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Neuroscience Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233723/the-different-faces-of-the-p-a53t-alpha-synuclein-mutation-a-screening-of-greek-patients-with-parkinsonism-and-or-dementia
#1
Marianthi Breza, Georgios Koutsis, Georgia Karadima, Constantin Potagas, Chrisoula Kartanou, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki, Leonidas Stefanis, Marios Panas
BACKGROUND: The p. A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene is a rare cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Although generally rare, it is particularly common in the Greek population due to a founder effect. A53T-positive PD patients often develop dementia during disease course and may very rarely present with dementia. METHODS: We screened for the p. A53T SNCA mutation a total of 347 cases of Greek origin with parkinsonism and/or dementia, collected over 15 years at the Neurogenetics Unit, Eginition Hospital, University of Athens...
December 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229398/can-an-aversive-extinction-resistant-memory-trigger-impairments-in-walking-adaptability-an-experimental-study-using-adult-rats
#2
Filipe Mello Medeiros, Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw, Pedro Porto Alegre Baptista, Laura Tartari Neves, Lucas Athaydes Martins, Cristiane Regina Guerino Furini, Iván Izquierdo, Léder Leal Xavier, Kristen Hollands, Régis Gemerasca Mestriner
Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first part (n=16), the aversive, extinction-resistance memory paradigm was established using a fear-conditioning chamber...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229397/di-acetyl-creatine-ethyl-ester-a-new-creatine-derivative-for-the-possible-treatment-of-creatine-transporter-deficiency
#3
Enrico Adriano, Maurizio Gulino, Maria Arkel, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Nara Liessi, Enrico Millo, Patrizia Garbati, Maurizio Balestrino
Creatine is pivotal in energy metabolism of the brain. In primary creatine deficiency syndromes, creatine is missing from the brain. Two of them (AGAT and GAMT deficiency) are due to impaired creatine synthesis, and can be treated by creatine supplementation. By contrast, creatine transporter deficiency cannot be treated by such supplementation, since creatine crossing of biological membranes (plasma membrane and blood-brain barrier) is dependent on its transporter. This problem might be overcome by modifying the creatine molecule to allow it to cross biological membranes independently of its transporter...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229396/albeit-nocturnal-rats-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury-do-not-differ-in-neurobehavioral-performance-whether-tested-during-the-day-or-night
#4
Peter J Niesman, Jiahui Wei, Megan J LaPorte, Lauren J Carlson, Kileigh L Nassau, Gina C Bao, Jeffrey P Cheng, Patricia de la Tremblaye, Naima Lajud, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Behavioral assessments in rats are overwhelmingly conducted during the day, albeit that is when they are least active. This incongruity may preclude optimal performance. Hence, the goal of this study was to determine if differences in neurobehavior exist in traumatic brain injured (TBI) rats when assessed during the day vs. night. The hypothesis was that the night group would perform better than the day group on all behavioral tasks. Anesthetized adult male rats received either a cortical impact or sham injury and then were randomly assigned to either Day (1:00-3:00p...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229395/the-effect-of-shoulder-position-on-motor-evoked-and-maximal-muscle-compound-action-potentials-of-the-biceps-brachii
#5
Brandon W Collins, Duane C Button
The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of shoulder position, 0° versus 90° shoulder flexion, on stimulation intensity and maximal muscle compound action potentials (Mmax) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) of the biceps brachii during both rest and 10% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Nine participants completed two experimental sessions with four conditions. During each condition, transcranial magnetic (TMS) and Erb's point stimulation were used to elicit MEPs and Mmax, respectively. During rest, the TMS intensity to elicit a MEP response (p <0...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225093/effects-of-the-antidepressant-mirtazapine-and-zinc-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#6
Andy Hernández-Abrego, Elizabeth Vázquez-Gómez, Jesús García-Colunga
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and zinc are associated with regulation of mood and related disorders. In addition, several antidepressants inhibit muscle and neuronal nAChRs and zinc potentiates inhibitory actions of them. Moreover, mirtazapine (a noradrenergic, serotonergic and histaminergic antidepressant) inhibits muscarinic AChRs and its effects on nAChRs are unknown. Therefore, we studied the modulation of muscle α1β1γd nAChRs expressed in oocytes and native α7-containing nAChRs in hippocampal interneurons by mirtazapine and/or zinc, using voltage-clamp techniques...
December 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223866/phase-delays-between-tone-pairs-reveal-interactions-in-scalp-recorded-envelope-following-responses
#7
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Ashlee Banyard, Steven Aiken, David Purcell
Evoked potentials to envelope periodicity in sounds, such as vowels, are dependent on the stimulus spectrum. We hypothesize that phase differences between responses elicited by multiple frequencies spread tonotopically across the cochlear partition may contribute to variation in scalp-recorded amplitude. The present study evaluated this hypothesis by measuring envelope following responses (EFRs) to two concurrent tone pairs, p1 and p2, that approximated the first and second formant frequencies of a vowel, while controlling their relative envelope phase...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223865/prevention-of-ischemia-induced-hearing-loss-by-intravenous-administration-of-hydrogen-rich-saline-in-gerbil
#8
Hideo Ogawa, Masahiro Okada, Masachika Shudou, Kiyofumi Gyo, Naohito Hatoa
OBJECTIVE: Hydrogen-rich water, which is a potent antioxidant agent, was investigated for its protective effects against ischemic damage of the cochlea in gerbils. METHODS: The animals were subjected to transient cochlear ischemia by occluding the bilateral vertebral arteries for l5minutes. Five milliliters of hydrogen-rich saline was then intravenously administered immediately after the insult. Saline without hydrogen was used as a control. Effects of hydrogen were evaluated using the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and histological studies of the inner ear...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222024/continuous-and-not-continuous-2-week-treadmill-training-enhances-the-performance-in-the-passive-avoidance-test-in-ischemic-gerbils
#9
Ana Paula Cassiano Silveira, Takae Tamy Kitabatake, Vivian Mozol Pantaleo, Hélio Zangrossi, Guilherme Bertolino, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira Guirro, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, João Eduardo de Araujo
This study aims to investigate the frequency and total duration effects of the 2-week treadmill training after experimental ischemic stroke in the passive avoidance test. We performed bilateral occlusion of common external carotid arteries, for five minutes, in Mongolian gerbils. The training groups were: continuous training for twelve consecutive days or not continuous training for six non-consecutive days. The groups remained in the treadmill for 15min, with the speed set at 10m/min, and the training started 24h after the stroke...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222023/regional-brain-gray-matter-changes-in-adolescents-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#10
Sadhana Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Bhaswati Roy, Mary A Woo, Alan Lewis, Nancy Halnon, Nancy Pike
Adolescents with single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) show autonomic, mood, and cognitive deficits, indicating aberrations in brain areas that regulate these functions. However, the gray matter integrity in autonomic, mood, and cognitive control sites is unclear. We examined regional brain gray matter changes, using high-resolution T1-weighted images (3.0-T magnetic resonance scanner) with voxel based morphometry procedures, as well as mood and cognitive functions in SVHD (n=18; age, 15.7±1.1years; male, 10) and controls (n=31; age, 16...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217258/predictive-brain-networks-for-major-depression-in-a-semi-multimodal-fusion-hierarchical-feature-reduction-framework
#11
Jie Yang, Yingying Yin, Zuping Zhang, Jun Long, Jian Dong, Yuqun Zhang, Zhi Xu, Lei Li, Jie Liu, Yonggui Yuan
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by dysregulation of distributed structural and functional networks. It is now recognized that structural and functional networks are related at multiple temporal scales. The recent emergence of multimodal fusion methods has made it possible to comprehensively and systematically investigate brain networks and thereby provide essential information for influencing disease diagnosis and prognosis. However, such investigations are hampered by the inconsistent dimensionality features between structural and functional networks...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217257/upregulation-of-bdnf-and-interleukin-1%C3%A3-in-rat-spinal-cord-following-noxious-hind-paw-stimulation
#12
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein levels of BDNF and IL-1ß in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat by Western blot analysis following a noxious thermal hind paw stimulation. Ten min, 1h and 3h after the combined chemical and thermal stimulation an up to 2-fold increase in BDNF and Il-1ß protein expression was observed in the lumbar dorsal spinal cord. A pretreatment with the opioid analgesic morphine or the glial cell activation inhibitor minocycline partly attenuated protein expression...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217261/synucleinopathies-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-accomplices-an-inside-job-and-selective-vulnerability
#13
S Ausim Azizi, Saara-Anne Azizi
Pathogenesis of degenerative diseases is complex and multifaceted. The disease phenotypes depend on the location of injury/damage in the brain networks and pathologically are characterized by loss of brain cells. The reason for this loss appears to be an accumulation of misfolded and dysfunctional proteins that trigger apoptotic cell death. The role of alpha-synuclein mutations, its interaction with other proteins and the cellular environment is discussed in the context of selective neuron loss.
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217260/ontogenesis-of-the-pinealo-retinal-neuronal-connection-in-albino-rats
#14
Ágnes Csáki, Viktória Vereczki, Ákos Lukáts, Zsolt Boldogkői, Anna Sebestyén, Zita Puskár, Katalin Köves
It was accepted for a long time that in mammals there is only retinofugal neuronal connection between the eye and the pineal body (PB). In our previous paper we described that nerve cells were present in hamster PB and these neurons could establish a reverse connection with the retina through a transsynaptic pathway. In adult albino rats neuronal perikarya were not found. In this present experiment it was examined whether the lack of these nerve cells in the PB of adult rats is the result of an apoptotic phenomenon or the lack of migration during the fetal period...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217259/gender-differences-in-anomalous-subcortical-morphology-for-children-with-adhd
#15
Yanpei Wang, Qinfang Xu, Shuting Li, Gen Li, Chenyi Zuo, Shuirong Liao, Yang Long, Shan Li, R Malatesha Joshi
Although studies showed subtle reductions in brain volume in fronto-striatial regions in children with ADHD, there have been limited investigations of volume and lateralizaton in subcortical structures and a paucity of exploration of the influence of gender on these findings. This study aims to examine morphology of subcortical structures and their association with ADHD symptoms in boys and girls as compared to their typically-developing (TD) peers. One hundred and eighty five children aged 7-14 years with and without ADHD were included from ADHD-200 Consortium...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217256/lateral-medullary-syndrome-following-injury-of-the-vestibular-pathway-to-the-core-vestibular-cortex-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#16
Sang Seok Yeo, Sung Ho Jang, Jung Won Kwon
OBJECTIVE: The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) is a core region of vestibular input into regions of the cortex. The vestibular nuclei have reciprocal connections with the PIVC. However, little is known about injury of the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC in patients with dorsolateral medullary infarctions. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigated injury of the neural connections between the vestibular nuclei and the PIVC in patients with typical central vestibular disorder...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208408/personalized-management-of-bipolar-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Martin Alda, Mirko Manchia
Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most serious psychiatric disorders. The rates of disability, the risk of suicide attempts and their high lethality, as well as frequent and severe psychiatric and medical comorbidities, put it among the major causes of mortality and disability worldwide. At the same time, many patients can do well when treated properly. In this review, we focus on those aspects of the clinical care that offer the potential of individualized approach, in the context of the recent technology driven advances in the comprehension of the neurobiological underpinnings of BD...
December 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208407/dehydrocavidine-attenuates-d-galactose-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#18
Peng Fu, Qing Zhang, Dong-Ye Yi, Ahmed Abdelmaksoud, Qin Huang, Hong-Yang Zhao, Wei Xiang, Nan-Xiang Xiong
OBJECTIVE: Dehydrocavidine (DEH) is the major component of a plant corydalis saxicola Bunting, which is used to treat the patients with hepatic disorders, there is still no report about the effect of DEH on the brain disorder. In this study, the effect and mechanism of DEH on D-galactose (D-gala) induced learning and memory impairment in rats was investigated. METHODS: A learning and memory impairment rat model was employed by chronic intraperitoneal injection of D-gala and intragastric administration of DEH, then Morris water maze test was used to investigate the effect of DEH on learning and memory impairment, Golgi stain and biochemical methods, real time PCR were used to investigate underlying mechanism...
December 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203208/systems-consolidation-revisited-but-not-revised-the-promise-and-limits-of-optogenetics-in-the-study-of-memory
#19
REVIEW
Hardt Oliver, Nadel Lynn
Episodic memories (in humans) and event-like memories (in non-human animals) require the hippocampus for some time after acquisition, but at remote points seem to depend more on cortical areas instead. Systems consolidation refers to the process that promotes this reorganization of memory. Various theoretical frameworks accounting for this process have been proposed, but clear evidence favoring one or another of these positions has been lacking. Addressing this issue, a recent study deployed some of the most advanced neurobiological technologies - optogenetics and calcium imaging - and provided high resolution, precise observations regarding brain systems involved in recent and remote contextual fear memories...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203207/suppression-of-autophagy-in-the-brain-of-transgenic-mice-with-overexpression-of-%C3%B0-53%C3%B0-mutant-%C3%AE-synuclein-as-an-early-event-at-synucleinopathy-progression
#20
Alexander B Pupyshev, Tatiana A Korolenko, Anna A Akopyan, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Maria A Tikhonova
Transgenic overexpression of α-synuclein is a common model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of А53Т-mutant α-synuclein induces three autophagy cell response: the inhibition of autophagy caused by the accumulation of α-synuclein, compensatory activation of macroautophagy in response to inhibition of the CMA, and toxic effects of mutant α-synuclein accompanied by the activation of autophagy. The overall effect of long-term overexpression of mutant α-synuclein in vivo remained unclear. Here we evaluated the activity of autophagy in the frontal cortex, striatum and s...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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