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Kyle T Amber, Roberto Maglie, Farzan Solimani, Rüdiger Eming, Michael Hertl
Autoimmune bullous skin disorders are rare but meaningful chronic inflammatory diseases, many of which had a poor or devastating prognosis prior to the advent of immunosuppressive drugs such as systemic corticosteroids, which down-regulate the immune pathogenesis in these disorders. Glucocorticoids and adjuvant immunosuppressive drugs have been of major benefit for the fast control of most of these disorders, but their long-term use is limited by major side effects such as blood cytopenia, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and gastrointestinal ulcers...
September 20, 2018: Drugs
Lesley J Scott
Page 1363: The listing of the reviewer names and affiliations, which previously read.
September 19, 2018: Drugs
Yvette N Lamb
Intravenous elotuzumab (Empliciti™), a monoclonal antibody targeting the signalling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7) glycoprotein, is approved for use in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of multiple myeloma in previously-treated adult patients. In the pivotal, multinational, phase III ELOQUENT-2 trial in adults with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma, elotuzumab in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone significantly prolonged median progression-free survival (PFS) and increased overall response rate (ORR; co-primary endpoints) compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone...
September 19, 2018: Drugs
James E Frampton
Tafenoquine (Krintafel™, Arakoda™), an orally-active 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarial drug, is a long-acting analogue of primaquine with activity against pre-erythrocytic (liver) and erythrocytic (asexual) forms as well as gametocytes of Plasmodium species that include Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) and Plasmodium falciparum. It has been developed by GlaxoSmithKline (formerly SmithKline Beecham) for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria and by 60 Degrees Pharmaceuticals for the prophylaxis of malaria. The exact mechanism(s) of action underlying the anti-Plasmodium activity of tafenoquine are unknown, although it may exert its effect by inhibiting haematin polymerization and, additionally, by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the apoptotic-like death of the organism...
September 18, 2018: Drugs
Sohita Dhillon
Ivosidenib (Tibsovo® ) is a small molecule, orally available inhibitor of mutated cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) that is being developed by Agios Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancer in patients with IDH1 mutations. The mutated form of the IDH1 enzyme produces a metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which is thought to play a role in the formation and progression of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), gliomas and other cancers. Elevated 2-HG levels interfere with cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation, thereby contributing to oncogenesis...
September 12, 2018: Drugs
Flaminia Coluzzi
Pain is one of the most common symptoms among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and is often under recognized and not adequately managed in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Barriers to adequate pain management include poor awareness of the problem, insufficient medical education, fears of possible drug-related side effects, and common misconceptions about the inevitability of pain in elderly and HD patients. Caregivers working in HD should be aware of the possible consequences of inadequate pain assessment and management...
September 11, 2018: Drugs
Yvette N Lamb
Elagolix (ORILISSA™), an orally bioavailable, second-generation, non-peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist, is being developed AbbVie and Neurocrine Biosciences for the treatment of reproductive hormone-dependent disorders in women. In July 2018, the US FDA approved elagolix tablets for the management of moderate to severe pain associated with endometriosis. This approval was based on positive results in two replicate phase III trials; additional phase III trials in the USA, Canada and Puerto Rico are currently evaluating elagolix as both monotherapy and in combination with low-dose hormone add-back therapy in the same indication...
September 8, 2018: Drugs
Ronan Flippot, Bernard Escudier, Laurence Albiges
Immune modulatory treatment regimens, led by immune checkpoint inhibitors, have transformed the treatment of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. First-in-class, the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab improved overall survival in advanced renal cell carcinoma following prior anti-angiogenic therapy, an important shift in the management of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. Further improvements of long-term outcomes will be driven by combinations in the first-line setting, including PD-1/PD-L1 associated with antiangiogenic therapies, or PD1/PD-L1 inhibitors with other immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-CTLA-4, anti-LAG-3 or TIM-3 targeted therapies...
September 5, 2018: Drugs
G Di Stefano, A Truini, G Cruccu
Trigeminal neuralgia is a representative neuropathic facial pain condition, characterised by unilateral paroxysmal pain in the distribution territory of one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve, triggered by innocuous stimuli. A subgroup of patients with trigeminal neuralgia [TN (previously defined as atypical TN)] also suffer from concomitant continuous pain, i.e. a background pain between the paroxysmal attacks. The aim of this review is to provide current, evidence-based, knowledge about the pharmacological treatment of typical and atypical TN, with a specific focus on drugs in development...
September 3, 2018: Drugs
Susanne Juhl Pedersen, Walter P Maksymowych
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a complex disease that affects the joints and entheses of axial and peripheral joints, and is associated with inflammation in extra-articular sites such as the gut. Improved knowledge on genetics and immunology has improved treatment options with the availability of treatments targeting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-17. However, these agents do not provide clinical benefit for about 40% of patients, and additional therapeutic options are necessary...
August 31, 2018: Drugs
Josephine Arendt
For many years now a treatment mitigating the debilitating effects of jet lag has been sought. Rapid travel across time zones leads, in most people, to temporary symptoms, in particular poor sleep, daytime alertness and poor performance. Mis-timed circadian rhythms are considered to be the main factor underlying jet-lag symptoms, together with the sleep deprivation from long haul flights. Virtually all aspects of physiology are rhythmic, from cells to systems, and circadian rhythms are coordinated by a central pacemaker or clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus...
August 30, 2018: Drugs
Yahiya Y Syed
The article Nonacog Beta Pegol: A Review in Haemophilia B, written by Yahiya Y. Syed, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 77, issue 18, pages 2003-2012 Novo Nordisk A/S requested that the article be Open Choice to make the article an open access publication. Post-publication open access was funded by Novo Nordisk A/S. The article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons...
July 13, 2018: Drugs
Dorota Danielak, Marta Karaźniewicz-Łada, Franciszek Główka
The introduction of ticagrelor, one of the first directly-acting oral antiplatelet drugs, provided new possibilities in the prevention of thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Current guidelines recommend ticagrelor in dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin over clopidogrel for prevention of stent thrombosis in patients with ACS. Moreover, in the management of ACS, lipid-lowering treatment with high-intensity statin therapy is advised for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events over the long term...
July 12, 2018: Drugs
Matt Shirley
Avatrombopag (Doptelet® ) is an orally bioavailable, small molecule thrombopoietin receptor agonist that has been developed by Dova Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of thrombocytopenic disorders. In May 2018 avatrombopag received its first global approval, in the USA, for use in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in adult patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) who are scheduled to undergo a procedure. A Marketing Authorization Application for use of avatrombopag in this indication was submitted to the EMA in April 2018...
July 11, 2018: Drugs
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous peramivir (Alpivab™; Rapivab® ; Rapiacta® ; PeramiFlu® ), the most recent globally approved inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase, is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated influenza in adults and children from the age of 2 years. This article, written from an EU perspective, reviews the clinical use of peramivir in this indication and summarizes its pharmacological properties. In large, randomized, double-blind, multicentre trials in previously healthy adults with uncomplicated influenza, a single infusion of peramivir 600 mg significantly shortened the median time to resolution of influenza symptoms compared with placebo and was noninferior to the recommended oseltamivir regimen in terms of this primary outcome...
September 2018: Drugs
Sohita Dhillon
The article Meropenem/Vaborbactam: A Review in Complicated Urinary Tract Infections.
September 2018: Drugs
Nicola Tarantino, Francesco Santoro, Michele Correale, Luisa De Gennaro, Silvio Romano, Matteo Di Biase, Natale Daniele Brunetti
Dyslipidemia is one of the major cardiovascular risk factors, but beyond statin treatment-which represents the cornerstone of therapy-a relevant practical uncertainty regards the use of fibrate derivatives. In the lack of successful results from the main cardiovascular trials, guidelines recommend the use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists in selected cases, i.e. patients with true atherogenic dyslipidemia. However, recent observations indicate that fenofibrate treatment may provide a reliable complementary support against residual cardiovascular risk...
September 2018: Drugs
Marie Robert, Jean-Sébastien Frenel, Emmanuelle Bourbouloux, Dominique Berton Rigaud, Anne Patsouris, Paule Augereau, Carole Gourmelon, Mario Campone
Deregulated cell division, resulting in aberrant cell proliferation, is one of the key hallmarks of cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in cell cycle progression in cancer, and the clinical development of the CDK4/6 inhibitors palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib has changed clinical practice in the setting of endocrine-receptor positive breast cancer. Results of pivotal phase II and III trials investigating these CDK4/6 inhibitors in patients with endocrine receptor-positive, advanced breast cancer have demonstrated a significant improvement in progression-free survival, with a safe toxicity profile...
September 2018: Drugs
James Bell, Vendula Belackova, Nicholas Lintzeris
Since the 1990s, there have been seven clinical trials, and considerable clinical experience, in supervised injectable opioid treatment (SIOT) for individuals who, despite previous treatments, continue to inject illicit heroin and experience harmful health and social consequences. Most studies prescribed pharmaceutical heroin (diacetyl morphine, or DAM). This paper critically reviews randomised trials, long-term follow-up studies and qualitative reports of SIOT, and briefly reviews evidence regarding other medications used in injectable treatment as an alternative to DAM...
September 2018: Drugs
Massimo Leggio, Augusto Fusco, Paolo Severi, Mario Lombardi, Elisa Caldarone, Stefania D'Emidio, Massimo Armeni, Daniela Mereu, Maria Grazia Bendini, Andrea Mazza
One of the most common conundrums in all cardiovascular medicine pertains to the care of patients with atrial fibrillation after percutaneous coronary intervention, because of both dual antiplatelet therapy and oral anticoagulant therapy would seem to be necessary to reduce risks of stent thrombosis and thromboembolism, respectively, but also with an inevitable trade-off of more bleeding. Patients who require triple therapy are at high risk of both ischaemia and bleeding; therefore, defining a personalised secondary prevention strategy aimed at achieving the best net clinical benefit is essential...
September 2018: Drugs
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