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Gerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934747/untangling-longevity-dauer-and-healthspan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-insulin-igf-1-signalling
#1
Collin Yvès Ewald, Jorge Iván Castillo-Quan, T Keith Blackwell
The groundbreaking discovery that lower levels of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) can induce lifespan extension was reported 24 years ago in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this organism, mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor gene daf-2 or other genes in this pathway can double lifespan. Subsequent work has revealed that reduced IIS (rIIS) extends lifespan across diverse species, possibly including humans. In C. elegans, IIS also regulates development into the diapause state known as dauer, a quiescent larval form that enables C...
September 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918423/non-discriminant-relationships-between-leg-muscle-strength-mass-and-gait-performance-in-healthy-young-and-old-adults
#2
Thomas Muehlbauer, Urs Granacher, Ron Borde, Tibor Hortobágyi
BACKGROUND: Gait speed declines with increasing age, but it is unclear if gait speed preferentially correlates with leg muscle strength or mass. OBJECTIVE: We determined the relationship between gait speed and (1) leg muscle strength measured at 3 lower extremity joints and (2) leg lean tissue mass (LTM) in healthy young (age: 25 years, n = 20) and old (age: 70 years, n = 20) adults. METHODS: Subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic hip, knee, and ankle extension torque, leg LTM by bioimpedance, and gait performance (i...
September 16, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910814/feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-intervention-programmes-integrating-functional-exercise-into-daily-life-of-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#3
Michaela Weber, Nacera Belala, Lindy Clemson, Elisabeth Boulton, Helen Hawley-Hague, Clemens Becker, Michael Schwenk
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, exercise programmes for improving functional performance and reducing falls are organised as structured sessions. An alternative approach of integrating functional exercises into everyday tasks has emerged in recent years. OBJECTIVES: Summarising the current evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of interventions integrating functional exercise into daily life. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted including articles based on the following criteria: (1) individuals ≥60 years; (2) intervention studies of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies (NRS); (3) using a lifestyle-integrated approach; (4) using functional exercises to improve strength, balance, or physical functioning; and (5) reporting outcomes on feasibility and/or effectiveness...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910813/the-neighborhood-built-environment-and-cognitive-function-of-older-persons-results-from-the-singapore-longitudinal-ageing-study
#4
Tze Pin Ng, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Faysal Kabir Shuvo, Jia Yen Eng, Keng Bee Yap, Li Min Hee, Siew Pang Chan, Samuel Scherer
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association of subjective (perceived) and objective (geographical information system [GIS]-based) measures of the neighborhood built environment (BE) attributes with cognitive function among older persons, and the mediating effect of transportation physical activity (TPA) and leisure time (physical, social and productive) activities (LTA). METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 402 residents aged 55 years and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910785/oral-tolerization-with-mycobacterial-heat-shock-protein-65-reduces-chronic-experimental-atherosclerosis-in-aged-mice
#5
Cecilia Wick, Elisabeth Onestingel, Egon Demetz, Hermann Dietrich, Georg Wick
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall where both innate and adaptive immunity play important roles. Modulation of the immune response against the stress protein antigen, heat shock protein (HSP) 60, by administration of mycobacterial HSP65 (mbHSP65) orally and/or nasally shows promising therapeutic results in young animals in the sense of less severe experimental atherosclerosis; however, the case of aged animals with already established atherosclerosis has so far never been investigated...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898883/anti-inflammatory-nutrition-and-successful-ageing-in-elderly-individuals-the-multinational-medis-study
#6
Stefanos Tyrovolas, Josep Maria Haro, Alexandra Foscolou, Dimitra Tyrovola, Anargiros Mariolis, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Suzanne Piscopo, Giuseppe Valacchi, Foteini Anastasiou, Efthimios Gotsis, George Metallinos, Natassa Papairakleous, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Antonia-Leda Matalas, Christos Lionis, Akis Zeimbekis, Josep-Antoni Tur, Labros S Sidossis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
BACKGROUND: The role of diet and inflammation in successful ageing is not transparent, and as such, is still being investigated. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the inflammatory potential of dietary habits in the successful ageing of a random sample of older adults living in the Mediterranean basin and who participated in the MEDIS (MEDiterranean ISlands) study. METHODS: During 2005-2016, 3,128 older adults (aged 65-100 years) from 24 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were enrolled in the study...
September 9, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858861/pathways-to-brain-aging-and-their-modifiers-free-radical-induced-energetic-and-neural-decline-in-senescence-friends-model-a-mini-review
#7
Naftali Raz, Ana M Daugherty
In this mini-review, we survey the extant literature on brain aging, with the emphasis on longitudinal studies of neuroanatomy, including regional brain volumes and white matter microstructure. We assess the impact of vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk factors on the trajectories of change in regional brain volumes and white matter properties, as well as the relationships between neuroanatomical and physiological changes and their influence on cognitive performance. We examine these findings in the context of current biological theories of aging and propose the means of integrating noninvasive measures - spectroscopic indices of brain energy metabolism and regional iron deposits - as valuable proxies for elucidating the basic neurobiology of human brain aging...
September 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848095/attitudes-to-ageing-and-change-in-frailty-status-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#8
Catharine R Gale, Cyrus Cooper
BACKGROUND: Older people with more negative attitudes to ageing are at increased risk of several adverse outcomes, including decline in physical function and increased difficulties with activities of daily living. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether negative attitudes to ageing increase the risk of the onset or progression of frailty. METHOD: Participants were 3,505 men and women aged 60 years and over from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing...
August 23, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848187/the-future-of-human-longevity
#9
Leonid A Gavrilov, Vyacheslav N Krut'ko, Natalia S Gavrilova
Recent scientific publications suggest that human longevity records stopped increasing. Our finding that the mortality of centenarians has not decreased noticeably in recent decades (despite a significant mortality decline in younger age groups) is consistent with this suggestion. However, there is no convincing evidence that we have reached the limit of human life span. The future of human longevity is not fixed and will depend on human efforts to extend life span.
August 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848150/reading-from-the-black-box-what-sensors-tell-us-about-resting-and-recovery-after-real-world-falls
#10
Lars Schwickert, Jochen Klenk, Wiebren Zijlstra, Maxim Forst-Gill, Kim Sczuka, Jorunn L Helbostad, Lorenzo Chiari, Kamiar Aminian, Chris Todd, Clemens Becker
BACKGROUND: Lying on the floor for a long time after falls, regardless of whether an injury results, remains an unsolved health care problem. In order to develop efficient and acceptable fall detection and reaction approaches, it is relevant to improve the understanding of the circumstances and the characteristics of post-impact responses and the return or failure to return to pre-fall activities. Falls are seldom observed by others; until now, the knowledge about movement kinematics during falls and following impact have been anecdotal...
August 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848096/the-future-of-human-longevity-time-for-a-reality-check
#11
Eric Le Bourg, Jan Vijg
Gavrilov and colleagues disagree with our article in Gerontology [Vijg and Le Bourg: Gerontology 2017;63:432-434]. Here we address their arguments regarding human life-history strategies, maximal lifespan, and the proposal that one could live soon for 150 years.
August 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817828/fall-prone-older-people-s-attitudes-towards-the-use-of-virtual-reality-technology-for-fall-prevention
#12
Kim Dockx, Lisa Alcock, Esther Bekkers, Pieter Ginis, Miriam Reelick, Elisa Pelosin, Giovanna Lagravinese, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman, Lynn Rochester, Alice Nieuwboer
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) technology is a relatively new rehabilitation tool that can deliver a combination of cognitive and motor training for fall prevention. The attitudes of older people to such training are currently unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate: (1) the attitudes of fall-prone older people towards fall prevention exercise with and without VR; (2) attitudinal changes after intervention with and without VR; and (3) user satisfaction following fall prevention exercise with and without VR...
August 18, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817825/muscle-strength-and-muscle-mass-in-older-patients-during-hospitalization-the-empower-study
#13
Jeanine M Van Ancum, Kira Scheerman, Vincent D Pierik, Siger T Numans, Sjors Verlaan, Hanne E Smeenk, Monique Slee-Valentijn, Roeliene C Kruizinga, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with an increased length of hospital stay and higher mortality rate in inpatients. To what extent hospitalization affects muscle strength and muscle mass is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess muscle strength and muscle mass at admission and during hospitalization in older patients and its relation with being at risk of geriatric conditions. METHODS: The EMPOWER study included patients aged 70 years and older, admitted to 4 wards of the VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands between April and December 2015...
August 18, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813700/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-age-related-muscle-loss-and-sarcopenia-a-mini-review
#14
Juan Diego Naranjo, Jenna L Dziki, Stephen F Badylak
Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial disease that includes a decrease in the number, structure and physiology of muscle fibers, and age-related muscle mass loss, and is associated with loss of strength, increased frailty, and increased risk for fractures and falls. Treatment options are suboptimal and consist of exercise and nutrition as the cornerstone of therapy. Current treatment principles involve identification and modification of risk factors to prevent the disease, but these efforts are of limited value to the elderly individuals currently affected by sarcopenia...
August 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813696/effects-of-standardized-home-training-in-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-following-geriatric-rehabilitation-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#15
Klaus Hauer, Phoebe Ullrich, Ilona Dutzi, Rainer Beurskens, Sylvia Kern, Jürgen Bauer, Michael Schwenk
BACKGROUND: Post-ward geriatric rehabilitation programs have hardly been developed and validated, which leaves a substantial gap in rehabilitative care in older adults and hinders full exploitation of maintained, but often unrecognized rehabilitation potentials. Geriatric rehabilitation patients with cognitive impairment represent a highly vulnerable population which is often affected by a lack of an ongoing support at the intersection between ward-based and post-ward rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a standardized home-based training program in geriatric patients with cognitive impairment following ward-based rehabilitation...
August 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772261/the-hayflick-limit-and-age-related-adaptive-immune-deficiency
#16
Zoe Gill, Martin Nieuwoudt, Wilfred Ndifon
The adaptive immune system (AIS) acquires significant deficiency during chronological ageing, making older individuals more susceptible to infections and less responsive to vaccines compared to younger individuals. At the cellular level, one of the most striking features of this ageing-related immune deficiency is the dramatic loss of T-cell diversity that occurs in elderly humans. After the age of 70 years, there is a sharp decline in the diversity of naïve T cells, including a >10-fold decrease in the CD4+ compartment and a >100-fold decrease in the CD8+ compartment...
August 4, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768257/autoimmunity-in-the-elderly-insights-from-basic-science-and-clinics-a-mini-review
#17
Abdulla Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Elias Toubi, Bat-Sheva Porat, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Advancements in the field of biomedicine, including the control of infectious diseases through antibiotics and vaccination practices and the prevention of chronic disorders, have led to reduced mortality, increased life expectancy and, as such, growth of the older population. Ageing is accompanied by profound morphological and physiological alterations. In particular, the immune system undergoes a complex series of remodeling/restructuring events, involving almost all compartments - both the innate and the adaptive system...
July 29, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704827/age-dependent-changes-in-regulatory-t-lymphocyte-development-and-function-a-mini-review
#18
Julie Darrigues, Joost P M van Meerwijk, Paola Romagnoli
The generation and function of immuno-suppressive regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg), which can differentiate in the thymus (tTreg) or in the periphery (pTreg), are regulated in an age-dependent manner. tTreg are produced at high levels in the first weeks of age, when they expand and colonize secondary lymphoid organs and peripheral tissues to protect the organism from autoimmune diseases and to promote tissue repair. Once this population of Treg is operational in the periphery, at puberty, thymic output of Treg declines, but self-reactive tTreg generated early on in life are maintained over time and play a major role in preserving homeostasis of the immune system...
July 14, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675907/the-role-of-leisure-activities-in-mediating-the-relationship-between-physical-health-and-well-being-differential-patterns-in-old-and-very-old-age
#19
Andreas Ihle, Élvio R Gouveia, Bruna R Gouveia, Bernadette W A van der Linden, Julia Sauter, Rainer Gabriel, Michel Oris, Delphine Fagot, Matthias Kliegel
BACKGROUND: Recently, Paggi et al. [Gerontology 2016;62:450-458] for the very first time showed in a cross-sectional sample of 259 adults aged 18-81 years that the relation of physical health to psychological well-being was mediated via frequency of leisure activity participation. OBJECTIVE: To extend this framework, we followed theories on successful aging and vulnerability to propose to add a differential perspective predicting that certain individuals may be more vulnerable than others and therefore may show differences in the mediation pattern...
July 5, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675888/relationship-between-lower-tendency-to-deceive-in-aging-and-inhibitory-compromise
#20
Mohamad El Haj, Pascal Antoine
BACKGROUND: Deception can be associated with a heterogeneous network of concepts such as exaggeration, misleading, white lies, and faking. This paper assesses the tendency to deceive in aging. OBJECTIVE: Our main aim was to assess whether older adults would demonstrate a low tendency to deceive. METHODS: A total of 42 older adults (mean age 67.64 years, SD 7.87) and 45 younger adults (mean age 21.71 years, SD 2.66) were administered a deception scale including items such as "I sometimes tell lies if I have to" or "I never take things that don't belong to me...
July 5, 2017: Gerontology
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