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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528528/ustekinumab-a-review-in-moderate-to-severe-crohn-s-disease
#1
Yvette N Lamb, Sean T Duggan
Ustekinumab (Stelara(®)) has been recently approved in the EU and the USA as intravenous induction and subcutaneous maintenance therapy for adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease who have failed or were intolerant to treatment with immunomodulators, corticosteroids or at least one tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist. Ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody to the shared p40 subunit of the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 cytokines, has a unique mechanism of action distinct from that of TNF antagonists...
May 20, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523588/advances-in-the-development-of-janus-kinase-inhibitors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-future-prospects
#2
Mathurin Flamant, Josselin Rigaill, Stephane Paul, Xavier Roblin
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by a dysregulation of the immune system, inducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. A better understanding of the mucosal immune response in IBD has led to the development of new drugs directed at inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte-trafficking molecules. Beyond tumor necrosis factor antagonists and anti-integrin molecules, which act by blocking the interaction between gut-specific lymphocytes and their receptor on vascular endothelium, the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway represents a new target in IBD...
May 18, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523587/erratum-to-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-glp-1ras-in-the-brain-adipocyte-axis
#3
Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos de Lima-Júnior, Lício A Velloso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497432/resistance-mechanisms-in-hepatitis-c-virus-implications-for-direct-acting-antiviral-use
#4
Sabrina Bagaglio, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Giulia Morsica
Multiple direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based regimens are currently approved that provide one or more interferon-free treatment options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (G) 1-6. The choice of a DAA regimen, duration of therapy, and use of ribavirin depends on multiple viral and host factors, including HCV genotype, the detection of resistance-associated amino acid (aa) substitutions (RASs), prior treatment experience, and presence of cirrhosis. In regard to viral factors that may guide the treatment choice, the most important is the infecting genotype because a number of DAAs are genotype-designed...
May 12, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493171/immunotherapy-in-urothelial-cancer-recent-results-and-future-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Matthew S Farina, Kevin T Lundgren, Joaquim Bellmunt
Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the only systemic treatment of locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma for decades. Long-term survival remains stagnant around 12-14 months for patients with advanced disease who have progressed on or recurred after receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Improving clinical outcomes for patients with urothelial carcinoma in all disease settings requires the development of novel treatments, especially for patients who failed on first-line chemotherapy. Since the discovery of intravesical Bacillus-Calmette Guerin (BCG) in the 1970s for non-muscle invasive disease, there have not been any major breakthrough drugs that exploit the immune-sensitivity of bladder cancer until recently...
May 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470586/advanced-analgesic-drug-delivery-and-nanobiotechnology
#6
REVIEW
Nicoleta Stoicea, Juan Fiorda-Diaz, Nicholas Joseph, Muhammad Shabsigh, Carlos Arias-Morales, Alicia A Gonzalez-Zacarias, Ana Mavarez-Martinez, Stephen Marjoribanks, Sergio D Bergese
Transdermal administration of analgesic medications offers several benefits over alternative routes of administration, including a decreased systemic drug load with fewer side effects, and avoidance of drug degradation by the gastrointestinal tract. Transdermal administration also offers a convenient mode of drug administration over an extended period of time, particularly desirable in pain medicine. A transdermal administration route may also offer increased safety for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window...
May 3, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247265/erratum-to-incidence-prevention-and-management-of-anti-drug-antibodies-against-therapeutic-antibodies-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-practical-overview
#7
Pieter Hindryckx, Gregor Novak, Niels Vande Casteele, Reena Khanna, Debby Laukens, Vipul Jairath, Brian G Feagan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523586/ocrelizumab-first-global-approval
#8
James E Frampton
Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus™) is a humanised anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has been developed by Genentech, Inc. (a subsidiary of Roche) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The drug is designed to deplete B cells, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In March 2017, ocrelizumab was approved in the USA for the treatment of patients with relapsing or primary progressive forms of MS; currently, it is awaiting approval in the EU for the same indications. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of ocrelizumab leading to its first global approval for the treatment of MS...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493172/tenofovir-alafenamide-a-review-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#9
Lesley J Scott, Henry L Y Chan
Tenofovir alafenamide (AF) [Vemlidy(®)], an oral prodrug of tenofovir, was developed to optimize the antiviral potency and clinical safety of the active moiety tenofovir diphosphate (selective reverse transcriptase nucleotide inhibitor). In two identically designed, ongoing, multinational trials in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive or -negative chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, once-daily tenofovir AF 25 mg provided effective and sustained viral suppression (120-week analysis), and was generally well tolerated...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493170/eluxadoline-a-review-in-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
Gillian M Keating
Eluxadoline (Truberzi(®)) is an orally administered, minimally absorbed agent that acts locally in the gastrointestinal tract as a mixed µ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, phase 3 IBS-3001 and IBS-3002 trials examined the efficacy of eluxadoline in patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). The composite response rate (i.e. the proportion of patients with improvement in both worst abdominal pain and stool consistency on ≥50% of days; primary endpoint), was significantly higher in patients receiving eluxadoline 100 mg twice daily than in those receiving placebo after 12 and 26 weeks' therapy...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477160/current-status-of-biosimilars-in-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Luis H Camacho
Four medicinal cancer biological blockbusters will end their patent lifespan by 2020. It is estimated that the total market for cancer biologicals will reach approximately US$68 billion at that time. Approximately 20 biosimilars have entered the European market since the launch of the original approval guidelines in 2005, and four biosimilars have been approved in the USA since 2015. Data from European countries with the highest market entrance of biosimilars suggest that the incorporation of biosimilars into healthcare systems worldwide may result in a 30-45% cost savings...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474297/niraparib-first-global-approval
#12
Lesley J Scott
Oral niraparib, a highly-selective, potent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and PARP-2 inhibitor, is approved in the USA for the maintenance treatment of adult patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer who are in a complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy. It is also under regulatory review in the EU for use in maintenance treatment in patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who are in response to platinum-based chemotherapy...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466423/chronic-pruritus-current-and-emerging-treatment-options
#13
REVIEW
Manuel P Pereira, Sonja Ständer
Chronic pruritus remains a central societal issue because of its high occurrence and the substantial decrease in quality of life it may cause to affected individuals. Not only dermatological conditions, but also systemic, neurological, or psychiatric diseases may lead to chronic pruritus. Additionally, various underlying conditions may coexist or the cause may be unknown. Due to its heterogeneity, the therapeutic approach is complex and remains a challenge for the clinician. Basic measures such as emollients to avoid xerosis and treatment of the underlying disease should be initiated regardless of the duration of the symptom...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456943/the-potential-role-of-fosfomycin-in-neonatal-sepsis-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#14
Grace Li, Joseph F Standing, Julia Bielicki, William Hope, John van den Anker, Paul T Heath, Mike Sharland
The broad-spectrum activity of fosfomycin, including against multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, has led to renewed interest in its use in recent years. Neonatal sepsis remains a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality at a global level, with evidence that MDR bacteria play an increasing role. The evidence for use of fosfomycin in neonatal subjects is limited. We summarise current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes for the use of fosfomycin in neonatal sepsis and issues specific to neonatal physiology...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451808/neuropathic-pain-and-spinal-cord-injury-phenotypes-and-pharmacological-management
#15
REVIEW
Eva Widerström-Noga
Chronic neuropathic pain is a complicated condition after a spinal cord injury (SCI) that often has a lifelong and significant negative impact on life after the injury; therefore, improved pain management is considered a significant and unmet need. Neuropathic pain mechanisms are heterogeneous and the difficulty in determining their individual contribution to specific pain types may contribute to poor treatment outcomes in this population. Thus, identifying human neuropathic pain phenotypes based on pain symptoms, somatosensory changes, or cognitive and psychosocial factors that reflect specific spinal cord or brain mechanisms of neuropathic pain is an important goal...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401445/pharmacotherapeutic-targeting-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-oncology-examples-of-approved-therapies-and-emerging-concepts
#16
REVIEW
Rosamaria Lappano, Marcello Maggiolini
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in numerous physio-pathological processes, including the stimulation of cancer progression. In this regard, it should be mentioned that although GPCRs may represent major pharmaceutical targets, only a few drugs acting as GPCR inhibitors are currently used in anti-tumor therapies. For instance, certain pro-malignancy effects mediated by GPCRs are actually counteracted by the use of small molecules and peptides that function as receptor antagonists or inverse agonists...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466424/naldemedine-first-global-approval
#17
Anthony Markham
Naldemedine (Symproic(®)) is an orally active µ-opioid receptor antagonist being developed by Shionogi & Co., Ltd. that has been approved in the USA and Japan for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation. The drug inhibits peripheral µ-opioid receptors such as those present in the gastrointestinal tract and has minimal or no effect on central opioid activity. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of naldemedine leading to its first global approval in the USA for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with chronic non-cancer pain...
May 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456944/avelumab-first-global-approval
#18
Esther S Kim
Avelumab (Bavencio(®)) is an intravenously administered programmed cell death ligand-1-blocking human antibody initially developed by EMD Serono Inc. (the biopharmaceutical division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) [now jointly developed and commercialized by EMD Serono Inc. and Pfizer] for the treatment of various tumours. It has received accelerated approval in the USA for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) in adults and paediatric patients aged ≥12 years. The marketing authorization application for avelumab in the treatment of mMCC is undergoing regulatory review in the EU, the biologics license application for avelumab in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is undergoing priority review by the FDA, and avelumab is in various stages of development internationally for a variety of cancers...
May 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429241/pharmacological-approaches-to-the-management-of-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
A Nandoskar, J Raffel, A S Scalfari, T Friede, R S Nicholas
It is well recognised that the majority of the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS), both personal and societal, arises in the progressive phase where disability accumulates inexorably. As such, progressive MS (PMS) has been the target of pharmacological therapies for many years. However, there are no current licensed treatments for PMS. This stands in marked contrast to relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) where trials have resulted in numerous licensed therapies. PMS has proven to be a more difficult challenge compared to RRMS and this review focuses on secondary progressive MS (SPMS), where relapses occur before the onset of gradual, irreversible disability, and not primary progressive MS where disability accumulation occurs without prior relapses...
May 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421429/reslizumab-in-eosinophilic-asthma-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Emma D Deeks, Guy Brusselle
Reslizumab (Cinqaero(®); Cinqair(®)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5 (IL-5), a cytokine mediator of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Reslizumab is indicated as an add-on treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma in adults, on the basis of data from the BREATH phase III clinical trial programme. In three double-blind BREATH studies of up to 52 weeks' duration, adding intravenous reslizumab (3 mg/kg, once every 4 weeks) to the current asthma therapy of patients (aged 12-75 years) with eosinophilic asthma inadequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids resulted in significant reductions in clinical asthma exacerbation frequency and significant improvements in lung function, asthma control and health-related quality of life relative to adding placebo...
May 2017: Drugs
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