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Journal of Medical Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331052/cpr-decision-making-why-winspear-needs-to-be-challenged
#1
Rosemarie Anthony-Pillai
This is a personal view about the recent high court decision around cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This opinion identifies that the judge failed to recognise the statutory role given to clinicians in identifying when a treatment is life sustaining. In failing to recognise the role of the clinician, the ruling in Winspear risks the likelihood of inappropriate CPR attempts.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331051/the-ethics-of-and-the-appropriate-legislation-concerning-killing-people-and-letting-them-die-a-response-to-merkel
#2
Hugh V McLachlan
With regard to ethics and legislation, what is the significant difference between a doctor terminating the life-supporting treatment of a patient in the course of his job and a greedy relative of the patient doing the same thing to inherit his wealth? Merkel offers an interesting and inventive answer to this question in terms of the improper violation of personal boundaries. However, despite Merkel's claim to the contrary, his answer does not directly address the question of the relevant ethical similarities and differences between killing and letting die in general...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325745/aid-in-dying-laws-and-the-physician-s-duty-to-inform
#3
Mara Buchbinder
On 19 July 2016, three medical organisations filed a federal lawsuit against representatives from several Vermont agencies over the Patient Choice and Control at End of Life Act. The law is similar to aid-in-dying (AID) laws in four other US states, but the lawsuit hinges on a distinctive aspect of Vermont's law pertaining to patients' rights to information. The lawsuit raises questions about whether, and under what circumstances, there is an ethical obligation to inform terminally ill patients about AID as an end-of-life option...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320774/3d-bioprint-me-a-socioethical-view-of-bioprinting-human-organs-and-tissues
#4
Niki Vermeulen, Gill Haddow, Tirion Seymour, Alan Faulkner-Jones, Wenmiao Shu
In this article, we review the extant social science and ethical literature on three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. 3D bioprinting has the potential to be a 'game-changer', printing human organs on demand, no longer necessitating the need for living or deceased human donation or animal transplantation. Although the technology is not yet at the level required to bioprint an entire organ, 3D bioprinting may have a variety of other mid-term and short-term benefits that also have positive ethical consequences, for example, creating alternatives to animal testing, filling a therapeutic need for minors and avoiding species boundary crossing...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320773/identity-change-and-informed-consent
#5
Karsten Witt
In this paper, I focus on a kind of medical intervention that is at the same time fascinating and disturbing: identity-changing interventions. My guiding question is how such interventions can be ethically justified within the bounds of contemporary bioethical mainstream that places great weight on the patient's informed consent. The answer that is standardly given today is that patients should be informed about the identity effects, thus suggesting that changes in identity can be treated like 'normal' side effects...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298480/antimicrobial-stewardship-programmes-bedside-rationing-by-another-name
#6
Simon Oczkowski
Antimicrobial therapy is a cornerstone of therapy in critically ill patients; however, the wide use of antibiotics has resulted in increased antimicrobial resistance and outbreaks of resistant disease. To counter this, many hospitals have instituted antimicrobial stewardship programmes as a way to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics. However, uptake of antimicrobial stewardship programmes has been variable, as many clinicians fear that they may put individual patients at risk of treatment failure. In this paper, I argue that antimicrobial stewardship programmes are indeed a form of bedside rationing, and explore the risks and benefits of such programmes for individual patients in the intensive care unit, and the critically ill population in general...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289070/conscientious-objection-in-healthcare-new-directions
#7
EDITORIAL
Steve Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280059/a-medical-curriculum-in-transition-audit-and-student-perspective-of-undergraduate-teaching-of-ethics-and-professionalism
#8
Toni C Saad, Stephen Riley, Richard Hain
INTRODUCTION: The General Medical Council (GMC) stipulates that doctors must be competent professionals, not merely scholars and practitioners. Medical school curricula should enable students to develop professional values and competencies. Additionally, medical schools are moving towards integrated undergraduate curricula, Cardiff's C21 being one such example. METHODS: We carried out an audit to determine the extent to which C21 delivers GMC professionalism competencies, and a student questionnaire to explore student perspective on ethics and professionalism...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280058/response-to-commentaries-further-clarity-on-cooperation-and-morality
#9
David S Oderberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280057/discourses-of-prejudice-in-the-professions-the-case-of-sign-languages
#10
Tom Humphries, Poorna Kushalnagar, Gaurav Mathur, Donna Jo Napoli, Carol Padden, Christian Rathmann, Scott Smith
There is no evidence that learning a natural human language is cognitively harmful to children. To the contrary, multilingualism has been argued to be beneficial to all. Nevertheless, many professionals advise the parents of deaf children that their children should not learn a sign language during their early years, despite strong evidence across many research disciplines that sign languages are natural human languages. Their recommendations are based on a combination of misperceptions about (1) the difficulty of learning a sign language, (2) the effects of bilingualism, and particularly bimodalism, (3) the bona fide status of languages that lack a written form, (4) the effects of a sign language on acquiring literacy, (5) the ability of technologies to address the needs of deaf children and (6) the effects that use of a sign language will have on family cohesion...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265049/the-ethics-of-betel-nut-consumption-in-taiwan
#11
Joseph Tham, Geoffrey Sem, Eugene Sit, Michael Cheng-Tek Tai
The ethics of betel nut use in Taiwan are examined in this article. It first presents scientific facts about the betel quid, its consumption and negative health consequences and then analyses the cultural background and economic factors contributing to its popularity in Asia. Governmental and institutional attempts to curb betel nut cultivation, distribution and sales are also described. Finally, the bioethical implications of this often ignored subject are considered.
March 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258072/on-complicity-and-compromise-a-pr%C3%A3-cis
#12
Chiara Lepora, Robert E Goodin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258071/opting-out-a-single-centre-pilot-study-assessing-the-reasons-for-and-the-psychosocial-impact-of-withdrawing-from-living-kidney-donor-evaluation
#13
Carrie Thiessen, Zainab Jaji, Michael Joyce, Paula Zimbrean, Peter Reese, Elisa J Gordon, Sanjay Kulkarni
Understanding why individuals opt out of living donation is crucial to enhancing protections for all living donors and to identify modifiable barriers to donation. We developed an ethical approach to conducting research on individuals who opted out of living kidney donation and applied it in a small-scale qualitative study at one US transplant centre. The seven study participants (64% response rate) had varied reasons for opting out, the most prominent of which was concern about the financial burden from lost wages during the postoperative period...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258070/the-costs-and-benefits-of-a-cigarette-ban
#14
Mathieu Doucet
The death toll from tobacco is staggering: it might contribute to one billion premature deaths over the course of the 21st century. In 'The case for banning cigarettes', Kalle Grill and Kristin Voigt argue that the well-being and equality benefits of a complete ban on cigarettes more than justify the restrictions on autonomy that such a ban would impose. Their argument depends on two crucial simplifications: an assumption that the ban would be effective and the restriction of the analysis to a comparison with the status quo, rather than a broader range of policy options...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255026/conscientious-objection-in-healthcare-and-the-duty-to-refer
#15
Christopher Cowley
Although some healthcare professionals have the legal right to conscientiously object to authorise or perform certain lawful medical services, they have an associated duty to provide the patient with enough information to seek out another professional willing to authorise or provide the service (the 'duty to refer'). Does the duty to refer morally undermine the professional's conscientious objection (CO)? I narrow my discussion to the National Health Service in Britain, and the case of a general practitioner (GP) being asked by a pregnant woman to authorise an abortion...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255025/erratum-paying-for-sex-only-for-people-with-disabilities
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255024/cosmetic-surgery-and-conscientious-objection
#17
Francesca Minerva
In this paper, I analyse the issue of conscientious objection in relation to cosmetic surgery. I consider cases of doctors who might refuse to perform a cosmetic treatment because: (1) the treatment aims at achieving a goal which is not in the traditional scope of cosmetic surgery; (2) the motivation of the patient to undergo the surgery is considered trivial; (3) the patient wants to use the surgery to promote moral or political values that conflict with the doctor's ones; (4) the patient requires an intervention that would benefit himself/herself, but could damage society at large...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235885/attitudes-towards-end-of-life-decisions-in-case-of-long-term-care-dependency-a-survey-among-the-older-population-in-austria
#18
Erwin Stolz, Hannes Mayerl, Anja Waxenegger, Éva Rásky, Wolfgang Freidl
BACKGROUND: Research on attitudes towards end-of-life decisions (ELDs) contextually most often refers to the very end of life, that is, to situations of terminally ill patients or severe pain, but it is rarely applied to the broader context of long-term care dependency in old age. METHODS: In a representative survey among older Austrians (50+, n=968), respondents were asked about their approval of assisted suicide and euthanasia (EUT) when requested by an older, severely care-dependent person...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235884/is-there-a-place-for-cpr-and-sustained-physiological-support-in-brain-dead-non-donors
#19
Stephen D Brown
This article addresses whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and sustained physiological support should ever be permitted in individuals who are diagnosed as brain dead and who had held previously expressed moral or religious objections to the currently accepted criteria for such a determination. It contrasts how requests for care would normally be treated in cases involving a brain-dead individual with previously expressed wishes to donate and a similarly diagnosed individual with previously expressed beliefs that did not conform to a brain-based conception of death...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235883/ethical-questions-identified-in-a-study-of-local-and-expatriate-responders-perspectives-of-vulnerability-in-the-2010-haiti-earthquake
#20
Evelyne Durocher, Ryoa Chung, Christiane Rochon, Jean-Hugues Henrys, Catherine Olivier, Matthew Hunt
BACKGROUND: Situations of disaster that prompt international humanitarian responses are rife with ethical tensions. The 2010 Haiti earthquake caused great destruction and prompted a massive humanitarian response. The widespread needs experienced by the population and the scale of the response inevitably rendered priority-setting difficult, and gave rise to ethical challenges. PURPOSE: This paper presents four ethical questions identified in the analysis of a study on vulnerability and equity in the humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
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