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Journal of Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726298/faah-but-not-magl-inhibition-modulates-acute-tlr3-induced-neuroimmune-signaling-in-the-rat-independent-of-sex
#1
Lisa E Flannery, Rebecca J Henry, Daniel M Kerr, David P Finn, Michelle Roche
Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 is a key component of the innate immune response to viral infection. The present study firstly examined whether sex differences exist in TLR3-induced inflammatory, endocrine, and sickness responses. The data revealed that TLR3-induced expression of interferon- or NFkB-inducible genes (IFN-α/β, IP-10, or TNF-α), either peripherally (spleen) or centrally (hypothalamus), did not differ between male and female rats, with the exception of TLR3-induced IFN-α expression in the spleen of female, but not male, rats 8 hr post TLR3 activation...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718905/a-novel-cell-cell-communication-mechanism-in-the-nervous-system-exosomes
#2
REVIEW
Guan Zhang, Ping Yang
Exosomes are small extracellular membrane-based vesicles with a variety of cargoes that are involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes in the nervous system. Accumulating evidence has implicated that exosomes are emerging as a novel form of intercellular communication within the nervous system. In this review, we first illustrate exosome metabolism including its formation, secretion, transport, and uptake. Second, we compare exosomes to synaptic vesicles in terms of intercellular messengers and communicators...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699310/the-effects-of-seh-inhibitor-on-depression-like-behavior-and-neurogenesis-in-male-mice
#3
Qiong Wu, Hongyang Cai, Jingfang Song, Quanzhong Chang
Currently antidepressants take several weeks to be effective, which is one of the main reasons why patients with depression quit therapy. In the present study, we examine the acute and subacute effects of soluble epoxide hydolase (sEH) inhibitor (sEHI), a compound shown to have antidepressant effects, on mice. We found that acute administration of sEHI TPPU decreases immobility time in the forced swimming test and reduces latency to feed in the novelty suppressed-feeding test in adult male mice. Intraperitoneal administration of TPPU for seven days also increased interaction time of socially defeated mice in the social defeat test...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699288/different-characteristics-of-cell-volume-and-intracellular-calcium-ion-concentration-dynamics-between-the-hippocampal-ca1-and-lateral-cerebral-cortex-of-male-mouse-brain-slices-during-exposure-to-hypotonic-stress
#4
Nanae Takahashi, Akibumi Omi, Hiroyuki Uchino, Yoshihisa Kudo
The mechanism of brain edema is complex and still remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the regional differences of cell volume and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) dynamics during hypotonic stress in male mouse hemi-brain slices. Brain slices were loaded with the fluorescence Ca(2+) indicator fura-2, and cell volume and [Ca(2+) ]i in the lateral cerebral cortex (LCC) and hippocampal CA1 (CA1) region were measured simultaneously during exposure to hypotonic stress using Ca(2+) insensitive (F360) and Ca(2+) sensitive fluorescence (F380), respectively...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699241/calcium-dependence-of-spontaneous-neurotransmitter-release
#5
REVIEW
Courtney L Williams, Stephen M Smith
Spontaneous release of neurotransmitters is regulated by extracellular [Ca(2+) ] and intracellular [Ca(2+) ]. Curiously, some of the mechanisms of Ca(2+) signaling at central synapses are different at excitatory and inhibitory synapses. While the stochastic activity of voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels triggers a majority of spontaneous release at inhibitory synapses, this is not the case at excitatory nerve terminals. Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores regulates spontaneous release at excitatory and inhibitory terminals, as do agonists of the Ca(2+) -sensing receptor...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696010/myelin-as-an-inflammatory-mediator-myelin-interactions-with-complement-macrophages-and-microglia-in-spinal-cord-injury
#6
REVIEW
Timothy J Kopper, John C Gensel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers chronic intraspinal inflammation consisting of activated resident and infiltrating immune cells (especially microglia/macrophages). The environmental factors contributing to this protracted inflammation are not well understood; however, myelin lipid debris is a hallmark of SCI. Myelin is also a potent macrophage stimulus and target of complement-mediated clearance and inflammation. The downstream effects of these neuroimmune interactions have the potential to contribute to ongoing pathology or facilitate repair...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695985/intrastriatal-administration-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-normalizes-striatal-d2-r-binding-and-reduces-striatal-d1-r-binding-in-male-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#7
Franziska Wedekind, Angela Oskamp, Markus Lang, Alexander Hawlitschka, Karl Zilles, Andreas Wree, Andreas Bauer
Cerebral administration of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) has been shown to improve disease-specific motor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson disease (PD). Since the dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia fundamentally contributes to motor function, we investigated the impact of BoNT-A on striatal dopamine receptor expression using in vitro and in vivo imaging techniques (positron emission tomography and quantitative autoradiography, respectively). Seventeen male Wistar rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and assigned to two treatment groups 7 weeks later: 10 rats were treated ipsilaterally with an intrastriatal injection of 1 ng BoNT-A, while the others received vehicle (n = 7)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688166/triheptanoin-for-the-treatment-of-brain-energy-deficit-a-14-year-experience
#8
REVIEW
Fanny Mochel
Triheptanoin is an odd-chain triglyceride with anaplerotic properties-that is, replenishing the pool of metabolic intermediates in the Krebs cycle. Unlike even-chain fatty acids metabolized to acetyl-CoA only, triheptanoin can indeed provide both acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, two key carbon sources for the Krebs cycle. Triheptanoin was initially used in patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. The first demonstration of the possible benefit of triheptanoin for brain energy deficit came from a patient with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, a severe metabolic disease that affects anaplerosis in the brain...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675644/characterization-of-controlled-cortical-impact-devices-by-high-speed-image-analysis
#9
Yeonho Kim, Amanda H Fu, Laura B Tucker, Jiong Liu, Joseph T McCabe
As a consequence of their commercial availability, ease of use, and reproducibility, controlled cortical impact (CCI) devices have attained significant prevalence in preclinical traumatic brain injury research. With a CCI, the severity of injury is controlled by varying the impact depth, velocity, and duration, but the actual performance of the device is not well appreciated, partly because of the velocity and short travel distance to impact. This study used a high-speed video digital camera to investigate the performance of five electromagnetically driven CCI devices of the same model...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675465/brain-volumetric-correlates-of-inhibition-and-cognitive-flexibility-16-years-following-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Kelleynne Yu, Marc L Seal, Jonathan Reyes, Celia Godfrey, Vicki Anderson, Chris Adamson, Nicholas P Ryan, Stephen J C Hearps, Cathy Catroppa
Executive functions (EFs), such as inhibition and cognitive flexibility, are essential for everyday functioning, including regulation of socially appropriate emotional responses. These skills develop during childhood and continue maturing into early adulthood. The current study aimed to investigate the very long-term impact of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on inhibition and cognitive flexibility, and to examine whether global white matter is associated with these abilities. Twenty-eight young adult survivors of childhood TBI (mean age at 16-year follow-up = 21...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653428/effects-of-dextroamphetamine-in-subacute-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#11
Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Thomas Watanabe, Inna Chervoneva
Psychostimulants that affect neurotransmitters implicated in cognitive function and neural plasticity have potential to enhance the rate and extent of recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten milligrams dextroamphetamine (DEX) or an identical placebo was administered daily for 3 weeks to 32 participants with moderate to severe TBI, engaged in inpatient rehabilitation, at a mean of 2 months post injury. A variety of outcome measures assessing cognitive function and overall functional status was administered at weekly intervals, to examine effect sizes that may inform a larger trial, and to evaluate safety...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643422/microglia-targeted-stem-cell-therapies-for-alzheimer-disease-a-preclinical-data-review
#12
REVIEW
Zhiwei Shen, Xueyuan Li, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a severe, life-threatening illness characterized by gradual memory loss. The classic histological features of AD include extracellular formation of β-amyloid plaques (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and synaptic loss. Recently, accumulated evidence has confirmed the critical role of microglia in the development and exacerbation of AD. When Aβ forms deposits, microglia quickly respond to restore brain physiology by activating a series of repair mechanisms. However, prolonged microglial activation is considered detrimental and may aggravate AD progression...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639376/mfat-1-transgene-protects-cultured-adult-neural-stem-cells-against-cobalt-chloride-mediated-hypoxic-injury-by-activating-nrf2-are-pathways
#13
Junfeng Yu, Haiyuan Yang, Bin Fang, Zhengwei Zhang, Ying Wang, Yifan Dai
Ischemic stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability in adults. Adult neural stem cell (NSC) replacement therapy is a promising treatment for both structural and functional neurological recovery. However, for the treatment to work, adult NSCs must be protected against hypoxic-ischemic damage in the ischemic penumbra. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the mfat-1 transgene on cobalt chloride (CoCl2 )-induced hypoxic-ischemic injury in cultured adult NSCs as well as its underlying mechanisms...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639357/cerebellar-projections-to-the-ventral-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-the-cat
#14
Hiroyuki Nakamura
The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) is a retinorecipient part of the ventral thalamus and in cats, it consists of medial (M), medial intermediate (IM), lateral intermediate (IL), lateral (L), and dorsal (D) subdivisions. These subdivisions can be differentiated not only by their cytoarchitecture, but also by their connectivity and putative functions. The LGNv may play a role in visuomotor gating, in that there is evidence of cerebellar afferent projections to the intermediate subdivisions. The cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) and lateral (LC) nuclei are known to project to IM and IL, but the specifics of these projections are unclear...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631845/mild-metabolic-perturbations-alter-succinylation-of-mitochondrial-proteins
#15
Huanlian Chen, Hui Xu, Samuel Potash, Anatoly Starkov, Vsevolod V Belousov, Dmitry S Bilan, Travis T Denton, Gary E Gibson
Succinylation of proteins is widespread, modifies both the charge and size of the molecules, and can alter their function. For example, liver mitochondrial proteins have 1,190 unique succinylation sites representing multiple metabolic pathways. Succinylation is sensitive to both increases and decreases of the NAD(+) -dependent desuccinylase, SIRT5. Although the succinyl group for succinylation is derived from metabolism, the effects of systematic variation of metabolism on mitochondrial succinylation are not known...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631844/sonic-hedgehog-wnt-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-cell-signaling-pathway-crosstalk-potential-therapy-for-depression
#16
REVIEW
Mohd Tayyab, Mehdi H Shahi, Shirin Farheen, Mubeena P M Mariyath, Nabeela Khanam, Javier S Castresana, M Mobarak Hossain
There are various theories to explain the pathophysiology of depression and support its diagnosis and treatment. The roles of monoamines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Wnt signaling are well researched, but sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and its downstream transcription factor Gli1 are not well studied in depression. Shh signaling plays a fundamental role in embryonic development and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and also involved in the growth of cancer. In this article, we summarize the evidence for the Shh signaling pathway in depression and the potential crosstalk of Shh with Wnt and BDNF...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609588/quantitative-profiling-of-neurotransmitter-abnormalities-in-brain-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-of-experimental-diabetic-encephalopathy-male-rat
#17
Xiaowen Han, Mengjun Min, Juan Wang, Zejun Bao, Hongbin Fan, Xinyu Li, Temitope Isaac Adelusi, Xueyan Zhou, Xiaoxing Yin
Diabetic encephalopathy (DE), one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, is short of effective prevention and formidable therapeutic strategies. The aim of the present study is to reveal the imbalance of tryptophan (Trp) and its metabolites in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental DE rats to underscore their critical values in clinical diagnosis of the disease. For this purpose, we first developed an accurate and appropriate simultaneous method for measuring Trp and its metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which was in accordance with the requirements of biological sample analysis...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609584/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-triggers-inflammatory-responses-in-the-brain-of-male-rats-exposed-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Fabio Blandini, Diana Amantea, Cristina Tassorelli
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a role in preserving and maintaining the brain's microcirculation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and migration. Inhibition of eNOS activity results in exacerbation of neuronal injury after ischemia by triggering diverse cellular mechanisms, including inflammatory responses. To examine the relative contribution of eNOS in stroke-induced neuroinflammation, we analyzed the effects of systemic treatment with l-N-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (L-NIO), a relatively selective eNOS inhibitor, on the expression of MiR-155-5p, a key mediator of innate immunity regulation and endothelial dysfunction, in the cortex of male rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) followed by 24 hr of reperfusion...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609579/diffusion-mri-and-the-detection-of-alterations-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Susan C Schwerin, Alexandru V Avram, Sharon L Juliano, Carlo Pierpaoli
This article provides a review of brain tissue alterations that may be detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging MRI (dMRI) approaches and an overview and perspective on the modern dMRI toolkits for characterizing alterations that follow traumatic brain injury (TBI). Noninvasive imaging is a cornerstone of clinical treatment of TBI and has become increasingly used for preclinical and basic research studies. In particular, quantitative MRI methods have the potential to distinguish and evaluate the complex collection of neurobiological responses to TBI arising from pathology, neuroprotection, and recovery...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609578/the-loss-of-a-fellow-service-member-complicated-grief-in-post-9-11-service-members-and-veterans-with-combat-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Naomi M Simon, Emily B O'Day, Samantha N Hellberg, Susanne S Hoeppner, Meredith E Charney, Donald J Robinaugh, Eric Bui, Elizabeth M Goetter, Amanda W Baker, Andrew H Rogers, Mireya Nadal-Vicens, Margaret R Venners, Hyungjin M Kim, Sheila A M Rauch
Bereavement is a potent and highly prevalent stressor among service members and veterans. However, the psychological consequences of bereavement, including complicated grief (CG), have been minimally examined. Loss was assessed in 204 post-9/11, when service members and veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) took part in a multicenter treatment study. Those who reported the loss of an important person completed the inventory of complicated grief (ICG; n = 160). Over three quarters (79...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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