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Journal of Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935632/ultrastructural-abnormalities-and-loss-of-myelinated-fibers-in-the-corpus-callosum-of-demyelinated-mice-induced-by-cuprizone
#1
Yun Xiu, Guo-Hua Cheng, Chao Peng, Yun Wang, Yong-de Li, Feng-Lei Chao, Yong Tang
It is now accepted that white matter abnormalities play an important role in demyelinating diseases and a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Experimental demyelination (especially induced by cuprizone) has been investigated extensively. However, details regarding demyelination and ultrastructural changes of myelinated fibers have not been previously reported. Therefore, we determined the extent of demyelination using quantitative stereology. Mice exposed to cuprizone in the current study showed abnormal anxiety-like behavior without impaired spatial learning or memory...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935101/gpnmb-ameliorates-mutant-tdp-43-induced-motor-neuron-cell-death
#2
Yuki Nagahara, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Kazuki Ohuchi, Junko Ito, Hitoshi Takahashi, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hideaki Hara
Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918079/high-intensity-treadmill-running-impairs-cognitive-behavior-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-of-rats-via-activation-of-inflammatory-response
#3
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Long Li, Fei Wang, Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Li Yuan, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Although appropriate exercise is beneficial for enhancing brain functions, high-intensity exercise (HIE)-induced cognitive dysfunction is causing more and more concerns nowadays. In the present study, we observed the effects of high-intensity treadmill running on the spatial learning of the adult Sprague Dawley male rats in Y-maze (n = 16 per group), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms by examining in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), central inflammatory responses, and JNK/p38/ERK signal pathway...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898179/temporal-kinetics-of-cd8-cd28-and-cd8-cd28-t-lymphocytes-in-the-injured-rat-spinal-cord
#4
Yan Wu, Yu-Hong Lin, Ling-Ling Shi, Zong-Feng Yao, Xiu-Mei Xie, Zheng-Song Jiang, Jie Tang, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
This study aims to explore the temporal changes of cytotoxic CD8(+) CD28(+) and regulatory CD8(+) CD28(-) T-cell subsets in the lesion microenvironment after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats, by combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry (FCM). In the sham-opened spinal cord, few CD8(+) T cells were found. After SCI, the CD8(+) T cells were detected at one day post-injury (dpi), then markedly increased and were significantly higher at 3, 7, and 14 dpi compared with one dpi (p < 0.01), the highest being seven dpi...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898171/hormesis-cellular-stress-response-and-neuroinflammation-in-schizophrenia-early-onset-versus-late-onset-state
#5
REVIEW
Vittorio Calabrese, James Giordano, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Martino Ruggieri, Rio Bianchini, Maria Laura Ontario, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Edward J Calabrese
Abnormal redox homeostasis and oxidative stress have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of several neuropsychiatric spectrum disorders. Emerging interest has recently focused on markers of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in schizophrenic spectrum disorders, at least in particular subgroups of patients. Altered expression of genes related to oxidative stress, oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, as well as reduced glutathione levels in central and peripheral tissues could act synergistically, and contribute to the course of the disease...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869313/the-role-of-the-mir-17-92-cluster-in-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-adults
#6
REVIEW
Ping Yang, Linghu Cai, Guan Zhang, Zhiqun Bian, Gaofeng Han
It is well known that neurogenesis is not the only concern for the fully functional recovery after brain or spinal cord injury, as it has been shed light on the critical role of angiogenesis in improving neurological functional recovery. Angiogenesis and neurogenesis coordinately interact with each other in the developing and adult brain, during which they may respond to similar mediators and receptors, in which they share a common posttranscriptional regulator: the miR-17-92 cluster. The miR-17-92 cluster was initially described as an oncogene and was later demonstrated to drive key physiological and pathological responses during development and diseases respectively...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859490/genetically-modified-rodent-models-of-sca17
#7
REVIEW
Yiting Cui, Su Yang, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is a type of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) characterized by variable manifestations, including cerebellar ataxia, dementia, and psychiatric symptoms. Since the identification of a CAG repeat expansion in the TATA-box binding protein (TBP) gene in a patient with ataxia in 1999 and then verification of this expansion in patients with SCA17 in 2001, several SCA17 rodent models, including both knock-in and transgenic models in mice and rats, have been established to explore the phenotypic features and pathogenesis of SCA17...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862185/short-term-exposure-to-enriched-environment-rescues-chronic-stress-induced-impaired-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-anxiety-and-memory-deficits
#8
VenkannaRao Bhagya, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Jayagopalan Veena, Byrathnahalli S Shankaranarayana Rao
Exposure to prolonged stress results in structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus including reduced long-term potentiation (LTP), neurogenesis, spatial learning and working memory impairments, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) has beneficial effects on hippocampal structure and function, such as improved memory, increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and progressive synaptic plasticity. It is unclear whether exposure to short-term EE for 10 days can overcome restraint stress-induced cognitive deficits and impaired hippocampal plasticity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862183/the-antiviral-cytokine-interferon-gamma-restricts-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-proliferation-through-activation-of-stat1-and-modulation-of-retinoblastoma-protein-phosphorylation
#9
Apurva Kulkarni, Taylor J Scully, Lauren A O'Donnell
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPSCs) express receptors for many inflammatory cytokines, with varying effects on differentiation and proliferation depending on the stage of development and the milieu of inflammatory mediators. In primary neurons and astrocytes, we recently showed that interferon gamma (IFNγ), a potent antiviral cytokine that is required for the control and clearance of many central nervous system (CNS) infections, could differentially affect cell survival and cell cycle progression depending upon the cell type and the profile of activated intracellular signaling molecules...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862192/long-distance-projections-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons
#10
REVIEW
Charles R Gerfen, Michael N Economo, Jayaram Chandrashekar
The neuronal circuits defined by the axonal projections of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex are responsible for processing sensory and other information to plan and execute behavior. Subtypes of cortical pyramidal neurons are organized across layers, with those in different layers distinguished by their patterns of axonal projections and connectivity. For example, those in layers 2 and 3 project between cortical areas to integrate sensory and other information with motor areas; while those in layers 5 and 6 also integrate information between cortical areas, but also project to subcortical structures involved in the generation of behavior...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862211/the-effects-of-intra-hippocampal-l-thyroxine-infusion-on-long-term-potentiation-and-long-term-depression-a-possible-role-for-the-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-receptor
#11
Soner Bitiktaş, Burak Tan, Şehrazat Kavraal, Marwa Yousef, Yeliz Bayar, Nurcan Dursun, Cem Süer
Although the effects of long-term experimental dysthyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) have been documented, the relationship between LTP/LTD and acute administration of L-thyroxine (T4) has not been described. Here, we investigated the effects of intra-hippocampal administration of T4 on synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. After a 15-minute baseline recording, LTP and LTD were induced by application of high- and low-frequency stimulation protocols, respectively...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862176/inflammasomes-hormesis-and-antioxidants-in-neuroinflammation-role-of-nrlp3-in-alzheimer-disease
#12
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Maria Laura Ontario, Rita Bella, Edward J Calabrese, Roberto Crea, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Vittorio Calabrese
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric symptoms, disability, caregiver burden, and premature death. It represents the most prevalent cause of dementia, and its incidence rates exponentially increase with increasing age. The number of Americans living with AD is rapidly increasing. An estimated 5.4 million Americans of all ages have AD in 2016. One in nine people aged 65 and older has AD, and by midcentury, someone in the United States will develop the disease every 33 sec...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862172/investigation-of-brain-electrophysiological-properties-among-heroin-addicts-quantitative-eeg-and-event-related-potentials
#13
Farid Motlagh, Fatimah Ibrahim, Rusdi Rashid, Tahereh Seghatoleslam, Hussain Habil
This study aims to introduce a new approach of a comprehensive paradigm to evaluate brain electrophysiological properties among addicts. Electroencephalographic spectral power as well as amplitudes and latencies of mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and P600 components were evaluated among 19 male heroin addicts and 19 healthy nonsmoker subjects using a paradigm consisting of three subparadigms, namely (1) digit span Wechsler test, (2) auditory oddball, and (3) visual cue-reactivity oddball paradigms. Task 1 provided auditory P300 and P600 in association with working memory...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859486/unraveling-the-genetic-architecture-of-copy-number-variants-associated-with-schizophrenia-and-other-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Timothy P Rutkowski, Jason P Schroeder, Georgette M Gafford, Stephen T Warren, David Weinshenker, Tamara Caspary, Jennifer G Mulle
Recent studies show that the complex genetic architecture of schizophrenia (SZ) is driven in part by polygenic components, or the cumulative effect of variants of small effect in many genes, as well as rare single-locus variants with large effect sizes. Here we discuss genetic aberrations known as copy number variants (CNVs), which fall in the latter category and are associated with a high risk for SZ and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We briefly review recurrent CNVs associated with SZ, and then highlight one CNV in particular, a recurrent 1...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796054/orexin-a-increases-the-firing-activity-of-hippocampal-ca1-neurons-through-orexin-1-receptors
#15
Xin-Yi Chen, Lei Chen, Yi-Feng Du
Orexins including two peptides, orexin-A and orexin-B, are produced in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. Much evidence has indicated that central orexinergic systems play numerous functions including energy metabolism, feeding behavior, sleep/wakefulness, and neuroendocrine and sympathetic activation. Morphological studies have shown that the hippocampal CA1 regions receive orexinergic innervation originating from the hypothalamus. Positive orexin-1 (OX1 ) receptors are detected in the CA1 regions. Previous behavioral studies have shown that microinjection of OX1 receptor antagonist into the hippocampus impairs acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792255/fluorodopa-is-a-promising-fluorine-19-mri-probe-for-evaluating-striatal-dopaminergic-function-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Daijiro Yanagisawa, Keisuke Oda, Masatoshi Inden, Shigehiro Morikawa, Toshiro Inubushi, Takashi Taniguchi, Masanori Hijioka, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Ikuo Tooyama
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum. It has been estimated that approximately 80% of the striatal dopamine and 50% of nigral dopaminergic neurons are lost before the onset of typical motor symptoms, indicating that early diagnosis of PD using noninvasive imaging is feasible. Fluorine-19 ((19) F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a highly sensitive, easily available, low-background, and cost-effective approach to evaluate dopaminergic function using non-radioactive fluorine-containing dopaminergic agents...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792253/%C3%AE-5gabaa-receptors-mediate-tonic-inhibition-in-the-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn-and-contribute-to-the-resolution-of-hyperalgesia
#17
Jimena Perez-Sanchez, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Irene Lecker, Agnieszka A Zurek, Charalampos Labrakakis, Erica M Bridgwater, Beverley A Orser, Yves De Koninck, Robert P Bonin
Neuronal inhibition mediated by GABAA receptors constrains nociceptive processing in the spinal cord, and loss of GABAergic inhibition can produce allodynia and hyperalgesia. Extrasynaptic α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors (α5GABAA Rs) generate a tonic conductance that inhibits neuronal activity and constrains learning and memory; however, it is unclear whether α5GABAA Rs similarly generate a tonic conductance in the spinal cord dorsal horn to constrain nociception. We assessed the distribution of α5GABAA Rs in the spinal cord dorsal horn by immunohistochemical analysis, and the activity and function of α5GABAA Rs in neurons of the superficial dorsal horn using electrophysiological and behavioral approaches in male, null-mutant mice lacking the GABAA R α5 subunit (Gabra5-/-) and wild-type mice (WT)...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781303/long-term-effects-of-autoimmune-cns-inflammation-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#18
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, George A Lyras, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Aging and chronic degenerative disorders have been shown to impair hippocampal neurogenesis, but the consequence of chronic inflammation remains controversial. In this study the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis was used to investigate the long-term effects of T cell-mediated central nervous system inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled subpopulations of hippocampal cells in EAE and control mice (coexpressing GFAP, doublecortin, NeuN, calretinin, and S100) were quantified at the recovery phase, 21 days after BrdU administration, to estimate alterations on the rate and differentiation pattern of the neurogenesis process...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781299/mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-mri-identifiable-injury-protect-white-matter-and-improve-long-term-functional-outcomes-after-neonatal-focal-stroke-in-rats
#19
Cindy T van Velthoven, Mark Dzietko, Michael F Wendland, Nikita Derugin, Joel Faustino, Cobi J Heijnen, Donna M Ferriero, Zinaida S Vexler
Cell therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for many neurodegenerative diseases including stroke and neonatal ischemic brain injury. Delayed intranasal administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after experimental hypoxia-ischemia and after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in neonatal rats has shown improvement in long-term functional outcomes, but the effects of MSCs on white matter injury (WMI) are insufficiently understood. In this study we used longitudinal T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize chronic injury after tMCAO induced in postnatal day 10 (P10) rats and examined the effects of delayed MSC administration on WMI, axonal coverage, and long-term somatosensory function...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775175/genetic-risk-mechanisms-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-human-brain
#20
Rahul A Bharadwaj, Andrew E Jaffe, Qiang Chen, Amy Deep-Soboslay, Aaron L Goldman, Michelle I Mighdoll, John A Cotoia, Anna C Brandtjen, JooHeon Shin, Thomas M Hyde, Venkata S Mattay, Daniel R Weinberger, Joel E Kleinman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) follows exposure to a traumatic event in susceptible individuals. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic sequence variants that are associated with the risk of developing PTSD. To follow up on identifying the molecular mechanisms of these risk variants, we performed genotype to RNA sequencing-derived quantitative expression (whole gene, exon, and exon junction levels) analysis in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of normal postmortem human brains...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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