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Drug and Alcohol Dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793189/effects-of-exposure-to-anti-vaping-public-service-announcements-among-current-smokers-and-dual-users-of-cigarettes-and-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems
#1
Andy S L Tan, Vaughan W Rees, Justin Rodgers, Emeka Agudile, Natasha A Sokol, Kyeungyeun Yie, Ashley Sanders-Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Anti-vaping public service announcements (PSAs) are intended to discourage vaping or use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). However, vaping portrayals in PSAs may have unintended effects if they increase smoking or vaping urges. This study examined benefits and unintended effects of anti-vaping PSAs with vapor portrayals on smoking and vaping-related outcomes. METHODS: Young adult smokers (N = 171) and dual users (N = 122) aged 21-30 years were randomly assigned to view: 1) anti-vaping PSAs with vapor; 2) anti-vaping PSAs without vapor; 3) physical activity PSAs; or 4) anti-smoking PSAs with smoking cues...
May 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778774/continuous-opioid-substitution-treatment-over-five-years-heroin-use-trajectories-and-outcomes
#2
Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This is the first national study in England of continuous long-term opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: All adults were admitted to community OST for opioid use disorder (OUD) in 2008/09 with continuous enrolment to 2013/14 (n = 7719). Heroin use trajectories were identified by multilevel Latent Class Growth Analysis. In Year 6 and 7 of follow-up, the outcome measure (analysed by multilevel, multivariable logistic regression) was 'successful completion and no re-presentation' (SCNR) to community treatment within six months...
May 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778771/do-serum-markers-of-liver-fibrosis-vary-by-hcv-infection-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#3
Arantza Sanvisens, Alvaro Muñoz, Ferran Bolao, Paola Zuluaga, Magí Farré, Inmaculada Jarrin, Jordi Tor, Roberto Muga
INTRODUCTION: HCV infection is frequent in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Ethanol and hepatitis C have a synergistic effect that increases the risk of end-stage liver disease. We aimed to assess fibrosis of the liver in patients admitted to treatment of AUD. METHODS: Data were collected in two hospital units between 2000 and 2014. Liver fibrosis was assessed by serum biomarkers APRI, FIB-4 and Forns, and Advanced Liver Fibrosis (ALF) was defined if APRI > 1...
May 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775959/adolescent-smokers-response-to-reducing-the-nicotine-content-of-cigarettes-acute-effects-on-withdrawal-symptoms-and-subjective-evaluations
#4
Rachel N Cassidy, Suzanne M Colby, Jennifer W Tidey, Kristina M Jackson, Patricia A Cioe, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Dorothy Hatsukami
BACKGROUND: Mandating a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level could dramatically reduce smoking rates in the US. However, little is known about the effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes in adolescents. METHODS: Following overnight abstinence, adolescent daily smokers (ages 15-19, n = 50) reported on their craving, withdrawal, and positive and negative affect pre- and post- ad lib smoking of one cigarette containing varying nicotine content (15...
May 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783095/initiating-buprenorphine-treatment-prior-to-versus-after-release-from-prison-arrest-outcomes
#5
Michael S Gordon, Thomas R Blue, Kathryn Couvillion, Robert P Schwartz, Kevin E O'Grady, Terrence T Fitzgerald, Frank J Vocci
BACKGROUND: This secondary analysis of a randomized trial examines the association between initiation of buprenorphine treatment prior to, versus post-release, and rearrests during the 12-months following release. METHODS: Official rearrest data (N = 199) for the 12-months post-release were examined. Four outcomes were measured: (1) rearrested (yes/no), (2) time to rearrest, (3) number of rearrests, and (4) severity of charges (less severe vs. severe). RESULTS: A minority (43...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778770/age-related-prevalence-and-twelve-month-incidence-of-illicit-drug-use-in-a-cohort-of-australian-gay-and-bisexual-men-results-from-the-flux-study
#6
Fengyi Jin, Mohamed A Hammoud, Lisa Maher, Louisa Degenhardt, Adam Bourne, Toby Lea, Stefanie Vaccher, Jeffrey Grierson, Bridget Haire, Garrett P Prestage
BACKGROUND: We report prevalence and incidence of drug use initiation in Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM) participating in an online cohort study. METHODS: Between September 2014 and June 2015, 1,710 GBM were enrolled in the Following Lives Undergoing Change Study and followed-up six monthly. Participants were asked about measures of lifetime use at baseline and recent use (last six months) at all visits. Drug use initiation was defined as men who reported having never used a specific drug prior to baseline and reported recent use at follow-up...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778009/exploring-opioid-use-disorder-its-impact-and-treatment-among-individuals-experiencing-homelessness-as-part-of-a-family
#7
Avik Chatterjee, Eun Jin Yu, Lindsay Tishberg
BACKGROUND: Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) causes significant morbidity and mortality among people experiencing homelessness. We aimed to explore the unique way in which OUD impacts individuals experiencing homelessness as part of a family. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with adults experiencing OUD staying in Boston-area family shelters along with dependent children. We used Borkan's Immersion-Crystallization method to uncover themes from interview transcripts...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776688/naloxone-laws-facilitate-the-establishment-of-overdose-education-and-naloxone-distribution-programs-in-the-united-states
#8
Barrot H Lambdin, Corey S Davis, Eliza Wheeler, Stephen Tueller, Alex H Kral
BACKGROUND: The opioid overdose crisis in the United States continues to worsen. Opioid overdose mortality is entirely preventable with timely administration of naloxone. Since 2001, many states have passed laws to create an enabling environment for the implementation of overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs. We assessed whether state-level naloxone laws and their provisions stimulated the implementation of OEND programs in the United States. METHODS: Covering the period from 2000 to 2014, we utilized five data sources including the Westlaw legal database, the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System, the Harm Reduction Coalition's OEND database, National Center of Health Statistics and the United States Census...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779761/planting-the-seed-for-marijuana-use-changes-in-exposure-to-medical-marijuana-advertising-and-subsequent-adolescent-marijuana-use-cognitions-and-consequences-over-seven-years
#9
Elizabeth J D'Amico, Anthony Rodriguez, Joan S Tucker, Eric R Pedersen, Regina A Shih
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use during adolescence is associated with neurocognitive deficits and poorer functioning across several domains. It is likely that more states will pass both medical and recreational marijuana legalization laws in the coming elections; therefore, we must begin to look more closely at the longitudinal effects of medical marijuana (MM) advertising on marijuana use among adolescents so that we can better understand effects that this advertising may have on their subsequent marijuana use and related outcomes...
May 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787966/injection-drug-use-hiv-hcv-and-related-services-in-nonurban-areas-of-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Catherine E Paquette, Robin A Pollini
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use (IDU) in nonurban areas of the United States is a growing public health concern, but there has been no comprehensive assessment of existing research on injection-related HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) in nonurban communities. We conducted a systematic review to assess the current literature and identify knowledge gaps. METHODS: We systematically searched six databases for relevant articles published between January 1990 and June 2016 and screened, extracted, and analyzed the resulting data...
May 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763848/prevalence-and-correlates-of-adolescents-e-cigarette-use-frequency-and-dependence
#11
Erin A Vogel, Danielle E Ramo, Mark L Rubinstein
BACKGROUND: Understanding predictors of e-cigarette use among adolescents in the context of wide availability and extreme popularity of these products is important for prevention and treatment. This study identifies correlates of e-cigarette use frequency and dependence among adolescent users. METHODS: Adolescent e-cigarette users (N = 173) were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants reported demographic and psychosocial characteristics, e-cigarette use behaviors, and cigarette use...
May 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754030/receipt-of-alcohol-related-care-among-patients-with-hcv-and-unhealthy-alcohol-use
#12
Mandy D Owens, George N Ioannou, Judith L Tsui, Jennifer E Edelman, Preston A Greene, Emily C Williams
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use-particularly unhealthy alcohol use-exacerbates risks associated with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, whether unhealthy alcohol use is appropriately addressed among HCV+ patients is understudied. We examined receipt of alcohol-related care among HCV+ patients and unhealthy alcohol use. METHODS: All positive alcohol screens (AUDIT-C score ≥5) documented 10/01/09-5/30/13 were identified from national electronic health records data from the Veterans Health Administration (VA)...
May 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754028/frequency-and-factors-associated-with-providing-injection-initiation-assistance-in-tallinn-estonia
#13
Anneli Uusküla, David M Barnes, Mait Raag, Ave Talu, Susan Tross, Don C Des Jarlais
Injection drug use is expanding in numerous regions in the world. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) play an important role encouraging new persons into injecting, by providing injection initiation assistance ("assisting" behaviors) and stimulating interest in injection ("promoting" behaviors). OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of assisting and promoting behaviors, and to identify factors associated with assisting, among PWID in Tallinn, Estonia. METHODS: In 2016, PWID were recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS), interviewed, and HIV tested...
May 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775955/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-chronic-pain-are-associated-with-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-a-2012-2013-american-nationally-representative-survey
#14
Elena Bilevicius, Jordana L Sommer, Gordon J G Asmundson, Renée El-Gabalawy
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain conditions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur and are associated with opioid use disorder (OUD). The aims of this paper were to identify prevalence estimates of OUD among individuals with and without PTSD and assess independent and combined contributions of PTSD and chronic pain conditions on OUD in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Data were extracted from 36,309 individuals from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions...
May 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778776/identification-and-medical-utilization-of-incident-cases-of-alcohol-dependence-a-population-based-case-control-study
#15
Chun-Hung Pan, Min-Shan Li, Tien-Wey Yang, Ming-Chyi Huang, Sheng-Shiang Su, Yen-Ni Hung, Chiao-Chicy Chen, Chian-Jue Kuo
BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) often seek help from medical professionals due to alcohol-related diseases, but the overall distribution of medical specialties identifying new AD cases is unclear. We investigated how such cases were identified and how medical resources were utilized before the identification of AD in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: We enrolled a population-based cohort (N = 1,000,000) using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan; 8181 cases with incident AD were retrieved between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010...
May 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778775/prenatal-exposures-to-tobacco-and-cannabis-associations-with-adult-electronic-cigarette-use
#16
Natacha M De Genna, Gale A Richardson, Lidush Goldschmidt, Nancy L Day, Marie D Cornelius
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposures to tobacco and cannabis are associated with combustible cigarette use. This study evaluated pathways from these prenatal exposures to adult electronic cigarette use. We tested whether there were indirect effects of these prenatal exposures via childhood behavior dysregulation, early tobacco use, and adolescent tobacco dependence. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 adult offspring (22-33 years old) from 3 prenatal cohorts with trimester-specific data on exposures to tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis...
May 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758380/predictors-of-positive-drinking-outcomes-among-youth-receiving-an-alcohol-brief-intervention-in-the-emergency-department
#17
Alan K Davis, Brooke J Arterberry, Erin E Bonar, Stephen T Chermack, Frederic C Blow, Rebecca M Cunningham, Maureen A Walton
BACKGROUND: Reducing underage drinking is a public health priority given increased risk for injury and other consequences. Emergency department (ED) visits offer a potential "teachable moment" to initiate interventions among youth engaged in risky drinking. Given mixed findings for alcohol brief interventions (BIs), this paper examined baseline markers of BI response in order to inform future interventions. METHOD: We conducted secondary analyses of data from a randomized controlled trial of an alcohol BI delivered to youth in an ED...
May 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#18
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754031/dispositional-mindfulness-and-prescription-opioid-misuse-among-chronic-pain-patients-craving-and-attention-to-positive-information-as-mediating-mechanisms
#19
Sarah E Priddy, Adam W Hanley, Michael R Riquino, Keith A Platt, Anne K Baker, Eric L Garland
OBJECTIVES: Opioid-treated chronic pain patients may be at risk for prescription opioid misuse due to heightened opioid craving coupled with deficits in attention to naturally rewarding, positive stimuli. Conversely, dispositional mindfulness, which is associated with reduced craving and increased responsiveness to natural rewards, may serve as a protective factor and buffer opioid misuse risk. The current investigation aimed to examine the association between mindfulness and opioid misuse, and to test opioid craving and attention to positive information as mediators of this relationship...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778773/effects-of-electronic-cigarette-liquid-solvents-propylene-glycol-and-vegetable-glycerin-on-user-nicotine-delivery-heart-rate-subjective-effects-and-puff-topography
#20
Tory R Spindle, Soha Talih, Marzena M Hiler, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Matthew S Halquist, Alison B Breland, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a class of tobacco products that produce different effects (e.g., nicotine delivery), depending on the device, liquid, and behavioral factors. However, the influence of the two primary ECIG liquid solvents, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG), on ECIG acute effects is unknown. METHODS: Thirty ECIG-experienced, ≥12-h nicotine- abstinent participants completed four conditions consisting of two ECIG-use bouts (10 puffs, 30 s interpuff-interval) differing only by liquid PG:VG ratio (2PG:98VG, 20PG:80VG, 55PG:45VG, 100PG)...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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