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Journal of Medical Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188249/breastfeeding-and-defeasible-duties-to-benefit
#1
Fiona Woollard, Lindsey Porter
For many women experiencing motherhood for the first time, the message they receive is clear: mothers who do not breastfeed ought to have good reasons not to; bottle feeding by choice is a failure of maternal duty. We argue that this pressure to breastfeed arises in part from two misconceptions about maternal duty: confusion about the scope of the duty to benefit and conflation between moral reasons and duties. While mothers have a general duty to benefit, we argue that this does not imply a duty to carry out any particular beneficent act...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183785/should-healthcare-professionals-sometimes-allow-harm-the-case-of-self-injury
#2
Patrick J Sullivan
This paper considers the ethical justification for the use of harm minimisation approaches with individuals who self-injure. While the general issues concerning harm minimisation have been widely debated, there has been only limited consideration of the ethical issues raised by allowing people to continue injuring themselves as part of an agreed therapeutic programme. I will argue that harm minimisation should be supported on the basis that it results in an overall reduction in harm when compared with more traditional ways of dealing with self-injurious behaviour...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183784/balancing-costs-and-benefits-a-clinical-perspective-does-not-support-a-harm-minimisation-approach-for-self-injury-outside-of-community-settings
#3
Hanna Pickard, Steve Pearce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183783/problems-with-precision-and-neutrality-in-eol-preference-elicitation
#4
Yael Schenker, Robert Arnold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179402/the-limits-of-research-institutions-in-setting-research-priorities
#5
Leah Pierson, Joseph Millum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174213/advanced-and-end-of-life-care-cautionary-suggestions
#6
F M Kamm
This article consider some clinical and population level approaches to advanced care of chronic conditions and end of life care. One approach aims to follow patient values and preferences about acceptable end of life (EOL) as elicited by questionnaires. The grounds for emphasising patients' preferences and the adequacy of the questionnaires are examined. Other approaches involve additional aims such as meeting patient and family members needs, providing information, cost effectiveness and satisfying professionals' preferences for a certain type of EOL experience...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167633/trials-are-already-being-prioritised-just-not-at-the-institutional-level
#7
Simon Kolstoe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167632/priority-prediction-and-the-ethical-research-enterprise
#8
Spencer Phillips Hey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154003/ethics-of-a-relaxed-antidoping-rule-accompanied-by-harm-reduction-measures
#9
Bengt Kayser, Jan Tolleneer
Harm-reduction approaches are used to reduce the burden of risky human behaviour without necessarily aiming to stop the behaviour. We discuss what an introduction of harm reduction for doping in sports would mean in parallel with a relaxation of the antidoping rule. We analyse what is ethically at stake in the following five levels: (1) What would it mean for the athlete (the self)? (2) How would it impact other athletes (the other)? (3) How would it affect the phenomenon of sport as a game and its fair play basis (the play)? (4) What would be the consequences for the spectator and the role of sports in society (the display)? and (5) What would it mean for what some consider as essential to being human (humanity)? For each level, we present arguments for and against doping and then discuss what a harm-reduction approach, within a dynamic regime of a partially relaxed antidoping rule, could imply...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143944/neutralising-fair-credit-factors-that-influence-unethical-authorship-practices
#10
Brad S Trinkle, Trisha Phillips, Alicia Hall, Barton Moffatt
This study experimentally tests whether the techniques of neutralisation as identified in the criminal justice literature influence graduate student willingness to engage in questionable research practices (QRPs). Our results indicate that US-born graduate students are more willing to add an undeserved coauthor if the person who requests it is a faculty member in the student's department as opposed to a fellow student. Students are most likely to add an undeserving author if a faculty member is also their advisor...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143943/eliminating-latent-tuberculosis-in-low-burden-settings-are-the-principal-beneficiaries-to-be-disadvantaged-groups-or-the-broader-population
#11
Chris Degeling, Justin Denholm, Paul Mason, Ian Kerridge, Angus Dawson
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the burdens of this disease continue to track prior disadvantage. In order to galvanise a coordinated global response, WHO has recently launched the End TB Campaign that aims to eliminate TB by 2050. Key to this is the introduction of population screening programmes in low-burden settings to identify and treat people who have latent TB infection (LTBI). The defining features of LTBI are: that it is not an active disease but confers an increased risk of disease; the socially disadvantaged are those most in danger and uncertainty persists as to who will be harmed or benefitted from screening-led prophylactic interventions...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143942/bridging-the-education-action-gap-a-near-peer-case-based-undergraduate-ethics-teaching-programme
#12
Wing May Kong, Selena Knight
Undergraduate ethics teaching has made significant progress in the past decade, with evidence showing that students and trainee doctors feel more confident in identifying and analysing ethical issues. There is general consensus that ethics education should enable students and doctors to take ethically appropriate actions, and nurture moral integrity. However, the literature reports that doctors continue to find it difficult to take action when faced with perceived unethical behaviour. This has been evident in recent healthcare scandals, in which care has fallen below acceptable ethical standards, despite the presence of professional ethical guidelines and competencies...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138000/is-medically-assisted-death-a-special-obligation
#13
Eduardo Rivera-López
Several distinct arguments conclude that terminally ill patients have a right to a medically assisted death; two are especially influential: the autonomy argument and the non-harm argument. Both have proven convincing to many, but not to those who view the duty not to kill as an (almost) absolute constraint. Some philosophers see the source of such a constraint in general (deontological) moral principles, other in the nature of the medical profession. My aim in this paper is not to add one further argument in favour of medically assisted death...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137999/the-role-of-religious-beliefs-in-ethics-committee-consultations-for-conflict-over-life-sustaining-treatment
#14
Julia I Bandini, Andrew Courtwright, Angelika A Zollfrank, Ellen M Robinson, Wendy Cadge
Previous research has suggested that individuals who identify as being more religious request more aggressive medical treatment at end of life. These requests may generate disagreement over life-sustaining treatment (LST). Outside of anecdotal observation, however, the actual role of religion in conflict over LST has been underexplored. Because ethics committees are often consulted to help mediate these conflicts, the ethics consultation experience provides a unique context in which to investigate this question...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137998/appealing-to-the-crowd-ethical-justifications-in-canadian-medical-crowdfunding-campaigns
#15
Jeremy Snyder, Valorie A Crooks, Annalise Mathers, Peter Chow-White
Medical crowdfunding is growing in terms of the number of active campaigns, amount of funding raised and public visibility. Little is known about how campaigners appeal to potential donors outside of anecdotal evidence collected in news reports on specific medical crowdfunding campaigns. This paper offers a first step towards addressing this knowledge gap by examining medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients. Using 80 medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients, we analyse how Canadians justify to others that they ought to contribute to funding their health needs...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137997/individual-and-public-interests-in-clinical-research-during-epidemics-a-reply-to-calain-in-response-to-calain-p-the-ebola-clinical-trials-a-precedent-for-research-ethics-in-disasters
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130385/whole-genome-sequencing-in-children-ethics-choice-and-deliberation
#17
Ainsley J Newson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130386/ethics-and-high-value-care
#18
Matthew DeCamp, Jon C Tilburt
High-value care (HVC) is en vogue, but the ethics of physicians' roles in the growing number of HVC recommendations demands further attention. In this brief report, we argue that, from the standpoint of individual physicians' primary commitments and duties to individual patients, not all HVC is ethically equal. Our analysis suggests that the ethical case for HVC may be both stronger and weaker than is ordinarily supposed. In some cases, HVC is not merely a 'good thing to do' but is actually ethically obligatory...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122991/nudge-me-help-my-baby-on-other-regarding-nudges
#19
Hafez Ismaili M'hamdi, Medard Hilhorst, Eric A P Steegers, Inez de Beaufort
There is an increasing interest in the possibility of using nudges to promote people's health. Following the advances in developmental biology and epigenetics, it is clear that one's health is not always the result of one's own choices. In the period surrounding pregnancy, maternal choice behaviour has a significant influence on perinatal morbidity and mortality as well as the development of chronic diseases later in life. One's health is thus a matter of one's own as well as one's maternal choices. Therefore, self-regarding and other-regarding nudges should be considered as viable strategies to promote health...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122990/using-stem-cell-derived-gametes-for-same-sex-reproduction-an-alternative-scenario
#20
Seppe Segers, Heidi Mertes, Guido Pennings, Guido de Wert, Wybo Dondorp
It has been suggested that future application of stem-cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes) might lead to the possibility for same-sex couples to have genetically related children. Still, for this to become possible, the technique of gamete derivation and techniques of reprogramming somatic cells to a pluripotent state (directly or via somatic cell nuclear transfer) would have to be perfected. Moreover, egg cells would have to be derived from male cells and sperm cells from female cells, which is believed to be particularly difficult, if not impossible...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
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