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Neuroscience Letters

Ben D Isbel, Jim Lagopoulos, Daniel F Hermens, Mathew J Summers
Aging is associated with a decline in performance and speed of attentional processing. Mindfulness has been shown to enhance attentional performance, however evidence of this is lacking in aging cohorts. A longitudinal RCT was conducted to examine the effect of mindfulness training on attentional performance in healthy older adults (n = 49) together with an active control computer-based attention training group (n = 30). While both groups displayed decreased N2 amplitudes at frontal and central regions during an auditory oddball task after training, only the mindfulness group showed reductions in frontal N2 and P3 latency...
January 16, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Ellis Nelissen, Nick P van Goethem, Vivian T Bonassoli, Pim R A Heckman, Britt T J van Hagen, Dila Suay, Caroline Wouters, Jos Prickaerts
The xylazine/ketamine anesthesia test is widely used as a predictor of the emetic potential of pharmacological compounds in rats. An emetic reflex is usually triggered by the emetic center, which is populated with many different chemoreceptors. Inhibition of the α2 adrenergic receptor (α2 receptor) is involved in the initiation of the emetic reflex, and this is the key mechanism behind the xylazine/ketamine anesthesia test. In this study, we attempt to validate this test as a predictor of the emetic potential of pharmacological compounds...
January 16, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Reza Fartootzadeh, Fatemeh Azizi, Hojjatallah Alaei, Parham Reisi
In the present study, we have evaluated the existence of functional interaction between orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) and cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc), in nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) of Wistar male rat. Nicotine (0.5 mg/kg; s.c.) in the course of conditioning, produced a significant place preference, without any effect on the locomotor activity. Intra-NAcc administration of ineffective and effective doses of TCS-OX2-29 (2 and 6 ng/rat), a selective OX2R antagonist and AM251 (10 and 50 ng/rat), a selective CB1R antagonist, showed a significant interaction between OX2R and CB1R in the acquisition of nicotine-induced CPP (p < 0...
January 16, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Jessica Gibson, François Tremblay
This study investigated the interaction between physical activity level and responses to transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) as reflected in changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the lower extremity. Participants (n = 35, 15 males) consisted of physically active young adults. PPT were determined at three sites (thigh, leg and foot) on the dominant leg before and after 20-min of anodal tsDCS applied at mid-thoracic level. Based on a questionnaire, participants were assigned to either a low-moderately active (n = 21) or highly active group (n = 14)...
January 14, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Jun-Jie Liu, Wei Zhang, Sha-Sha Wang, Zhen-Quan Jia, Ying-Hui Shi, Lei Yang, Ru-Ling Shi
Many studies have shown that saturated fat diet increases the risk of AD. Recently saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) have been found be accumulated in AD patients. The variety of saturated fatty acids are found in the diets and human bodies. However, it is not clear which one or more fatty acids are involved in AD pathogenesis. This study investigated the effects of three saturated fatty acids with different carbon chain length (C16:0, C20:0, and C26:0) on amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) generation...
January 12, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Katarzyna Grzelka, Maciej Gawlak, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Pawel Szulczyk
While the expression of β3 -adrenergic receptors is firmly established in adipose, kidney and heart tissue, their expression and function in the brain remains unclear despite their potential role in depression and stress-related disorders. This study aimed to investigate the expression of β3 -adrenoreceptors and their involvement in the mechanism controlling the resting holding current in layer V medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons in young rats. Applications of the selective β3 -adrenergic receptor agonists BRL 37344 and SR 58611 A evoked inward currents in the tested neurons...
January 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Seyed Mohsen Aberoumandi, Nasim Vousooghi, Bahram Amoughli Tabrizi, Pouran Karimi
Continuous use of crack induces hyperalgesia which is related to drug tolerance. Despite cumulative evidence based on the growth rate of crack abuse, no serious study has been focused on the mechanisms of crack-induced hyperalgesia. This study aimed to elucidate whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk1/2)/β-arrestin pathways are involved in the crack-induced hyperalgesia. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal saline (NS), crack (0.9 mg/kg/day), heroin (1 mg/kg/day), crack + barbadin (100 μM), and heroin + barbadin groups, which received their intraperitoneal (i...
January 11, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Takuya Kobayashi, Masazumi Nagai, John D Da Silva, Albert M Galaburda, Sara H Rosenberg, Wataru Hatakeyama, Yukinori Kuwajima, Hisatomo Kondo, Shigemi Ishikawa-Nagai
Although the effects of neprilysin (NEP), also called CD10, on the clearance of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated amyloid-β (Aβ) have been reported, NEP is not made in the brain, and the mechanism for the transport of NEP to the brain has not been investigated. Our hypothesis is that muscle packages NEP in exosomes in response to a neuromuscular signal and sends it to the brain via retrograde axonal transport. The masseter muscle (MM) and the trigeminal nerve (TGN) are good candidates for this mechanism by virtue of their proximity to the brain...
January 10, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Ji-Woong Kim, Pil-Jong Kim, Hong-Gee Kim, Teo Jeon Shin
Despite the widespread use in clinical practice, little research has been done on mechanisms of sedation. In particular, little is known about the changes in the information processing of external stimuli in sedation. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of event-related potential (ERP) in auditory passive oddball paradigm when the sedation was induced by sevoflurane inhalation. Electroencephalography (EEG) measurements were obtained for each subject using 32-channel EEG recording devices. Sevoflurane was administered at an initial concentration of 0...
January 9, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Aisa Ozawa, Erina Kadowaki, Tomoyo Horio, Motoharu Sakaue
Astrocytes, the most common glial cells in the central nervous system, maintain neuronal functions and have roles in neurological diseases. Acetylcholine (ACh) is one of the most essential neurotransmitters, and ACh receptor (AChR) ligands were recently reported to influence astrocyte functions. However, the functions of ACh, the only endogenous agonist of AChR, in astrocytogenesis and in the expression of astrocytic marker genes have not been known. We previously demonstrated that the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) suppressed the differentiation of rat glioma C6 cells, an astrocyte differentiation model, and we observed a suppressive effect of ACh agonists on astrocyte differentiation...
January 9, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
María S Sisti, Fabián Nishida, Carolina N Zanuzzi, Sergio L Laurella, Rodolfo J C Cantet, Enrique L Portiansky
Motor Neuron Disease disorders, described in domestic animals, are characterized by neuronal degeneration at the spinal cord. Excitotoxicity is a crucial factor for the selective loss of these neurons, being the fundamental processes involved in lesion progression after spinal cord injury, where glutamate is one of the main neurotransmitters involved. Kainic acid (KA) resembles the effects induced by the pathological release of glutamate. Lidocaine administered by different routes exerts some neuroprotective effects in the CNS...
January 9, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Zhao Bin, Zhao Zhihu, Jianxiong Ma, Xinlong Ma
One of prominent shortcomings of nerve tissue engineering for repairing large segmental peripheral nerve defects is the poor ability to support angiogenesis. We report here an experiment to enhance angiogenic properties of tissue-engineered peripheral nerves. Our aim is to achieve this goal by covalently incorporating heparin into acellular nerve scaffolds and by physically immobilizing VEGF to heparin. We evaluated the growth of prevascularized tissue-engineered peripheral nerve in vitro and in vivo in dorsal subcutaneous pockets of nude mice...
January 9, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Rui B Chang
While thermosensation from external environment has been extensively studied, physiological responses to temperature changes inside the body and the underlying regulatory mechanisms are less understood. As a critical link between body and brain that relays visceral organ information and regulates numerous physiological functions, the vagus nerve has been proposed to mediate diverse visceral thermal reflexes and indirectly regulate body temperature. However, the precise role of the vagus nerve in body thermal responses or visceral organ-related thermoregulation is still under debate due to extensive contradictory results...
January 8, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Dorothee Schoemaker, Yakeel T Quiroz, Heirangi Torrico-Teave, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez
Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited small vessel disease that leads to early cerebrovascular events and functional disability. It is the most common single-gene disorder leading to stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a central component of the diagnosis and monitoring of CADASIL. Here we provide a descriptive review of the literature on three important aspects pertaining to the use of MRI in CADASIL. First, we review past research exploring MRI markers for this disease...
January 8, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Brittany Samulski, Jessica Prebor, Cortney Armitano, Steven Morrison
Chewing and walking are two oscillatory behaviors performed on an everyday basis. The current study examined the impact chewing at different speeds (i.e. fast, slow, preferred) had on walking performance for fifteen young healthy adults (23.2 + 4.2 years) and fifteen healthy older participants (66.5 + 3.2 years). Chewing rates were attained from surface EMG activity recorded from the masseter muscle. For gait, accelerometers mounted on the lower trunk and lower leg were used to determine the timing of individual steps...
January 8, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Kenji Kawamura, Yoshio Kano
We investigated the role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in electrical stimulation-induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 mutant cells in which nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth is impaired. When cultures of the PC12 mutant (PC12m3) cells were exposed to electrical stimulation at 100 mA for 30 min, activity of p38 MAPK increased and neurite outgrowth was greatly enhanced. The frequency of neurite outgrowth induced by electrical stimulation was approximately 10-fold greater than that of neurite outgrowth induced by NGF alone...
January 8, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Jordan J Wehrman, Paul Sowman
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows for the monitoring of motor cortex dynamics in preparation for response. Using this method, it has previously been shown that motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are suppressed as a response approaches. In the current article, we applied TMS while participants either relaxed or contracted their first dorsal interosseous muscle. We varied the time at which TMS was applied, however, unlike previous studies, no participant response was required. Using this method, we provide evidence that MEPs systematically decrease with the duration of the trial, while inhibition is not similarly affected...
January 7, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Fernando Barbosa, Rita Pasion, Jorge Silvério, Carlos M Coelho, João Marques-Teixeira, Luís C Monteiro
Past research on emotions was mostly supported on emotion inducing slides, but studies in the field are moving towards more ecological stimuli, including 3D stimuli and virtual reality scenes. The present study aims to compare the effects of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) emotion-inducing scenes in the modulation of attention, as indexed by the amplitude of the P3 event-related component in a dual-task paradigm. We recorded the EEG signal of 31 healthy male participants performing an active auditory oddball task, while simultaneously observing pleasant, unpleasant and neutral scenes in 2D or 3D...
January 7, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Rami Alazrai, Hisham Alwanni, Mohammad I Daoud
Decoding the movements of different fingers within the same hand can increase the control's dimensions of the electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. This in turn enables the subjects who are using assistive devices to better perform various dexterous tasks. However, decoding the movements performed by different fingers within the same hand by analyzing the EEG signals is considered a challenging task. In this paper, we present a new EEG-based BCI system for decoding the movements of each finger within the same hand based on analyzing the EEG signals using a quadratic time-frequency distribution (QTFD), namely the Choi-William distribution (CWD)...
January 7, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Joseph O Uweru, Ukpong B Eyo
Microglia are unique cells of the central nervous system (CNS) with a distinct ontogeny and molecular profile. They are the predominant immune resident cell in the CNS. Recent studies have revealed a diversity of transient and terminal physical interactions between microglia and neurons in the vertebrate brain. In this review, we follow the historical trail of the discovery of these interactions, summarize their notable features, provide implications of these discoveries to CNS function, emphasize emerging themes along the way and peak into the future of what outstanding questions remain to move the field forward...
January 6, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
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