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Gerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103597/psychophysiological-effects-of-a-single-short-and-moderately-bright-room-light-exposure-on-mildly-depressed-geriatric-inpatients-a-pilot-study
#1
Markus Canazei, Wilfried Pohl, Kathrin Bauernhofer, Ilona Papousek, Helmut K Lackner, Harald R Bliem, Josef Marksteiner, Elisabeth M Weiss
BACKGROUND: Light interventions typically exert their mood-related effects during morning bright light exposures over several weeks. Evidence about immediate ambient room light effects on depressed individuals is still sparse. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at examining the acute effects of a single moderately bright room light exposure on mood, and behavioural and cardiac stress reactions of mildly depressed geriatric inpatients during a short cognitive stimulation and while resting...
January 20, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099965/pilot-test-of-a-new-personal-health-system-integrating-environmental-and-wearable-sensors-for-telemonitoring-and-care-of-elderly-people-at-home-smarta-project
#2
Lucia Pigini, Gabriele Bovi, Claudia Panzarino, Valerio Gower, Maurizio Ferratini, Giuseppe Andreoni, Roberto Sassi, Massimo W Rivolta, Maurizio Ferrarin
BACKGROUND: The increase in life expectancy is accompanied by a growing number of elderly subjects affected by chronic comorbidities, a health issue which also implies important socioeconomic consequences. Shifting from hospital or community dwelling care towards a home personalized healthcare paradigm would promote active aging with a better quality of life, along with a reduction in healthcare-related costs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the SMARTA project was to develop and test an innovative personal health system integrating standard sensors as well as innovative wearable and environmental sensors to allow home telemonitoring of vital parameters and detection of anomalies in daily activities, thus supporting active aging through remote healthcare...
January 19, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099953/social-networks-among-the-older-chinese-population-in-the-usa-findings-from-the-pine-study
#3
XinQi Dong, E-Shien Chang
BACKGROUND: Social network research has become central to studies of health and aging. Its results may yield public health insights that are actionable and improve the quality of life of older adults. However, little is known about the social networks of older immigrant adults, whose social relationships often develop in the context of migration, compounded by cultural and linguistic barriers. OBJECTIVES: This report aims to describe the structure, composition, and emotional components of social networks in the Chinese aging population of the USA, and to explore ways in which their social networks may be critical to their health decision-making...
January 19, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076861/potential-applications-of-smart-multifunctional-wearable-materials-to-gerontology
#4
David G Armstrong, Bijan Najafi, Mohsen Shahinpoor
Smart multifunctional materials can play a constructive role in addressing some very important aging-related issues. Aging affects the ability of older adults to continue to live safely and economically in their own residences for as long as possible. Thus, there will be a greater need for preventive, acute, rehabilitative, and long-term health care services for older adults as well as a need for tools to enable them to function independently during daily activities. The objective of this paper is, thus, to present a comprehensive review of some potential smart materials and their areas of applications to gerontology...
January 12, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052287/is-overnight-fasting-before-surgery-too-much-or-not-enough-how-basic-aging-research-can-guide-preoperative-nutritional-recommendations-to-improve-surgical-outcomes-a-mini-review
#5
Alban Longchamp, Eylul Harputlugil, Jean-Marc Corpataux, C Keith Ozaki, James R Mitchell
Dietary restriction (DR) is best known for extending lifespan in experimental model organisms, but also increases resistance to a variety of clinically relevant stressors, including those associated with surgery. Extended periods of DR, lasting months to years, are required for optimal longevity benefits in rodents, but short-term dietary preconditioning (less than 1 week) remarkably protects from acute injury. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic basis of short-term DR and fasting in the context of surgical stress resistance, including upstream amino acid sensing by the GCN2 and mTORC1 pathways, and downstream effector mechanisms including increased insulin-dependent prosurvival signaling and elevated endogenous hydrogen sulfide production...
January 5, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002820/zika-virus-infection-in-the-elderly-possible-relationship-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#6
Wilson Savino, Carolina V Messias, Daniella A Mendes-da-Cruz, Pamela Passos, Ana Carolina A F Ferreira, Osvaldo J Nascimento
The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, in 2013, and in Brazil, in 2015, was correlated with neurological complications, which comprised, among others, congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which includes a group of acute autoimmune neuropathies generally reported after respiratory or gastrointestinal infectious diseases. Despite being relatively rare, the incidence rate of GBS rises with age, which makes GBS more frequent in the elderly, in whom it is also a more severe disease with slower recovery than in younger patients...
December 22, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974723/genome-and-epigenome-editing-in-mechanistic-studies-of-human-aging-and-aging-related-disease
#7
Cia-Hin Lau, Yousin Suh
The recent advent of genome and epigenome editing technologies has provided a new paradigm in which the landscape of the human genome and epigenome can be precisely manipulated in their native context. Genome and epigenome editing technologies can be applied to many aspects of aging research and offer the potential to develop novel therapeutics against age-related diseases. Here, we discuss the latest technological advances in the CRISPR-based genome and epigenome editing toolbox, and provide insight into how these synthetic biology tools could facilitate aging research by establishing in vitro cell and in vivo animal models to dissect genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying aging and age-related diseases...
December 15, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974722/fragile-and-enduring-positive-affect-implications-for-adaptive-aging
#8
Anthony D Ong, Nilam Ram
There is robust evidence linking interindividual differences in positive affect (PA) with adaptive psychological and physical health outcomes. However, recent research has suggested that intraindividual variability or fluctuations in PA states over time may also be an important predictor of individual health outcomes. Here, we report on research that focuses on PA level and various forms of PA dynamics (variability, instability, inertia, and reactivity) in relation to health. PA level refers to the average level of positive feelings...
December 15, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941328/upper-extremity-function-predicts-adverse-health-outcomes-among-older-adults-hospitalized-for-ground-level-falls
#9
Bellal Joseph, Nima Toosizadeh, Tahereh Orouji Jokar, Michelle R Heusser, Jane Mohler, Bijan Najafi
BACKGROUND: Despite National Surgical Quality Improvement guidelines to integrate frailty into surgical elder assessments, a quick, accurate, and simple frailty assessment tool suitable for busy clinical settings is still not available. Recently, we have demonstrated that a simple upper-extremity function (UEF) test based on wearable sensors could identify frailty with high agreement with conventional assessments by testing 20-s repetitive elbow flexion and extension. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether UEF parameters are sensitive for predicting adverse health outcomes in bedbound older adults admitted to hospital due to ground-level fall injuries...
December 10, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875813/memories-of-a-professor-emeritus
#10
Georg Wick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855417/testosterone-deficiency-and-testosterone-treatment-in-older-men
#11
Farid Saad, Gabriele Röhrig, Stephan von Haehling, Abdulmaged Traish
Frailty is a clinical condition related to changes in metabolism, to sarcopenia, and to decline in muscle mass and strength, bone mineral density, and physical function with aging. The pathophysiology of frailty is multifactorial and associated with comorbidities. Testosterone is implicated in regulating metabolic functions, maintenance of muscle and bone, and inhibition of adipogenesis. In older individuals, reduced testosterone is thought to contribute to an altered state of metabolism, loss of muscle and bone, and increased fat, leading to sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and frailty...
November 18, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855415/instrumented-trail-making-task-to-differentiate-persons-with-no-cognitive-impairment-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-a-proof-of-concept-study
#12
He Zhou, Marwan Sabbagh, Rachel Wyman, Carolyn Liebsack, Mark E Kunik, Bijan Najafi
BACKGROUND: Objective and time-effective tools are needed to identify motor-cognitive impairment and facilitate early intervention. OBJECTIVE: We examined the feasibility, accuracy, and reliability of an instrumented trail-making task (iTMT) using a wearable sensor to identify motor-cognitive impairment among older adults. METHODS: Thirty subjects (age = 82.2 + 6.1 years, body mass index = 25.7 + 4.8, female = 43.3%) in 3 age-matched groups, 11 healthy, 10 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 9 with Alzheimer disease (AD), were recruited...
November 18, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825158/regeneration-of-the-aging-lung-a-mini-review
#13
Sonia Navarro, Barbara Driscoll
Natural lung aging is marked by molecular changes that occur during development, maturation, and late-life decline. At the cellular and whole organ level, degenerative changes that are a hallmark of natural aging (shorter telomeres, increased expression of cellular senescence markers, increased DNA damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, accompanied by diminished elasticity) reach pathological levels in aging humans in the form of chronic respiratory disease. Aging strongly correlates with the development and incidence of chronic respiratory diseases, including cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but is most strongly linked with development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
November 9, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820924/aging-of-cloned-animals-a-mini-review
#14
Jörg Patrick Burgstaller, Gottfried Brem
The number of species for which somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) protocols are established is still increasing. Due to the high number of cloned farm, companion, and sport animals, the topic of animal cloning never ceases to be of public interest. Numerous studies cover the health status of SCNT-derived animals, but very few cover the effects of SCNT on aging. However, only cloned animals that reach the full extent of the species-specific lifespan, doing so with only the normal age-related afflictions and diseases, would prove that SCNT can produce completely healthy offspring...
November 8, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784018/the-potential-of-sgc-modulators-for-the-treatment-of-age-related-fibrosis-a-mini-review
#15
Peter Sandner, Peter Berger, Christoph Zenzmaier
Fibrotic diseases cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and their incidence increases with age. Despite intense research and development efforts, effective and well-tolerated antifibrotic treatments are scarce. Transforming growth factor-β signaling, which is widely considered the most important profibrotic factor, causes a pro-oxidant shift in redox homeostasis and a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell and organ function in whole-body hemostasis...
October 27, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760428/response-of-the-nitric-oxide-system-to-hypobaric-hypoxia-in-the-aged-striatum
#16
Francisco Molina, María Luisa Del Moral, María Ángeles Peinado, Alma Rus
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) appears to play a key role in the hypoxic injury to the brain. We have previously reported that hypoxia/reoxygenation downregulated NO synthases (NOS) in the adult striatum. Until now, no data were available concerning the influence of aging in conjunction with hypoxia/reoxygenation on the NO system in the striatum. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the role of the NO pathway in the hypoxic aged striatum. METHODS: Wistar rats 24-25 months old were submitted to hypobaric hypoxia (20 min)/reoxygenation (0 h, 24 h, 5 days)...
2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760422/how-we-experience-being-alone-age-differences-in-affective-and-biological-correlates-of-momentary-solitude
#17
Theresa Pauly, Jennifer C Lay, Urs M Nater, Stacey B Scott, Christiane A Hoppmann
BACKGROUND: Spending time alone constitutes a ubiquitous part of our everyday lives. As we get older, alone time increases. Less is known, however, about age differences in the experience of spending time alone (momentary solitude). OBJECTIVES: We examined time-varying associations between momentary solitude, affect quality, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity markers [salivary cortisol; dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs)] to better understand the affective and biological correlates of momentary solitude across the adult life span...
2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760421/skeletal-muscle-regeneration-repair-and-remodelling-in-aging-the-importance-of-muscle-stem-cells-and-vascularization
#18
Sophie Joanisse, Joshua P Nederveen, Tim Snijders, Bryon R McKay, Gianni Parise
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Ultimately, sarcopenia results in the loss of independence, which imposes a large financial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. A critical facet of sarcopenia is the diminished ability for aged muscle to regenerate, repair and remodel. Over the years, research has focused on elucidating underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia and the impaired ability of muscle to respond to stimuli with aging. Muscle-specific stem cells, termed satellite cells (SC), play an important role in maintaining muscle health throughout the lifespan...
2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760416/stem-cell-models-a-guide-to-understand-and-mitigate-aging
#19
Regina Brunauer, Silvestre Alavez, Brian K Kennedy
Aging is studied either on a systemic level using life span and health span of animal models, or on the cellular level using replicative life span of yeast or mammalian cells. While useful in identifying general and conserved pathways of aging, both approaches provide only limited information about cell-type specific causes and mechanisms of aging. Stem cells are the regenerative units of multicellular life, and stem cell aging might be a major cause for organismal aging. Using the examples of hematopoietic stem cell aging and human pluripotent stem cell models, we propose that stem cell models of aging are valuable for studying tissue-specific causes and mechanisms of aging and can provide unique insights into the mammalian aging process that may be inaccessible in simple model organisms...
2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736812/mission-statement
#20
Georg Wick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Gerontology
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