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Journal of Neuroscience Research

Bradley J Kerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Katherine B Santosa, Alexandra M Keane, Albina Jablonka-Shariff, Bianca Vannucci, Alison K Snyder-Warwick
The terminal Schwann cell (tSC), a type of nonmyelinating Schwann cell, is a significant yet relatively understudied component of the neuromuscular junction. In addition to reviewing the role tSCs play on formation, maintenance, and remodeling of the synapse, we review studies that implicate tSCs in neuromuscular diseases including spinal muscular atrophy, Miller-Fisher syndrome, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, among others. We also discuss the importance of these cells on degeneration and regeneration after nerve injury...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
B S Alghamdi
Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted from the pineal gland and has a wide-ranging regulatory and neuroprotective role. It has been reported that melatonin level is disturbed in some neurological conditions such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, which indicates its involvement in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Its properties qualify it to be a promising potential therapeutic neuroprotective agent, with no side effects, for some neurological disorders. This review discusses and localizes the effect of melatonin in the pathophysiology of some diseases...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Changbin Liu, Degang Yang, Jianjun Li, Dapeng Li, Mingliang Yang, Wei Sun, Qianru Meng, Wenhao Zhang, Chang Cai, Liangjie Du, Jun Li, Feng Gao, Rui Gu, Yutong Feng, Xuechao Dong, Qi Miao, Xinghua Yang, Zhentao Zuo
This study aimed to explore the dynamic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of changes in spinal cord contusion using a canine model of injury involving rostral and caudal levels. In this study, a spinal cord contusion model was established in female dogs using a custom-made weight-drop lesion device. DTI was performed on dogs with injured spinal cords (n=7) using a Siemens 3.0T MRI scanner at pre-contusion and at 3 h, 24 h, 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-injury. The tissue sections were stained for immunohistochemical analysis...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Huynh Nhu Mai, Naveen Sharma, Eun-Joo Shin, Bao Trong Nguyen, Phuong Tram Nguyen, Ji Hoon Jeong, Eun-Hee Cho, Yu Jeung Lee, Nam Hun Kim, Choon-Gon Jang, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim
We have previously demonstrated that repeated treatment with methamphetamine (MA) results in a recognition memory impairment via upregulation of protein kinase C (PKC) δ and downregulation of the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1)-dependent antioxidant system. We also demonstrated that far-infrared ray (FIR) attenuates acute restraint stress via induction of the GPx-1 gene. Herein, we investigated whether exposure to FIR modulates MA-induced recognition memory impairment in male mice, and whether cognitive potentials mediated by FIR require modulation of the PKCδ gene, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and glutathione-dependent system...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ivana Bjelobaba, Vesna Begovic-Kupresanin, Sanja Pekovic, Irena Lavrnja
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects more than two million people worldwide. Several animal models resemble MS pathology; the most employed are experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and toxin- and/or virus-induced demyelination. In this review we will summarize our knowledge on the utility of different animal models in MS research. Although animal models cannot replicate the complexity and heterogeneity of the MS pathology, they have proved to be useful for the development of several drugs approved for treatment of MS patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Juan F Guarracino, Alejandro R Cinalli, Mariela I Veggetti, Adriana S Losavio
At the mouse neuromuscular junction, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is co-released with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), and once in the synaptic cleft, it is hydrolyzed to adenosine. Both ATP/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine modulate ACh secretion by activating presynaptic P2Y13 and A1 , A2A , and A3 receptors, respectively. To elucidate the action of endogenous purines on K+ -dependent ACh release, we studied the effect of purinergic receptor antagonists on miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency in phrenic diaphragm preparations...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Hong Ji, Nathan M Petro, Badong Chen, Zejian Yuan, Jianji Wang, Nanning Zheng, Andreas Keil
Over the past decade, the simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has garnered growing interest because it may provide an avenue towards combining the strengths of both imaging modalities. Given their pronounced differences in temporal and spatial statistics, the combination of EEG and fMRI data is however methodologically challenging. Here, we propose a novel screening approach that relies on a Cross Multivariate Correlation Coefficient (xMCC) framework...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Takuya Ogawa, Hidemasa Okihara, Satoshi Kokai, Yasunori Abe, Uchima Koecklin Karin Harumi, Mio Makiguchi, Chiho Kato, Tadachika Yabushita, Makoto Michikawa, Takashi Ono
The hippocampus is an important brain region involved in memory and learning. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), and phospho-p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are known to contribute to hippocampal memory/learning. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of nasal obstruction during the growth period on memory/learning in an animal model, using combined behavioral, biochemical, and histological approaches. Male BALB/C mice underwent unilateral nasal obstruction (UNO) by cauterization at 8 days of age and were subjected to Y-maze and passive avoidance tests at 15 weeks of age...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Janet D Pierce, Raeesa Gupte, Amanda Thimmesch, Qiuhua Shen, John B Hiebert, William M Brooks, Richard L Clancy, Francisco J Diaz, Janna L Harris
Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is significant secondary damage to cerebral tissue from increased free radicals and impaired mitochondrial function. This imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the effectiveness of cellular antioxidant defenses is termed oxidative stress. Often there are insufficient antioxidants to scavenge ROS, leading to alterations in cerebral structure and function. Attenuating oxidative stress following a TBI by administering an antioxidant may decrease secondary brain injury, and currently many drugs and supplements are being investigated...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yan Wu, Lin Shen, Rui Wang, Jie Tang, Shu-Qin Ding, Sai-Nan Wang, Xue-Yan Guo, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
Ceruloplasmin (Cp), an enzyme containing six copper atoms, has important roles in iron homeostasis and antioxidant defense. After spinal cord injury (SCI), the cellular components in the local microenvironment are very complex and include functional changes of resident cells and the infiltration of leukocytes. It has been confirmed that Cp is elevated primarily in astrocytes and to a lesser extent in macrophages following SCI in mice. However, its expression in other cell types is still not very clear. In this manuscript, we provide a sensible extension of these findings by examining this system within a female Sprague-Dawley rat model and expanding the scope of inquiry to include additional cell types...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Susan C Schwerin, Mitali Chatterjee, Aminat O Imam-Fulani, Kryslaine L Radomski, Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Carlo M Pierpaoli, Sharon L Juliano
White matter damage is an important consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. Unlike rodents, ferrets have a substantial amount of white matter and a gyrencephalic brain; therefore, they may represent an ideal small mammal model to study human-pertinent consequences of TBI. Here we report immunohistochemical and behavioral results after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury to the sensorimotor cortex of adult male ferrets. We assessed inflammation in the neocortex and white matter, and behavior at 1 day post injury and 1, 4, and 16 weeks post injury (WPI)...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Naijil George, Herbert M Geller
The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in both the developing and adult brain by providing structural support and mediating cell-cell interactions. In this review, we focus on the major constituents of the ECM and how they function in both normal and injured brain, and summarize the changes in the composition of the ECM as well as how these changes either promote or inhibit recovery of function following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Modulation of ECM composition to facilitates neuronal survival, regeneration and axonal outgrowth is a potential therapeutic target for TBI treatment...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Hermina Nedelescu, Mohamed Abdelhack, Arwel T Pritchard
Regional differences in dendritic architecture can influence connectivity and dendritic signal integration, with possible consequences for neuronal computation. In the cerebellum, analyses of Purkinje cells (PCs), which are functionally critical as they provide the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, have suggested that the cerebellar cortex is not uniform in structure as traditionally assumed. However, the limitations of traditional staining methods and microscopy capabilities have presented difficulties in investigating possible local variations in PC morphology...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Adam M McNeela, Charles Bernick, Rochelle M Hines, Dustin J Hines
The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body. This high metabolic demand is apparent in that 60% of the brain is comprised of mitochondria-enriched cells. A disruption of the brain's ability to meet this immense metabolic demand is central to the pathogenesis of a multitude of neurological disorders, which range from depression to Alzheimer's disease. Central to these pathologies are glial signaling and energy metabolism cascades regulating apoptosis and inflammation. Thus, diseases causing inflammation and disruption of metabolism can be correlated with glial reactivity...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Nancy A Pike, Bhaswati Roy, Ritika Gupta, Sadhana Singh, Mary A Woo, Nancy J Halnon, Alan B Lewis, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) adolescents show cognitive impairments and anxiety and depressive symptoms, indicating the possibility of brain injury in regions that control these functions. However, brain tissue integrity in cognition, anxiety, and depression regulatory sites in SVHD remains unclear. We examined brain tissue changes in SVHD compared to controls using T2-relaxometry procedures, which measure free water content and show tissue injury. METHODS: Proton-density and T2-weighted images, using a 3...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Helen Dimaras, Timothy W Corson
The pediatric ocular cancer retinoblastoma is the only central nervous system (CNS) tumor readily observed without specialized equipment: it can be seen by, and in, the naked eye. This accessibility enables unique imaging modalities. Here, we review this cancer for a neuroscience audience, highlighting these clinical and research imaging options, including fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. We also discuss the subtype of retinoblastoma driven by the MYCN oncogene more commonly associated with neuroblastoma, and consider trilateral retinoblastoma, in which an intracranial tumor arises along with ocular tumors in patients with germline RB1 gene mutations...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yuki Nishizawa, Kenji Takahashi, Naoko Oguma, Makoto Tominaga, Toshio Ohta
T-type Ca2+ channels and TRPA1 are expressed in sensory neurons and both are associated with pain transmission, but their functional interaction is unclear. Here we demonstrate that pharmacological evidence of the functional relation between T-type Ca2+ channels and TRPA1 in mouse sensory neurons. Low concentration of KCl at 15 mM (15K) evoked increases of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ), which were suppressed by selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers. RT-PCR showed that mouse sensory neurons expressed all subtypes of T-type Ca2+ channel...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ernesto R Bongarzone, Mary C McKenna, Araceli Espinosa-Jeffrey, Nancy Wainwright, Cristina Ghiani, J Regino Perez-Polo, Arne Schousboe, Eric M Prager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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