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Journal of Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319237/regional-differences-in-purkinje-cell-morphology-in-the-cerebellar-vermis-of-male-mice
#1
Hermina Nedelescu, Mohamed Abdelhack, Arwel T Pritchard
Regional differences in dendritic architecture can influence connectivity and dendritic signal integration, with possible consequences for neuronal computation. In the cerebellum, analyses of Purkinje cells (PCs), which are functionally critical as they provide the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, have suggested that the cerebellar cortex is not uniform in structure as traditionally assumed. However, the limitations of traditional staining methods and microscopy capabilities have presented difficulties in investigating possible local variations in PC morphology...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315754/tspo-regulation-in-reactive-gliotic-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Adam M McNeela, Charles Bernick, Rochelle M Hines, Dustin J Hines
The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body. This high metabolic demand is apparent in that 60% of the brain is comprised of mitochondria-enriched cells. A disruption of the brain's ability to meet this immense metabolic demand is central to the pathogenesis of a multitude of neurological disorders, which range from depression to Alzheimer's disease. Central to these pathologies are glial signaling and energy metabolism cascades regulating apoptosis and inflammation. Thus, diseases causing inflammation and disruption of metabolism can be correlated with glial reactivity...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315714/brain-abnormalities-in-cognition-anxiety-and-depression-regulatory-regions-in-adolescents-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#3
Nancy A Pike, Bhaswati Roy, Ritika Gupta, Sadhana Singh, Mary A Woo, Nancy J Halnon, Alan B Lewis, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) adolescents show cognitive impairments and anxiety and depressive symptoms, indicating the possibility of brain injury in regions that control these functions. However, brain tissue integrity in cognition, anxiety, and depression regulatory sites in SVHD remains unclear. We examined brain tissue changes in SVHD compared to controls using T2-relaxometry procedures, which measure free water content and show tissue injury. METHODS: Proton-density and T2-weighted images, using a 3...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314192/parvalbumin-producing-striatal-interneurons-receive-excitatory-inputs-onto-proximal-dendrites-from-the-motor-thalamus-in-male-mice
#4
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314142/retinoblastoma-the-visible-cns-tumor-a-review
#5
Helen Dimaras, Timothy W Corson
The pediatric ocular cancer retinoblastoma is the only central nervous system (CNS) tumor readily observed without specialized equipment: it can be seen by, and in, the naked eye. This accessibility enables unique imaging modalities. Here, we review this cancer for a neuroscience audience, highlighting these clinical and research imaging options, including fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. We also discuss the subtype of retinoblastoma driven by the MYCN oncogene more commonly associated with neuroblastoma, and consider trilateral retinoblastoma, in which an intracranial tumor arises along with ocular tumors in patients with germline RB1 gene mutations...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282753/possible-involvement-of-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-in-ca2-signaling-via-t-type-ca2-channel-in-mouse-sensory-neurons
#6
Yuki Nishizawa, Kenji Takahashi, Naoko Oguma, Makoto Tominaga, Toshio Ohta
T-type Ca2+ channels and TRPA1 are expressed in sensory neurons and both are associated with pain transmission, but their functional interaction is unclear. Here we demonstrate that pharmacological evidence of the functional relation between T-type Ca2+ channels and TRPA1 in mouse sensory neurons. Low concentration of KCl at 15 mM (15K) evoked increases of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ), which were suppressed by selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers. RT-PCR showed that mouse sensory neurons expressed all subtypes of T-type Ca2+ channel...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271051/parvalbumin-neurons-as-a-hub-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
LETTER
Emanuel Lauber, Federica Filice, Beat Schwaller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265492/comparison-of-the-expression-of-neurotransmitter-and-muscular-genesis-markers-in-the-postnatal-male-mouse-masseter-and-trigeminal-ganglion-during-development
#8
Hiroaki Kamata, Hiroyuki Karibe, Iwao Sato
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is released by motor neurons and affects skeletal muscle fiber and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), an important marker of pain modulation. However, the expression of CGRP and TRPV1 in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) during changes and in feeding patterns has not been described. We used real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization to investigate the mRNA expression levels of CGRP and TRPV1 in the TG...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239014/cortical-electrical-stimulation-in-female-rats-with-a-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-to-promote-axonal-outgrowth
#9
Andrew S Jack, Caitlin Hurd, Juan Forero, Andrew Nataraj, Keith Fenrich, Armin Blesch, Karim Fouad
Electrical stimulation (ES) to promote corticospinal tract (CST) repair after spinal cord injury (SCI) is underinvestigated. This study is the first to detail intracortical ES of the injured CST. We hypothesize that cortical ES will promote CST collateralization and regeneration, prevent dieback, and improve recovery in an SCI rat model. The CST was transected at the the fourth cervical level in adult female Lewis rats trained in a stairwell grasping task. Animal groups included (a) ES333 (n = 14; 333 Hz, biphasic pulse for 0...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231975/the-precise-subcellular-localization-of-dlg-in-the-drosophila-larva-body-wall-using-improved-pre-embedding-immuno-em
#10
Guangming Gan, Chenchen Zhang
Discs-large (Dlg) plays important roles in nerve tissue and epithelial tissue in Drosophila. However, the precise positioning of Dlg in the neuromuscular junction remains to be confirmed using an optimized labeling method. In this study, we improved the method of pre-embedding immunogold electron microscopy without the osmic tetroxide procedure, and we found that Lowicryl K4 M resin and low temperature helped to preserve the authenticity of the labeling signal with relatively good contrast. Dlg was strongly expressed in the entire subsynaptic reticulum (SSR) membrane of type Ib boutons, expressed in parts of the SSR membrane of type Is boutons, weakly expressed in axon terminals and axons, and not expressed in pre- or postsynaptic membranes of type Is boutons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230865/glial-source-of-nitric-oxide-in-epileptogenesis-a-target-for-disease-modification-in-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Shaunik Sharma, Sreekanth Puttachary, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Epileptogenesis is the process of developing an epileptic condition and/or its progression once it is established. The molecules that initiate, promote, and propagate remarkable changes in the brain during epileptogenesis are emerging as targets for prevention/treatment of epilepsy. Epileptogenesis is a continuous process that follows immediately after status epilepticus (SE) in animal models of acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Both SE and epileptogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the discovery of anticonvulsants and antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying agents...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230855/a-role-for-autophagy-in-long-term-spatial-memory-formation-in-male-rodents
#12
Michael J Hylin, Jing Zhao, Karthikeyan Tangavelou, Natalia S Rozas, Kimberly N Hood, Jacalyn S MacGowan, Anthony N Moore, Pramod K Dash
A hallmark of long-term memory formation is the requirement for protein synthesis. Administration of protein synthesis inhibitors impairs long-term memory formation without influencing short-term memory. Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) that has been shown to block protein synthesis and impair long-term memory. In addition to regulating protein synthesis, TORC1 also phosphorylates Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase-1 (Ulk-1) to suppress autophagy. As autophagy can be activated by rapamycin (and rapamycin inhibits long-term memory), our aim was to test the hypothesis that autophagy inhibitors would enhance long-term memory...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219198/spontaneous-neurotransmission-a-form-of-neural-communication-comes-of-age
#13
Ege T Kavalali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#14
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193309/converging-early-responses-to-brain-injury-pave-the-road-to-epileptogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Eric J Neuberger, Akshay Gupta, Deepak Subramanian, Akshata A Korgaonkar, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar
Epilepsy, characterized by recurrent seizures and abnormal electrical activity in the brain, is one of the most prevalent brain disorders. Over two million people in the United States have been diagnosed with epilepsy and 3% of the general population will be diagnosed with it at some point in their lives. While most developmental epilepsies occur due to genetic predisposition, a class of "acquired" epilepsies results from a variety of brain insults. A leading etiological factor for epilepsy that is currently on the rise is traumatic brain injury (TBI), which accounts for up to 20% of all symptomatic epilepsies...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193273/activation-of-caspase-6-and-cleavage-of-caspase-6-substrates-is-an-early-event-in-nmda-receptor-mediated-excitotoxicity
#16
Kimberly D Girling, Marie-Josee Demers, Jean Laine, Shu Zhang, Yu Tian Wang, Rona K Graham
Excitotoxicity, due to overstimulation of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), has a pivotal role in many neurological disorders. However, NMDAR antagonists often cause side effects, and identifying more druggable therapeutic targets for NMDAR excitotoxicity is an important goal. Activation of caspases is a downstream effect of excitotoxicity that may be critically involved in NMDAR-mediated cell death. Caspase-6 (casp6) in particular has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of stroke, Huntington disease, and Alzheimer disease...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168207/abnormalities-in-interactions-of-rho-gtpases-with-scaffolding-proteins-contribute-to-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Alexandra Reichova, Martina Zatkova, Zuzana Bacova, Jan Bakos
Accumulating evidence suggests that Rho GTPases, together with scaffolding SHANK proteins, and associated signaling pathways play a role in the development of autism symptoms in various conditions. Research data have brought information on multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including Rho-associated protein kinases and serine/threonine-protein kinases involved in cytoskeleton rearranging. Alterations in downstream effectors of GTPase signaling pathways are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152786/neurocognitive-performance-after-pcsk9-inhibitor-therapy-current-state-of-the-evidence
#18
Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Paolo Di Giosia, Paolo Giorgini, Martina De Feo, Davide Grassi, Claudio Ferri, Amirhossein Sahebkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150867/near-infrared-diffuse-reflectance-signals-for-monitoring-spreading-depolarizations-and-progression-of-the-lesion-in-a-male-rat-focal-cerebral-ischemia-model
#19
Satoko Kawauchi, Izumi Nishidate, Hiroshi Nawashiro, Shunichi Sato
In ischemic stroke research, a better understanding of the pathophysiology and development of neuroprotection methods are crucial, for which in vivo imaging to monitor spreading depolarizations (SDs) and evolution of tissue damage is desired. Since these events are accompanied by cellular morphological changes, light-scattering signals, which are sensitive to cellular and subcellular morphology, can be used for monitoring them. In this study, we performed transcranial imaging of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance at ∼800 nm, which sensitively reflects light-scattering change, and examined how NIR reflectance is correlated with simultaneously measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) for a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131369/photobiomodulation-for-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Michael R Hamblin
There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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