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Neuroscience Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462638/docosahexaenoic-acid-improves-motor-function-in-the-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Igor Manzhulo, Anna Tyrtyshnaia, Yuliya Kipryushina, Inessa Dyuizen, Ekaterina Ermolenko, Olga Manzhulo
The present study demonstrates that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) injected subcutaneously leads to recovery of locomotor functions observed within 5 weeks after traumatic spinal cord injury. This activity is confirmed by improving of BBB locomotor rating scale indicators. We assume that this activity is related to (1) enhancement of remyelination process, (2) proliferative activity, (3) antioxidant activity, (4) increase in GFAP staining and (5) enhancement of vimentin expression. In general, the results of the study show that DHA has a complex effect on post-traumatic central nervous system recovery, indicating its high therapeutic potential...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458087/ngf-fak-signal-pathway-is-implicated-in-angiogenesis-after-acute-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#2
Hai-Ting Zhao, Yu-Hu Zhang, Ying-Hui Zhang, Yue Shen, Yi-Dan Zhang, Fang-Fang Bi, Bo Xiao, Hao Zhang, Wen Ye, Hong-Hai Zhang, Yi-Wei Liao
Neurogenesis in the cerebral infarction after an ischemic event is important to the rehabilitation of patients. However, the mechanism of angiogenesis around cerebral ischemia is not clear. Our study designed to test whether the nerve growth factor (NGF)-P-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway for associations with angiogenesis plays a key role in post-acute cerebral ischemia of rats. Firstly, we implanted the Matrigel, a carrier of basement membrane matrix, into the abdominal skin of rats to identify the relevant components of the NGF-P-FAK signaling pathway related to angiogenesis...
February 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458086/characterization-of-uniaxial-high-speed-stretch-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-the-blood-brain-barrier
#3
Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Claudia Escudero-Lourdes, Susan M Lantz, Nasya M Sturdivant, Syed Z Imam, Sumit Sarkar, William Slikker, Merle G Paule, Kartik Balachandran, Syed F Ali
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when external mechanical forces induce brain damage as result of impact, penetration or rapid acceleration/deceleration that causes deformation of brain tissue. Depending on its severity, TBI can be classified as mild, moderate or severe and can lead to blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of uniaxial high-speed stretch (HSS) at 0, 5, 10 and 15% on a pure culture of primary rat brain endothelial cells as an in vitro model of TBI to the BBB...
February 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454627/changes-in-salsolinol-production-and-salsolinol-synthase-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease-model
#4
Xiaotong Zheng, Xuechai Chen, Minjun Guo, Sakhawat Ali, Yinghui Huang, Feiyi Sun, Kefu Liu, Zixuan Chen, Yulin Deng, Rugang Zhong
Salsolinol is an endogenous neurotoxin derived from dopamine, and has been proved to cause the apoptosis of the dopaminergic neurons involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Salsolinol synthase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of salsolinol, and its activity exists in most regions of rat brain. However, the activity distribution and its catalyzed function in vivo are still unknown. On the basis of the chromatographic assay established previously, we investigated the activity of salsolinol synthase and salsolinol production in both cell and rat model of PD induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)...
February 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454035/high-and-low-doses-of-cocaine-intake-are-differentially-regulated-by-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-and-the-nucleus-accumbens
#5
R Chen, S McIntosh, S E Hemby, H Sun, T Sexton, Thomas Martin, S R Childers
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are associated with vulnerability to addiction; however, whether D2Rs in these two brain regions play differential roles in regulation of drug intake is unknown. Here, we compared the effect of decreased mRNA level of Drd2 in each region on cocaine self-administration in a dose-response function. Drd2 mRNA levels in rat VTA or NAc were knocked down by bilateral microinjection of lentivirus coding shRNAs against rat Drd2...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454034/add-on-high-frequency-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-to-bilateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-depressive-episodes-of-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-bipolar-disorder-i-and-major-depressive-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#6
Chiara Rapinesi, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Stefano Ferracuti, Nicoletta Girardi, Abraham Zangen, Gabriele Sani, Ruggero N Raccah, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Del Casale
BACKGROUND: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is critically involved in mood and alcohol use disorders. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the safety of intervention with add-on bilateral prefrontal high-frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) and between-group differences in treatment response in patients with different types of depressive episodes, including major depressive episodes in the course of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, type I (BD-I), and MDD with alcohol use disorder (MDAUD)...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452176/calcium-channel-blocker-use-reduces-incident-dementia-risk-in-elderly-hypertensive-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#7
Salman Hussain, Ambrish Singh, Syed Obaidur Rahman, Anwar Habib, Abul Kalam Najmi
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are an established class of drug for the management of hypertension. Observational studies have found that CCB use is associated with a reduction in the risk of developing dementia; however, studies have variably linked the CCBs use with the risk of dementia. This meta-analysis aims to assess whether, in elderly hypertensive patients, the use of CCBs alters the risk of developing dementia. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane from August 2013 to 21st August 2017. Studies were screened on the basis of title and abstract...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452175/replacement-treatment-during-extinction-training-with-the-atypical-dopamine-uptake-inhibitor-jhw-007-reduces-relapse-to-methamphetamine-seeking
#8
Ashlea F Dassanayake, Juan J Canales
There are currently no approved medications to effectively counteract the effects of methamphetamine (METH), reduce its abuse and prolong abstinence from it. Data accumulated in recent years have shown that a range of N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogues possesses psychopharmacological features consistent with those of a potential replacement or "substitute" treatment for stimulant addiction. On the other hand, the evidence that antidepressant therapy may effectively prevent relapse to stimulant seeking is controversial...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447954/the-inhibitory-effect-of-levo-tetrahydropalmatine-on-the-methamphetamine-induced-spatial-memory-impairment-in-mice
#9
Guofen Cao, Yongai Zhang, Li Zhu, Jie Zhu, Na Zhao, Nan Dong, Yonghui Dang, Yanjiong Chen, Teng Chen
Methamphetamine (METH) administration results in addiction and memory impairment. Previous studies have suggested that levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), an alkaloid purified from the Chinese herb Corydalis, attenuates the behavioral changes induced by METH. Therefore, in this study, we explored whether l-THP could also protect against the METH-induced memory impairment examined using the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that low dose of METH (1.0 mg/kg) treated for 20 consecutive days prior to the MWM experiment impaired spatial memory retention but not acquisition in mice...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447953/dendrite-growth-and-the-effect-of-ectopic-rheb-expression-on-cortical-neurons
#10
Aidan M Sokolov, Caitlin M Seluzicki, Mary C Morton, David M Feliciano
Ras homology enriched in brain (Rheb) is a GTPase that activates the protein kinase mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). Rheb mutations cause intellectual delay and megalencephaly. mTOR hyperactivation causes a constellation of neurodevelopmental disorders called "mTOR-opathies" that are frequently accompanied by hyperexcitable cortical malformations. Cortical malformations within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and somatosensory cortex (SSC) frequently colocalize with hyperexcitability. Although Rheb and mTOR are implicated in the formation of cortical lesions, seizure activity, and defects in neuronal migration, the contribution of Rheb to changes in neuron size and dendrite morphology is not well established...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447952/insulin-enhances-gaba-a-receptor-mediated-inhibitory-currents-in-rat-central-amygdala-neurons
#11
Sergiy V Korol, Atieh Tafreshiha, Amol K Bhandage, Bryndis Birnir, Zhe Jin
Insulin, a pancreatic hormone, can access the central nervous system, activate insulin receptors distributed in selective brain regions and affect various cellular functions such as neurotransmission. We have previously shown that physiologically relevant concentration of insulin potentiates the GABA A receptor-mediated tonic inhibition and reduces excitability of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) comprises heterogeneous neuronal populations that can respond to hormonal stimulus...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447951/suction-electrode-recording-in-locus-coeruleus-of-newborn-rat-brain-slices-reveals-network-bursting-comprising-summated-non-synchronous-spiking
#12
Vladimir Rancic, Bijal Rawal, Bogdan Panaitescu, Araya Ruangkittisakul, Klaus Ballanyi
The brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) controling behaviors like arousal, sleep, breathing, pain or opioid withdrawal is an established model for spontaneous action potential synchronization. Such synchronous 'spiking' might produce an extracellular field potential (FP) which is a crucial tool for neural network analyses. We found using ≥10 μm tip diameter suction electrodes in newborn rat brainstem slices that the LC generates at ∼1 Hz a robust rhythmic FP (rFP). During distinct rFP phases, LC neurons discharge with a jitter of ±33 ms single spikes that summate to a ∼200 ms-lasting population burst...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444445/individual-differences-in-the-processing-of-referential-dependencies-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#13
Robert Fiorentino, Lauren Covey, Alison Gabriele
The present study examines the processing of referential ambiguity and referential failure using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants read sentences with pronouns (he, she) which contained either one, two, or no potential gender-matching antecedents. Participants also took tests of working memory (count span/reading span) and attentional control (Number Stroop). In contexts of referential ambiguity with two potential gender-matching antecedents, two different responder types emerged, with some participants yielding a sustained negativity (Nref) and others a sustained positivity...
February 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444444/vertical-disconjugacy-during-reading-in-dyslexic-and-non-dyslexic-children
#14
Nathalie Goulème, Cynthia Lions, Christophe-Loïc Gérard, Hugo Peyre, Hung Thai-Van, Maria Pia Bucci
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore vertical binocular coordination in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children during saccades and post-saccadic fixation period while reading a text. METHODS: Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (Mobile T2® , SuriCog) in thirty-six dyslexic children from 7.3 to 13.6 years of age (mean age: 10.4 ± 0.3 years) who were asked to silently read a four-line text during binocular viewing. Data were compared to those of thirty-six age-matched non-dyslexic children...
February 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438799/lig4-4-selectively-inhibits-trek-1-and-plays-potent-neuroprotective-roles-in-vitro-and-in-rat-mcao-model
#15
Weiping Wang, Dongmei Liu, Qiong Xiao, Jie Cai, Nan Feng, Shaofeng Xu, Ling Wang, Dali Yin, Xiaoliang Wang
Two-pore domain potassium channel TREK-1 was known to play an important role in neuroprotection, especially in acute cerebral ischemia. In the present study we found that 3-(nitromethyl) isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (lig4-4) could robustly inhibit TREK-1 currents with an IC 50 of 2.06 μM. However, the IC 50 of lig4-4 for other ion channel subtypes such as Kv2.1, Kv1.5, Kv3.1, hERG and neuronal Na + and Ca 2+ channels were more than 30 μM, suggesting a specific inhibition of TREK-1 channel. MTT assay showed that lig4-4 significantly enhanced cell viability of cultured neurons under the condition of oxygen and glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438798/short-term-fasting-decreases-excitatory-synaptic-inputs-to-ventromedial-tuberoinfundibular-dopaminergic-neurons-and-attenuates-their-activity-in-male-mice
#16
Takafumi Kubota, Atsushi Fukushima, Hiroko Hagiwara, Yoshinori Kamiya, Miyako Furuta, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Hitomi Fujioka, Sei-Etsu Fujiwara, Toshiya Funabashi, Tatsuo Akema
Tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus play a role in inhibiting prolactin (PRL) secretion from the anterior pituitary. PRL is involved in a variety of behaviors, including feeding. Consequently, we hypothesized that fasting might reduce the activity of TIDA neurons, which might alter PRL secretion. However, direct examinations of TIDA neuron activity are difficult. Recently, transgenic mice were generated that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438797/association-of-alcohol-dehydrogenase-1c-gene-1-2-polymorphism-with-alcohol-dependence-ad-in-turkey-a-meta-analysis
#17
Shiying Zhang, Hao Wu, Heng Zhou, Liang Liang
Previous studies have investigated the association between ADH1C * 1/ * 2 polymorphism and alcohol dependence (AD), but have yielded controversial results in Turkey. Therefore, in an effort to illustrate whether ADH1C * 1/ * 2 polymorphism is associated with AD risk in Turkish population, we used meta analysis to synthetically evaluate the effect of ADH1C * 1/ * 2 polymorphism on AD. Publications were identified by searching in PubMed and EMBASE databases. Four eligible studies involving 400 controls and 421 cases were included in this study...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432779/the-protective-effect-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-against-brain-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury-via-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#18
Xinjie Gao, Wei Chen, Jinquan Li, Chao Shen, Ping Zhou, Xiaoming Che, Xiaomu Li, Rong Xie
Alpha-lipoic Acid(ALA), an endogenous short-chain fatty acid, has been found inducing a protective effect against ischemia and reperfusion(I/R) injury. Recently, mTOR signaling pathway has been proved to involve in the mechanism of I/R injury. In our previous study, we determined that ALA could protect cerebral endothelial cells against I/R injury via mTOR signaling pathway. However, whether ALA can protect against brain I/R injury in vivo and its mechanisms is uncertain. In this study, we try to explore if the ALA treatment can protect against brain I/R injury and confirm the relationship between ALA and mTOR signaling pathway...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428403/the-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-regulates-inferior-alveolar-nerve-regeneration
#19
Yurie Yamada, Atsushi Ohazama, Takeyasu Maeda, Kenji Seo
Activation of Shh signaling is known to be observed following injury of the peripheral nerves such as the sciatic nerve. However, the precise role of Shh signaling during peripheral nerve regeneration is not fully understood. The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is most commonly injured during oral surgery. Unlike the sciatic nerve, the IAN is isolated from other craniofacial tissues, as it resides in a long bony canal within the mandible. The IAN is thus an excellent experimental model for investigating peripheral nerve regeneration...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427598/calcineurin-knockout-mice-show-a-selective-loss-of-small-spines
#20
Hitoshi Okazaki, Akiko Hayashi-Takagi, Akira Nagaoka, Makiko Negishi, Hasan Ucar, Sho Yagishita, Kazuhiko Ishii, Kevin Fox, Taro Toyoizumi, Haruo Kasai
Calcineurin is required for long-term depression and activity-dependent spine shrinkage, and calcineurin mutations have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, mice with conditional knockout of calcineurin B (CNB-KO) exhibit behavioral abnormalities suggestive of schizophrenia. Changes in the dendritic spines of these mice, however, have not been investigated. We therefore examined the dendritic spines of CNB-KO mice, and observed a significant reduction in small spines and an increase in large spines in the prefrontal and visual cortices...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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