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Neuroscience Letters

Julie Grandbois, Sandhya Khurana, Kelly Graff, Phong Nguyen, Leah Meltz, T C Tai
Epinephrine is synthesized by the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), primarily in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and secondarily in brainstem adrenergic neurons of the medulla oblongata. Epinephrine is an important neurotransmitter/neurohormone involved in cardiovascular regulation; however, overproduction is detrimental with negative outcomes such as cellular damage, cardiovascular dysfunction, and hypertension. Genetic mapping studies have linked elevated expression of PNMT to hypertension...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Yuzuki Kanda, Miho Okada, Rina Ikarashi, Eri Morioka, Takashi Kondo, Masayuki Ikeda
Clozapine (Clz) and olanzapine (Olz) are second generation (atypical) antipsychotics, used widely for treating schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These drugs share multiple sites of actions, however their mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed the effects of these drugs on primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes and C6 glioma cells using fura-2-based Ca(2+) imaging. C6 cells, but not cortical astrocytes, express the serotonin 2A receptor subtype, which couples to phospholipase C. Clz (1μM) significantly blocked serotonin-induced Ca(2+) transients in C6 cells, consistent with known antagonistic actions of Clz...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Andre J Szameitat, Rahmi Saylik, Andrew Parton
It is known that neuroticism impairs cognitive performance mostly in difficult tasks, but not so much in easier tasks. One pervasive situation of this type is multitasking, in which the combination of two simple tasks creates a highly demanding dual-task, and consequently high neurotics show higher dual-task costs than low neurotics. However, the functional neuroanatomical correlates of these additional performance impairments in high neurotics are unknown. To test for this, we assessed brain activity by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 low and 15 high neurotics while they were performing a demanding dual-task and the less demanding component tasks as single-tasks...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Thibaut Aurore, Russo Cristina, Morales-Quezada Leon, Hurtado-Puerto Aura, Deitos Alícia, Steven Freedman, Carvalho Sandra, Fregni Felipe
Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive neuromodulatory brain stimulation techniques whose effects on human brain and behavior have been studied individually. In the present study we aimed to quantify the effects of tDCS and tPCS, individually and in combination, on cortical activity, sensitivity and pain-related assessments in healthy individuals in order to understand their neurophysiological mechanisms and potential applications in clinical populations...
October 17, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Shixiao Zhang, Zan Guo, Shijie Yang, Huijuan Ma, Congrui Fu, Sheng Wang, Yi Zhang, Yixian Liu, Jie Hu
OBJECTIVE: Providing adequate protection against cerebral ischemia remains an unrealized goal. The present study was aimed at testing whether chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) would have protective effects against cerebral ischemia and investigating the potential role of mitochondrial membrane ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP) in this effect. METHODS: Ischemia was induced in rats by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries for 8min on day 2 after bilateral vertebral arteries were permanently electrocauterized and CIHH was simulated in a hypoxic chamber...
October 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Olena Bukalo, Philip R Lee, R Douglas Fields
Action-potential-induced LTD (AP-LTD) is a form of synaptic plasticity that reduces synaptic strength in CA1 hippocampal neurons firing antidromically during sharp-wave ripples. This firing occurs during slow-wave sleep and quiet moments of wakefulness, which are periods of offline replay of neural sequences learned during encoding sensory information. Here we report that rapid and persistent down-regulation of different mRNA transcripts of the BDNF gene accompanies AP-LTD, and that AP-LTD is abolished in mice with the BDNF gene knocked out in CA1 hippocampal neurons...
October 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Daniel Haselbach, Wassim Raffoul, Lorenz Larcher, Mathias Tremp, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Pietro G di Summa
INTRODUCTION: Hindlimb autophagy is common after rat sciatic total axotomy and is considered as a sign of neuropathic pain. We applied adult stem cells in a fibrin conduit in a total sciatic axotomy model to improve nerve regeneration, investigating whether a correlation could be detected between stem cells effects on regeneration and limb autophagy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After sciatic nerve section, a 1-cm sciatic gap was crossed using fibrin conduits. EXPERIMENTAL: groups included empty fibrin conduits, fibrin conduits seeded with primary Schwann cells, and fibrin conduits seeded with Schwann cell-like differentiated mesenchymal or adipose-derived stem cells (dMSCs and dASCs)...
October 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Rui Zhang, Yan Bi, Weibo Niu, Xiaoye Huang, Shiqing Chen, Xingwang Li, Xi Wu, Yanfei Cao, Fengping Yang, Lu Wang, Weidong Li, Yifeng Xu, Lin He, Tao Yu, Guang He
Schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are two common severe mental disorders that have arisen to public awareness in recent years. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders especially in MDD and SZ. The aim of this study is to explore whether the variants in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A gene are susceptible to SZ or MDD in the Chinese Han population. Five SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) (rs1364043, rs10042486, rs6313, rs6311, rs17289304) in these genes were genotyped from 752 SZ patients, 568 MDD patients, and 846 normal controls of Chinese Han origin...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Kejia Hu, Chao Chen, Qingyao Meng, Ziv Williams, Wendong Xu
BACKGROUND: With the tremendous advances in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), the literature in this field has grown exponentially; examination of highly cited articles is a tool that can help identify outstanding scientific studies and landmark papers. This study examined the characteristics of 100 highly cited BCI papers over the past 10 years. METHODS: The Web of Science was searched for highly cited papers related to BCI research published from 2006 to 2015...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Rodrigo Fabrizzio Inácio, Renata Gacielle Zanon, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Henrique Marques de Souza, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Liana Verinaud, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Astrocytes are multifunctional glial cells that actively participate in synaptic plasticity in health and disease. Little is known about molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells that result in synaptic stability or elimination. In this sense, the main histocompatibility complex of class I (MHC I) has been shown to play a role in the synaptic plasticity process during development and after lesion of the CNS. MHC I levels in neurons appear to be influenced by astrocyte secreted molecules, which may generate endoplasmic reticulum stress...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Brigitte van Zundert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Sakineh Haydari, Manouchehr Safari, Sam Zarbakhsh, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji
This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Stefania Prendes-Alvarez, Charles B Nemeroff
Personalized or precision medicine is a medical discipline that proposes tailoring health care to each individual by integrating data from their genetic makeup, epigenetic modifications, other biomarkers, clinical symptoms and environmental exposures. Currently, patients typically present for treatment of mood disorders relatively late in the disease course and this is of great concern both because delay in attaining remission reduces the success of subsequent treatment and depressive episodes have negative cumulative effects on the brain and body...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Hao Yu, Lusheng Li, Raynald Liu, Bing Shu, Huizi Chen, Hua Huang, Rongrong Hua, Fenjun Jiang, Yihua An
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common disease worldwide that causes permanent neuronal dysfunction without an effective treatment. Long propriospinal neurons (LPSNs) that are spared from injury play a key role in spontaneous recovery after SCI. Traumatic injury of the central nervous system can activate autophagy, which could be a target in the development of a new therapeutic strategy to prevent neuronal loss. Our research focused on whether autophagy is involved in the loss of LPSNs after introducing spinal cord injury in adult rats...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Lengqiu Guo, Zhuangli Guo, Xiaoqing Luo, Rui Liang, Shui Yang, Haigang Ren, Guanghui Wang, Xuechu Zhen
Sleep, particularly rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is implicated in the consolidation of emotional memories. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of a phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor MP-10 on deficits in long-term fear memory induced by REM sleep deprivation (REM-SD). REM-SD caused deficits in long-term fear memory, however, MP-10 administration ameliorated the deleterious effects of REM-SD on long term fear memory. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) were altered in specific brain regions associated with learning and memory in REM-SD rats...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Jeongsoo Han, Myeounghoon Cha, Minjee Kwon, Seong-Karp Hong, Sun Joon Bai, Bae Hwan Lee
The insular cortex (IC) is a pain-related brain region that receives various types of sensory input and processes the emotional aspects of pain. The present study was conducted to investigate spatiotemporal patterns related to neuroplastic changes in the IC after nerve injury using voltage-sensitive dye imaging. The tibial and sural nerves of rats were injured under pentobarbital anesthesia. To observe optical signals in the IC, rats were re-anesthetized with urethane 7days after injury, and a craniectomy was performed to allow for optical imaging...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Stephen W Scheff, Kelly N Roberts
We have previously shown that pycnogenol (PYC) increases antioxidants, decreases oxidative stress, suppresses neuroinflammation and enhances synaptic plasticity following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we investigate the effects of PYC on cognitive function following a controlled cortical impact (CCI). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received a CCI injury followed by an intraperitoneal injection of PYC (50 or 100mg/kg). Seven days post trauma, subjects were evaluated in a Morris water maze (MWM) and evaluated for changes in lesion volume...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Michele Porcu, Antonella Balestrieri, Paolo Siotto, Pierleone Lucatelli, Michele Anzidei, Jasjit S Suri, Fulvio Zaccagna, Giovanni Maria Argiolas, Luca Saba
Mood disorders (MD) are important and frequent psychiatric pathologies, and the management of the patients affected by thes conditions represent an important factor of disability and a huge problem in socialterms and an economic burden. The "in-vivo" studies can help researchers to understand the first events at the base of the development of the pathology and to identify the molecular and non-molecular targets of therapies, but theyhave strong limitations due to the fact that human brain circuitsthem selvesare difficult to be reproduced in animal models...
October 10, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Oren S Cohen, Joab Chapman, Amos D Korczyn, Oliver L Siaw, Naama Warman-Alaluf, Zeev Nitsan, Shmuel Appel, Esther Kahana, Hanna Rosenmann, Chen Hoffmann
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau was found to correlate with disease severity and cognitive status in E200K familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD) patients. The objective of the present study was to test whether tau levels in the CSF also correlate with the disease burden as reflected by the degree of cortical involvement in DWI MRI. Forty-four consecutive E200K fCJD patients (25 males, mean age 58.6±7.5, range 48-75 years) were recruited to the study and had a CSF tau examination as well as measurements of the extent of the cortical involvement in the DWI axial MRI...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Viacheslav Viatchenko-Karpinski, Jianguo G Gu
Primary afferent fibers use mechanically activated (MA) currents to transduce innocuous and noxious mechanical stimuli. However, it is largely unknown about the differences in MA currents between the afferents for sensing innocuous and noxious stimuli. In the present study, we used dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons acutely dissociated from rats and studied their MA currents and also their intrinsic membrane properties. Recorded from small-sized DRG neurons, we found that most of these neurons were mechanically sensitive (MS) showing MA currents...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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