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Journal of Neuroscience Research

Lei Dong, Yu Zheng, Ze-Yan Li, Gang Li, Ling Lin
The low frequency electromagnetic fields (LF-EMFs) are attracting more attention and studied deeply because of their effects on human health and biology. Recent reports indicate that exposure of rats to LF-EMFs induces persistent changes in neuronal activity. The studies used the following standard methods: the rats or rat brain slices were first stimulated in an external electromagnetic exposure system, and then moved to a patch clamp perfusion chamber to record electrophysiological characteristics (off-line magnetic exposure)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Andrés A González-Garrido, Geisa B Gallardo-Moreno, Rebeca Romo-Vázquez, Hugo Vélez-Pérez, Adolfo Flores-Saiffe-Farías, Gerardo Mendizabal-Ruiz, Stewart R Santos-Arce, Vanessa D Ruiz-Stovel, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez, Julieta Ramos-Loyo
The aim of the study was to evaluate the neurofunctional effect of gender in Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) patients during a Visual Spatial Working Memory (VSWM) task. The study included 28 participants with ages ranging from 17-28 years. Fourteen well-controlled T1DM patients (7 female) and 14 controls matched by age, sex, and education level were scanned performing a block-design VSWM paradigm. Behavioral descriptive analyses and mean comparisons were done, and between-group and condition functional activation patterns were also compared...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Mushfiquddin Khan, Anandakumar Shunmugavel, Tajinder S Dhammu, Hamza Khan, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the major cause of physical disability and emotional vulnerability. Treatment of TBI is lacking due to its multimechanistic etiology, including derailed mitochondrial and cellular energy metabolism. Previous studies from our laboratory show that an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) metabolite S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) provides neuroprotection and improves neurobehavioral function via anti-inflammatory and anti-neurodegenerative mechanisms. To accelerate the rate and enhance the degree of recovery, we investigated combining GSNO with caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a potent antioxidant compound, using a male mouse model of TBI, controlled cortical impact in mice...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Richard Höchenberger, Kathrin Ohla
Music has been associated with taste and shown to influence the dining experience. We asked whether sound that is associated with taste affects taste perception of food. In two studies (study 1: N = 20, 13 women; study 2: N = 20, 17 women), participants evaluated the taste of cinder toffee while listening to either of two soundscapes associated with sweet and bitter taste, respectively, or no sound. In study 1, participants rated the taste on a visual-analog scale (VAS) anchored with "bitter" and "sweet", aiming to replicate a previous study (Crisinel et al...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Tore Eid, Tih-Shih W Lee, Peter Patrylo, Hitten P Zaveri
The cellular, molecular, and metabolic mechanisms that underlie the development of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are incompletely understood. Here we review the role of astrocytes in epilepsy development (a.k.a. epileptogenesis), particularly astrocyte pathologies related to: aquaporin 4, the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1, monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2, excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2, and glutamine synthetase. We propose that inhibition, dysfunction or loss of astrocytic glutamine synthetase is an important causative factor for some epilepsies, particularly mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and glioblastoma-associated epilepsy...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Nate Pappenhagen, Denise M Inman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Guido Maria Lattanzi, Antonino Buzzanca, Marianna Frascarelli, Fabio Di Fabio
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) is widely known as one of the most compelling genetic models of schizophrenia so far, being almost 40% of the carriers affected by psychotic symptoms. Moreover, most of these subjects also show impairment in social cognition, which is a comprehensive array of function that guides social interaction with the others, leading as well to the acquisition of new cognitive and social skills. In the last decade researchers have argued whether social cognition dysfunctions could be underlined by specific genetic alterations, and whether these are linked to specific clinical features...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Lu Yao, Xing Dai, Yina Sun, Yong Wang, Qian Yang, Xinlin Chen, Yong Liu, Li Zhang, Wen Xie, Jian Liu
Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) inhibitors, which inhibit dopamine decomposition by antagonizing MAO B activity, are approved and widely used for clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nonetheless, the mechanism of the abnormally increased MAO B activity in PD is still unclear. Previous research showed transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) directly regulates MAO B activity by binding the SP1 binding sequence in MAO B promoter. In our study, we first observed that the SP1 protein level and SP1 binding activity in the MAO B promoter were increased in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ) neurotoxin-induced SH-SY5Y cells...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jessica Galli, Claudia Ambrosi, Serena Micheletti, Lotfi B Merabet, Chiara Pinardi, Roberto Gasparotti, Elisa Fazzi
Children with cerebral palsy often present with cognitive-visual dysfunctions characterized by visuo-perceptual and/or visuo-spatial deficits associated with a malfunctioning of visual-associative areas. The neurofunctional model of this condition remains poorly understood due to the lack of a clear correlation between cognitive-visual deficit and morphological brain anomalies. The aim of our study was to quantify the pattern of white matter abnormalities within the whole brain in children with cerebral palsy, and to identify white matter tracts sub-serving cognitive-visual functions, in order to better understand the basis of cognitive-visual processing...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Xin Wei, Kin-Sang Cho, Eric F Thee, Martine J Jager, Dong Feng Chen
Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease with many clinical subtypes. Some of its rare forms include pigmentary glaucoma, uveitic glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. While they all share common features of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve damage and corresponding visual field loss, the exact mechanisms underlying glaucomatous neuron loss are not clear. This has largely hindered the development of a real cure for this disease. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a known major risk factor of glaucoma; however, progressive degeneration of RGCs and axons can also be found in patients with a normal IOP, i...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Tuija Keinänen, Seppo Rytky, Vesa Korhonen, Niko Huotari, Juha Nikkinen, Osmo Tervonen, J Matias Palva, Vesa Kiviniemi
Both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiological recordings have revealed that resting-state functional connectivity is temporally variable in human brain. Combined full-band electroencephalography-fMRI (fbEEG-fMRI) studies have shown that infraslow (<.1 Hz) fluctuations in EEG scalp potential are correlated with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signals and that also this correlation appears variable over time. Here, we used simultaneous fbEEG-fMRI to test the hypothesis that correlation dynamics between BOLD and fbEEG signals could be explained by fluctuations in the activation properties of resting-state networks (RSNs) such as the extent or strength of their activation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Brian S McKay
Albinism, typically characterized by decreased melanin synthesis, is associated with significant visual deficits owing to developmental changes during neurosensory retina development. All albinism is caused by genetic mutations in a group of diverse genes including enzymes, transporters, G-protein coupled receptor. Interestingly, these genes are not expressed in the neurosensory retina. Further, regardless of cause of albinism, all forms of albinism have the same retinal pathology, the extent of which is variable...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Morgan E Freret, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. The NF1-encoded protein (neurofibromin) is an inhibitor of the oncoprotein RAS and controls cell growth and survival. Individuals with NF1 are prone to developing low-grade tumors of the optic nerves, chiasm, tracts, and radiations, termed optic pathway gliomas (OPGs), which can cause vision loss. A paucity of surgical tumor specimens and of patient-derived xenografts for investigative studies has limited our understanding of human NF1-associated OPG (NF1-OPG)...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Maarjaliis Paavo, Winston Lee, Rando Allikmets, Stephen Tsang, Janet R Sparrow
Bisretinoid fluorophores form in photoreceptor outer segments from nonenzymatic reactions of vitamin A aldehyde. The short-wavelength autofluorescence (SW-AF) of fundus flecks in recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) suggests a connection to these fluorophores. Through multimodal imaging, we sought to elucidate this link. Flecks observed in SW-AF images often colocalized with foci exhibiting reduced or absent near-infrared autofluorescence signal, the source of which is melanin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Karen P Flores, Sharon E Blohowiak, Joy J Winzerling, Michael K Georgieff, Pamela J Kling
Erythropoietin (Epo) drives iron (Fe) utilization for erythropoiesis, but the potentially resultant tissue iron deficiency (ID) can also impede brain development. Conversely, Epo binds to Epo receptors (EpoR) on immature brain oligodendrocytes and neurons, promoting growth and differentiation. The objective of the study was to examine the interaction between Epo and Fe on myelination in brain development during daily Epo treatment. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats from postnatal day (P) P4-P12 modeled premature newborns...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Louis-Solal Giboin, Markus Gruber
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has the capacity to enhance force output during a short-lasting maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) as well as during a long-lasting submaximal voluntary contraction until task failure. However, its effect on an intermittent maximal effort is not known. We hypothesized that anodal tDCS applied during or before a maximal fatigue task increases the amplitude of maximal voluntary contraction (aMVC) and voluntary activation (VA) in young healthy male participants. We measured VA, potentiated twitch at rest (Ptw), root mean square electromyogram (EMG), and aMVC during a fatiguing task that consisted of 35 × 5 s MVC of knee extensors and was performed during tDCS or 10 min after the end of tDCS (sham, anodal, or cathodal treatments)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Floris G Wouterlood, Angela Engel, Mariah Daal, Gertjan Houwen, Aileen Meinderts, Tomàs Jordà Siquier, Jeroen A M Beliën, Yvette C van Dongen, Jørgen Scheel-Krüger, Anne-Marie Thierry, Henk J Groenewegen, Jean-Michel Deniau
Parallel corticostriatonigral circuits have been proposed that separately process motor, cognitive, and emotional-motivational information. Functional integration requires that interactions exist between neurons participating in these circuits. This makes it imperative to study the complex anatomical substrate underlying corticostriatonigral circuits. It has previously been proposed that dopaminergic neurons in the ventral mesencephalon may play a role in this circuit interaction. Therefore, we studied in rats convergence of basal ganglia circuits by depositing an anterograde neuroanatomical tracer into the ventral striatum together with a retrograde fluorescent tracer ipsilaterally in the dorsolateral striatum...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Raphael Hirtz, Thomas Weiss, Ralph Huonker, Otto W Witte
While there is a growing body of evidence regarding the behavioral and neurofunctional changes in response to the longitudinal delivery of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), there is limited evidence regarding its structural effects. Therefore, the present study was intended to investigate the effect of repeatedly applied anodal tDCS over the primary somatosensory cortex on the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) compartment of the brain. Structural tDCS effects were, moreover, related to effects evidenced by functional imaging and behavioral assessment...
August 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Erin T Williams, Darren J Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Wei Ouyang, Wenhui Wu, Zhiheng Fan, Jihui Wang, Huiju Pan, Weibin Yang
Fluid percussion (FP) injury model is a popular animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but still there are some issues need to be addressed. To increase the validity and reliability of this technique, we adapted the FP device using electromagnetic protractor, stainless-steel cylinder, changing pressure transducer position, and foam pads to adjust the parameters of FP pulse. Besides, the adjusted FP device is more automatic. The FP pulse is promptly measured and displayed in a graphic user interface software...
August 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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