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Neuroscience Letters

Gen Hamanaka, Ryo Ohtomo, Hajime Takase, Josephine Lok, Ken Arai
White matter damage caused by neurodegenerative diseases is almost incurable at present and an effective treatment has been waited for a long time. Etiology of the white matter damage is attributed to the collapse of axon-myelin complex and the breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB), which result in disruption of the white matter function. While the white matter dysfunction cannot be repaired by itself, some compensative responses may occur after the damage. Oligodendrocyte lineage cells play an important role for the white matter function, and during the chronic phase of diseases, they aim to cooperate with other neurovascular component cells to repair the damaged white matter tissue...
July 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Qiu T Ruan, Neema Yazdani, Jacob A Beierle, Kathryn M Hixson, Kristen E Hokenson, Daniel J Apicco, Kimberly P Luttik, Karen Zheng, Brandon F Maziuk, Peter E A Ash, Karen K Szumlinski, Shelley J Russek, Benjamin Wolozin, Camron D Bryant
RNA binding proteins are a diverse class of proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism. Accumulating studies indicate that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins are associated with cellular adaptations in response to drugs of abuse. We recently mapped and validated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (Hnrnph1) as a quantitative trait gene underlying differential behavioral sensitivity to methamphetamine. The molecular mechanisms by which hnRNP H1 alters methamphetamine behaviors are unknown but could involve pre- and/or post-synaptic changes in protein localization and function...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hua Lin, Ningning Hu, Yanfeng Zhang, Yuping Wang, Robert L Macdonald
OBJECTIVE: We report a large new family of familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy(FCMTE) from China and identify the possible causative gene(s) for the family. METHOD: Whole exome sequencing of blood genomic DNA from 4 patients and 2 unaffected family members were performed. Detected variants and their cosegregation were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: We identified c.20 G > C variant in the DCAF13 gene and c.983 T > C variant in the NOV gene cosegregating in the family...
July 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Jeremy D Schmahmann
What the cerebellum does to sensorimotor and vestibular control, it also does to cognition, emotion, and autonomic function. This hypothesis is based on the theories of dysmetria of thought and the universal cerebellar transform, which hold that the cerebellum maintains behavior around a homeostatic baseline, automatically, without conscious awareness, informed by implicit learning, and performed according to context. Functional topography within the cerebellum facilitates the modulation of distributed networks subserving multiple different functions...
July 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Ivan Annicchiarico, Lucas Cuenya
Consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) occurs when animals exposed to an unexpected downshift from a high palatable reward (e.g., 32% sucrose solution) to a less preferred one (e.g., 4% sucrose solution) show an abrupt and transient suppression of the consummatory response, compared with control animals that always had access to the less preferred one. This phenomenon constitutes an animal model of stress produced by frustrative events. To obtain information about individual differences regarding cSNC, we used Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) to analyze a sample of 53 animals exposed to an incentive downshift...
July 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Sieun An, Xiaochun Han, Bing Wu, Zhenhao Shi, Michael Marks, Shiyu Wang, Xinhuai Wu, Shihui Han
Emotions are at the core of human cognition and behavior. Traditionally, emotions have been classified dichotomously as being either positive or negative. However, recent behavioral research An et al. (2017) suggests that emotions contain both positivity and negativity. The current work investigated neural correlates of experiencing positive and negative emotions in response to happy and sad photos. Functional MRI revealed the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex showed stronger activation when experiencing positivity compared to negativity of sadness, but not happiness, whereas the bilateral cerebellum showed greater response to positivity than negativity regardless of emotion...
July 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Jolanta Bratosiewicz-Wasik, Pawel P Liberski, Beata Peplonska, Maria Styczynska, Joanna Smolen-Dzirba, Mariusz Cycon, Tomasz J Wasik
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a complex aetiology. The ε4 allel of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is the only confirmed genetic risk factor for the development of AD. In addition, polymorphisms at the promoter region of the APOE gene are assumed to modulate the susceptibility to AD by their different affinity to the transcription factors thus affecting the expression of the gene. In the presented study, we investigated the association between -491 A/T (rs449647), -427C/T, (rs769446) and -219 T/G (rs405509) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of APOE gene and AD risk in the Polish population...
July 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Ilya D Ionov, Irina I Pushinskaya, Nicholas P Gorev, David D Frenkel
Total sleep deprivation (SD) has been found to mitigate motor dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease. Apparently, the similar sensitivity of an animal model for parkinsonism would support the model's validity. Recently, we described catalepsy induced in Wistar rats by somatostatin antagonist, cyclosomatostatin (cSST); this model simulates such a disease-associated abnormality as a fall in brain somatostatin levels. To evaluate the similarity between the cSST model and Parkinson's disease, we assessed here the responsiveness of cSST-induced catalepsy to 1-h and 3-h SD...
July 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
David H Malin, Mallori M Henceroth, Joanne Elayoubi, Joseph R Campbell, Andrea Anderson, Pilar Goyarzu, Jonathon Izygon, Caitlin A Madison, Christopher P Ward, Ethan S Burstein
Considerable evidence suggests the Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and related peptides exert pro-nociceptive and anti-opiate actions, particularly at the supra-spinal level, which may contribute to opiate dependence. The FF1 receptor subtype appears to be primarily responsible for anti-opiate effects. In contrast, stimulation of the FF2 receptor primarily induces pro-opiate effects. AC-262620 is a small molecule, systemically active, selective FF1 receptor antagonist. An initial experiment showed that 10 mg/kg i...
July 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hulin Ren, Xianglan Chen, Zhenhai Qi, Yinchen Qiu, Chengfeng Gao
Numerous studies have demonstrated that word frequency influences sentence processing. However, the impact of frequently used epistemic modality adverbs on sentence processing is less clear. The aim of the present study is to investigate the processing of Chinese epistemic modality adverbs by means of ERPs (event-related potentials) based on degrees of modal certainty encoded by different orthographic forms of two epistemic adverbs yexu (possibly) and yiding (surely) co-occurred with two psychological verbs guji (estimate) and quexin (convince) in Mandarin Chinese sentences as Wo guji Xiaolin yexu hui jingxuan banzhang (I estimate Xiaolin possibly future compete monitor)...
July 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Kpobari W Nkpaa, Benjamin A Amadi, Isaac A Adedara, Matthew O Wegwu, Ebenezer O Farombi
Manganese (Mn) exposure has been reported to induce reproductive dysfunction in animal and humans. Studies have shown that a large percentage of adolescent and adult populations tend to consume alcohol in a binge pattern. However, there is no information on the influence of alcohol on Mn - induced functional alteration along the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of ethanol (EtOH) on Mn - induced functional alteration along the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis...
July 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Qian-Qian Si, Yong-Sheng Yuan, Yan Zhi, Qing Tong, Li Zhang, Kezhong Zhang
Accumulating evidence suggests that iron metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), and particularly in motor phenotype. This investigation aimed to examine plasma iron metabolism related indicators in patients with tremor-dominant phenotype of PD and determine less invasive, potential markers from plasma, which could partially reflect pathophysiological mechanisms of the brain. Seventy-six PD patients were recruited and thirty-three of them were classified into the tremor-dominant PD (TD-PD) group and forty-three into the non-tremor dominant PD (NT-PD) group, as determined by clinical characteristics...
July 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hui Chen, Gerard Li, Yik Lung Chan, Tara Nguyen, David van Reyk, Sonia Saad, Brian G Oliver
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking can lead to perturbations in central metabolic regulators such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) signalling components in offspring. With the growing interest in e-cigarettes as a tobacco replacement, this short report assessed central metabolic regulation in offspring of mouse dams exposed to e-cigarettes. We examined the impact of continuous use of e-cigarettes, and e-cigarette replacement of tobacco cigarettes during pregnancy. Supplementation of an antioxidant L-carnitine was also co-used with tobacco cigarette in the mother to determine whether the impact of maternal tobacco smoking was oxidative stress driven...
July 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Yasushi Kawamata, Ayuka Ehara, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Yoshiteru Seo, Kazutaka Shimoda, Shuichi Ueda
Growing evidence suggests that neonatal cerebral microhemorrhages (MHs) are implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases in adults. Although animal studies have identified the progression of the underlying mechanisms of MHs, few studies have investigated the histopathology and behavioral outcomes. In this study, we created an experimental rat model of MHs using a new experimental device for repeated mild shaking brain injury (SBI) in the neonatal period and examined temporal changes in MHs using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and iron histochemistry...
July 2, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Justin R Welden, Zhaiyi Zhang, Marilyn J Duncan, Marina Falaleeva, Timothy Wells, Stefan Stamm
The serotonin receptor 2C (5HT2C) is an important drug target to treat obesity and depression. Its pre-mRNA undergoes alternative splicing, encoding a short RNA1 isoform that is localized intracellularly and a full-length isoform (RNA2) that can reach the cell membrane. These splicing isoforms are deregulated in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), due to the loss of a trans-acting regulatory RNA, SNORD115. Here we show that the 5HT2C mRNA is expressed in the posterior pituitary, suggesting that 5HT2C mRNA is generated in the hypothalamus and subsequently conveyed by axonal transport...
June 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Michael Kennefick, Alexander D Wright, Jonathan D Smirl, Paul van Donkelaar
The central nervous system preplans postural responses to successfully perform complex multi-joint movements. These responses have been termed anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), and they constitute a general type of response to stabilize posture prior to movement initiation. APA sequences are elicited with shorter latency when a startling acoustic stimulus is applied, demonstrating their preplanned nature. Increasing task complexity using a simple reaction time (RT) paradigm has been shown to delay limb movement RT as a result of additional planning or sequencing requirements; however, the effect of task complexity on APA dynamics is unclear...
June 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Kazuaki Ohara, Mikio Katayama, Katsuya Nagai
The autonomic nervous system innervates various peripheral tissue functions. Various external stimuli affect autonomic nerve activity, however, there is little information about the involvement of sensory receptors in the responses. The TRPA1 is a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel which plays a crucial role in the susceptibility to various stimuli. β-Eudesmol, an oxygenated sesquiterpene found in hop essential oil and beer, activates the TRPA1. Intragastric administration of β-eudesmol decreased efferent adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) in rats, whereas subcutaneous administration did not...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
A Perrochon, S Mandigout, S Pestruzellis, N Soria Garcia, M Zaoui, A Berthoz, J C Daviet
Spatial memory and navigation capabilities tend to decline in normal aging, but few studies have assessed the impact of landmarks on route learning in a large-scale environment. The objectives were to examine age-related effects on visuo-spatial working memory capabilities in various environments and to determine the impact of landmarks in navigation skills in normal aging. 42 young women (23.6 ± 4.9 years) and 37 older women (70.7 ± 4.7 years) with no cognitive impairment have performed three visuo-spatial working memory tests: one in reaching space (computerized Corsi-Block-Tapping test) and two in locomotor navigation space (a condition without landmarks: Virtual Walking Corsi Test and a condition with landmarks: Virtual Room Walking Test)...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
D V Zosen, N A Dorofeeva, E V Chernigovskaya, V T Bachteeva, M V Glazova
The release of dopamine (DA) is one of the main steps in the control of neuronal functioning and all CNS. It was demonstrated that many factors such as protein kinases and synaptic proteins are tightly involved in the regulation of DA secretion, but the data are contradictory. Here we analysed an effect of ERK1/2 inhibition on DA secretion from differentiated PC12 cells and evaluated the correlation between the activity of kinases/synaptic proteins and the level of released DA. PC12 cells were differentiated by NGF for 6 days...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Amanda S Therrien, Amy J Bastian
In this article, we review a broad range of studies of cerebellar function and dysfunction and interpret them within the framework that the cerebellum acts as part of a mechanism of predictive control. We describe studies that span human behaviour and consider the motor and sensory impairments that result from cerebellar damage. We conclude that a parsimonious explanation of cerebellar function is as a predictor of the sensory outcomes of movement. However, future studies are needed to more rigorously test this hypothesis and determine how the cerebellar circuit might perform this type of computation...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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