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Georg Wick
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October 14, 2016: Gerontology
Peter van der Kraan, Csaba Matta, Ali Mobasheri
Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, healthcare systems, and social care systems throughout the world, with indirect costs having a predominant economic impact. Aging is a major contributing factor to the development and progression of arthritic and musculoskeletal diseases. Indeed, aging and inflammation (often referred to as 'inflammaging') are critical risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA), which is one of the most common forms of joint disease. The term 'chondrosenescence' has recently been introduced to define the age-dependent deterioration of chondrocyte function and how it undermines cartilage function in OA...
September 6, 2016: Gerontology
Hylton B Menz, Maria Auhl, Shannon E Munteanu
BACKGROUND: Footwear worn indoors is generally less supportive than outdoor footwear and may increase the risk of falls. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing different styles of indoor footwear: a backless slipper and an enclosed slipper designed to optimise balance. METHODS: Older women (n = 30) aged 65-83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway, limits of stability, and tandem walking, measured with the NeuroCom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, and step length, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (1) socks, (2) backless slippers with a soft sole, and (3) enclosed slippers with a firm sole and Velcro® fastening...
September 3, 2016: Gerontology
Eva Billstedt, Margda Waern, Hanna Falk, Paul Duberstein, Svante Östling, Tore Hällström, Ingmar Skoog
BACKGROUND: While time trends in personality traits have been suggested in younger cohorts, little is known regarding this issue in older adults. OBJECTIVE: To test for birth cohort changes in psychogenic needs according to Murray's theory of personality in two birth cohorts of 75-year-olds born 1901-1902 and 1930. METHODS: Two population-based birth cohorts were examined at the age of 75 years in 1976-1977 and in 2005-2006. Psychogenic needs according to Murray were measured with the Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (CMPS), a Swedish version of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule...
August 31, 2016: Gerontology
Hanna Dellago, Madhusudhan Reddy Bobbili, Johannes Grillari
The miR-17-92 cluster, led by its most prominent member, miR-17-5p, has been identified as the first miRNA with oncogenic potential. Thus, the whole cluster containing miR-17-5p has been termed oncomiR-1. It is strongly expressed in embryonic stem cells and has essential roles in vital processes like cell cycle regulation, proliferation and apoptosis. The importance of miR-17-5p for fundamental biological processes is underscored by the fact that a miR17-deficient mouse is neonatally lethal. Recently, miR-17-5p was identified in the context of aging, since it is comprised in a common signature of miRNAs that is downregulated in several models of aging research...
August 31, 2016: Gerontology
Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Ryo Hotta, Sho Nakakubo, Takehiko Doi
BACKGROUND: Many studies have examined the negative social and health consequences of driving cessation in later life. However, whether the transition to driving cessation results in the incidence of functional limitation in older people remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether driving cessation was associated with the incidence of functional limitation in older Japanese individuals. METHODS: The study included 3,556 participants (mean age: 71...
August 18, 2016: Gerontology
Vahid Eslami, Mindy J Katz, Robert S White, Erin Sundermann, Julie M Jiang, Ali Ezzati, Richard B Lipton
BACKGROUND: Among older adults, pain intensity and pain interference are more common in women than men and associated with obesity and inflammatory markers. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the obesity and pain relationship is mediated by the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a nonspecific marker of systemic inflammation, and whether this relationship differs by sex. METHODS: Items from Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 were used to measure pain intensity and pain interference in daily life...
August 4, 2016: Gerontology
Eric Hay, Wafa Bouaziz, Thomas Funck-Brentano, Martine Cohen-Solal
Sclerostin, mainly produced by osteocytes, is now considered a major regulator of bone formation. Identified from patients with a low bone mass, sclerostin inhibits the Wnt pathway by binding to LRP5/6 and subsequently increases bone formation. Sclerostin may also play a role in the mediation of systemic and local factors such as calcitriol, PTH, glucocorticoids and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Circulating sclerostin levels increase with age and with the decline of kidney function. However, they are surprisingly higher in patients with a high bone mineral density, suggesting that sclerostin may be a relevant marker of the pool of mature osteocytes...
May 14, 2016: Gerontology
Beatrice Bertozzi, Valeria Tosti, Luigi Fontana
In 1948, the World Health Organization defined health as 'a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity'. Detractors claim that this definition of health is utopian and unrealistic. However, accumulating evidence from experimental studies suggests that aging is not inevitably linked with the development of chronic diseases, and the age-associated accumulation of molecular damage can be prevented or greatly delayed by dietary and genetic manipulations that downregulate key cellular nutrient-sensing pathways...
May 14, 2016: Gerontology
David J Frank, Megan L Jordano, Kelly Browne, Dayna R Touron
BACKGROUND: Despite declines in cognitive abilities, older adults often perform comparable to younger adults in everyday tasks [J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:172-183]. Older adults may compensate for cognitive declines by using more efficient strategies. People often improve their efficiency by switching from an algorithmic strategy where information is computed or looked-up, to a strategy where the information is retrieved directly from memory [J Exp Psychol Gen 1988;117:258-275]. However, older adults are reluctant to shift from algorithmic strategies to retrieval strategies in the laboratory, and this reluctance to use retrieval is driven by both bottom-up (slower learning) and top-down influences (memory confidence, motivation to be quick/accurate) [Psychol Aging 2004;19:452-466; Mem Cognit 2004;32:298-310]...
May 13, 2016: Gerontology
Lindsay Bahureksa, Bijan Najafi, Ahlam Saleh, Marwan Sabbagh, David Coon, M Jane Mohler, Michael Schwenk
BACKGROUND: In addition to cognitive deficits, people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can experience motor dysfunction, including deficits in gait and balance. Objective, instrumented motor performance assessment may allow the detection of subtle MCI-related motor deficits, allowing early diagnosis and intervention. Motor assessment under dual-task conditions may increase diagnostic accuracy; however, the sensitivity of different cognitive tasks is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the extant literature focusing on instrumented assessment of gait and balance parameters for discriminating MCI patients from cognitively intact peers...
May 13, 2016: Gerontology
M Jane Mohler, Christopher S Wendel, Ruth E Taylor-Piliae, Nima Toosizadeh, Bijan Najafi
BACKGROUND: Few studies of the association between prospective falls and sensor-based measures of motor performance and physical activity (PA) have evaluated subgroups of frailty status separately. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate wearable sensor-based measures of gait, balance, and PA that are predictive of future falls in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The Arizona Frailty Cohort Study in Tucson, Arizona, followed community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and over (without baseline cognitive deficit, severe movement disorders, or recent stroke) for falls over 6 months...
April 30, 2016: Gerontology
Kelli L Vaughan, Julie A Mattison
The prevalence of obesity in the US is increasing exponentially across gender, age and ethnic groups. Obesity and a long-term hypercaloric diet result in what appears to be accelerated aging, often leading to a multi-systemic deterioration known as the metabolic syndrome. Due to their physiological similarity to humans as well as comparable rates of spontaneous obesity and diabetes mellitus, nonhuman primates provide a useful translational model for the human condition. They allow for an in vivo study of disease progression, interaction of comorbidities, and novel interventions...
April 28, 2016: Gerontology
Jeroen Waanders, Chantal Beijersbergen, Alessio Murgia, Tibor Hortobágyi
BACKGROUND: Old referenced to young adults show a relative maintenance of maximal eccentric (RELM) compared to concentric muscle torque: ∼76 and ∼59%, respectively. However, it is unknown if RELM affords functional benefits in old adults. OBJECTIVE: We examined if there is specificity between the two types of peak quadriceps torque (i.e., concentric and eccentric) and timed gait performance measured during level, ramp, and stair walking and if gait performance was higher in old adults with high versus low RELM...
April 28, 2016: Gerontology
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Tibor Hortobágyi, Rainer Beurskens, Romana Lenzen-Grossimlinghaus, Martijn Gäbler, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Walking speed decreases in old age. Even though old adults regularly participate in exercise interventions, we do not know how the intervention-induced changes in physical abilities produce faster walking. The Potsdam Gait Study (POGS) will examine the effects of 10 weeks of power training and detraining on leg muscle power and, for the first time, on complete gait biomechanics, including joint kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation in old adults with moderate mobility disability...
March 31, 2016: Gerontology
Christian Werner, Phoebe Ullrich, Milad Geravand, Angelika Peer, Klaus Hauer
BACKGROUND: Robotic rollators enhance the basic functions of established devices by technically advanced physical, cognitive, or sensory support to increase autonomy in persons with severe impairment. In the evaluation of such ambient assisted living solutions, both the technical and user perspectives are important to prove usability, effectiveness and safety, and to ensure adequate device application. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the methodology of studies evaluating robotic rollators with focus on the user perspective and to give recommendations for future evaluation studies...
March 24, 2016: Gerontology
Gurdeep Singh Mannu, Katie Honney, Robert Spooner, Allan B Clark, Joao H Bettencourt-Silva, M Justin S Zaman, Yoon K Loke, Phyo K Myint
BACKGROUND: Incidentally elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels are common in acutely unwell older patients. However, little is known about how this impacts on the prognosis of these patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether incidentally elevated cTnI levels (group 1) are associated with poorer outcome when compared to age- and sex-matched patients without an elevated cTnI level (group 2), and to patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (group 3)...
March 24, 2016: Gerontology
Kerstin Frändin, Helena Grönstedt, Jorunn L Helbostad, Astrid Bergland, Mette Andresen, Lis Puggaard, Karin Harms-Ringdahl, Randi Granbo, Karin Hellström
BACKGROUND: The preservation of physical functions such as muscle strength, balance and mobility is fundamental to maintaining independence in activities of daily living (ADL). The physical activity level of most nursing home residents is very low, which implies that they are often subject to a decline in health, mobility, autonomy and social contacts and are also at risk of suffering a decline in mental well-being. In a previous study, we demonstrated that transfers, balance and physical activity level improved after 3 months of individually tailored intervention in nursing home residents...
March 11, 2016: Gerontology
Laura Tay, Wee Shiong Lim, Mark Chan, Noorhazlina Ali, Mei Sian Chong
BACKGROUND: Gait disorders are common in early dementia, with particularly pronounced dual-task deficits, contributing to the increased fall risk and mobility decline associated with cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the effects of a combined cognitive stimulation and physical exercise programme (MINDVital) on gait performance under single- and dual-task conditions in older adults with mild dementia. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with early dementia participated in a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme comprising both physical exercise and cognitive stimulation...
February 26, 2016: Gerontology
Bina Knöpfli, Davide Morselli, Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello
BACKGROUND: Marital dissolution is known to be among the most stressful life events with long-reaching negative consequences on individuals' lives. A limitation in research to date is that most studies have focused on the impact of marital disruption on well-being outcomes in younger adults. Furthermore, although population-based studies on divorce document a broad range of negative effects, more fine-grained analyses reveal a large heterogeneity in people's adjustment, which is still not well understood...
2016: Gerontology
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