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Journal of Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543689/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-structural-brain-abnormalities-in-a-sexagenarian-with-a-history-of-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
John Darrell Van Horn, Andrei Irimia, Carinna M Torgerson, Avnish Bhattrai, Zachary Jacokes, Paul M Vespa
In this report, we present a case study involving an older, female patient with a history of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging volumes were acquired from the volunteer in question, her brain volumetrics and morphometrics were extracted, and these were then systematically compared against corresponding metrics obtained from a large sample of older healthy control (HC) subjects as well as from subjects in various stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD)...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543565/lactate-supplementation-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injured-adults-by-primed-constant-infusion-of-sodium-l-lactate
#2
Stephanie M Wolahan, Howard C Mao, Courtney Real, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
Carbohydrate fuel augmentation following traumatic brain injury may be a viable treatment to improve recovery when cerebral oxidative metabolism of glucose is depressed. We performed a primed constant sodium L-lactate infusion in 11 moderate to severely brain injured adults. Blood was collected before and periodically during the infusion study. We quantified global cerebral uptake of glucose and lactate and other systemic metabolites associated with energy metabolism. Our hypothesis was that cerebral lactate uptake, as measured by the arteriovenous difference of lactate (AVDlac), would increase in severely injured TBI patients in the neurocritical care unit...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512996/zl006-promotes-migration-and-differentiation-of-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-in-male-rats-after-stroke
#3
Dong-Liang Wang, Xiao-Dan Qian, Yu-Hui Lin, Bin-Bin Tian, Hai-Ying Liang, Lei Chang, Hai-Yin Wu, Dong-Ya Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo
New strategies must be developed to resolve the problems of stroke treatment. In recent years, stem cell-based therapy after stroke has come into the public and academic lens. Previously we have shown that uncoupling neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) by ZL006, a small molecular compound, can ameliorate ischemic damage and promote neuronal differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in focal cerebral ischemic male rats. In this study, we transplanted exogenous NSCs into the ipsilateral hemisphere of male rats in combination with ZL006 treatment after ischemic stroke...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509387/progranulin-increases-phagocytosis-by-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-in-culture
#4
Hiromi Murase, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yoshiki Kuse, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells take part in retinal preservation, such as phagocytizing the shed photoreceptor outer segments (POS), every day. The incomplete phagocytic function accelerates RPE degeneration and formation of the toxic by-product lipofuscin. Excessive lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic of various blinding diseases in the human eye. Progranulin is a cysteine-rich protein that has multiple biological activities, and it has a high presence in the retina. Progranulin has been recognized to be involved in macrophage phagocytosis in the brain...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509351/a-transcriptome-based-assessment-of-the-astrocytic-dystrophin-associated-complex-in-the-developing-human-brain
#5
Matthew J Simon, Charles Murchison, Jeffrey J Iliff
Astrocytes play a critical role in regulating the interface between the cerebral vasculature and the central nervous system. Contributing to this is the astrocytic endfoot domain, a specialized structure that ensheathes the entirety of the vasculature and mediates signaling between endothelial cells, pericytes, and neurons. The astrocytic endfoot has been implicated as a critical element of the glymphatic pathway, and changes in protein expression profiles in this cellular domain are linked to Alzheimer's disease pathology...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504343/gas-diffusion-in-the-cns
#6
REVIEW
Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Jan-Pieter Konsman
Gases have been long known to have essential physiological functions in the CNS such as respiration or regulation of vascular tone. Since gases have been classically considered to freely diffuse, research in gas biology has so far focused on mechanisms of gas synthesis and gas reactivity, rather than gas diffusion and transport. However, the discovery of gas pores during the last two decades and the characterization of diverse diffusion patterns through different membranes has raised the possibility that modulation of gas diffusion is also a physiologically relevant parameter...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500771/large-animal-models-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
REVIEW
Robert Vink
Animal models are essential to gain a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Rodent models of TBI have proven highly valuable with respect to the information they have provided over the years, particularly when it comes to the molecular understanding of injury mechanisms. However, there has been a failure to translate the successes in therapeutic treatment of TBI in rodents, which many believe may be related to their different brain anatomy compared with humans...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493338/age-related-changes-of-gustatory-function-depend-on-alteration-of-neuronal-circuits
#8
Emilia Iannilli, Franziska Broy, Severine Kunz, Thomas Hummel
Studies on age-related gustatory function report a reduction of the taste function, but the degeneration of the peripheral papillae alone cannot explain this reduction. In the present study, we apply psychophysics and gustatory event-related potentials (gERPs) to explore age-related differences in the processing of gustatory information as indicated by the cerebral sources of the gERP. A total of 96 subjects (47 female), subdivided into four groups with increasing age, participated in the study. After olfactory and gustatory screening for normal function, the subjects were invited to two sessions of gERP acquisition...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493333/treadmill-exercise-attenuates-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced-memory-impairment-through-a-decrease-apoptosis-in-male-rat-hippocampus
#9
Alireza Gharebaghi, Iraj Amiri, Iraj Salehi, Siamak Shahidi, Alireza Komaki, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Fahimeh Ghasemi Moravej, Sara Soleimani Asl
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) leads to apoptosis in the hippocampus with consequent induction of learning and memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on memory in relation to apoptosis and oxidative stress in the hippocampi of MDMA-treated rats. Male Wistar rats received multiple intraperitoneal (IP) injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg) and exercised for one month on a treadmill (simultaneously or asynchronously with MDMA). We assessed memory function with the Morris water maze (MWM) test...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489286/sustained-activation-of-erk1-2-mapk-in-schwann-cells-causes-corneal-neurofibroma
#10
Paola Bargagna-Mohan, Akihiro Ishii, Ling Lei, Daniel Sheehy, Saagar Pandit, Grace Chan, Rashmi Bansal, Royce Mohan
Recent studies have shown that constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in Schwann cells (SCs) increases myelin thickness in transgenic mice. In this secondary analysis, we report that these transgenic mice develop a postnatal corneal neurofibroma with the loss of corneal transparency by age six months. We show that expansion of non-myelinating SCs, under the control of activated ERK1/2, also drive myofibroblast differentiation that derives from both SC precursors and resident corneal keratocytes...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488363/the-role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-nervous-system-pathologies
#11
REVIEW
Samuel S Duffy, Brooke A Keating, Chamini J Perera, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a special subpopulation of immunosuppressive T cells that are essential for sustaining immune homeostasis. They maintain self-tolerance, inhibit autoimmunity, and act as critical negative regulators of inflammation in various pathological states including autoimmunity, injury, and degeneration of the nervous system. Treg cells are known to convey both beneficial and detrimental influences in certain disease contexts, and accumulating research suggests that their action may be altered in a range of peripheral and central nervous system pathologies...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485037/serotonin-axons-in-the-neocortex-of-the-adult-female-mouse-regrow-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Tymoteusz J Kajstura, Sarah E Dougherty, David J Linden
It is widely held that injured neurons in the central nervous system do not undergo axonal regrowth. However, there is mounting evidence that serotonin axons are a notable exception. Serotonin axons undergo long-distance regrowth in the neocortex after amphetamine lesion, and, following a penetrating stab injury, they can regrow from cut ends to traverse the stab rift. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically prevalent and can lead to pathologies, such as depression, that are related to serotonergic dysfunction...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485030/neurodegeneration-and-regeneration
#13
Jingwen Niu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481020/activation-of-ryanodine-receptors-is-required-for-pka-mediated-downregulation-of-a-type-k-channels-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#14
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sang-Chan Jeon, Moon-Suk Kang, Seon-Hee Kim, Su-Yong Eun, Soo-Hee Jin, Sung-Cherl Jung
A-type K(+) channels (IA channels) contribute to learning and memory mechanisms by regulating neuronal excitabilities in the CNS, and their expression level is targeted by Ca(2+) influx via synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) during long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it is not clear how local synaptic Ca(2+) changes induce IA downregulation throughout the neuron, extending from the active synapse to the soma. In this study, we tested if two major receptors of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ryanodine (RyRs), and IP3 (IP3 R) receptors, are involved in Ca(2+) -mediated IA downregulation in cultured hippocampal neurons of rats...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480981/multiple-sclerosis-presence-of-serum-antibodies-to-lipids-and-predominance-of-cholesterol-recognition
#15
Anna Jurewicz, Malgorzata Domowicz, Grazyna Galazka, Cedric S Raine, Krzysztof Selmaj
A lot of available data on lipid immunology in multiple sclerosis (MS) have been derived from studies using synthetic lipids, therefore the role of lipids in the immunopathogenesis of MS remains poorly defined. The present study on the lipid response in MS was performed on native lipids from autopsied brain tissue. For this, lipid fractions (n = 9) were prepared from MS (n = 3) and control (n = 2) white matter according to the Folch procedure and were characterized depending on their solubility in chloroform/methanol...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480980/exogenous-progesterone-is-neuroprotective-following-injury-to-the-male-zebra-finch-brain
#16
Katherine Katie Blackshear, Stephanie Giessner, John P Hayden, Kelli A Duncan
The use of progesterone following brain injury has a controversial history. On one hand, some lab-based models have showed progesterone as being neuroprotective, but on the other, clinical trials have showed quite the opposite. One of many complaints that arose from this discrepancy was the lack of a diverse pool of animal models and paradigms employed during the preclinical phase. However, over the past decade, the zebra finch has emerged as an optimal organism for the study of steroid-mediated neuroprotection...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467650/astrocyte-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-disease
#17
REVIEW
Crystal Acosta, Hope D Anderson, Christopher M Anderson
Astrocytes are glial cells that are distributed throughout the central nervous system in an arrangement optimal for chemical and physical interaction with neuronal synapses and brain blood supply vessels. Neurotransmission modulates astrocytic excitability by activating an array of cell surface receptors and transporter proteins, resulting in dynamic changes in intracellular Ca(2+) or Na(+) . Ionic and electrogenic astrocytic changes, in turn, drive vital cell nonautonomous effects supporting brain function, including regulation of synaptic activity, neuronal metabolism, and regional blood supply...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467636/an-exercise-in-brain-genoarchitectonics-analysis-of-azin2-lacz-expressing-neuronal-populations-in-the-mouse-hindbrain
#18
Margaret Martinez-de-la-Torre, Ana Lambertos, Rafael Peñafiel, Luis Puelles
We examined in detail the distribution of AZIN2 (antizyme inhibitor 2) expression in the adult mouse hindbrain and neighboring spinal cord. AZIN2, similar to previously known AZIN1, is a recently-discovered, a functional paralog of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Due to their structural similarity to ODC, both AZIN1 and AZIN2 counteract the inhibitory action of 3 known antizymes (AZ1-3) on the ODC synthesis of polyamines, thus increasing intracytoplasmic levels of polyamines. AZIN2 is strongly, but heterogeneously, expressed in the brain...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467619/repair-of-the-musculocutaneous-nerve-using-the-vagus-nerve-as-donor-by-helicoid-end-to-side-technique-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#19
Ji-Geng Yan, Feng-Yi Shen, Jacob Thayer, Yuhui Yan, John LoGiudice, Hani Matloub, James Sanger, Lin-Ling Zhang, Robert Havlik
Although several donor nerves can be chosen to repair avulsed brachial plexus nerve injury, available nerves are still limited. The purpose of this study is to validate whether the vagus nerve (VN) can be used as a donor. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups (n = 6). The right musculocutaneous nerve (McN) was transected with differing subsequent repair. (1) HS-VN group: a saphenous nerve (SN) graft-end was helicoidally wrapped round the VN side (epi-and perineurium was opened) with a 30 ° angle, distal SN end was coapted to the McN with end-to-end repair...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463438/the-vicious-circle-of-hypometabolism-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-ways-and-mechanisms-of-metabolic-correction
#20
REVIEW
Yuri Zilberter, Misha Zilberter
Hypometabolism, characterized by decreased brain glucose consumption, is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. Initial hypometabolic brain state, created by characteristic risk factors, may predispose the brain to acquired epilepsy and sporadic Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, which are the focus of this review. Analysis of available data suggests that deficient glucose metabolism is likely a primary initiating factor for these diseases, and that resulting neuronal dysfunction further promotes the metabolic imbalance, establishing an effective positive feedback loop and a downward spiral of disease progression...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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