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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429241/pharmacological-approaches-to-the-management-of-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
A Nandoskar, J Raffel, A S Scalfari, T Friede, R S Nicholas
It is well recognised that the majority of the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS), both personal and societal, arises in the progressive phase where disability accumulates inexorably. As such, progressive MS (PMS) has been the target of pharmacological therapies for many years. However, there are no current licensed treatments for PMS. This stands in marked contrast to relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) where trials have resulted in numerous licensed therapies. PMS has proven to be a more difficult challenge compared to RRMS and this review focuses on secondary progressive MS (SPMS), where relapses occur before the onset of gradual, irreversible disability, and not primary progressive MS where disability accumulation occurs without prior relapses...
April 20, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417245/elbasvir-grazoprevir-a-review-in-chronic-hcv-genotypes-1-and-4
#2
Zaina T Al-Salama, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination tablet comprising the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor elbasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor grazoprevir (elbasvir/grazoprevir; Zepatier™) was recently approved for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 and 4 infection in the EU and the USA. In phase III trials, 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with once-daily elbasvir/grazoprevir (fixed-dose tablet or as individual agents), taken with or without ribavirin, generally provided high rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12) in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1a, 1b or 4 infection, including those with or without compensated cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, inherited blood disorders or chronic kidney disease or patients receiving opioid agonist therapy or of Japanese origin...
April 17, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401445/pharmacotherapeutic-targeting-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-oncology-examples-of-approved-therapies-and-emerging-concepts
#3
REVIEW
Rosamaria Lappano, Marcello Maggiolini
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in numerous physio-pathological processes, including the stimulation of cancer progression. In this regard, it should be mentioned that although GPCRs may represent major pharmaceutical targets, only a few drugs acting as GPCR inhibitors are currently used in anti-tumor therapies. For instance, certain pro-malignancy effects mediated by GPCRs are actually counteracted by the use of small molecules and peptides that function as receptor antagonists or inverse agonists...
April 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393326/psychiatric-symptoms-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-prevalence-diagnosis-and-management
#4
Alicia Santos, Eugenia Resmini, Juan Carlos Pascual, Iris Crespo, Susan M Webb
Cushing's syndrome (CS) results from chronic exposure to cortisol excess, produced by the adrenal cortex. Hypercortisolism predisposes to psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, mainly to depression and anxiety disorders. Screening tools to identify psychiatric symptoms are available for clinicians in their daily practice, although a specific diagnosis should be performed by specialists. Even if psychiatric symptoms improve after remission of hypercortisolism, complete recovery may not be achieved. Given the burden of these symptoms, psychiatric or psychological monitoring and treatment should be offered through all phases of CS, with a multidisciplinary approach...
April 10, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382570/clinical-implications-of-p-glycoprotein-modulation-in-drug-drug-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Marie Lund, Tonny Studsgaard Petersen, Kim Peder Dalhoff
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) occur commonly and may lead to severe adverse drug reactions if not handled appropriately. Considerable information to support clinical decision making regarding potential DDIs is available in the literature and through various systems providing electronic decision support for healthcare providers. The challenge for the prescribing physician lies in sorting out the evidence and identifying those drugs for which potential interactions are likely to become clinically manifest. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a drug transporting protein that is found in the plasma membranes in cells of barrier and elimination organs, and plays a role in drug absorption and excretion...
April 5, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382569/targeted-therapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-an-update-on-current-clinical-developments-in-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapies
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Moreira, Alexander Tobias, Michael P O'Brien, Mark Agulnik
Most patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) will present with locally advanced disease, requiring multimodality therapy. Despite this curative approach, a significant subset of these patients will develop locoregional failure and/or distant metastases. Despite significant progress in the treatment and subsequent prognosis of locally advanced HNSCC, the prognosis of those patients with recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) HNSCC is poor, with short-lived responses to palliative chemotherapy and few therapeutic agents available...
April 5, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378229/advances-in-the-development-of-molecularly-targeted-agents-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Saoirse O Dolly, Dearbhaile C Collins, Raghav Sundar, Sanjay Popat, Timothy A Yap
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a significant global health challenge and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The traditional 'one-size-fits-all' treatment approach has now evolved into one that involves personalized strategies based on histological and molecular subtypes. The molecular era has revolutionized the treatment of patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 gene aberrations. In the appropriately selected population, anti-tumor agents against these molecular targets can significantly improve progression-free survival...
April 4, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365883/erratum-to-jak-stat-signalling-as-a-target-for-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-diseases-current-and-future-prospects
#8
Shubhasree Banerjee, Ann Biehl, Massimo Gadina, Sarfaraz Hasni, Daniella M Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357599/medical-expulsive-therapy-is-it-time-to-suspend-judgement
#9
Tarik Amer, Gareth Jones, Omar Aboumarzouk
Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has been a matter of debate for many years. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have been conducted, but outcomes have been varied. This makes it challenging to determine the benefit of using MET as an adjunct in patients with expectantly managed ureteric stones. This article aimed to summarize both the historic and the more contemporary literature in this area by focusing on published meta-analyses and recent RCTs. Studies of interest were those comparing either an α-blocker or a calcium channel blocker with a control...
March 29, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293911/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol-oromucosal-spray-sativex-%C3%A2-a-review-in-multiple-sclerosis-related-spasticity
#10
Gillian M Keating
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (THC/CBD, Sativex(®), nabiximols) is available in numerous countries worldwide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related moderate to severe spasticity in patients who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity-related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy. Twelve weeks' therapy with THC/CBD improved MS-related spasticity in patients with an inadequate response to other anti-spasticity agents who had undergone a successful initial trial of THC/CBD therapy, according to the results of a pivotal phase 3 trial...
March 14, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290137/sarilumab-first-global-approval
#11
Lesley J Scott
Sarilumab (Kevzara™) is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to both soluble and membrane-bound interleukin (IL)-6 receptors (sIL-6Rα and mIL-6Rα) and thereby inhibits IL-6-mediated signalling through these receptors. Subcutaneous sarilumab is approved in Canada for the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to one or more biological or non-biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. It is under regulatory review for use in rheumatoid arthritis in other countries, including in the EU, USA and Japan...
March 13, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290136/baricitinib-first-global-approval
#12
Anthony Markham
Baricitinib (Olumiant™) is an orally-administered, small-molecule, janus-associated kinase (JAK) inhibitor developed by Eli Lilly and Incyte Corporation for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atopic dermatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. JAKs transduce intracellular signals from cell surface receptors for various cytokines and growth factors involved in inflammation and immune function, suggesting JAK inhibitors may be of therapeutic benefit in inflammatory conditions. In February 2017, baricitinib was approved in the EU, as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate, for the treatment of moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients who have responded inadequately to, or who are intolerant to one or more disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)...
March 13, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283896/fluocinolone-acetonide-intravitreal-implant-0-19%C3%A2-mg-iluvien-%C3%A2-a-review-in-diabetic-macular-edema
#13
Yahiya Y Syed
Fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant 0.19 mg (ILUVIEN(®)) is a nonbiodegradable, injectable, corticosteroid implant that is approved in several countries, including the USA, for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). ILUVIEN(®) releases fluocinolone acetonide at an initial rate of 0.25 µg/day (average rate 0.2 µg/day) and lasts 36 months. In the two pooled pivotal FAME trials in patients with DME previously treated with macular laser photocoagulation, fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant 0...
March 10, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271302/pediatric-osteoporosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Edoardo Marrani, Teresa Giani, Gabriele Simonini, Rolando Cimaz
Osteoporosis is now increasingly recognized in children due to the increased prevalence of disorders associated with bone loss. Fragility fractures represent the cardinal clinical features of pediatric osteoporosis and children presenting with fragility fractures deserve an accurate assessment to rule out a secondary cause. Indeed, in the pediatric population, a low bone mass is often a consequence of a chronic disease or its treatment; genetic bone disorders represent the cause of only a small fraction of cases...
March 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247267/options-for-treating-pain-in-cancer-patients-with-dysphagia
#15
REVIEW
Sebastiano Mercadante
Patients with chronic pain often develop dysphagia during the course of an advanced disease such as cancer. Opioids are the cornerstone of the management of cancer pain and are commonly administered orally. However, the oral route does not suit patients with dysphagia, who require alternative methods to administer analgesic drugs. Opioids given by parenteral or transdermal routes provide adequate pain control, being at least as efficacious as the oral route, but knowledge and experience in conversion ratios are mandatory when using these routes of administration...
March 1, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247266/rucaparib-first-global-approval
#16
Yahiya Y Syed
Rucaparib (Rubraca™) is an oral, small molecule, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor being developed by Clovis Oncology, Inc. (Boulder, CO, USA) for the treatment of solid tumours. It has been approved in the USA as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with deleterious BRCA mutation (germline and/or somatic) associated advanced ovarian cancer who have been treated with two or more chemotherapies. A marketing authorization application for rucaparib for the same indication has been submitted to the European Medicines Agency...
March 1, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247265/erratum-to-incidence-prevention-and-management-of-anti-drug-antibodies-against-therapeutic-antibodies-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-practical-overview
#17
Pieter Hindryckx, Gregor Novak, Niels Vande Casteele, Reena Khanna, Debby Laukens, Vipul Jairath, Brian G Feagan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236169/triazole-resistance-in-aspergillus-species-an-emerging-problem
#18
Rocio Garcia-Rubio, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Emilia Mellado
Aspergillus species are ubiquitous fungal saprophytes found in diverse ecological niches worldwide. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent and is largely responsible for the increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis with high mortality rates in some immunocompromised hosts. Azoles are the first-line drugs in treating diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. However, increasing reports in A. fumigatus azole resistance, both in the clinical setting and in the environment, are threatening the effectiveness of clinical and agricultural azole drugs...
February 24, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233275/incidence-prevention-and-management-of-anti-drug-antibodies-against-therapeutic-antibodies-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-practical-overview
#19
REVIEW
Pieter Hindryckx, Gregor Novak, Niels Vande Casteele, Reena Khanna, Debby Laukens, Jairath Vipul, Brian G Feagan
The introduction of biologic therapy has revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, like all therapeutic proteins, monoclonal antibodies have immunogenic potential which is influenced by multiple drug- and patient-related factors. The reported incidence of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) towards biologic drugs in IBD varies greatly in the literature and depends not only on differences in sensitization but also on the assay methodology and the timepoint of measurement. Sensitization with formation of ADAs is associated with an increased risk of infusion reactions, accelerated drug clearance, and a loss of response (LOR) to drug...
February 23, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211007/daclizumab-a-review-in-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Matt Shirley
Daclizumab (Zinbryta(®); previously known as daclizumab high-yield process) is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody that has recently been approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults. Daclizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against CD25, the alpha subunit of the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor. As demonstrated in the phase III DECIDE trial, once-monthly subcutaneous daclizumab was superior to once-weekly intramuscular interferon (IFN) β-1a in reducing the clinical relapse rate and radiological measures of disease in patients with relapsing-remitting MS...
February 17, 2017: Drugs
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