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Journal of Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084640/diversity-of-immune-cell-types-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-its-animal-model-pathological-and-therapeutic-implications
#1
REVIEW
Yun Cheng, Li Sun, Zhongxiang Xie, Xueli Fan, Qingqing Cao, Jinming Han, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with an autoimmune attack on the components of the myelin sheath and axons. The etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, but it is commonly acknowledged that the development of MS probably results from the interaction of environmental factors in conjunction with a genetic predisposition. Current therapeutic approaches can only ameliorate the clinical symptoms or reduce the frequency of relapse in MS. Most drugs used in this disease broadly suppress the functions of immune effector cells, which can result in serious side effects...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084632/netrin-1-overexpression-improves-neurobehavioral-outcomes-and-reduces-infarct-size-via-inhibition-of-the-notch1-pathway-following-experimental-stroke
#2
Xiaosheng Yang, Shiting Li, Bin Li, Xiaoqiang Wang, Chongran Sun, Haiqiang Qin, Hui Sun
Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Administration of Netrin-1 during the peri-infarct period has been shown to decrease infarct size in rats; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We addressed this question in the present study by inducing stroke in rats via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and evaluating the effects of Netrin-1 treatment by neurobehavioral testing, immunocytochemistry, and western blotting. Netrin-1 overexpression increased neurobehavioral test scores and reduced cerebral infarct volume following MCAO via inhibition of the Notch1 signaling pathway...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084617/adamts-4-in-central-nervous-system-pathologies
#3
REVIEW
Sighild Lemarchant, Sara Wojciechowski, Denis Vivien, Jari Koistinaho
ADAMTS-4 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs type 4) is a metalloproteinase specialized in the degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, contributing to cartilage breakdown during arthritis. In this review, we first focus on the modifications of ADAMTS-4 expression during CNS physiological and pathological conditions, including chronic diseases and injuries. Then, we discuss the contributions of ADAMTS-4 to mechanisms mediating neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration during spinal cord injury, ischemic stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066914/cortical-hemorrhage-associated-neurological-deficits-and-tissue-damage-in-mice-are-ameliorated-by-therapeutic-treatment-with-nicotine
#4
Junpei Anan, Masanori Hijioka, Yuki Kurauchi, Akinori Hisatsune, Takahiro Seki, Hiroshi Katsuki
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with diverse sets of neurological symptoms and prognosis, depending on the site of bleeding. Relative rate of hemorrhage occurring in the cerebral cortex (lobar hemorrhage) has been increasing, but there is no report on effective pharmacotherapeutic approaches for cortical hemorrhage either in preclinical or clinical studies. The present study aimed to establish an experimental model of cortical hemorrhage in mice for evaluation of effects of therapeutic drug candidates...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052373/best-time-window-for-the-use-of-calcium-modulating-agents-to-improve-functional-recovery-in-injured-peripheral-nerves-an-experiment-in-rats
#5
Yuhui Yan, Feng-Yi Shen, Michael Agresti, Lin-Ling Zhang, Hani S Matloub, John A LoGiudice, Robert Havlik, Jifeng Li, Yu-Dong Gu, Ji-Geng Yan
Peripheral nerve injury can have a devastating effect on daily life. Calcium concentrations in nerve fibers drastically increase after nerve injury, and this activates downstream processes leading to neuron death. Our previous studies showed that calcium-modulating agents decrease calcium accumulation, which aids in regeneration of injured peripheral nerves; however, the optimal therapeutic window for this application has not yet been identified. In this study, we show that calcium clearance after nerve injury is positively correlated with functional recovery in rats suffering from a crushed sciatic nerve injury...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035779/reduction-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-by-rivaroxaban-after-tpa-thrombolysis-is-associated-with-downregulation-of-par-1-and-par-2
#6
Ryuta Morihara, Toru Yamashita, Syoichiro Kono, Jingwei Shang, Yumiko Nakano, Kota Sato, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Stefan Heitmeier, Elisabeth Perzborn, Koji Abe
This study aimed to assess the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment in rivaroxaban compared with warfarin-pretreated male Wistar rat brain after ischemia in relation to activation profiles of protease-activated receptor-1, -2, -3, and -4 (PAR-1, -2, -3, and -4). After pretreatment with warfarin (0.2 mg/kg/day), low-dose rivaroxaban (60 mg/kg/day), high-dose rivaroxaban (120 mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 14 days, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced for 90 min, followed by reperfusion with tPA (10 mg/kg/10 ml)...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029706/morphological-brain-measures-of-cortico-limbic-inhibition-related-to-resilience
#7
Arpana Gupta, Aubrey Love, Lisa A Kilpatrick, Jennifer S Labus, Ravi Bhatt, Lin Chang, Kirsten Tillisch, Bruce Naliboff, Emeran A Mayer
Resilience is the ability to adequately adapt and respond to homeostatic perturbations. Although resilience has been associated with positive health outcomes, the neuro-biological basis of resilience is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to identify associations between regional brain morphology and trait resilience with a focus on resilience-related morphological differences in brain regions involved in cortico-limbic inhibition. The relationship between resilience and measures of affect were also investigated...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029704/dynamic-mislocalizations-of-nuclear-pore-complex-proteins-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rat
#8
Qian Li, Yasuyuki Ohta, Toru Yamashita, Jingwei Shang, Kentaro Deguchi, Tian Feng, Kota Sato, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yumiko Nakano, Koji Abe
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) play an important role in coordinating the transport of proteins and nucleic acids between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and are therefore essential for maintaining normal cellular function and liability. In the present study, we investigated the temporal immunohistochemical distribution of five representative components of NPCs-Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGap1), glycoprotein-210 (Gp210), nucleoporin 205 (Nup205), nucleoporin 107 (Nup107), and nucleoporin 50 (Nup50)-after 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) up to 28 days after the reperfusion in rat brains...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029680/the-function-of-nod-like-receptors-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Xiangxi Kong, Zengqiang Yuan, Jinbo Cheng
NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are critical cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that play an important role in the host innate immune response and immunity homeostasis. There is a growing body of evidence that NLRs are involved in a wide range of inflammatory diseases, including cancer, metabolic diseases, and autoimmune disorders. Recent studies have indicated that the proteins of the NLR family are linked with the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), and psychological diseases...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019025/mtep-impedes-the-neuronal-polarization-and-the-activity-of-the-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#10
Xiaohua Zhang, Ming Hu, Lin Zhang, Jing An, Wenhui Yan, Zhichao Zhang, Jianxin Liu, Haixia Lu, Xinlin Chen, Yong Liu
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is extensively involved in neural survival, differentiation, dendritic morphology, synaptic plasticity, and neural circuit formation. However, little is known about its role in neuronal polarization and axon outgrowth. In this study, we applied the selective agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine sodium salt and antagonist 3-[(2-methyl-4-thaizolyl) ethynyl] pyridine (MTEP) of mGluR5 to the cultured hippocampal neurons to observe the neuronal polarization and axon outgrowth, and further explored the possible intracellular signal transduction pathway...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991686/co-expression-changes-of-lncrnas-and-mrnas-in-the-cervical-sympathetic-ganglia-in-diabetic-cardiac-autonomic-neuropathic-rats
#11
Guilin Li, Xuan Sheng, Yurong Xu, Huaide Jiang, Chaoran Zheng, Jingjing Guo, Shanshan Sun, Zhihua Yi, Shulan Qin, Shuangmei Liu, Yun Gao, Chunping Zhang, Hong Xu, Bing Wu, Lifang Zou, Shangdong Liang, Gaochun Zhu
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often a devastating complication. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important effects on both normal development and disease pathogenesis. In this study, we explored the expression profiles of some lncRNAs involved in inflammation which may be co-expressed with messenger RNA (mRNA) in superior cervical and stellate ganglia after type 2 diabetic injuries. Total RNA isolated from 10 pairs of superior cervical and stellate ganglia in diabetic and normal male rats was hybridized to lncRNA arrays for detections...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935632/ultrastructural-abnormalities-and-loss-of-myelinated-fibers-in-the-corpus-callosum-of-demyelinated-mice-induced-by-cuprizone
#12
Yun Xiu, Guo-Hua Cheng, Chao Peng, Yun Wang, Yong-de Li, Feng-Lei Chao, Yong Tang
It is now accepted that white matter abnormalities play an important role in demyelinating diseases and a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Experimental demyelination (especially induced by cuprizone) has been investigated extensively. However, details regarding demyelination and ultrastructural changes of myelinated fibers have not been previously reported. Therefore, we determined the extent of demyelination using quantitative stereology. Mice exposed to cuprizone in the current study showed abnormal anxiety-like behavior without impaired spatial learning or memory...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935101/gpnmb-ameliorates-mutant-tdp-43-induced-motor-neuron-cell-death
#13
Yuki Nagahara, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Kazuki Ohuchi, Junko Ito, Hitoshi Takahashi, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hideaki Hara
Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918079/high-intensity-treadmill-running-impairs-cognitive-behavior-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-of-rats-via-activation-of-inflammatory-response
#14
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Long Li, Fei Wang, Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Li Yuan, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Although appropriate exercise is beneficial for enhancing brain functions, high-intensity exercise (HIE)-induced cognitive dysfunction is causing more and more concerns nowadays. In the present study, we observed the effects of high-intensity treadmill running on the spatial learning of the adult Sprague Dawley male rats in Y-maze (n = 16 per group), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms by examining in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), central inflammatory responses, and JNK/p38/ERK signal pathway...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898179/temporal-kinetics-of-cd8-cd28-and-cd8-cd28-t-lymphocytes-in-the-injured-rat-spinal-cord
#15
Yan Wu, Yu-Hong Lin, Ling-Ling Shi, Zong-Feng Yao, Xiu-Mei Xie, Zheng-Song Jiang, Jie Tang, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
This study aims to explore the temporal changes of cytotoxic CD8(+) CD28(+) and regulatory CD8(+) CD28(-) T-cell subsets in the lesion microenvironment after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats, by combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry (FCM). In the sham-opened spinal cord, few CD8(+) T cells were found. After SCI, the CD8(+) T cells were detected at one day post-injury (dpi), then markedly increased and were significantly higher at 3, 7, and 14 dpi compared with one dpi (p < 0.01), the highest being seven dpi...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898171/hormesis-cellular-stress-response-and-neuroinflammation-in-schizophrenia-early-onset-versus-late-onset-state
#16
REVIEW
Vittorio Calabrese, James Giordano, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Martino Ruggieri, Rio Bianchini, Maria Laura Ontario, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Edward J Calabrese
Abnormal redox homeostasis and oxidative stress have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of several neuropsychiatric spectrum disorders. Emerging interest has recently focused on markers of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in schizophrenic spectrum disorders, at least in particular subgroups of patients. Altered expression of genes related to oxidative stress, oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, as well as reduced glutathione levels in central and peripheral tissues could act synergistically, and contribute to the course of the disease...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869313/the-role-of-the-mir-17-92-cluster-in-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-adults
#17
REVIEW
Ping Yang, Linghu Cai, Guan Zhang, Zhiqun Bian, Gaofeng Han
It is well known that neurogenesis is not the only concern for the fully functional recovery after brain or spinal cord injury, as it has been shed light on the critical role of angiogenesis in improving neurological functional recovery. Angiogenesis and neurogenesis coordinately interact with each other in the developing and adult brain, during which they may respond to similar mediators and receptors, in which they share a common posttranscriptional regulator: the miR-17-92 cluster. The miR-17-92 cluster was initially described as an oncogene and was later demonstrated to drive key physiological and pathological responses during development and diseases respectively...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859490/genetically-modified-rodent-models-of-sca17
#18
REVIEW
Yiting Cui, Su Yang, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is a type of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) characterized by variable manifestations, including cerebellar ataxia, dementia, and psychiatric symptoms. Since the identification of a CAG repeat expansion in the TATA-box binding protein (TBP) gene in a patient with ataxia in 1999 and then verification of this expansion in patients with SCA17 in 2001, several SCA17 rodent models, including both knock-in and transgenic models in mice and rats, have been established to explore the phenotypic features and pathogenesis of SCA17...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862185/short-term-exposure-to-enriched-environment-rescues-chronic-stress-induced-impaired-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-anxiety-and-memory-deficits
#19
VenkannaRao Bhagya, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Jayagopalan Veena, Byrathnahalli S Shankaranarayana Rao
Exposure to prolonged stress results in structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus including reduced long-term potentiation (LTP), neurogenesis, spatial learning and working memory impairments, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) has beneficial effects on hippocampal structure and function, such as improved memory, increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and progressive synaptic plasticity. It is unclear whether exposure to short-term EE for 10 days can overcome restraint stress-induced cognitive deficits and impaired hippocampal plasticity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862183/the-antiviral-cytokine-interferon-gamma-restricts-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-proliferation-through-activation-of-stat1-and-modulation-of-retinoblastoma-protein-phosphorylation
#20
Apurva Kulkarni, Taylor J Scully, Lauren A O'Donnell
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPSCs) express receptors for many inflammatory cytokines, with varying effects on differentiation and proliferation depending on the stage of development and the milieu of inflammatory mediators. In primary neurons and astrocytes, we recently showed that interferon gamma (IFNγ), a potent antiviral cytokine that is required for the control and clearance of many central nervous system (CNS) infections, could differentially affect cell survival and cell cycle progression depending upon the cell type and the profile of activated intracellular signaling molecules...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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