans, IIS also regulates development into the diapause state known as dauer, a quiescent larval form that enables C...
September 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918423/non-discriminant-relationships-between-leg-muscle-strength-mass-and-gait-performance-in-healthy-young-and-old-adults
#9
Thomas Muehlbauer, Urs Granacher, Ron Borde, Tibor Hortobágyi
BACKGROUND: Gait speed declines with increasing age, but it is unclear if gait speed preferentially correlates with leg muscle strength or mass. OBJECTIVE: We determined the relationship between gait speed and (1) leg muscle strength measured at 3 lower extremity joints and (2) leg lean tissue mass (LTM) in healthy young (age: 25 years, n = 20) and old (age: 70 years, n = 20) adults. METHODS: Subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic hip, knee, and ankle extension torque, leg LTM by bioimpedance, and gait performance (i...
September 16, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910814/feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-intervention-programmes-integrating-functional-exercise-into-daily-life-of-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#10
Michaela Weber, Nacera Belala, Lindy Clemson, Elisabeth Boulton, Helen Hawley-Hague, Clemens Becker, Michael Schwenk
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, exercise programmes for improving functional performance and reducing falls are organised as structured sessions. An alternative approach of integrating functional exercises into everyday tasks has emerged in recent years. OBJECTIVES: Summarising the current evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of interventions integrating functional exercise into daily life. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted including articles based on the following criteria: (1) individuals ≥60 years; (2) intervention studies of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies (NRS); (3) using a lifestyle-integrated approach; (4) using functional exercises to improve strength, balance, or physical functioning; and (5) reporting outcomes on feasibility and/or effectiveness...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910813/the-neighborhood-built-environment-and-cognitive-function-of-older-persons-results-from-the-singapore-longitudinal-ageing-study
#11
Tze Pin Ng, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Faysal Kabir Shuvo, Jia Yen Eng, Keng Bee Yap, Li Min Hee, Siew Pang Chan, Samuel Scherer
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association of subjective (perceived) and objective (geographical information system [GIS]-based) measures of the neighborhood built environment (BE) attributes with cognitive function among older persons, and the mediating effect of transportation physical activity (TPA) and leisure time (physical, social and productive) activities (LTA). METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 402 residents aged 55 years and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910785/oral-tolerization-with-mycobacterial-heat-shock-protein-65-reduces-chronic-experimental-atherosclerosis-in-aged-mice
#12
Cecilia Wick, Elisabeth Onestingel, Egon Demetz, Hermann Dietrich, Georg Wick
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall where both innate and adaptive immunity play important roles. Modulation of the immune response against the stress protein antigen, heat shock protein (HSP) 60, by administration of mycobacterial HSP65 (mbHSP65) orally and/or nasally shows promising therapeutic results in young animals in the sense of less severe experimental atherosclerosis; however, the case of aged animals with already established atherosclerosis has so far never been investigated...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898883/anti-inflammatory-nutrition-and-successful-ageing-in-elderly-individuals-the-multinational-medis-study
#13
Stefanos Tyrovolas, Josep Maria Haro, Alexandra Foscolou, Dimitra Tyrovola, Anargiros Mariolis, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Suzanne Piscopo, Giuseppe Valacchi, Foteini Anastasiou, Efthimios Gotsis, George Metallinos, Natassa Papairakleous, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Antonia-Leda Matalas, Christos Lionis, Akis Zeimbekis, Josep-Antoni Tur, Labros S Sidossis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
BACKGROUND: The role of diet and inflammation in successful ageing is not transparent, and as such, is still being investigated. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the inflammatory potential of dietary habits in the successful ageing of a random sample of older adults living in the Mediterranean basin and who participated in the MEDIS (MEDiterranean ISlands) study. METHODS: During 2005-2016, 3,128 older adults (aged 65-100 years) from 24 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were enrolled in the study...
September 9, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858861/pathways-to-brain-aging-and-their-modifiers-free-radical-induced-energetic-and-neural-decline-in-senescence-friends-model-a-mini-review
#14
Naftali Raz, Ana M Daugherty
In this mini-review, we survey the extant literature on brain aging, with the emphasis on longitudinal studies of neuroanatomy, including regional brain volumes and white matter microstructure. We assess the impact of vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk factors on the trajectories of change in regional brain volumes and white matter properties, as well as the relationships between neuroanatomical and physiological changes and their influence on cognitive performance. We examine these findings in the context of current biological theories of aging and propose the means of integrating noninvasive measures - spectroscopic indices of brain energy metabolism and regional iron deposits - as valuable proxies for elucidating the basic neurobiology of human brain aging...
September 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848095/attitudes-to-ageing-and-change-in-frailty-status-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#15
Catharine R Gale, Cyrus Cooper
BACKGROUND: Older people with more negative attitudes to ageing are at increased risk of several adverse outcomes, including decline in physical function and increased difficulties with activities of daily living. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether negative attitudes to ageing increase the risk of the onset or progression of frailty. METHOD: Participants were 3,505 men and women aged 60 years and over from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing...
August 23, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848150/reading-from-the-black-box-what-sensors-tell-us-about-resting-and-recovery-after-real-world-falls
#16
Lars Schwickert, Jochen Klenk, Wiebren Zijlstra, Maxim Forst-Gill, Kim Sczuka, Jorunn L Helbostad, Lorenzo Chiari, Kamiar Aminian, Chris Todd, Clemens Becker
BACKGROUND: Lying on the floor for a long time after falls, regardless of whether an injury results, remains an unsolved health care problem. In order to develop efficient and acceptable fall detection and reaction approaches, it is relevant to improve the understanding of the circumstances and the characteristics of post-impact responses and the return or failure to return to pre-fall activities. Falls are seldom observed by others; until now, the knowledge about movement kinematics during falls and following impact have been anecdotal...
August 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772261/the-hayflick-limit-and-age-related-adaptive-immune-deficiency
#17
Zoe Gill, Martin Nieuwoudt, Wilfred Ndifon
The adaptive immune system (AIS) acquires significant deficiency during chronological ageing, making older individuals more susceptible to infections and less responsive to vaccines compared to younger individuals. At the cellular level, one of the most striking features of this ageing-related immune deficiency is the dramatic loss of T-cell diversity that occurs in elderly humans. After the age of 70 years, there is a sharp decline in the diversity of naïve T cells, including a >10-fold decrease in the CD4+ compartment and a >100-fold decrease in the CD8+ compartment...
August 4, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704827/age-dependent-changes-in-regulatory-t-lymphocyte-development-and-function-a-mini-review
#18
Julie Darrigues, Joost P M van Meerwijk, Paola Romagnoli
The generation and function of immuno-suppressive regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg), which can differentiate in the thymus (tTreg) or in the periphery (pTreg), are regulated in an age-dependent manner. tTreg are produced at high levels in the first weeks of age, when they expand and colonize secondary lymphoid organs and peripheral tissues to protect the organism from autoimmune diseases and to promote tissue repair. Once this population of Treg is operational in the periphery, at puberty, thymic output of Treg declines, but self-reactive tTreg generated early on in life are maintained over time and play a major role in preserving homeostasis of the immune system...
July 14, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675888/relationship-between-lower-tendency-to-deceive-in-aging-and-inhibitory-compromise
#19
Mohamad El Haj, Pascal Antoine
BACKGROUND: Deception can be associated with a heterogeneous network of concepts such as exaggeration, misleading, white lies, and faking. This paper assesses the tendency to deceive in aging. OBJECTIVE: Our main aim was to assess whether older adults would demonstrate a low tendency to deceive. METHODS: A total of 42 older adults (mean age 67.64 years, SD 7.87) and 45 younger adults (mean age 21.71 years, SD 2.66) were administered a deception scale including items such as "I sometimes tell lies if I have to" or "I never take things that don't belong to me...
July 5, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848187/the-future-of-human-longevity
#20
Leonid A Gavrilov, Vyacheslav N Krut'ko, Natalia S Gavrilova
Recent scientific publications suggest that human longevity records stopped increasing. Our finding that the mortality of centenarians has not decreased noticeably in recent decades (despite a significant mortality decline in younger age groups) is consistent with this suggestion. However, there is no convincing evidence that we have reached the limit of human life span. The future of human longevity is not fixed and will depend on human efforts to extend life span.
2017: Gerontology
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