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Journal of Neuroscience Research

Alexei A Surguchev, Andrei Surguchov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Silvia Vanni, Arianna Colini Baldeschi, Marco Zattoni, Giuseppe Legname
Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable debilitating disorders characterized by structural and functional neuronal loss. Approximately 30 million people are affected worldwide, and this number is predicted to reach more than 150 million by 2050. Neurodegenerative disorders include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prion diseases among others. These disorders are characterized by the accumulation of aggregating proteins forming amyloid, responsible for the disease-associated pathological lesions. The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins can result either in gaining of toxic functions, derived from the damage provoked by these deposits in affected tissue, or in a loss of functions, due to the sequestration and the consequent inability of the aggregating protein to ensure its physiological role...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Fabio Ferretti, Andrea Pozza, Letizia Bossini, Laura Del Matto, Serena Desantis, Miriam Olivola, Giacomo Gualtieri, Anna Coluccia, Andrea Fagiolini
No study investigated whether the presence of specific medical comorbidities is associated with the type of traumatic event, in particular with terrorist attack (TA). In a group of subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current study investigated the association between the types of traumatic event (TA vs. other traumatic event [OTE]) and medical comorbidities, controlling for sex and PTSD duration. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale were administered to 84 subjects diagnosed with PTSD...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Son T Ton, Shih-Yen Tsai, Ian C Vaagenes, Kelly Glavin, Joanna Wu, Jonathan Hsu, Hannah M Flink, Daniel Nockels, Timothy E O'Brien, Gwendolyn L Kartje
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability worldwide. Additionally, many TBI patients are intoxicated with alcohol at the time of injury, but the impact of acute intoxication on recovery from brain injury is not well understood. We have previously found that binge alcohol prior to TBI impairs spontaneous functional sensorimotor recovery. However, whether alcohol administration in this setting affects reactive neurogenesis after TBI is not known. This study, therefore, sought to determine the short- and long-term effects of pre-TBI binge alcohol on neural precursor cell responses in the subventricular zone (SVZ) following brain injury in male rats...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ludovic Tricoire, Estelle Drobac, Keisuke Tsuzuki, Thierry Gallopin, Sandrine Picaud, Bruno Cauli, Jean Rossier, Bertrand Lambolez
The activity of neuronal ensembles was monitored in neocortical slices from male rats using wide-field bioluminescence imaging of a calcium sensor formed with the fusion of green fluorescent protein and aequorin (GA) and expressed through viral transfer. GA expression was restricted to pyramidal neurons and did not conspicuously alter neuronal morphology or neocortical cytoarchitecture. Removal of extracellular magnesium or addition of GABA receptor antagonists triggered epileptiform flashes of variable amplitude and spatial extent, indicating that the excitatory and inhibitory networks were functionally preserved in GA-expressing slices...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Dongping Zhang, Jinhong Qian, Peng Zhang, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Gang Chen
Even though ischemic stroke is among the leading causes of death worldwide, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying ischemia reperfusion (I/R) brain injury remain unclear. Gasdermin D (GSDMD), as an important factor of pyroptotic death execution downstream of caspase-11 (noncanonical inflammasome) and caspase-1 (canonical inflammasome), may be implicated in I/R injury. The current study aimed to investigate the role and possible underlying mechanisms of GSDMD in pyroptosis during I/R injury. Results indicated that the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLR family) pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes were assembled and activated after middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R), leading to increased levels of IL-1β and IL-18...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Eric M Prager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Nicholas J Michelson, James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Kip A Ludwig, Takashi D Y Kozai
Electrical stimulation of the brain has become a mainstay of fundamental neuroscience research and an increasingly prevalent clinical therapy. Despite decades of use in basic neuroscience research and the growing prevalence of neuromodulation therapies, gaps in knowledge regarding activation or inactivation of neural elements over time have limited its ability to adequately interpret evoked downstream responses or fine-tune stimulation parameters to focus on desired responses. In this work, in vivo two-photon microscopy was used to image neuronal calcium activity in layer 2/3 neurons of somatosensory cortex (S1) in male C57BL/6J-Tg(Thy1-GCaMP6s)GP4...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Youngkook Kim, Sun Im, Se-Hong Kim, Geun-Young Park
The cerebellum communicates with the cerebral cortex through the cortico-ponto-cerebellar tract (CPCT, cerebellar afferent) and the dentato-rubro-thalamo-cortical tract (DRTCT, cerebellar efferent). This study explored the laterality of CPCT and DRTCT in a right-handed population. Forty healthy right-handed subjects (18 males and 22 females with age range of 26-79 years old) who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were retrospectively enrolled. Bilateral CPCT, DRTCT, and the corticospinal tract (CST) were reconstructed using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography (DTT)...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Suzhen Chen, Haitang Jiang, Zhenhua Hou, Yingying Yue, Yuqun Zhang, Fuying Zhao, Zhi Xu, Yinghui Li, Xiaodong Mou, Lei Li, Tianyu Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Chongyang Han, Yuxiu Sui, Ming Wang, Zhong Yang, Yan Lu, Yifeng Zhu, Jianhua Li, Xinhua Shen, Fei Sun, Qingsong Chen, Yonggui Yuan
Misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression (BD) is quite common. Our previous study found significantly lower serum VGF (non-acronymic) in MDD patients. However, it is unclear whether same changes occur in BD patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum VGF levels in BD and MDD patients. General information, scores of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and fasting blood samples of all participants including 30 MDD patients, 20 BD patients, and 30 healthy controls (HC) were collected...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jiankun Zang, Dan Lu, Anding Xu
The widespread expression of circular RNAs (circRNAs) is regarded as a feature of gene expression in highly diverged eukaryotes. Recent studies have shown that circRNAs can act as a miRNA sponge to repress miRNA function, participate in splicing of target genes, translate genes into protein and interact with RNA binding proteins (RBPs). RBPs are a broad class of proteins involved in gene transcription and translation, and interaction with RBPs is considered an important part of circRNA function, which can serve as an essential element underlying the functions of circRNAs, including genesis, translation, transcriptional regulation of target genes, and extracellular transport...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ilona Karpiel, Uwe Klose, Zofia Drzazga
There are a number of various methods of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) analysis such as independent component analysis, multivariate autoregressive models, or seed correlation analysis however their results depend on arbitrary choice of parameters. Therefore, the aim of this work was to optimize the parameters in the seed correlation analysis using the Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) toolbox for rs-fMRI data received from a Siemens Magnetom Skyra 3-Tesla scanner using a whole-brain, gradient-echo echo planar sequence with a 32-channel head coil...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Carlos Manlio Díaz-García, Gary Yellen
Brain metabolism increases during stimulation, but this increase does not affect all energy metabolism equally. Briefly after stimulation, there is a local increase in cerebral blood flow and in glucose uptake, but a smaller increase in oxygen uptake. This indicates that temporarily the rate of glycolysis is faster than the rate of oxidative metabolism, with a corresponding temporary increase in lactate production. This minireview discusses the long-standing controversy about which cell type, neurons or astrocytes, are involved in this increased aerobic glycolysis...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Magdy Selim, Casey Norton
In humans, perihematomal edema (PHE) is considered to be a radiological marker of secondary injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). There is also evidence that PHE might contribute to poor outcome in ICH patients. Given the rising interest in secondary injury after ICH as a therapeutic target, PHE is becoming increasingly used as a proof-of-concept surrogate measure to assess the potential efficacy of various therapeutic interventions in clinical trials. We review the pathophysiology of PHE and its evolution, its prognostic significance and relationship to clinical outcomes, and variabilities in its detection and measurement methodologies to determine the advantages versus shortcomings of using PHE as a translational target or radiological marker to examine the efficacy of interventions aiming to mitigate secondary injury in ICH...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yasuyuki Ohta, Emi Nomura, Jingwei Shang, Tian Feng, Yong Huang, Xia Liu, Xiaowen Shi, Yumiko Nakano, Nozomi Hishikawa, Kota Sato, Mami Takemoto, Toru Yamashita, Koji Abe
Oxidative stress is associated with the degeneration of both motor neurons and skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A free radical scavenger edaravone has been proven as a therapeutic drug for ALS patients, but the neuroprotective mechanism for the oxidative stress of ALS has not been fully investigated. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress in ALS model mice bearing both oxidative stress sensor nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and G93A-human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Nrf2/G93A) treated by edaravone...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yi Zhou, Pierre-Eric Lutz, El Chérif Ibrahim, Philippe Courtet, Eleni Tzavara, Gustavo Turecki, Raoul Belzeaux
Aberrant gene expression can contribute to brain and nervous system dysfunction that causes many psychiatric illnesses. Here, we review how transcriptomic approaches have deepened our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders and how they have to the identification of biomarkers for these disorders, with a focus on their relevance to suicide and suicide behaviors. We begin by providing an overview of the genetic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic factors (including non-coding RNAs) implicated in suicide and their roles in the regulation of gene expression...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Aline Barroso Spejo, Caroline Brandão Teles, Giuliana da Silva Zuccoli, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Astrogliosis and microglial reactions are correlated with the formation of scar tissue and synapse loss. 4-hydroxy-tempo (TEMPOL) is a reactive oxygen species scavenger with proven neuroprotective efficacy in experimental models of traumatic injury and cerebral ischemia. TEMPOL has not, however, been applied following ventral root lesions, which are particularly correlated with the degeneration of spinal motoneurons following brachial plexus injuries. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of TEMPOL on motoneurons and adjacent glial reactions, with a particular focus on the preservation of excitatory and inhibitory spinal circuits...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Fadoua Saadani-Makki, Cornelia Hagmann, Olivier Balédent, Malek I Makki
We assessed the sex and the lateralization differences in the corticospinal tract (CST) during the early postnatal period. Twenty-five healthy term neonates (13 girls, aged 39.2 ± 1.2 weeks, and 12 boys aged 38.6 ± 3.0 weeks) underwent Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Fiber tracking was performed to extract bilaterally the CST pathways and to quantify the parallel (E1 ) and perpendicular (E23 ) diffusions, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). The measurements were performed on the entire CST fibers and on four segments: base of the pons (CST-Po), cerebral peduncles (CST-CP), posterior limb of the internal capsule (CST-PLIC), and corona-radiata (CST-CR)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Robert P Ostrowski, John H Zhang
The objectives of this present work were to review recent developments on the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in the survival of cells under normoxic versus hypoxic and inflammatory brain conditions. The dual nature of HIF effects appears well established, based on the accumulated evidence of HIF playing both the role of adaptive factor and mediator of cell demise. Cellular HIF responses depend on pathophysiological conditions, developmental phase, comorbidities, and administered medications. In addition, HIF-1α and HIF-2α actions may vary in the same tissues...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Katrina Albert, Merja H Voutilainen, Andrii Domanskyi, T Petteri Piepponen, Sari Ahola, Raimo K Tuominen, Christopher Richie, Brandon K Harvey, Mikko Airavaara
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated delivery of human α-synuclein (α-syn) gene in rat substantia nigra (SN) results in increased expression of α-syn protein in the SN and striatum which can progressively degenerate dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, this model is thought to recapitulate the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Here, using AAV to deliver α-syn above the SN in male and female rats resulted in clear expression of human α-syn in the SN and striatum. The protein was associated with moderate behavioral deficits and some loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the nigrostriatal areas...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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