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Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Amy Peacock, Brian Eastwood, Andrew Jones, Tim Millar, Patrick Horgan, Jonathan Knight, Kulvir Randhawa, Martin White, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This was a national English observational cohort study using administrative data to estimate the effectiveness of community pharmacological and psychosocial treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: All adults commencing AUD treatment in the community reported to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (April 1 2014-March 31 2015; N = 52,499). Past 28-day admission drinking pattern included drinks per drinking day (DDD): 0 ('Abstinent'), 1-15 ('Low-High'), 16-30 ('High-Extreme') and over 30 DDD ('Extreme')...
March 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Chicora F Oliver, Steven J Simmons, Sunil U Nayak, Garry R Smith, Allen B Reitz, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about how chemokine systems influence the behavioral effects of designer cathinones and psychostimulants. The chemokine CXCL12 and its principal receptor target, CXCR4, are of particular interest because CXCR4 activation enhances mesolimbic dopamine output that facilitates psychostimulant reward, reinforcement, and locomotor activation. Repeated cocaine enhances CXCL12 gene expression in the midbrain and produces conditioned place preference (CPP) that is inhibited by a CXCR4 antagonist...
March 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Katherine A McDermott, Keanan J Joyner, Jahn K Hakes, Sarah A Okey, Jesse R Cougle
BACKGROUND: Pain interference is associated with substance use, but has yet to be considered as a potential indicator of SUDs among substance users. We sought to examine whether moderate and high pain interference would confer risk for SUDs in ever and weekly users. METHODS: Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between pain interference and concurrent and prospective alcohol and nicotine dependence, as well as concurrent cannabis use disorder...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Nicolas Hoertel, Hadi Faiz, Guillaume Airagnes, Carlos Blanco, Rachel Pascal De Raykeer, Silvia Franco, Géraldine Ducoutumany, Cédric Lemogne, Frédéric Limosin
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinkers are at high risk for suicide attempt and suicide. Multiple factors, when examined in isolation, have been implicated in the risk of suicide attempt in this population. In this report, we present a comprehensive model of the 3-year risk of suicide attempt in heavy drinkers using a longitudinal nationally representative study, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; wave 1, 2001-2002; wave 2, 2004-2005). METHODS: We used structural equation modeling to simultaneously examine effects of four broad groups of clinical factors previously identified as potential predictors of attempted suicides: 1) alcohol use disorder severity, 2) severity of comorbidity, 3) sociodemographic characteristics and 4) help-seeking for alcohol problems...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Camillia K Lui, William C Kerr, Nina Mulia, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with lower alcohol consumption, but also with heavier drinking. To explain this contradictory relationship, we examined SES differences in drinking patterns from an age-period-cohort (APC) perspective. METHODS: Data are from seven waves of the U.S. National Alcohol Surveys from 1979 to 2010. As a proxy for SES, educational attainment was used. Past-year alcohol volume was calculated from frequency (never-to-every day) and usual quantity (1-2, 3-4, or 5-6 drinks)...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Michelle McKenzie, Alexandria Macmadu, Sarah Larney, Nickolas Zaller, Emily Dauria, Josiah Rich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
David R Strong, Mark G Myers, Kim Pulvers, Madison Noble, Kristin Brikmanis, Neal Doran
BACKGROUND: With an increase in marijuana use among adults in the United States (US), understanding the potential impact of marijuana use on tobacco use and associated behavioral and health consequences, including respiratory conditions, is necessary. METHOD: Survey responses from Wave 1 of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study were used to assess tobacco use and marijuana use among non-current tobacco users (n = 17,952) and current established tobacco-users classified as: cigarette only users (n = 8689), e-cigarette only users (n = 437), cigar only (traditional, cigarillo, or filtered) users (n = 706), hookah only users (n = 461), smokeless tobacco only users (n = 971), cigarette + e-cigarette users (n = 709), and users of multiple tobacco products (n = 2314)...
March 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jessica Forward, Jane Akhurst, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Peacock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Courtney D Nordeck, Christopher Welsh, Robert P Schwartz, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Art Cohen, Kevin E O'Grady, Jan Gryczynski
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUD) are associated with non-adherence to medical care and high utilization of hospital services. This study characterized patterns and correlates of rehospitalization among patients seen by a hospital-based SUD consultation-liaison (CL) team. METHODS: This study was a retrospective medical record review of patients in a large urban academic hospital who received SUD consultation and were diagnosed with opioid, cocaine, and/or alcohol use disorder (N = 267)...
March 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie M Wall, Katherine M Keyes, Mark Olfson, Magdalena Cerdá, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Self-medication with drugs or alcohol is commonly reported among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, and increases the risk of developing substance use disorders. Medical marijuana laws (MML) may be associated with greater acceptance of the therapeutic value of marijuana, leading individuals to self-medicate. METHODS: The study utilized data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Participants were sampled from households in the general population and included adults with a mood or anxiety disorder in the past 12 months (n = 7418), and the subset of those who used marijuana and no other drug (n = 314)...
March 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie M Wall, Katherine M Keyes, Magdalena Cerdá, John E Schulenberg, Patrick M O'Malley, Lloyd D Johnston, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: National trends in adolescent's marijuana risk perceptions are traditionally used as a predictor of concurrent and future trends in adolescent marijuana use. We test the validity of this practice during a time of rapid marijuana policy change. METHODS: Two repeated cross-sectional U.S. nationally-representative surveys of 8th, 10th, and 12th-graders: Monitoring the Future (MTF) (1991-2015; N = 1,181,692) and National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (2002-2014; N = 113,317)...
March 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Anna Vittoria Mattioli, Antonio Manenti, Alberto Farinetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jordan P Davis, Tara M Dumas, Benjamin Berey, Gabriel J Merrin, Kevin Tan, Danielle R Madden
BACKGROUND: Justice involved youth exposed to multiple forms of victimization (i.e., poly-victimization) may be at risk for long term substance use problems and difficulty in self-regulation, placing them at higher risk of long-term problematic behaviors. This study empirically identifies victimization classifications in a sample of justice involved youth and how long-term binge drinking is related to victimization experiences. We further sought to understand how self-regulatory abilities such as impulse control and emotion regulation effect emergent profiles and binge drinking trajectories...
February 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Chenxi Zhang, Wai Kwong Tang, Hua Jun Liang, Gabor Sandor Ungvari, Shih-Ku Lin
BACKGROUND: Ketamine abuse causes cognitive impairments, which negatively impact on users' abstinence, prognosis, and quality of life. RESULTS: of cognitive impairments in chronic ketamine users have been inconsistent across studies, possibly due to the small sample sizes and the confounding effects of concomitant use of other illicit drugs. This study investigated the cognitive impairment and its related factors in chronic ketamine users with a large sample size and explored the impact of another drug use on cognitive functions...
February 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Don C Des Jarlais, Courtney McKnight, Jonathan Feelemyer, Kamyar Arasteh, Susan Tross, Aimee N C Campbell, Hannah L F Cooper, David C Perlman
BACKGROUND: We examined whether sex disparities (heterosexual male:female) in HIV infection continue to persist at the "end of the HIV epidemic" among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City (NYC). An "end of the epidemic" was operationally defined as 1) prevalence of untreated HIV infection <5%, and 2) estimated HIV incidence <0.5/100 person-years. METHODS: PWID were recruited from persons entering substance use treatment programs at Mount Sinai Beth Israel in 2001-2005 and 2011-2015...
February 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kimberly Goodyear, Carolina L Haass-Koffler, David Chavanne
The stigma of drug addiction is associated with negative perceptions and can be a barrier to treatment. With the rise in opioid overdose deaths, understanding stigmatizing attitudes towards individuals who use opioids is a crucial matter. There is a lack of opioid use research on stigma and, therefore, we aimed to discern stigmatizing attitudes towards people with opioid addiction. A randomized, between-subjects case vignette study (n = 2605) was conducted with a nation-wide online survey. Participants rated a hypothetical individual addicted to opioids on different dimensions of stigma after seeing one version of a vignette that varied by three conditions: 1) a male versus a female, 2) an individual labeled as being a "drug addict" versus having an "opioid use disorder" and 3) an individual whose use started by taking prescription opioids from a friend versus receiving a prescription from a doctor...
February 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Clare McCormack, Delyse Hutchinson, Lucy Burns, George Youssef, Judy Wilson, Elizabeth Elliott, Steve Allsop, Jake Najman, Sue Jacobs, Larissa Rossen, Craig Olsson, Richard Mattick
BACKGROUND: Teratogenicity of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is established, but uncertainty remains regarding the impact of moderate alcohol exposure on cognitive deficits in infants. Separating in utero effects from environmental confounding is a challenge for observational studies; consideration of alcohol use by partners as well as mothers may help clarify this. This study examined associations between prenatal alcohol use by both mothers and their partners and infant cognitive developmental outcomes at 12-months...
February 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Raul Caetano, Patrice A C Vaeth, Glorisa Canino
BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence and correlates of illegal drug use in Puerto Rico are now almost 20 years old. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to estimate the 12-month prevalence of illegal and non-prescribed medical drug use in San Juan, Puerto Rico and identify sociodemographic correlates of use. METHODS: Data are from a random household sample of 1510 individuals, 18-64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of any illegal or non-prescribed drug use was 16...
February 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
M Mackus, M van Schrojenstein Lantman, A J A E Van de Loo, A D Kraneveld, J Garssen, K A Brookhuis, J C Verster
BACKGROUND: Previous research demonstrated that urinary ethanol concentrations were significantly lower in hangover resistant individuals compared to drinkers who reported having a hangover. This finding suggests that the rate of ethanol metabolism is faster in drinkers who do not experience an alcohol hangover. This study aimed to directly compare alcohol metabolism after administering a low dose of ethanol to hangover sensitive drinkers and hangover resistant drinkers. METHODS: Social drinkers who previously participated in hangover trials at Utrecht University were invited to participate...
February 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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