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Neuroscience Letters

Einat Levy-Gigi, Shilat Haim-Nahum, Julie M Hall, Jacob Crouse, Robyn Winwood-Smith, Simon J G Lewis, Ahmed A Moustafa
Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) have increasingly been recognized over the last decade and reversal learning in particular has received a great deal of attention. In a classical reversal-learning paradigm, participants learn to associate various stimuli with specific responses (i.e. A →Positive; B→ Negative), and subsequently learn to associate the same stimuli with opposite outcomes (i.e., A→Negative; B→ Positive). Prior studies have revealed that medicated PD patients have a selective impairment with learning from negative, but not positive, outcomes, even when both reward- and punishment-related stimuli were equally relevant...
November 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hiroko Yagi, Kazunori Kageyama, Noriko Kinoshita, Kanako Niioka, Satoshi Yamagata, Etsuro Ito, Makoto Daimon
The ancestral insulin/relaxin peptide superfamily member relaxin-3 is an important regulator of food intake and behaviors related to anxiety and motivation. Relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) and RXFP3 are expressed in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is produced in the PVN in response to stressors and promotes adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary. We hypothesized that relaxin-3 directly regulates Crf expression in the hypothalamus and investigated its effect on Crf expression in cultured hypothalamic 4B cells...
November 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Yanmei Chen, Hua Zhou, Yingjie An, Xianglei Jia, Tingting Sun, Xin Guan, Jichuan Zhang
There is a close relationship between olfactory dysfunction and depression, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Studies have shown that olfactory deprived animal experience a higher level of stress compared with controls. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether olfactory deprived mice would be more vulnerable to develop cognitive and emotional impairments under chronic stresses. Mice were treated with intranasal zinc sulfate infusion which resulted in a complete but reversible loss of olfactory function, and then they were treated with either chronic restraint stress (CRS) or chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for three consecutive weeks...
November 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Xian-Jin Ke, Yong-Fei Cheng, Nian Yu, Qing Di
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Chang-Hyun Park, Suk Hoon Ohn
The pathological and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) tend to be affected by epileptic seizures, specifically represented by seizure lateralization and frequency. Although the lateralization of the epileptogenic zone can be clarified in terms of neuroanatomical damage, there have been conflicting findings on the relationship between seizure frequency and neuroanatomical damage. In this study we sought to examine the relationship in the framework of machine learning-based predictive modeling...
November 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Davis A Forman, Michael Monks, Kevin E Power
The purpose of the present study was to examine corticospinal excitability to the biceps and triceps brachii during arm cycling and an intensity-matched tonic contraction using stimulus response curves (SRCs) elicited via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Corticospinal excitability was assessed using TMS elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at eight different stimulation intensities (85-190% of MEP threshold). MEPs were recorded during arm cycling at two different positions, mid-elbow flexion (6 o'clock relative to a clock face) and mid-elbow extension (12 o'clock relative to a clock face), in addition to an intensity-matched (12 o'clock) tonic contraction...
November 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Murilo S de Abreu, Ana C V V Giacomini, Bruna E Dos Santos, Rafael Genario, Natalia I Marchiori, Larissa G da Rosa, Allan V Kalueff
Lidocaine is a voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker, commonly used as a fast-acting local and general anesthetic. Lidocaine also has central action, and affects behavior both clinically and in animal models. Adult zebrafish are rapidly becoming a critical novel model organism in translational neuroscience research. Here, we examine the effects of peripheral (lateral line application, 4%) and systemic (water immersion, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L) administration of lidocaine on adult zebrafish behavior tested in the novel tank test...
November 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Fasil O K, Rajesh R
Automatic classification and prediction of epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) signal are of great concern to the research community due to its non-stationary and non-linear properties. Features with minimal computation cost are highly needed for the rapid real-time precise diagnosis and implementation in the EEG scanning devices. Even though energy is a well-known feature for the analysis of signals, it is very rarely used in EEG analysis. An exponential energy feature in the time domain is proposed in this study...
November 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Peng Peng, Jingjing Wang, Nan Ding, Mei Zhou, Zhongya Gu, Yao Shi, Chengxin Gong, Gang Zhao, Yanqiu Deng
Neurofilaments (NFs), the most abundant cytoskeletal components in the mature neuron, are hyperphosphorylated and accumulated in the neuronal cell body of AD brain, and the abnormalities of NFs appear to contribute to neurodegeneration. Although previous studies have showed that O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of NFs regulate each other reciprocally, the NFs O-GlcNAcylation and its effects on assembly and axonal transport are poorly explored. Here, we focus on the role of dysregulation of O-GlcNAcylation on structure and function of neurofilaments by corresponding phosphorylation...
November 2, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Xiumei Zhang, Wenpin Zhao, Xingfang Liu, Zhihua Huang, Reai Shan, Cheng Huang
Evidences reported that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) played a pivotal role in the modulation of chronic inflammatory pain. Celastrol, a bioactive component extracted from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook, possesses anti-inflammatory activity, but the underlying mechanism remains to be fully clarified. We aim to investigate whether HMGB1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) participates in the effect of celastrol on inflammatory pain. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain rat model was used. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was detected to evaluate the effects of celastrol on CFA-evoked inflammatory pain...
November 2, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Rubina Shakya, Sukumal Chongthammakun
The decline in circulating estrogen following menopause or aging is likely to initiate chronic inflammatory disorders, leading to neurodegenerative disease. Though, WNT1 paracrine molecules are crucial in embryonic neuroblastoma cell proliferation, very less is known about its role in adult brain that is associated with estrogen as preventive therapeutic strategy. The present study evidenced for the first time that 17β-estradiol (E2), a potent form of estrogen, could compensate the chronic neuroinflammation-associated loss of neurons by upregulating canonical WNT signaling pathway...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Daniel Knebel, Jan Rillich, Leonard Nadler, Hans-Joachim Pflüger, Amir Ayali
Higher motor centers and central pattern generators (CPGs) interact in the control of coordinated leg movements during locomotion throughout the animal kingdom. The subesophageal ganglion (SEG) is one of the insect head ganglia reported to have a role in the control of walking behavior. Here we explored the functional relations between the SEG and the thoracic leg CPGs in the desert locust. Backfill staining revealed about 300 SEG descending interneurons (DINs) altogether. Recordings from an in-vitro isolated chain of thoracic ganglia, with intact or severed connections to the SEG, during pharmacological activation were used to determine how the SEG affects the centrally generated motor output to the legs...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Marharyta Semenikhina, Ruslan Bogovyk, Mykhailo Fedoriuk, Oksana Nikolaienko, Lina T AlKury, Alina Savotchenko, Oleg Krishtal, Elena Isaeva
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a unique structure that controls substances exchange between the systemic circulation and the brain. Disruption of its integrity contributes to the development and progression of a variety of brain disorders including stroke, epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases. It was shown that intracerebral thrombin level substantially increases following status epilepticus (SE). Inhibition of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), the major thrombin receptor in the brain, produces an anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Anandh Dhanushkodi, Yi Xue, Emily E Roguski, Yun Ding, Shannon G Matta, Detlef Heck, Guo-Huang Fan, Michael P McDonald
Converging evidence demonstrates an important role for gangliosides in brain function and neurodegenerative diseases. Exogenous GM1 is broadly neuroprotective, including in rodent, feline, and primate models of Parkinson's disease, and has shown positive effects in clinical trials. We and others have shown that inhibition of the ganglioside biosynthetic enzyme GD3 synthase (GD3S) increases endogenous levels GM1 ganglioside. We recently reported that targeted deletion of St8sia1, the gene that codes for GD3S, prevents motor impairments and significantly attenuates neurodegeneration induced by 1-methy-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Lei Sun, Lin Zhao, Pinpin Li, Xuehua Liu, Fang Liang, Yijia Jiang, Nan Kang, Chunjin Gao, Jing Yang
Although there are reports of the beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in experimental settings, there are few clinical trials of HBO therapy for acute spinal cord injury (SCI). We investigated the effect of HBO in acute SCI by measuring plasma high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) levels, and by monitoring changes in electromyogram F-persistence (the percentage of discernible F-waves) and F-chronodispersion (the difference between minimal and maximal latency)...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Ariel A Jacobi, Sarah Halawani, David R Lynch, Hong Lin
D-serine, an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at the glycine binding site, is synthesized by serine racemase (SR) through conversion of L-serine. Dysregulation of SR/D-serine and Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia at converging pathways, as perturbation of SR-DISC1 binding in astrocytes elicits schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice. However, an association of neuronal SR with DISC1 remains elusive. Here we report that SR associates with DISC1 and its agglomerates in cortical neurons, which can be modulated by NMDAR activity...
October 31, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
C Fernandes, A R Gonçalves, R Pasion, F Ferreira-Santos, F Barbosa, I P Martins, J Marques-Teixeira
This study examines age-related differences in behavioral and neural responses to unfairness. Our sample was composed of younger, middle-aged, and older adults, who performed the Ultimatum Game in the proposer role, and in the respondent role during an EEG recording. We administered neurocognitive tests to identify whether patterns in decision-making are associated with age-related changes in cognition. Despite the worse performance in measures of executive functioning, older adults had the best economic strategy by accepting more unfair offers than younger and middle-aged adults...
October 31, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hiroya Shimauchi-Ohtaki, Masashi Kurachi, Masae Naruse, Koji Shibasaki, Shouta Sugio, Ken Matsumoto, Masatsugu Ema, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Yasuki Ishizaki
Subcortical white matter infarction causes ischemic demyelination and loss of brain functions, as the result of disturbances of the blood flow. Although angiogenesis is one of the recovery processes after cerebral infarction, the dynamics of revascularization after white matter infarction still remains unclear. We induced white matter infarction in the internal capsule of Flk1-GFP::Flt1-tdsRed double transgenic mice by injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoconstrictor peptide, together with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and followed the changes in Flk1 and Flt1 expression in the vascular system in the infarct area...
October 31, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Rajat Thapa, Clifford H Donovan, Scott A Wong, Robert J Sutherland, Aaron J Grube
Multiple neural systems contribute to choice adaptation following reinforcement. Recent evidence suggests that the lateral habenula (LHb) plays a key role in such adaptations, particularly when reinforcements are worse than expected. Here, we investigated the effects of bilateral LHb lesions on responding in a binary choice task with no discriminatory cues. LHb lesions in rats decreased win-stay responses but surprisingly left lose-shift responses intact. This same dissociated effect was also observed after systemic administration of d-amphetamine in a separate cohort of animals...
October 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
The term "brain activity" refers to a wide range of mental faculties that can be assessed either on anatomical/functional micro-, meso- and macro- spatiotemporal scales of observation, or on intertwined cortical levels with mutual interactions. Our aim is to show that every brain activity encompassed in a given anatomical or functional level necessarily displays a counterpart in others, i.e., they are "dual". "Duality" refers to the case where two seemingly different physical systems turn out to be equivalent...
October 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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