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Neuroscience Letters

Hiroshi Shibata, Kenji Ogawa
This fMRI study examined whether the perspective difference of a verbally and visually descripted action stimulus (i.e., sentence and picture) modulates activity in the motor-related area. The participants were presented with a sentence (e.g., "I grasp an apple" or "You grasp an apple") or a picture (e.g., a picture of grasping an apple in which a right hand appears from the bottom or from the top) as the experimental task. A full factorial analysis of variance model with stimulus modality (verbal vs...
September 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Sarah A Blumenthal, Wayne E Prat
Multiple laboratories have shown that the stimulation of µ-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) powerfully increases intake of palatable and high-fat diets. Separate studies have demonstrated that serotonin agonists advance satiety processes, and several serotonin-targeting agents have been prescribed to promote weight loss. However, it is unknown if serotonin signaling can modulate the increased feeding elicited by activation of NAcc µ-opioid receptors. These experiments assessed the effects of systemic treatments with the serotonin agonists d-fenfluramine and lorcaserin on the binge-like feeding induced by µ-opioid receptor stimulation of the NAcc in Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
M L Díaz-Hung, J L Ruiz-Fuentes, A Díaz-García, R León-Martínez, E Alberti-Amador, N Pavón-Fuentes, L Blanco-Lezcano
The aims of the present work were to evaluate the exploratory activity in Sprague-Dawley rats, as well as to analyze the nigral and striatal mRNA expression of the plasticity-related genes bdnf and arc after L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) injection into substantia nigra compacta. Lesioned rats traveled less distance in open field but did not show a decline in the novel object recognition test. On the other hand, RT-PCR analysis showed overexpression of striatal arc 24 h post-lesion; no significant changes in bdnf expression were observed in nigral or striatal tissue...
September 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Sachiko Tsuda, Kanae Hiyoshi, Hiroaki Miyazawa, Risa Kinno, Kyo Yamasu
One of the pivotal events in neural development is compartmentalization, wherein the neural tissue divides into domains and undergoes functional differentiation. For example, midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) formation and subsequent isthmus development are key steps in cerebellar development. Although several regulatory mechanisms are known to underlie this event, little is known about cellular behaviors. In this study, to examine the cellular dynamics around the MHB region, we performed confocal time-lapse imaging in zebrafish embryos to track cell populations in the neural tube via 4D analysis...
September 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Xiaoqian Luan, Huijun Chen, Huihua Qiu, Huiping Shen, Kai Zhao, Wenwei Ren, Yingying Gu, Hang Su, Jie Zhang, Dezhao Lv, Jincai He
Some evidence suggested that malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress played an important part in modulating the activities of depression. Methamphetamine (METH) dependence often lead to depression that may associate with MDA. In this study, our purpose was to explore the association between serum MDA levels and depression during METH withdrawal. 179 METH-dependent patients were recruited in this study and 144 (80.4%) finished the assessment. We measured serum MDA at 532 nm spectrophotometrically at admission...
September 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Anirudh Vashisht, Svitlana V Bach, Dustin Fetterhoff, James W Morgan, Maria McGee, Ashok N Hegde
Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has pleiotropic effects on both induction and maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examined the effect of proteasome inhibition on signaling to the nucleus during late-phase long-term potentiation. When a subthreshold L-LTP induction protocol was used, proteasome inhibition led to a significant increase in phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in the nucleus. Inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase G all blocked the proteasome-inhibition-mediated increase in nuclear pCREB after subthreshold stimulation...
September 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Clément Nathou, Emmanuelle Duprey, Gregory Simon, Annick Razafimandimby, Elise Leroux, Sonia Dollfus, Olivier Etard
Long-latency auditory event potentials (LLAEPs) involving local and global auditory processes have been investigated to examine the impact of low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the cortical excitability of the temporal cortex. We hypothesized that both stimulation frequencies have the same modulation effect, in accordance with clinical data showing a reduction in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) after LF and HF temporal rTMS in patients with schizophrenia...
September 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Meng-Xing Tao, Xiao Xue, Li Gao, Jun-Ling Lu, Jun-Shan Zhou, Teng Jiang, Ying-Dong Zhang
Accumulating evidence suggests that brain angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type I receptor axis is activated and thus contributes to the neuronal injury during ischemic stroke. Conversely, inhibition of this axis using centrally active ACE inhibitor captopril was proven neuroprotective in rodents with focal cerebral ischemia. Interestingly, captopril was able to increase angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] levels in the peripheral organs. As the main component of the alternative renin-angiotensin system axis in the brain, Ang-(1-7) was revealed to protect against focal cerebral ischemia via a MAS1 receptor-dependent manner...
September 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
S Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, Mohammad Hossein Mohamadi M A H, Mohammad Reza Raoufy, Hossein Azizi, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
Increasing number of evidence support the role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mediating the opiate effects as the two critical components of brain reward pathway. It is believed that VTA to NAC dopaminergic projections mediate the reinforcing effects induced by opioid drugs. Although numerous studies have investigated mechanisms of reward processing in these brain regions, alterations of local field potentials (LFPs), as an index of total synaptic currents, has not been previously addressed...
September 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Timothy J Ness, Cary DeWitte, Jamie McNaught, Buffie Clodfelder-Miller, Xin Su
Bilateral electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (bPNS) reduces bladder hypersensitivity in rat models of bladder pain and anecdotally reduces pain in humans with pelvic pain of urologic origin. The spinal neurochemical mechanisms of this antinociception are unknown. In the present study, bladder hypersensitivity was produced by neonatal bladder inflammation in rat pups coupled with a second inflammatory insult as an adult. Visceromotor responses (VMRs; abdominal muscle contractions) to urinary bladder distension (UBD) were used as a nociceptive endpoint under urethane-isoflurane anesthesia...
September 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Ippei Nojima
Plantar flexor muscles play a crucial role in maintaining balance during quiet standing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of their fatigue on common input to these muscles, using a coherence analysis. Thirteen healthy young male adults stood quietly before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a heel raise exercise. Center of pressure (COP) displacement and electromyograms (EMGs) from the bilateral medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were recorded. EMG-EMG coherences between the bilateral homologous muscles (bilateral coherence) and within the unilateral muscles (unilateral coherence) in the right leg were calculated...
September 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Yasuro Atoji, Sonjoy Sarkar
The medial cortex of the cerebrum in reptiles is thought to be homologous to the mammalian dentate gyrus, based on cytoarchitectures, fiber connections, and neurochemical profiles. To support this hypothesis, we examined the mRNA expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1), a glutamatergic gene marker, and Prox1, a selective gene marker for granule cells of the dentate gyrus, in the turtle medial cortex (zone 2). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of both mRNAs in the turtle cerebrum...
September 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Evelyn M Guilherme, Bruna Silva-Marques, Carlos Eduardo M Fernandes, Thiago L Russo, Rosana Mattioli, Anna Gianlorenco
The neural histaminergic system innervates the cerebellum, with a high density of fibers in the vermis and flocculus. The cerebellum participates in motor functions, but the role of the histaminergic system in this function is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracerebellar histamine injections and H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonist injections (chlorpheniramine, ranitidine, and thioperamide, respectively) and H4 receptor agonist (VUF-8430) on locomotor and exploratory behaviors in mice...
September 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Claus-Christian Carbon, Stella J Faerber, M Dorothee Augustin, Bernhard Mitterer, Florian Hutzler
We followed an ERP-based approach to gain knowledge on the dependence and temporal order of two essential processes of face perception: attractiveness and gender. By combining a dual-choice task with a go/nogo-paradigm focusing on the LRP and N200-effect, we could estimate the processing times and onsets of both types of face processing. The analyses of the LRP revealed that gender aspects were processed much earlier than attractiveness. Whereas gender was already analysed 243.9 ms post-stimulus onset, attractiveness came into play 58...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Deborah de Paula Romeu, Luciene Maria Ribeiro, Vagner Roberto Antunes
The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a peptide commonly studied in the feeding behavior, but it exerts an important role in the autonomic and cardiovascular control as well. It is known that exogenous administration of CART in the central nervous system can elicit increase in blood pressure of both conscious and anesthetized rodents, but little is known whether these central effects might differ between lean and obese animals. We have recently shown that diet-induced obese mice that developed hypertension presented an upregulation of CART levels in the dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus, while obese normotensive ones had not...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
M S Ethemoglu, S Kutlu, F B Seker, C S Erdogan, C A Bingol, B Yilmaz
Agomelatine is a new antidepressant drug acting as an antagonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C (5-HTR2C ) and agonist of melatonergic receptors 1 and 2 (MT1 and MT2 ). Because of this dual action, it is an atypical antidepressant. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic anticonvulsant effects of agomelatine on penicillin-induced epilepsy model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into four groups and were administered with tap water (vehicle), and agomelatine doses of 10 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg for 14 days via oral gavage...
September 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
In Gyoung Ju, Jin Gyu Choi, Namkwon Kim, Chaewon Kwak, Jong Kil Lee, Myung Sook Oh
Neuroinflammation is an inflammatory process within the central nervous system that is mediated by microglial activation, which releases pro-inflammatory mediators leading to neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated the effects of Peucedani Japonici Radix (PJR), a medicinal herb traditionally used in East Asia to treat neuroinflammation both in vitro and in vivo. First, we examined the effects of PJR on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. The results showed that PJR suppressed the LPS-induced increase of several inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α...
September 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Ji Yuanyuan, Zhu Junyan, DeJi Cuola, Cui Jingjing, Shi Yuhui, Xu Dan, Dang Wei, Zhu Yongsheng
Alcohol abuse and anxiety disorders often occur concurrently, but their underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) have recently received attention from those interested in the neurobiology of anxiety. A chronic alcohol exposure rat model (28 consecutive days of 20% alcohol intake and 6 h of withdrawal) was established. Here, we investigated the NMDAR1 (NR1), Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway in the modulation of anxiety-like behaviors in rats exposed to an open field and elevated plus maze (EPM) through systematic injections of memantine (a NMDAR inhibitor)...
September 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Christopher Skrzeba, Tobias Vogt
Training in a particular sport not only leads to a higher accuracy in movement, it also creates neuronal modulations in different areas of the brain. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been on the rise to detect these neuronal modulations to address applied research approaches in sports-specific setups with focus on movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) especially the readiness potential (RP). While many studies considered the RP in laboratory settings using button pressing, there is little research on sport-specific movements performed in realistic setups...
September 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Yan-Hai Li, Kangjian Xiang, Xingzhe Xu, Xuefei Zhao, Youjun Li, Liang Zheng, Jue Wang
It has been suggested that functional interactions between the 5-HT receptor subtypes may modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. In this study, we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to test the role of 5-HT receptors in mediating the AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the rat visual cortex. We found that the AMPA receptor-mediated component of mEPSCs could be inhibited by exogenously applied 5-HT. 5-HT significantly reduced the glutamatergic mEPSC amplitude and increased the inter-event interval of glutamatergic mEPSCs...
September 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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