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Journal of Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152786/neurocognitive-performance-after-pcsk9-inhibitor-therapy-current-state-of-the-evidence
#1
Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Paolo Di Giosia, Paolo Giorgini, Martina De Feo, Davide Grassi, Claudio Ferri, Amirhossein Sahebkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150867/near-infrared-diffuse-reflectance-signals-for-monitoring-spreading-depolarizations-and-progression-of-the-lesion-in-a-male-rat-focal-cerebral-ischemia-model
#2
Satoko Kawauchi, Izumi Nishidate, Hiroshi Nawashiro, Shunichi Sato
In ischemic stroke research, a better understanding of the pathophysiology and development of neuroprotection methods are crucial, for which in vivo imaging to monitor spreading depolarizations (SDs) and evolution of tissue damage is desired. Since these events are accompanied by cellular morphological changes, light-scattering signals, which are sensitive to cellular and subcellular morphology, can be used for monitoring them. In this study, we performed transcranial imaging of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance at ∼800 nm, which sensitively reflects light-scattering change, and examined how NIR reflectance is correlated with simultaneously measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) for a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131369/photobiomodulation-for-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#3
REVIEW
Michael R Hamblin
There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114925/possible-involvement-of-a-cell-adhesion-molecule-migfilin-in-brain-development-and-pathogenesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Kanako Ishizuka, Hidenori Tabata, Hidenori Ito, Itaru Kushima, Mariko Noda, Akira Yoshimi, Masahide Usami, Kyota Watanabe, Mako Morikawa, Yota Uno, Takashi Okada, Daisuke Mori, Branko Aleksic, Norio Ozaki, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Migfilin, encoded by FBLIM1 at the 1p36 locus, is a multi-domain adaptor protein essential for various cellular processes such as cell morphology and migration. Small deletions and duplications at the 1p36 locus, monosomy of which results in neurodevelopmental disorders and multiple congenital anomalies, have also been identified in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the impact of FBLIM1, the gene within 1p36, on the pathogenesis of ASD is unknown. In this study, we performed morphological analyses of migfilin to elucidate its role in brain development...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114923/histamine-modulates-spinal-motoneurons-and-locomotor-circuits
#5
Tamara Coslovich, Michele R Brumley, Giuseppe D'Angelo, Alberto Della Mora, Hillary E Swann, Fulvia Ortolani, Giuliano Taccola
Spinal motoneurons and locomotor networks are regulated by monoamines, among which, the contribution of histamine has yet to be fully addressed. The present study investigates histaminergic regulation of spinal activity, combining intra- and extracellular electrophysiological recordings from neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro preparations. Histamine dose-dependently and reversibly generated motoneuron depolarization and action potential firing. Histamine (20 µM) halved the area of dorsal root reflexes and always depolarized motoneurons...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114922/regulation-and-effects-of-neurotrophic-factors-after-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease
#6
Bo Li, Yun Gao, Wei Zhang, Jian-Rong Xu
According to much research, neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) are correlated with alternations of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor. The experimental illumination of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation to eliminate AD symptoms is being explored frequently, and we have acknowledged that neurotrophic factors may play a pivotal role in cognitive improvement. However, the relation between the reversal of cognitive deficits after NSC transplantation and directed alternations of neurotrophic factors is not clearly expounded...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114910/n-acetylcysteine-attenuates-the-cuprizone-induced-behavioral-changes-and-oligodendrocyte-loss-in-male-c57bl-7-mice-via-its-anti-inflammation-actions
#7
Lin Zhang, Shuqin Xu, Qingjun Huang, Haiyun Xu
Previous animal studies have linked white matter damage to certain schizophrenia-like behaviors in cuprizone (CPZ)-exposed mouse. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte loss coexist in the brain of such mice. The aim of this study was to examine effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on CPZ-induced behavioral changes and concurrent oligodendrocyte loss, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation in these animals. Male C57BL/6 mice were given intraperitoneal saline or NAC at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks; animals were fed a CPZ-containing diet (0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110329/transplantation-of-feeder-free-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cortical-neuron-progenitors-in-adult-male-wistar-rats-with-focal-brain-ischemia
#8
Yulius Hermanto, Tadashi Sunohara, Ahmad Faried, Yasushi Takagi, Jun Takahashi, Takakuni Maki, Susumu Miyamoto
The use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) eliminates the ethical issues associated with fetal or embryonic materials, thus allowing progress in cell therapy research for ischemic stroke. Strict regulation of cell therapy development requires the xeno-free condition to eliminate clinical complications. Maintenance of hiPSCs with feeder-free condition presents a higher degree of spontaneous differentiation in comparison with conventional cultures. Therefore, feeder-free derivation might be not ideal for developing transplantable hiPSC derivatives...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098710/physical-exercise-alters-the-activation-of-downstream-proteins-related-to-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-male-wistar-rats-with-epilepsy
#9
Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Diego Vannucci Campos, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ricardo Mario Arida
There are a considerable number of studies concerning the behavioral effects of physical exercise on the epileptic brain; however, the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), expression of its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), and activation of intracellular proteins related to BDNF-TrkB signaling in male Wistar rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Thirty days after the first spontaneous seizure, rats from the exercise group undertook a 30-day physical exercise program on the treadmill...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095528/additional-mechanisms-for-brain-activation-failure-due-to-reduced-glucose-metabolism-a-commentary-on-zilberter-and-zilberter-the-vicious-circle-of-hypometabolism-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090830/a-novel-biosensor-with-high-signal-to-noise-ratio-for-real-time-measurement-of-dopamine-levels-in-vivo
#11
Akimasa Ishida, Atsushi Imamura, Yoshitomo Ueda, Takeshi Shimizu, Ryosuke Marumoto, Cha-Gyun Jung, Hideki Hida
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an established method for measuring dopamine (DA) levels in the brain in real time. However, it is difficult to discriminate DA from other monoamines such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). We report a novel DA-specific biosensor consisting of a carbon-fiber electrode coated with an ion-exchange membrane, a layer containing monoamine oxidase B, and a cellulose membrane. We performed FSCV using the probe to monitor the amount of DA in vitro and in vivo...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072332/updates-on-immunity-and-inflammation-in-parkinson-disease-pathology
#12
REVIEW
Neeraj Joshi, Sarika Singh
Studies in the last decade have suggested the association of both neuroinflammatory processes and immune responses in Parkinson disease (PD) pathology. PD pathology is related to depleted dopamine levels, α-synuclein aggregation, and death of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Reports have suggested central and peripheral inflammation in the prodromal stage of the disease, which is sustained during disease progression. Alongside the activation of peripheral immune system exacerbates the dissonant central inflammatory responses and could contribute in synergistic neurodegeneration...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063641/fluorine-19-magnetic-resonance-imaging-probe-for-the-detection-of-tau-pathology-in-female-rtg4510-mice
#13
Daijiro Yanagisawa, Nor Faeizah Ibrahim, Hiroyasu Taguchi, Shigehiro Morikawa, Tomoko Kato, Koichi Hirao, Nobuaki Shirai, Takayuki Sogabe, Ikuo Tooyama
Aggregation of tau into neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is characteristic of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Recent advances in tau imaging have attracted much attention because of its potential contributions to early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progress. Fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging ((19) F-MRI) may be extremely useful for tau imaging once a high-quality probe has been formulated. In this investigation, a novel fluorine-19-labeling compound has been developed as a probe for tau imaging using (19) F-MRI...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044654/animal-models-of-neuroinflammation-secondary-to-acute-insults-originated-outside-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
Mike Yoshio Hamasaki, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva
The term "neuroinflammation" has been widely used to describe a series of acute or chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological damage can be a consequence of direct local injury or, secondary, of systemic or even distant inflammatory processes. In this respect, animal models have been developed to better understand the pathophysiology and, possibly, to evaluate more effective methods of treatment for these disorders. Animal models that promote alterations in blood-brain barrier permeability-the activation of microglia or astrocytes, modifications in neuropeptide expression, oxidative stress, increased apoptosis, release of inflammatory mediators, leukocyte infiltration, and brain edema-are likely to involve neuroinflammation and therefore can serve as useful models for human inflammatory CNS injury...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034487/the-role-of-spontaneous-neurotransmission-in-synapse-and-circuit-development
#15
REVIEW
Laura C Andreae, Juan Burrone
In the past, the spontaneous release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic terminals has been thought of as a side effect of evoked release, with little functional significance. As our understanding of the process of spontaneous release has increased over time, this notion has gradually changed. In this review, we focus on the importance of this form of release during neuronal development, a time of extreme levels of plasticity that includes the growth of dendrites and axons as well as the formation of new synaptic contacts...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030949/microrna-expression-in-the-neural-retina-focus-on-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#16
REVIEW
Heberto Quintero, Mónica Lamas
The neural retina hosts a unique specialized type of macroglial cell that not only preserves retinal homeostasis, function, and integrity but also may serve as a source of new neurons during regenerative processes: the Müller cell. Precise microRNA-driven mechanisms of gene regulation impel and direct the processes of Müller glia lineage acquisition from retinal progenitors during development, the triggering of their response to retinal degeneration and, in some cases, Müller cell reprogramming and regenerative events...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984377/age-and-sex-related-effects-in-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-properties-a-comparison-of-voxelwise-and-tractography-methods
#17
Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Tracy J Abildskov, Garrett Black, Erin D Bigler, Daniel M Cohen, Leslie K Mihalov, Barbara A Bangert, H Gerry Taylor, Keith O Yeates
Although there are several techniques to analyze diffusion-weighted imaging, any technique must be sufficiently sensitive to detect clinical abnormalities. This is especially critical in disorders like mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), where pathology is likely to be subtle. mTBI represents a major public health concern, especially for youth under 15 years of age. However, the developmental period from birth to 18 years is also a time of tremendous brain changes. Therefore, it is important to establish the degree of age- and sex-related differences...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976025/subjective-complaints-after-acquired-brain-injury-presentation-of-the-brain-injury-complaint-questionnaire-bicoq
#18
Claire Vallat-Azouvi, Cyrille Paillat, Stéphanie Bercovici, Bénédicte Morin, Julie Paquereau, James Charanton, Idir Ghout, Philippe Azouvi
The objective of the present study was to present a new complaint questionnaire designed to assess a wide range of difficulties commonly reported by patients with acquired brain injury. Patients (n =  619) had been referred to a community re-entry service at a chronic stage after brain injury, mainly traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Brain Injury Complaint Questionnaire (BICoQ) includes 25 questions in the following domains: cognition, behavior, fatigue and sleep, mood, and somatic problems. A self and a proxy questionnaire were given...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976017/early-administration-of-pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate-extends-the-therapeutic-time-window-of-tissue-plasminogen-activator-in-a-male-rat-model-of-embolic-stroke
#19
Zhongxing Wang, Weiran Shan, Jiangbei Cao, Max Wintermark, Wenqi Huang, Zhiyi Zuo
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is used in fewer than 4% of patients after ischemic stroke because of its narrow therapeutic time window. We tested whether pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a drug with multiple mechanisms to provide neuroprotection, can be used to extend the therapeutic time window of tPA. Three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to embolic stroke in the area supplied by the right middle cerebral artery. tPA at 10 mg/kg was given intravenously 4 h after the onset of stroke...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960397/aquaporins-through-the-brain-in-health-and-disease-from-water-to-gas-movements
#20
Frédéric Friscourt, Jerome Badaut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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