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Journal of Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775219/deciphering-the-role-of-vps35-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
LETTER
Erin T Williams, Darren J Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775216/neuroimmflammation-and-microglia-in-glaucoma-time-for-a-paradigm-shift
#2
REVIEW
Xin Wei, Kin-Sang Cho, Eric F Thee, Martine J Jager, Dong Feng Chen
Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease with many clinical subtypes. Some of its rare forms include pigmentary glaucoma, uveitic glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. While they all share common features of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve damage and corresponding visual field loss, the exact mechanisms underlying glaucomatous neuron loss are not clear. This has largely hindered the development of a real cure for this disease. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a known major risk factor of glaucoma; however, progressive degeneration of RGCs and axons can also be found in patients with a normal IOP, i...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775205/modified-device-for-fluid-percussion-injury-in-rodents
#3
Wei Ouyang, Wenhui Wu, Zhiheng Fan, Jihui Wang, Huiju Pan, Weibin Yang
Fluid percussion (FP) injury model is a popular animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but still there are some issues need to be addressed. To increase the validity and reliability of this technique, we adapted the FP device using electromagnetic protractor, stainless-steel cylinder, changing pressure transducer position, and foam pads to adjust the parameters of FP pulse. Besides, the adjusted FP device is more automatic. The FP pulse is promptly measured and displayed in a graphic user interface software...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761540/apixaban-decreases-brain-thrombin-activity-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#4
Doron Bushi, Joab Chapman, Anton Wohl, Efrat Shavit Stein, Ekaterina Feingold, David Tanne
Factor Xa (FXa) plays a critical role in the coagulation cascade by generation of thrombin. During focal ischemia thrombin levels increase in the brain tissue and cause neural damage. This study examined the hypothesis that administration of the FXa inhibitor, apixaban, following focal ischemic stroke may have therapeutic potential by decreasing brain thrombin activity and infarct volume. Male mice were divided into a treated groups that received different doses of apixaban (2, 20, 100 mg/kg administered I...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761531/fluctuations-of-the-eeg-fmri-correlation-reflect-intrinsic-strength-of-functional-connectivity-in-default-mode-network
#5
Tuija Keinänen, Seppo Rytky, Vesa Korhonen, Niko Huotari, Juha Nikkinen, Osmo Tervonen, J Matias Palva, Vesa Kiviniemi
Both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiological recordings have revealed that resting-state functional connectivity is temporally variable in human brain. Combined full-band electroencephalography-fMRI (fbEEG-fMRI) studies have shown that infraslow (<.1 Hz) fluctuations in EEG scalp potential are correlated with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signals and that also this correlation appears variable over time. Here, we used simultaneous fbEEG-fMRI to test the hypothesis that correlation dynamics between BOLD and fbEEG signals could be explained by fluctuations in the activation properties of resting-state networks (RSNs) such as the extent or strength of their activation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761529/pigmentation-and-vision-is-gpr143-in-control
#6
REVIEW
Brian S McKay
Albinism, typically characterized by decreased melanin synthesis, is associated with significant visual deficits owing to developmental changes during neurosensory retina development. All albinism is caused by genetic mutations in a group of diverse genes including enzymes, transporters, G-protein coupled receptor. Interestingly, these genes are not expressed in the neurosensory retina. Further, regardless of cause of albinism, all forms of albinism have the same retinal pathology, the extent of which is variable...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748968/sex-differences-in-associations-between-spatial-ability-and-corpus-callosum-morphology
#7
Florian Kurth, Debra Spencer, Melissa Hines, Eileen Luders
Rotating mental representations of objects is accompanied by widespread bilateral brain activations. Thus, interhemispheric communication channels may play a relevant part when engaging in mental rotation tasks. Indeed, links between mental rotation and dimensions of the corpus callosum-the brain's main commissure system-have been reported. However, existing findings are sparse and inconsistent across studies. Here we set out to further characterize the nature of any such links, including their exact location across the corpus callosum...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741787/gonadal-hormones-modulate-the-hpa-axis-and-the-sns-in-response-to-psychosocial-stress
#8
Efrat Barel, Randa Abu-Shkara, Raul Colodner, Refaat Masalha, Lila Mahagna, Or Chen Zemel, Ami Cohen
Exposure to stress activates both the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). A growing body of research points to the contribution of sex hormones (testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone), the end products of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, in modulating stress reactivity. The present study aimed at investigating the potential modulating role of sex hormones on HPA and SNS reactivity to psychosocial stress. The reactivity, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test, was analyzed by measuring the levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase (markers for SNS activity) in four saliva samples each of 21 men and 37 women (17 not using oral contraceptives and in their luteal phase, and 20 women using oral contraceptives)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732591/differential-conduction-and-cgrp-release-in-visceral-versus-cutaneous-peripheral-nerves-in-the-mouse
#9
Roberto De Col, Karl Messlinger, Tali Hoffmann
Cutaneous afferent nerves convey sensory information from the external, visceral nerves from the internal environment. The saphenous nerve arising from lumbar dorsal root ganglia and the vagus nerve originating in the nodosum ganglia are prototypic examples of such cutaneous and visceral nerves. Despite a common sensory role, these two nerves have distinct embryonic origin and vary in neuropeptide expression. Because of their distinct physiological roles, it is plausible that they differ also in conductive properties...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732581/discrete-mitochondrial-aberrations-in-the-spinal-cord-of-sporadic-als-patients
#10
Vedad Delic, Crupa Kurien, Josean Cruz, Sandra Zivkovic, Jennifer Barretta, Avery Thomson, Daniel Hennessey, Jaheem Joseph, Jared Ehrhart, Alison E Willing, Patrick Bradshaw, Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to motor neuron degeneration associated with ALS progression. Mitochondrial abnormalities have been determined in spinal cords of animal disease models and ALS patients. However, molecular mechanisms leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in sporadic ALS (sALS) patients remain unclear...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704429/insights-into-optic-pathway-glioma-vision-loss-from-mouse-models-of-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#11
REVIEW
Morgan E Freret, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. The NF1-encoded protein (neurofibromin) is an inhibitor of the oncoprotein RAS and controls cell growth and survival. Individuals with NF1 are prone to developing low-grade tumors of the optic nerves, chiasm, tracts, and radiations, termed optic pathway gliomas (OPGs), which can cause vision loss. A paucity of surgical tumor specimens and of patient-derived xenografts for investigative studies has limited our understanding of human NF1-associated OPG (NF1-OPG)...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701254/photoreceptor-cells-as-a-source-of-fundus-autofluorescence-in-recessive-stargardt-disease
#12
Maarjaliis Paavo, Winston Lee, Rando Allikmets, Stephen Tsang, Janet R Sparrow
Bisretinoid fluorophores form in photoreceptor outer segments from nonenzymatic reactions of vitamin A aldehyde. The short-wavelength autofluorescence (SW-AF) of fundus flecks in recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) suggests a connection to these fluorophores. Through multimodal imaging, we sought to elucidate this link. Flecks observed in SW-AF images often colocalized with foci exhibiting reduced or absent near-infrared autofluorescence signal, the source of which is melanin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696692/the-impact-of-erythropoietin-and-iron-status-on-brain-myelination-in-the-newborn-rat
#13
Karen P Flores, Sharon E Blohowiak, Joy J Winzerling, Michael K Georgieff, Pamela J Kling
Erythropoietin (Epo) drives iron (Fe) utilization for erythropoiesis, but the potentially resultant tissue iron deficiency (ID) can also impede brain development. Conversely, Epo binds to Epo receptors (EpoR) on immature brain oligodendrocytes and neurons, promoting growth and differentiation. The objective of the study was to examine the interaction between Epo and Fe on myelination in brain development during daily Epo treatment. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats from postnatal day (P) P4-P12 modeled premature newborns...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696675/anodal-and-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-can-decrease-force-output-of-knee-extensors-during-an-intermittent-mvc-fatiguing-task-in-young-healthy-male-participants
#14
Louis-Solal Giboin, Markus Gruber
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has the capacity to enhance force output during a short-lasting maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) as well as during a long-lasting submaximal voluntary contraction until task failure. However, its effect on an intermittent maximal effort is not known. We hypothesized that anodal tDCS applied during or before a maximal fatigue task increases the amplitude of maximal voluntary contraction (aMVC) and voluntary activation (VA) in young healthy male participants. We measured VA, potentiated twitch at rest (Ptw), root mean square electromyogram (EMG), and aMVC during a fatiguing task that consisted of 35 × 5 s MVC of knee extensors and was performed during tDCS or 10 min after the end of tDCS (sham, anodal, or cathodal treatments)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696690/mesencephalic-dopamine-neurons-interfacing-the-shell-of-nucleus-accumbens-and-the-dorsolateral-striatum-in-the-rat
#15
Floris G Wouterlood, Angela Engel, Mariah Daal, Gertjan Houwen, Aileen Meinderts, Tomàs Jordà Siquier, Jeroen A M Beliën, Yvette C van Dongen, Jørgen Scheel-Krüger, Anne-Marie Thierry, Henk J Groenewegen, Jean-Michel Deniau
Parallel corticostriatonigral circuits have been proposed that separately process motor, cognitive, and emotional-motivational information. Functional integration requires that interactions exist between neurons participating in these circuits. This makes it imperative to study the complex anatomical substrate underlying corticostriatonigral circuits. It has previously been proposed that dopaminergic neurons in the ventral mesencephalon may play a role in this circuit interaction. Therefore, we studied in rats convergence of basal ganglia circuits by depositing an anterograde neuroanatomical tracer into the ventral striatum together with a retrograde fluorescent tracer ipsilaterally in the dorsolateral striatum...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682799/the-differences-between-glun2a-and-glun2b-signaling-in-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Yongjun Sun, Yingge Xu, Xiaokun Cheng, Xi Chen, Yinghua Xie, Linan Zhang, Long Wang, Jie Hu, Zibin Gao
The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a typical ionotropic glutamate receptor, is a crucial protein for maintaining brain function. GluN2A and GluN2B are the main types of NMDA receptor subunit in the adult forebrain. Studies have demonstrated that they play different roles in a number of pathophysiological processes. Although the underlying mechanism for this has not been clarified, the most fundamental reason may be the differences between the signaling pathways associated with GluN2A and GluN2B. With the aim of elucidating the reasons behind the diverse roles of these two subunits, we described the signaling differences between GluN2A and GluN2B from the aspects of C-terminus-associated molecules, effects on typical downstream signaling proteins, and metabotropic signaling...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665106/conditional-deletion-of-neurog1-in-the-cerebellum-of-postnatal-mice-delays-inhibitory-interneuron-maturation
#17
Edwin A Obana, Qiong Zhou, Orion Furmanski, Martin L Doughty
The transcriptional programs that drive the generation of diverse GABAergic neuron populations from their common progenitor pools in the developing cerebellum remain unclear. Neurog1 is a pro-neural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in GABAergic progenitor cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) of embryos and subsequently in the presumptive white matter (pWM) tracts of developing postnatal mice. Genetic inducible fate-mapping labels Purkinje cells and all inhibitory interneuron cell types of the cerebellar cortex...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660812/tremor-severity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-cortical-changes-of-areas-controlling-movement-sequencing-a-preliminary-study
#18
Julián Benito-León, J Ignacio Serrano, Elan D Louis, Ales Holobar, Juan P Romero, P Povalej-Bržan, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, M Dolores Del Castillo, Ignacio J Posada, Eduardo Rocon
There remains much to learn about the changes in cortical anatomy that are associated with tremor severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). For this reason, we used a combination of structural neuroimaging to measure cortical thickness and neurophysiological studies to analyze whether PD tremor was associated with cortex integrity. Magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological assessment were performed in 13 nondemented PD patients (9 women, 69.2%) with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed with the Freesurfer image analysis software...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660784/relationship-between-neural-crest-cell-specification-and-rare-ocular-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Monica Akula, Jeong Won Park, Judith A West-Mays
Development of the eye is closely associated with neural crest cell migration and specification. Eye development is extremely complex, as it requires the working of a combination of local factors, receptors, inductors, and signaling interactions between tissues such as the optic cup and periocular mesenchyme (POM). The POM is comprised of neural crest-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that give rise to numerous important ocular structures including those tissues that form the optic cup and anterior segment of the eye...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659058/polyethylene-glycol-solutions-rapidly-restore-and-maintain-axonal-continuity-neuromuscular-structures-and-behaviors-lost-after-sciatic-nerve-transections-in-female-rats
#20
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Robert Louis Hastings, Amir Ali, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, George D Bittner
Complete severance of major peripheral mixed sensory-motor nerve proximally in a mammalian limb produces immediate loss of action potential conduction and voluntary behaviors mediated by the severed distal axonal segments. These severed distal segments undergo Wallerian degeneration within days. Denervated muscles atrophy within weeks. Slowly regenerating (∼1 mm/day) outgrowths from surviving proximal stumps that often nonspecifically reinnervate denervated targets produce poor, if any, restoration of lost voluntary behaviors...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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