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Journal of Neuroscience Research

Yi-Jie Guo, Hao-Nan Li, Cui-Ping Ding, Shui-Ping Han, Jun-Yang Wang
We previously reported that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the red nucleus (RN) is involved in pain modulation and exerts a facilitatory effect in the development of neuropathic pain. Here, we explored the actions of signaling pathways, including the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways, on RN IL-1β-mediated pain modulation...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Sneham Tiwari, Jessica Lapierre, Chet Raj Ojha, Kyle Martins, Tiyash Parira, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Allen Caobi, Luis Garbinski, Yasemin Ceyhan, Maria Esteban-Lopez, Nazira El-Hage
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology. Both genetic-susceptibility and environment exposures, including vitamin D deficiency, Epstein-Barr viral and Herpesvirus (HHV-6) infections are strongly implicated in the activation of T cells and MS-pathogenesis. Despite precise knowledge of how these factors could be operating alone or in combination to facilitate and aggravate the disease progression, it is clear that prolonged induction of inflammatory molecules and recruitment of other immune cells by the activated T cells results in demyelination and axonal damage...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Danielle Beckman, Mark G Baxter, John H Morrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Danielle Large
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Thusharika Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Several methods can be used to determine the resting motor threshold (RMT) and by that recording transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs). However, no research has compared the test retest reliability of these methods. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine intra- and inter-session reliability of Rossini-Rothwell (R-R) and parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST) methods on TMS-induced MEPs and comparison of these two methods on RMT. Twelve healthy individuals participated in this study three times (T1, T2 and T3) over two days...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Emilie Olié, Philippe Courtet
With one million deaths worldwide, suicide is a major health issue. The frequency of life events preceding suicidal act is high and raises the question of their role in suicidal process. At biological level, dysfunctional neural processing of social exclusion may participate in suicidal risk through an increased perception of social adversity in vulnerable subjects. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss neuroimaging findings related to social exclusion and loneliness, and to open new perspectives to investigate sensitivity to social stress in suicide...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Emilia Iannilli, Volker Gudziol
The focus of this review is to interpret recent advances in human gustatory pathways with respect to the laterality of gustatory responses. Psychophysical, neuroimaging, and clinical anatomical studies published in peer reviewed scientific journals were examined. From the anatomical and neuroimaging studies a total of six models are outlined and discussed in the light of some recent psychophysical and clinical results. In the specific of the salt condition and right preferred hand the outcomes have revealed a predominant left ipsilateral pathway with evidences of ipsilateral projection from the left primary gustatory cortex (PGC) to the orbitofrontal cortex, while a bilateral projection from the right oral cavity to the left and right insula seems to be more consistent...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Shilpa S Samant, Han-Seok Seo
This study aimed at determining, based on independent predictors of taste intensity and emotional response, whether individual personality traits could affect prediction models of overall liking and preference rank toward basic taste solutions. Sixty-seven participants rated taste intensities (TI) of four basic-taste solutions at both low and high concentrations, and of plain water. Emotional responses toward each sample were measured using a self-reported emotion questionnaire (SE), facial expressions (FE), and/or autonomic nervous system responses (ANS)...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Dika Kuljis, Takashi Kudo, Yu Tahara, Cristina A Ghiani, Christopher S Colwell
Disturbances in sleep/wake cycle are a common complaint of individuals with Huntington's disease (HD) and are displayed by HD mouse models. The underlying mechanisms, including the possible role of the circadian timing system, are not well established. The BACHD mouse model of HD exhibits disrupted behavioral and physiological rhythms, including decreased electrical activity in the central circadian clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN). In this study, electrophysiological techniques were used to explore the ionic underpinning of the reduced spontaneous neural activity in male mice...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Joanna Medina, Joanna L Workman
The transition to motherhood encompasses physiological and behavioral adaptations essential for the initiation and maintenance of offspring care and feeding and includes widespread changes throughout the brain. The growth of new neurons occurs across the lifespan in distinct regions of mammalian brains and changes dynamically across reproductive events in female mammals. The subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus undergo high rates of neurogenesis in adulthood and are sensitive to hormonal fluctuations...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Mansi Prakash, William E Medendorp, Ute Hochgeschwender
In Bioluminescent Optogenetics (BL-OG) a biological, rather than a physical, light source is used to activate light-sensing opsins, such as channelrhodopsins or pumps. This is commonly achieved by utilizing a luminopsin (LMO), a fusion protein of a light-emitting luciferase tethered to a light-sensing opsin. Light of the wavelength matching the activation peak of the opsin is emitted by the luciferase upon application of its small molecule luciferin, resulting in activation of the fused opsin and subsequent effects on membrane potential...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Adam B Edwards, Ryan S Anderton, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, with no available neuroprotective therapeutic agent. In the development of a therapeutic for HIE, we examined the neuroprotective efficacy of the poly-arginine peptide R18D (arginine 18 mer synthesised with D-arginine) in a perinatal model of hypoxia-ischaemia (HI; common carotid and external carotid occlusion + 8%O2 /92%N2 for 2.5 hr) in the P7 Sprague-Dawley rat. R18D was administered intraperitoneally 30 min (doses 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1,000 nmol/kg), 60 min (doses 30 and 300 nmol/kg) or 120 min (doses 30 and 300 nmol/kg) after HI...
August 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jana Osacka, Alena Szelle Cernackova, Lubica Horvathova, Zuzana Majercikova, Zdeno Pirnik, Alexander Kiss
Clozapine (CLZ) stimulates several brain areas some of them being sensitive to stress. Aim of the present study was to reveal whether 7-day CLZ administration may: (1) activate the selected forebrain areas; (2) modulate response of these structures to a single forced swimming episode (FSW); (3) modulate response of these structures to FSW after 13-day preconditioning with mild unpredictable stress complex (CMS). Used groups of male Wistar rats: (a) vehicle or CLZ treated for 7 days; (b) vehicle or CLZ treated for 7 days and on the 7th day exposed to FSW; (c) CMS exposed for 13 days, from the 8th day injected with vehicle or CLZ and on the 14th day exposed to FSW...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ronald S Duman, Matthew J Girgenti
The neurobiology of fear memory and extinction has been the subject of extensive research efforts that have increased our understanding of the brain regions, circuitry, and the cellular and molecular determinants of fear memory processes. However, the inability to access and directly study the brains of PTSD patients has made it difficult to translate the rodent fear memory studies to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD. The formation of a PTSD brain repository has recently been undertaken to address this issue...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Bela Anand-Apte, Jennifer R Chao, Ruchira Singh, Heidi Stöhr
Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD), an autosomal dominant, fully penetrant, degenerative disease of the macula, is manifested by symptoms of night blindness or sudden loss of visual acuity, usually in the third to fourth decades of life due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). SFD is caused by specific mutations in the Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3, (TIMP3) gene. The predominant histo-pathological feature in the eyes of patients with SFD are confluent 20-30 m thick, amorphous deposits found between the basement membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Naomi Gotow, Tatsu Kobayakawa
Temporal synchrony between odor and taste plays an important role in flavor perception. When we investigate temporal synchrony between odor and taste, it is necessary to pay attention not only to physical simultaneity of the presentation of olfactory and gustatory stimuli, but also to the perceptual simultaneity between the two stimuli. In this study, we examined short-latency brain activity underlying synchrony perception for olfactory-gustatory combinations. While five female participants performed a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task using soy sauce odor and salt solution, single-channel event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at the position of Cz...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Vittorio Calabrese, Aurelia Santoro, Angela Trovato Salinaro, Sergio Modafferi, Maria Scuto, Ferdaous Albouchi, Daniela Monti, James Giordano, Mario Zappia, Claudio Franceschi, Edward J Calabrese
Age-related changes in the brain reflect a dynamic interaction of genetic, epigenetic, phenotypic, and environmental factors that can be temporally restricted or more longitudinally present throughout the lifespan. Fundamental to these mechanisms is the capacity for physiological adaptation through modulation of diverse molecular and biochemical signaling occurring from the intracellular to the network-systemic level throughout the brain. A number of agents that affect the onset and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like effects in experimental models exhibit temporal features, and mechanisms of hormetic dose responses...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Camilla Arndal Andersen, Marianne Leonard Kring, Rasmus Holm Andersen, Ole Naesbye Larsen, Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Ulla Kidmose, Stine Møller, Preben Kidmose
Perceptually similar stimuli, despite not being consciously distinguishable, may result in distinct cortical brain activations. Hypothesizing that perceptually similar tastes are discriminable by electroencephalography (EEG), we recorded 22 human participants' response to equally intense sweet-tasting stimuli: caloric sucrose, low-caloric aspartame, and a low-caloric mixture of aspartame and acesulfame K. Time-resolved multivariate pattern analysis of the 128-channel EEG was used to discriminate the taste responses at single-trial level...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Javed Iqbal, Kaoyuan Zhang, Na Jin, Yuxi Zhao, Qiong Liu, Jiazuan Ni, Liming Shen
Selenium (Se) deficiency is believed to be involved in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to failure of antioxidant system. Its supplementation may restore the antioxidant system and compensate the impairments caused by AD. Present study reveals the effect of Se on the proteomic changes in cortex within triple transgenic male AD mice (3 × Tg-AD) after 4 months sodium selenate supplementation. Using iTRAQ comparative proteomics approach, 142 proteins found significant alterations with 96 down-regulated and 46 up-regulated proteins in the cortices of AD mice in comparison with the wild non-transgenic type mice...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Philippe Courtet, Raffaella Calati
In the past decade, considerable attention has been drawn to social interactions and behaviors as sources of pleasurable (social reward) and painful (social pain) emotional states. While the role of the opioid system in the regulation of reward and pain processes has long been recognized, it has more recently been investigated and characterized in the specific context of social experiences across several mammalian species. Accordingly, the present narrative review provides a comprehensive summary of studies detailing how the opioid system controls social reward and social pain...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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