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Journal of Neuroscience Research

Miguel Hernández-Cerón, Juan Carlos Martínez-Lazcano, Carmen Rubio, Verónica Custodio, Edith González-Guevara, Carlos Castillo-Pérez, Carlos Paz
Lesions of the cerebellar dentate nucleus (DN) reduce the after-discharge duration induced by repetitive kindling stimulation and decrease seizures to a lower rank according to Racine's scale. The DN sends cholinergic and glutamatergic fibers to the red nucleus (RN), which is composed of glutamatergic and GABAergic cells. To test the participation of these neurotransmitters in seizures, we compared the levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the RN in a control condition, a kindled stage, and a kindled stage followed by DN lesions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
S Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Stephanie B Liesch, Rachel E Kneeland, Mahtab Karkhane Yousefi, Paul D Thuras
Prenatal viral infection has been identified as a potential risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, dysfunction in gamma-aminobutyric acid, Reelin, and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling systems has also been demonstrated in these two disorders. In the current report, we have characterized the developmental profiles of selected markers for these systems in cerebella of mice born to pregnant mice infected with human influenza (H1N1) virus on embryonic day 16 or sham-infected controls using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques and evaluated the presence of abnormalities in the above-mentioned markers during brain development...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Lauren P Shapiro, Ryan G Parsons, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
The prevalence of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and drug and alcohol use disorders peaks during adolescence. Further, up to 50% of "adult" mental health disorders emerge in adolescence. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes dramatic structural reorganization, in which dendritic spines and synapses are refined, pruned, and stabilized. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes should help to identify factors that influence the development of psychiatric illness...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Elisanne Alm Biemans, Lieke Jäkel, Robert Mw de Waal, H Bea Kuiperij, Marcel M Verbeek
Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy are characterized by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) at the cerebrovasculature due to decreased clearance at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the exact mechanism of Aβ clearance across this barrier has not been fully elucidated. The hCMEC/D3 cell line has been characterized as a valid model for the BBB. In this study we evaluated the use of this model to study Aβ clearance across the BBB, with an emphasis on brain-to-blood directional permeability...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ivan Vorisek, Michael Syka, Lydia Vargova
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) is an important diagnostic tool in Huntington disease (HD), a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. To clarify the nature of diffusivity changes in HD, we compared the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCW ) acquired by DW-MR with extracellular space volume fraction α and tortuosity λ, measured by the iontophoretic method in the R6/2 mouse model of HD and in wild-type controls (WT). In anisotropic globus pallidus (GP), diffusion measurements were performed in the mediolateral (x), rostrocaudal (y), and ventrodorsal (z) axes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Grace O'Neill, Christa Musto, George Gomez
Neuronal development and differentiation is modulated by activity-dependent mechanisms that stimulate endogenous neurogenesis and differentiation to promote adaptive survival of the organism. Studies on bird odor imprinting have shown how sensory stimuli or environmental influences can affect neonatal behavior, presumably by remodeling the developing nervous system. It is unclear whether these changes originate from the sensory neurons themselves or from the brain. Thus, we attempted to address this by using an in vitro system to separate the peripheral neurons from their central connections...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Marija Adzic, Ivana Stevanovic, Natasa Josipovic, Danijela Laketa, Irena Lavrnja, Ivana M Bjelobaba, Iva Bozic, Marija Jovanovic, Milena Milosevic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic
It is widely accepted that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a universal danger-associated molecular pattern with several known mechanisms for immune cell activation. In the central nervous system, ATP activates microglia and astrocytes and induces a neuroinflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to describe responses of isolated astrocytes to increasing concentrations of ATP (5 µM to 1 mM), which were intended to mimic graded intensity of the extracellular stimulus. The results show that ATP induces graded activation response of astrocytes in terms of the cell proliferation, stellation, shape remodeling, and underlying actin and GFAP filament rearrangement, although the changes occurred without an apparent increase in GFAP and actin protein expression...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Marlene A Wilson, Jim R Fadel
Cholinergic activation regulates cognitive function, particularly long-term memory consolidation. This Review presents an overview of the anatomical, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidence supporting the cholinergic regulation of Pavlovian contextual and cue-conditioned fear learning and extinction. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons provide inputs to neocortical regions and subcortical limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. Pharmacological manipulations of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors support the role of cholinergic processes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in modulating the learning and extinction of contexts or cues associated with threat...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Hirofumi Masutomi, Saki Kawashima, Yoshitaka Kondo, Yoshiaki Uchida, Byungki Jang, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Yong-Sun Kim, Kentaro Shimokado, Akihito Ishigami
Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are posttranslational modification enzymes that citrullinate (deiminate) protein arginine residues in a calcium-dependent manner, yielding citrulline residues. Enzymatic citrullination abolishes positive charges of native protein molecules, inevitably causing significant alterations in their structure and function. Previously, we reported the abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins and an increase of PAD2 content in hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer disease. In this study, we investigated PAD expression by using dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) in human astrocytoma U-251MG cells...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Peng Liu, Bo Xing, Zheng Chu, Fei Liu, Gang Lei, Li Zhu, Ya Gao, Teng Chen, Yong-Hui Dang
Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Marina A Pavlova
As the most fascinating, complex, and dynamic part of our organism, the human brain is shaped by many interacting factors that not only are of neurobiological (including sex hormones) and environmental origin but are also sociocultural in their very nature (such as social roles). Gender is one of these factors. Most neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition (primarily body language reading and face perception) and a skewed sex ratio: females and males are affected differently in terms of clinical picture, prevalence, and severity...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jie Zhu, Feng Zhu, Na Zhao, Xin Mu, Pingping Li, Wei Wang, Jian Liu, Xiancang Ma
Previous studies demonstrated that dysfunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis played an important role in morphine dependence. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanism underlying morphine-induced HPA axis dysfunction and morphine dependence remains unclear. In the current study, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), was used to examine the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) promoter 17 methylation on chronic morphine-induced HPA axis dysfunction and behavioral changes in rats and the underlying mechanism...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Karen P Briski, Fahaad S H Alenazi, Manita Shakya, Paul W Sylvester
Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
John L K Kramer, Nikita K Minhas, Catherine R Jutzeler, Erin L K S Erskine, Lisa J W Liu, Matt S Ramer
Neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) is notoriously difficult to treat and is a high priority for many in the SCI population. Resolving this issue requires animal models fidelic to the clinical situation in terms of injury mechanism and pain phenotype. This Review discusses the means by which neuropathic pain has been induced and measured in experimental SCI and compares these with human outcomes, showing that there is a substantial disconnection between experimental investigations and clinical findings in a number of features...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Dandan Chen, Wenyu Fu, Wenxin Zhuang, Cui Lv, Fengjie Li, Xin Wang
Stem cell transplantation is a promising tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the therapeutic routes and mechanisms of mechanical approaches to stem cell transplantation must be explored. This study tests the therapeutic effect of transplantation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the substantia nigra (SN) of the PD rat. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled rat MSCs were transplanted into the SN of the 6-hydroxydopamine-injected side of PD rat brains...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Patricia C Swart, Christopher B Currin, Vivienne A Russell, Jacqueline J Dimatelis
This study investigates the effects of early exposure to ethanol on cognitive function and neural plasticity-related proteins in the rat brain. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 12% ethanol solution (4 g/kg/day i.p.) or saline from P4 to P9. Vinpocetine, a phosphodiesterase type 1 inhibitor, was tested to determine whether it could reverse any changes induced by early ethanol exposure. Hence, from P25 to P31, ethanol-exposed male rats were injected with vinpocetine (20 mg/kg/day i.p.) or vehicle (DMSO) prior to undergoing behavioral testing in the open field and Morris water maze (MWM) tests...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Peter Shrager, Margaret Youngman
Conduction block by nitric oxide (NO) was examined in myelinated and unmyelinated axons from both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. In rat vagus nerves, mouse optic nerves at P12-P23, adult and developing mouse sciatic nerves, and mouse spinal cords, myelinated fibers were preferentially blocked reversibly by concentrations of NO similar to those encountered in inflammatory lesions. The possibility that these differences between myelinated and unmyelinated axons are due to the normal developmental substitution of Na(+) channel subtype Nav 1...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Anna M W Taylor, Sadaf Mehrabani, Steve Liu, Alison J Taylor, Catherine M Cahill
Microglial activation in the spinal cord plays a central role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain after a peripheral nerve injury (PNI). There has not yet been a thorough assessment of microglial activation in brain regions associated with pain and reward. To this end, this study uses a mouse model of neuropathic pain in which the left sciatic nerve of male C57Bl/6J mice is loosely constricted (chronic constriction injury) to assess microglial activation in several brain regions 2 weeks after injury, a time point at which pain hypersensitivity is well established...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Fengwu Li, Wei Shi, Ethan Y Zhao, Xiaokun Geng, Xiaorong Li, Changya Peng, Jiamei Shen, Sainan Wang, Yuchuan Ding
The effectiveness of the rehabilitative benefits of physical exercise appears to be contingent upon when the exercise is initiated after stroke. The present study assessed the hypothesis that very early exercise increases the extent of apoptotic cell death via increased expression of proapoptotic proteins in a rat stroke model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 hr using an intraluminal filament and assigned to four nonexercise and three exercise groups...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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