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Journal of Thermal Biology

M Y Ge, C Shu, W M Yang, K J Chua
In this paper, the three-dimensional thermal effects of a clinically-extracted vascular tissue undergoing cryo-freezing are numerically investigated. Based on the measured experimental temperature field, the numerical results of the Pennes bioheat model combined with the boundary condition-enforced immersed boundary method (IBM) agreed well with experimental data with a maximum temperature discrepancy of 2.9°C. For simulating the temperature profile of a tumor sited in a dominantly vascularized tissue, our model is able to capture with ease the thermal effects at specified junctions of the blood vessels...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Yang Liu, Fang Lu, Hui Jiang, Yezhong Tang
All organisms must maintain body temperature within a suitable range and be able to sense the environmental temperature variations. However, it remains largely unknown how thermal sensing systems have evolved in animals. The transient receptor potential cation channel (TRP) protein family acts as warm/heat or cool/cold receptors by changing the probability of channel opening in response to thermal stimulation. Here, we examined the selective pressures acting on the transmembrane region of six segments (S1~S6) of thermo-TRP family members...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Adam W Potter, Laurie A Blanchard, Karl E Friedl, Bruce S Cadarette, Reed W Hoyt
Physiological models provide useful summaries of complex interrelated regulatory functions. These can often be reduced to simple input requirements and simple predictions for pragmatic applications. This paper demonstrates this modeling efficiency by tracing the development of one such simple model, the Heat Strain Decision Aid (HSDA), originally developed to address Army needs. The HSDA, which derives from the Givoni-Goldman equilibrium body core temperature prediction model, uses 16 inputs from four elements: individual characteristics, physical activity, clothing biophysics, and environmental conditions...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Mohammed A F Nasr, Mahmoud S El-Tarabany
In Egypt, cow's milk represents 52.11% of the total milk production. Climatic condition is mainly expected to impact the welfare and productive performance of livestock animals. Thus, we aimed to explore the impact of temperature-humidity index (THI) on somatic cell count (SCC), milk production and composition on daily milk test records (33600) of Holstein cows under subtropical Egyptian conditions with different levels of THI. Our results revealed that daily milk yield and composition (fat%, protein %, yielded fat, yielded protein and the percentage of lactose) were higher in low THI (31...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Meisam Kashcooli, Mohammad Reza Salimpour, Ebrahim Shirani
Specifying exact geometry of vessel network and its effect on temperature distribution in living tissues is one of the most complicated problems of the bioheat field. In this paper, the effects of blood vessels on temperature distribution in a skin tissue subjected to various thermal therapy conditions are investigated. Present model consists of counter-current multilevel vessel network embedded in a three-dimensional triple-layered skin structure. Branching angles of vessels are calculated using the physiological principle of minimum work...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Ferdinand Ngoula, Maryvonne Guemdjo Tekam, Augustave Kenfack, Cyrille D'Alex Tadondjou Tchingo, Sandrine Nouboudem, Herman Ngoumtsop, Borice Tsafack, Alexis Teguia, Pierre Kamtchouing, Marco Galeotti, Joseph Tchoumboue
Climate changes, particularly the increase of temperature are among the main causes behind the decline of fertility in humans as well as animals. In this study, the effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavies and mitigation strategies using guava leaves essential oil (GLEO) were studied. For this purpose, 40 male cavies aged 2.5-3 months and weighing between 348 and 446g were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each and subjected to the following temperatures: Ambient temperature (20-25°C) for the control group, 35°C for group 1, 45°C for group 2 and 45°C+100µl GLEO/kg body weight, administered by gavage to animals for group 3...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Zhaojian Li, Yansen Li, Xin Zhou, Yun Cao, Chunmei Li
Hyperthermia in boars reduces growth performance and sperm production. Zinc is an essential trace element in animal nutrition. Here we investigate the effects of dietary zinc on epididymal structure and function in Bama miniature pigs treated with heat exposure and investigate approaches to improve the reproductive performance in summer. Male Bama miniature pigs (n=18; aged 6 months; bodyweight=10.79±0.06kg) were randomly allocated to 3 groups: control group (Control), heat treatment group (HT), and the diet-supplemented and heat treatment group (H+Zn)...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Anna C Rooke, Gary Burness, Michael G Fox
Contemporary evolution of thermal physiology has the potential to help limit the physiological stress associated with rapidly changing thermal environments; however it is unclear if wild populations can respond quickly enough for such changes to be effective. We used native Canadian Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) sunfish, and non-native Pumpkinseed introduced into the milder climate of Spain ~100 years ago, to assess genetic differences in thermal physiology in response to the warmer non-native climate. We compared temperature performance reaction norms of two Canadian and two Spanish Pumpkinseed populations born and raised within a common environment...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Benedict Kjaergaard, Cristian Sevcencu, Sigridur Olga Magnusdottir, Henrik Bygum Krarup, Thomas Nørgaard Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Surviving long lasting cardiac arrest following accidental hypothermia has been reported after treatment with extra corporeal life support (ECLS), but there is a risk of neurologic injury. Most surviving hypothermia patients have a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit, where most patients experience polyneuropathy. Theoretically, accidental hypothermic cardiac arrest may in itself contribute to polyneuropathy. This study was designed to examine the impact of three hours of cardiac arrest at a core temperature of 20°C followed by reanimation of peripheral nerve function...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Chaitanya Pandit, K R Anilakumar
Identifying a means to activate or potentiate thermogenic mechanisms through ingestion of dietary compounds have important implications in cold endurance and survival. Although many reports discuss the thermogenic potential of spices, it is surprising that none of the studies verify whether consumption of spices can improve cold endurance. In this study, we have attempted to evaluate if ingestion of certain spices can activate heat-generating mechanisms in the body such that a fall in. core body temperature (CBT) can be delayed or prevented when faced with a cold challenge...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Gordon T Ober, Carol Thornber, Jason Grear, Jason J Kolbe
Temperature strongly affects performance in ectotherms. As ocean warming continues, performance of marine species will be impacted. Many studies have focused on how warming will impact physiology, life history, and behavior, but few studies have investigated how ecological and behavioral traits of organisms will affect their response to changing thermal environments. Here, we assessed the thermal tolerances and thermal sensitivity of swimming performance of two sympatric mysid shrimp species of the Northwest Atlantic...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Lorinda A Hart, Colleen T Downs, Mark Brown
The thermoregulatory capacity of a species can determine which climatic niche it occupies. Its development in avian chicks is influenced by numerous factors. Furthermore, it is suggested that altricial chicks develop their thermoregulatory capacity post-hatching, while precocial chicks develop aspects of this in the egg. We investigated the development of thermoregulation of four co-occurring seabird species in the Seychelles; namely white, ground-nesting white-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon lepturus) and tree-nesting fairy terns (Gygis alba); and dark plumaged, tree-nesting lesser noddies (Anous tenuirostris) and ground- and tree-nesting brown noddies (A...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Stylianos N Kounalakis, Michail E Keramidas, Mojca Amon, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic
The study examined the effects of a 10-day normobaric hypoxic confinement on the finger and toe temperature responses to local cooling. Eight male lowlanders underwent a normoxic (NC) and, in a separate occasion, a normobaric hypoxic confinement (HC; FO2: 0.154; simulated altitude ~3400m). Before and after each confinement, subjects immersed for 30min their right hand and, in a different session, their right foot in 8°C water, while breathing either room air (AIR) or a hypoxic gas mixture (HYPO). Throughout the cold-water immersion tests, thermal responses were monitored with thermocouples on fingers and toes...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Roslizawati Ab Lah, Kirsten Benkendorff, Daniel Bucher
Predicted global climate change has prompted numerous studies of thermal tolerances of marine species. The upper thermal tolerance is unknown for most marine species, but will determine their vulnerability to ocean warming. Gastropods in the family Turbinidae are widely harvested for human consumption. To investigate the responses of turbinid snails to future conditions we determined critical thermal maxima (CTMax) and preferred temperatures of Turbo militaris and Lunella undulata from the tropical-temperate overlap region of northern New South Wales, on the Australian east coast...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Timothy A Clay, Matthew E Gifford
Thermal adaptation predicts that thermal sensitivity of physiological traits should be optimized to thermal conditions most frequently experienced. Furthermore, thermodynamic constraints predict that species with higher thermal optima should have higher performance maxima and narrower performance breadths. We tested these predictions by examining the thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation between populations within two species of terrestrial-lungless salamanders, Plethodon albagula and P. montanus. Within P...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Simão Nóbrega, Pedro J Coelho
A thermal therapy for cancer in skin tissue is numerically investigated using three bioheat conduction models, namely Pennes, thermal wave and dual-phase lag models. A laser is applied at the surface of the skin for cancer ablation, and the temperature and thermal damage distributions are predicted using the three bioheat models and two different modeling approaches of the laser effect. The first one is a prescribed surface heat flux, in which the tissue is assumed to be highly absorbent, while the second approach is a volumetric heat source, which is reasonable if the scattering and absorption skin effects are of similar magnitude...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Adam Church, Fanny Lee, Michael J Buono
The time necessary for the initial appearance of ingested water as sweat during exercise in the heat remains unknown. Based on the current literature, we estimated fluid transition through the body, from ingestion to appearance as sweat, to have a minimum time duration of approximately three minutes. The purpose of this study was to test this prediction and identify the time necessary for the initial enrichment of deuterium oxide (D2O) in sweat following ingestion during exercise in the heat. Eight participants performed moderate intensity (40% of maximal oxygen uptake) treadmill exercise in an environmental chamber (40°C, 40% rH) to induce active sweating...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Paulina Artacho, Julia Saravia, Samuel Perret, José Luis Bartheld, Jean-François Le Galliard
Populations at the warm range margins of the species distribution may be at the greatest risks of extinction from global warming unless they can tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Yet, some studies suggest that the thermal behavior of some lizard species is evolutionarily rigid. During two successive years, we compared the thermal biology of two populations of Liolaemus pictus living at the northern (warmer) and one population living at the southern (colder) range limits, thus spanning an 800km latitudinal distance...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Brady K Quinn
Temperature-dependent development influences production rates of arthropods, including crustaceans important to fisheries and agricultural pests. Numerous candidate equation types (development functions) exist to describe the effect of temperature on development time, yet most studies use only a single type of equation and there is no consensus as to which, if any model predicts development rates better than the others, nor what the consequences of selecting a potentially incorrect model equation are on predicted development times...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Uttarani Maibam, O K Hooda, P S Sharma, A K Mohanty, S V Singh, R C Upadhyay
Skin is most important environmental interface providing a protective envelope to animals. It's always under the influence of both internal and external stressors. Heat shock proteins (HSP) are highly conserved stress proteins which play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and thermal adaptation. Present study was planned to observe the relative mRNA expression of inducible (HSP70.1 and HSP70.2) and constitutive (HSP70.8) HSP in skin of zebu (Tharparkar) and crossbred (Karan Fries) cattle during different seasons...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
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