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Journal of Thermal Biology

Sarah A Codde, Sarah G Allen, Dorian S Houser, Daniel E Crocker
Pinnipeds spend extended periods of time on shore during breeding, and some temperate species retreat to the water if exposed to high ambient temperatures. However, female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) with pups generally avoid the water, presumably to minimize risks to pups or male harassment. Little is known about how ambient temperature affects thermoregulation of well insulated females while on shore. We used a thermographic camera to measure surface temperature (Ts) of 100 adult female elephant seals and their pups during the breeding season at Point Reyes National Seashore, yielding 782 thermograms...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Nazli Ayhan, Pinar Güler, Banu Sebnem Onder
Studies of altitudinal changes in phenotype and genotype can complement studies of latitudinal patterns and provide evidence of natural selection in response to climatic factors. In Drosophila melanogaster, latitudinal variation in phenotype and genotype has been well studied, but altitudinal patterns have rarely been investigated. We studied populations from six different altitudes varying between 35m and 2173m in the Firtina Valley in northeastern part of Turkey to evaluate clinal trends in lifespan under experimental conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Shahar Bano Memon, Li Lian, Javaid Ali Gadahi, Wang Genlin
The mapping of tissue proteomes can identify the molecular regulators and effectors of their physiological activity. However, proteomic response of a mammalian tissue against heat stress (HS) particularly of the pituitary gland has not yet been resolved. The proteomic response of the mouse pituitary gland against HS at 40(o)C was evaluated by iTRAQ. We found that, HS actively regulates stress-related proteins. Among 375 differentially expressed proteins, 26 up and 46 downregulated proteins were found as stress responsive proteins...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Clint A Holm, Leon Pahler, Matthew S Thiese, Rodney Handy
BACKGROUND: Monitoring core body temperature to identify heat strain in workers engaged in hot work in heat stress environments is intrusive and expensive. Nonintrusive, inexpensive methods are needed to calculate individual Physiological Strain Index (PSI). OBJECTIVE: Thermal imaging and heart rate monitoring were used in this study to calculate Physiological Strain Index (PSI) from thermal imaging temperatures of human subjects wearing thermal protective garments during recovery from hot work...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Romain Bouzigon, Frederic Grappe, Gilles Ravier, Benoit Dugue
Cold therapy is commonly used as a method to relieve pain and inflammation. This review focuses primarily on two methods of cold therapy that have received recent attention: whole-body cryotherapy and partial-body cryotherapy. These methods are used to induce physiological and psychological benefits in humans in the context of medicine, health and sports. The subjects experiencing cryotherapy are dressed in minimal clothing and are exposed to very cold air (at -110°C or less) for 1-4min. Despite the increasing scientific interest in these methods, there is a lack of information about the technologies used...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Tatsuro Amano, Masaki Ishitobi, Yukio Ogura, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Shunsaku Koga, Takeshi Nishiyasu, Narihiko Kondo
Changing stride frequency may influence oxygen uptake and heart rate during running as a function of running economy and central command. This study investigated the influence of stride frequency manipulation on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running. Seven healthy endurance runners ran on a treadmill at a velocity of 15km/h for 60min in a controlled environmental chamber (ambient temperature 27°C and relative humidity 50%), and stride frequency was manipulated. Stride frequency was intermittently manipulated by increasing and decreasing frequency by 10% from the pre-determined preferred frequency...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Panayiotis Pafilis, Petros Lymberakis, Kostas Sagonas, Efstratios Valakos
Environmental temperatures considerably affect the reptilian ability for thermoregulation and harsh climatic conditions may impose a highly effective body temperature regulation to lizards. Such demanding conditions are more common to extreme mainland habitats (e.g. deserts or mountains). To the contrary, islands have more benign climate conditions thanks to the thermal buffering effect of the surrounding sea. However, this favorable effect may be eliminated in small size islets where the scarcity of thermal shelters and exposure to high winds create challenging conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Keyvan Aminoroaya, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Zarbakht Ansari-Pirsaraei, Nasser Kashan
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cyclical lower incubation temperature at different embryonic ages on the hatchability, body and organs weights, thyroid hormones, and liver HSP70 gene expression of newly hatched chicks. In a completely randomized design, fertile eggs of a broiler breeder (34 weeks of age) were assigned to three treatment groups with six replicates and 145 eggs per each. The treatment groups were as: control group (C) that eggs were incubated at 37.6°C during the whole incubation period; incubation temperature was decreased to 36°C for 3h per day at embryonic age from 12 to 14 (T1); and incubation temperature was decreased to 36°C for 3h per day at embryonic age from 15 to 17 (T2)...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Zaida Ortega, Abraham Mencía, Valentín Pérez-Mellado
Temperature determines all aspects of the biology of ectotherms. Although sexual differences in thermal ecology are not the rule in lizards, some species exhibit such differences. We studied the effect of sex and reproductive condition on the thermoregulation of an introduced population of Scelarcis perspicillata during the summer in Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). These lizards live in the wall surfaces of a limestone quarry, where the sun is scarce because of the narrowness of the quarry walls. The population is sexually dimorphic, with larger males than females...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Mahmoud S El-Tarabany
Heat stress is one of the major causes of a decreased performance of laying quail in tropical and subtropical countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature humidity index (THI) on fertility aspects, external and internal egg quality parameters in Japanese quail. One hundred and forty four (144) Japanese quail, 12 of weeks age, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, lower than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75) and H2 (at high THI, 76-80)...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
J S Johnson, K L Martin, K G Pohler, K R Stewart
Rapidly cooling pigs after heat stress (HS) results in a pathophysiological condition, and because rapid temperature fluctuations may be associated with reduced reproductive success in sows, it lends itself to the hypothesis that these conditions may be linked. Objectives were to determine the effects of rapid cooling on thermal response and future reproductive success in pigs. Thirty-six replacement gilts (137.8±0.9kg BW) were estrus synchronized and then 14.1±0.4 d after estrus confirmation, pigs were exposed to thermoneutral conditions (TN; n=12; 19...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Akshay Phadnis, Sumit Kumar, Atul Srivastava
The work presented in this paper focuses on numerically investigating the thermal response of gold nanoshells-embedded biological tissue phantoms with potential applications into photo-thermal therapy wherein the interest is in destroying the cancerous cells with minimum damage to the surrounding healthy cells. The tissue phantom has been irradiated with a pico-second laser. Radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been employed to model the light-tissue interaction using discrete ordinate method (DOM). For determining the temperature distribution inside the tissue phantom, the RTE has been solved in combination with a generalized non-Fourier heat conduction model namely the dual phase lag bio-heat transfer model...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Junyoung Jo, Hyunho Kim
This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the differences in abdominal temperature (AT) between fertile (n=206; age) and infertile (n=250) women between the ages of 30 and 39 years. We evaluated the differences in two distinctive skin temperatures by thermography: ΔT1 (CV8 index) - difference in temperature between the mid-abdomen (CV8 acupuncture area) and ventral upper arm (VUA) and ΔT2 (CV4 index) - difference in temperature between the lower abdomen (CV4 acupuncture area) and VUA. The results indicated that the ΔT1 and ΔT2 of infertile women were significantly lower (by 1...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
John W Rowe, David L Clark, Rebecca A Mortensen, Carolyn V Commissaris, Lawrence W Wittle, John K Tucker
Color and pigmentation patterns of the integument can facilitate crypsis, thermoregulation, and social signaling. According to the "thermal melanism hypothesis", cold environmental temperature should increase the quantity of melanin that is deposited in the integument thereby facilitating radiative warming. We studied the influences of water temperature (26°C or 31°C) and substrate color (black or white) on the degree of melanization in the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, under laboratory conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Tamara V Kozyreva, Galina M Khramova, Irina P Voronova, Anna A Evtushenko
The role of thermosensitive TRP ion channels in physiological processes in the whole organism is far from being clear. In present work we tried to understand the possible participation of the cold-sensitive ion channel TRPM8 in regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine level in blood, and to see if hypertension (widely spread disease) changes this relationship. Experiments were carried out on normotensive Wistar rats and rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension. The effects of deep rapid and slow cooling with decrease in rectal temperature by 3°C, and activation of the skin TRPM8 ion channel by its agonist menthol (application of 1% L-menthol) on the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα) in blood have been studied...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Dao-Meng Fu, Hai-Min He, Chao Zou, Hai-Jun Xiao, Fang-Sen Xue
Temperature is a key environmental factor for ectotherms and affects a large number of life history traits. In the present study, development time from hatching to pupation and adult eclosion, pupal and adult weights of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis were examined at 22, 25, 28 and 31°C under L18:D 6. Larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. Larval and pupal developmental times were not significantly different between females and males...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Félix Landry Yuan, Evan J Pickett, Timothy C Bonebrake
Susceptibility of species to climate change varies depending on many biological and environmental traits, such as reproductive mode and climatic exposure. For example, wider thermal tolerance breadths are associated with more climatically variable habitats and viviparity could be associated with greater vulnerability relative to oviparity. However, few examples exist detailing how such physiological and environmental traits together might shape species thermal performance. In this study we compared the thermal tolerance and performance of two sympatric skink congeners in Hong Kong that differ in habitat use and reproductive mode...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Trina Sengupta, Ashok Kumar Jaryal, Hruda Nanda Mallick
Glutamate when microinjected at the medial preoptic area (mPOA) influences brain temperature (Tbr) and body temperature (Tb) in rats. Glutamate and its various receptors are present at the mPOA. The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of each of the ionotropic glutamatergic receptors at the mPOA on changes in Tbr and Tb in freely moving rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n=40) were implanted with bilateral guide cannula with indwelling styli above the mPOA. A telemetric transmitter was implanted at the peritoneum to record Tb and locomotor activity (LMA)...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Nicza Alveal Riquelme, Helen Díaz-Páez, Juan Carlos Ortiz
Rhinella spinulosa is one of the anuran species with the greatest presence in Chile. This species mainly inhabits mountain habitats and is distributed latitudinally along the western slope of the Andes Range. These habitats undergo great temperature fluctuations, exerting pressure on the amphibian. To identify the physiological strategies and thermal behavior of this species, we analyzed the temperature variables CTmin, CTmax, TTR, τheat, and τcool in individuals of three sites from a latitudinal gradient (22°S to 37°S)...
August 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Erin L Sauer, Jinelle H Sperry, Jason R Rohr
Thermoregulatory ability and behavior influence organismal responses to their environment. By measuring thermal preferences, researchers can better understand the effects that temperature tolerances have on ecological and physiological responses to both biotic and abiotic stressors. However, because of funding limitations and confounders, measuring thermoregulation can often be difficult. Here, we provide an effective, affordable (~$50 USD per unit), easy to construct, and validated apparatus for measuring the long-term thermal preferences of animals...
August 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
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