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Gloria Brombo, Francesco Bonetti, Beatrice Ortolani, Mario Luca Morieri, Cristina Bosi, Angelina Passaro, Giovanni B Vigna, Caterina Borgna, Maria Vittoria Arcidicono, Veronica Tisato, Giovanni Zuliani
BACKGROUND: The protein Klotho is involved in biological processes related to longevity, cardiovascular health, and cognition. Serum Klotho levels have been associated with better cognition in animal models; moreover, lower Klotho concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid from subjects with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) have been reported. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to examine the possible relationship between Klotho plasma concentrations and cognitive status in the elderly...
May 16, 2018: Gerontology
Deirdre A Robertson, David Weiss
BACKGROUND: Social status is the standing of a person or group in the social hierarchy, and is perceived to change across the life span from low social status in early life, to peak in midlife, and to a decline thereafter. As threats to subjective social status are known to be detrimental to individuals' health, it is important to better understand how older adults perceive themselves and others in terms of age-related social status. OBJECTIVE: We examined status ambivalence - the potential discrepancy between how older adults' perceive social status for themselves compared to older adults in general...
May 9, 2018: Gerontology
Sheng-Feng Tsai, Nai-Wen Ku, Tzu-Feng Wang, Yan-Hsiang Yang, Yao-Hsiang Shih, Shih-Ying Wu, Chu-Wan Lee, Megan Yu, Ting-Ting Yang, Yu-Min Kuo
BACKGROUND: Aging impairs hippocampal neuroplasticity and hippocampus-related learning and memory. In contrast, exercise training is known to improve hippocampal neuronal function. However, whether exercise is capable of restoring memory function in old animals is less clear. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the effects of exercise on the hippocampal neuroplasticity and memory functions during aging. METHODS: Young (3 months), middle-aged (9-12 months), and old (18 months) mice underwent moderate-intensity treadmill running training for 6 weeks, and their hippocampus-related learning and memory, and the plasticity of their CA1 neurons was evaluated...
May 7, 2018: Gerontology
István Sulykos, Zsófia Anna Gaál, István Czigler
BACKGROUND: In comparison to controlled (attentional) processing, relatively little is known about the age-related changes of the earlier (preattentive) processes. An event-related potential (ERP) index of preattentive (automatic) visual processing, the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a good candidate for analyzing age-related differences in the automatic processing of visual events. OBJECTIVE: So far results concerning age-related changes in vMMN have been equivocal...
April 26, 2018: Gerontology
Hiroyuki Shimada, Ryo Hotta, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Sho Nakakubo, Keitaro Makino
BACKGROUND: Driving cessation is strongly associated with adverse health outcomes in the older adults. Although there were numerous documentations of driving rehabilitation in disabled adults, the effects of interventions on safe driving were not clear in older adults with cognitive impairment who had low driving skills. OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine whether a safe driving skill program consisting of classroom and on-road training could enhance driving performance of older drivers with cognitive impairment in Japan...
April 12, 2018: Gerontology
Ryan Best, Alexandra M Freund
BACKGROUND: Older adults are stereotypically considered to be risk averse compared to younger age groups, although meta-analyses on age and the influence of gain/loss framing on risky choices have not found empirical evidence for age differences in risk-taking. OBJECTIVE: The current study extends the investigation of age differences in risk preference by including analyses on the effect of the probability of a risky option on choices in gain versus loss situations...
April 5, 2018: Gerontology
Laura B Zahodne, A Zarina Kraal, Afsara Zaheed, Ketlyne Sol
BACKGROUND: Subjective social status (SSS) is associated with mental and physical health, independent of objective socioeconomic status (SES), but its association with late-life cognitive decline is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study characterizes the association between SSS and late-life memory trajectories in a large, nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States. METHODS: Using data from 8,530 participants aged 65 years and older in the Health and Retirement Study, structural equation models tested associations between SSS, objective SES (i...
March 29, 2018: Gerontology
Nattayaporn Apaiajai, Titikorn Chunchai, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that testosterone deprivation at a very young age accelerated, but did not aggravate, left-ventricular (LV) dysfunction in obese insulin-resistant rats. However, the effects of testosterone deprivation during adulthood on LV function in obese insulin-resistant rats remains unclear. We hypothesized that testosterone deprivation aggravates LV dysfunction and cardiac autonomic imbalance via the impairment of cardiac mitochondrial function and dynamics proteins, a reduction in insulin receptor function, and an increase in apoptosis in obese insulin-resistant rats...
March 22, 2018: Gerontology
Anamaria Balic
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, became more evident...
March 13, 2018: Gerontology
Patrick Lemaire, Fleur Brun, Isabelle Régner
BACKGROUND: Age-based cognitive deficits are exacerbated by stereotype threat effects (i.e., the threat of being judged as cognitively incapable due to aging). We tested whether age-based stereotype threat effects can occur via impair- ing older adults' ability to select the best strategy and/or to execute strategies efficiently. METHODS: Older adults (age range: 64.3-89.5 years) were randomly assigned to a stereotype threat or control condition before taking an episodic memory task...
February 14, 2018: Gerontology
Hyuma Makizako, Hiroyuki Shimada, Ryo Hotta, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Sho Nakakubo, Keitaro Makino
BACKGROUND: Attention and executive function may play an important role in ensuring safe driving as they involve paying attention to complex information and making an instantaneous judgment during driving. We hypothesized that poor performance in attention and executive function may increase the risk of near-miss incidents among older drivers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine associations of current experience of near-miss traffic incidents with attention and executive function among older Japanese drivers...
February 9, 2018: Gerontology
Amber Watts, Shea J Andrews, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may preserve cognitive function in older adults, but benefits vary by sex and genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: We tested the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognitive performance to de termine whether a common genetic polymorphism for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF Val66Met) moderated this effect. METHODS: In a 12-year longitudinal population-based sample of older adults (n = 2,218), we used growth curve modeling to investigate whether the benefits of physical activity on cognitive preservation differed by BDNF genotype and sex across multiple cognitive domains including processing speed, attention, working memory, and episodic verbal memory...
February 2, 2018: Gerontology
Walther Parson
Forensic genetics developed from protein-based techniques a quarter of a century ago and became famous as "DNA fingerprinting," this being based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of high-molecular-weight DNA. The amplification of much smaller short tandem repeat (STR) sequences using the polymerase chain reaction soon replaced RFLP analysis and advanced to become the gold standard in genetic identification. Meanwhile, STR multiplexes have been developed and made commercially available which simultaneously amplify up to 30 STR loci from as little as 15 cells or fewer...
January 23, 2018: Gerontology
Ryan T Crews, Abagayle L King, Sai V Yalla, Noah J Rosenblatt
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a substantial dilemma for geriatric individuals with diabetes. The breakdown in tissue associated with DFU is typically a result of repetitive cycles of physical stress placed on the feet during weight-bearing activity. Accordingly, a key tenet in healing as well as preventing DFU is the use of offloading footwear to redistribute physical stress away from high stress locations such as bony prominences. Over the last several years there has been a substantial amount of effort directed at better understanding and implementing the practice of offloading...
January 16, 2018: Gerontology
Sanghee Moon, Maud Ranchet, Abiodun Emmanuel Akinwuntan, Mark Tant, David Brian Carr, Mukaila Ajiboye Raji, Hannes Devos
BACKGROUND: Adults aged 85 and older, often referred to as the oldest-old, are the fastest-growing segment of the population. The rapidly increasing number of older adults with chronic and multiple medical conditions poses challenges regarding their driving safety. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of advanced age on driving safety in drivers with medical conditions. METHODS: We categorized 3,425 drivers with preexisting medical conditions into four age groups: middle-aged (55-64 years, n = 1,386), young-old (65-74 years, n = 1,013), old-old (75-84 years, n = 803), or oldest-old (85 years and older, n = 223)...
2018: Gerontology
Nortin M Hadler
"Overtreatment" is a neologism coined some 15 years ago to denote medical and surgical interventions that are unnecessary. It is a topical term for an old concept. However, it has rapidly become a shibboleth for those inclined toward finger-pointing and blaming in matters of health policy. As such, it is a "foe" that heats up rather than modulates debate. But if one examines the notion in the context of the contemporary patient-physician dialogue, it is anything but a foe. Overtreatment and its fellow travelers, overutilization and overprescription, face off with contrary notions when a patient contends with the challenge of evaluating any clinical option...
2018: Gerontology
Andreas Ihle, Rafal Albiński, Kamila Gurynowicz, Matthias Kliegel
BACKGROUND: So far, training of prospective memory (PM) focused on very short instances (single sessions) and targeted the intention-formation phase only. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of 2 different 4-week strategy-based PM training types, namely imagery training (targeting the encoding of the PM intention in the intention-formation phase) versus rehearsal training (targeting the maintenance of the PM intention in the intention-retention phase) in older adults...
2018: Gerontology
Jun Aida, Noriko Cable, Paola Zaninotto, Toru Tsuboya, Georgios Tsakos, Yusuke Matsuyama, Kanade Ito, Ken Osaka, Katsunori Kondo, Michael G Marmot, Richard G Watt
BACKGROUND: A rapidly ageing population presents major challenges to health and social care services. Cross-country comparative studies on survival among older adults are limited. In addition, Japan, the country with the longest life expectancy, is rarely included in these cross-country comparisons. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relative contributions of social and behavioural factors on the differences in survival among older people in Japan and England. METHODS: We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES; n = 13,176) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; n = 5,551) to analyse all-cause mortality up to 9...
2018: Gerontology
Joshua D Preston, Leryn J Reynolds, Kevin J Pearson
BACKGROUND: A vast body of research has demonstrated that disease susceptibility and offspring health can be influenced by perinatal factors, which include both paternal and maternal behavior and environment. Offspring disease risk has the potential to affect the health span and life span of offspring. KEY FINDINGS: Various maternal factors, such as environmental toxicant exposure, diet, stress, exercise, age at conception, and longevity have the potential to influence age-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer risk in offspring...
2018: Gerontology
Candice E Van Skike, Veronica Galvan
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is detected prior to the onset of cognitive and histopathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the initiation and progression of AD. Recent studies identified the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a critical effector of cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD. mTOR has a key role in the regulation of metabolism, but some mTOR-dependent mechanisms are uniquely specific to the regulation of cerebrovascular function...
2018: Gerontology
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