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Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Matthew J Worley, Aimee-Noelle Swanson, Keith G Heinzerling, Daniel J O Roache, Steven Shoptaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Julie Neisler, Lorraine R Reitzel, Lorra Garey, Darla E Kenzdor, Emily T Hébert, Maya Vijayaraghavan, Michael S Businelle
BACKGROUND: Over 70% of homeless adults smoke cigarettes. Despite the desire to quit, this group rarely receives the external support to make or maintain a successful quit attempt (SQA; intentional quit attempt lasting >24 h). The Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) is a cigarette dependence measure that independently predicts SQAs among domiciled adults. For homeless adults, social support may be a way to buffer the impact of cigarette dependence on SQAs. METHODS: The association of the HSI and past-year SQAs, and the potential moderating role of social support, was examined among 445 homeless smokers (Mage  = 43...
July 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Laélia Briand Madrid, Stéphane Morel, Khadim Ndiaye, Salim Mezaache, Daniela Rojas Castro, Marion Mora, Fabrice Olivet, Virginie Laporte, Camelia Protopopescu, Patrizia Carrieri, Perrine Roux
BACKGROUND: Regular consumption of opioids exposes individuals to several side effects. One of these is a loss of libido, which has a negative impact on quality of life. We used a cross-sectional community-based survey of people who inject opioids to study factors associated with loss of libido, and more particularly the impact of the type of opioid injected. METHODS: This secondary study was conducted throughout France in 2015 and involved 514 people who inject opioids...
July 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Rodrigo Marín-Navarrete, Aldebarán Toledo-Fernández, Luis Villalobos-Gallegos, Alejandro Pérez-López, María Elena Medina-Mora
BACKGROUND: Inhalant use disorder (IUD) is associated with deficits in executive functions (EFs). We described latent profiles of EFs and distribution of neuropsychiatric disorders and patterns of severity of use across these profiles. METHODS: Individuals with IUD were recruited at community-based residential facilities for substance use treatment in Mexico City. Latent profile analysis was conducted with the following tasks: self-ordered pointing, Stroop, Iowa gambling, Wisconsin Card Sorting and Tower of Hanoi...
July 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Mark Olfson, Melanie Wall, Shuai Wang, Stephen Crystal, Carlos Blanco
BACKGROUND: Little is known about risk factors for repeated opioid overdose and fatal opioid overdose in the first year following nonfatal opioid overdose. METHODS: We identified a national retrospective longitudinal cohort of patients aged 18-64 years in the Medicaid program who received a clinical diagnosis of nonfatal opioid overdose. Repeated overdoses and fatal opioid overdoses were measured with the Medicaid record and the National Death Index. Rates of repeat overdose per 1000 person-years and fatal overdose per 100,000 person-years were determined...
July 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Allshine Chen, Nicolle M Krebs, Junjia Zhu, Joshua E Muscat
BACKGROUND: The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) as measured by the ratio of 3'hydroxycotinine to cotinine has been examined in relation to tobacco use patterns including cigarettes per day and quit success to determine its role in nicotine dependence. We examined the NMR in relation to smoking topography and tested the hypothesis that normal metabolizers have a greater total daily puff volume than slow metabolizers. METHODS: The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) is a longitudinal study of 352 adults who smoked, on average, 17 cigarettes per day...
July 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sara L Kroll, Michael D Wunderli, Matthias Vonmoos, Lea M Hulka, Katrin H Preller, Oliver G Bosch, Markus R Baumgartner, Boris B Quednow
BACKGROUND: Using more than one psychotropic substance is accompanied by increased risks for psychiatric and physical disorders. Accordingly, deficits in basal cognitive functions have been consistently associated with polysubstance use (PSU), whereas little is known about potential impairments in more complex socio-cognitive skills, which are relevant for daily-life functioning. Therefore, we investigated the effects of toxicological validated stimulant PSU on social cognition under consideration of potential cumulative effects...
June 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Alexei Zelenev, Portia Shea, Alyona Mazhnaya, Julia Rozanova, Lynn Madden, Ruthanne Marcus, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) in Ukraine were first introduced in 2004 not as addiction treatment, but for HIV prevention. Numerous obstacles have thwarted OAT scale-up, including individual constraints and structural barriers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1613 opioid dependent people who inject drugs (PWID) were recruited in 2014-2015 using stratified sampling in Kyiv, Odesa, Mykolayiv, Dnipro and Lviv. Analysis was restricted to a subset of 811 PWID who never received OAT...
June 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Rose Crossin, Debbie Scott, Katrina G Witt, Jhodie R Duncan, Karen Smith, Dan I Lubman
BACKGROUND: Inhalant misuse is the deliberate inhalation of products containing toluene to induce intoxication. Chronic harms associated with inhalant misuse are well described; including alcohol and other drug use, mental health disorders, and suicidal behaviours. However, the nature of the acute harms from inhalants and characteristics of people who experience those harms are not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the acute harms associated with inhalant misuse attendances, and to determine whether these differ by age or gender...
June 28, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Annie R Peng, Robert Schnoll, Larry W Hawk, Paul Cinciripini, Tony P George, Caryn Lerman, Rachel F Tyndale
INTRODUCTION: Adherence to pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, such as varenicline, is necessary for effective treatment. The relationship between varenicline adherence, determined by commonly used indirect (i.e., self-reported pill counts) and infrequently used direct (i.e., varenicline levels) methods, and abstinence outcomes have not been previously examined, nor has their impact on the outcomes of a genetically randomized clinical trial been assessed. METHODS: At Week 1 following target quit date, self-reported pill count and salivary varenicline levels were obtained from participants (N = 376) in a smoking cessation clinical trial (NCT01314001)...
June 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sharon Cox, Pierre Maurage, Richard O'Connor, Chris Chandler, Kevin Riggs
BACKGROUND: Understanding the world from another's perspective is an important and potentially automatic human process which is crucial for efficient social interactions. However, while deficits have repeatedly been described for various interpersonal abilities in alcohol-dependence (AD), only one previous study has investigated perspective taking in this pathology. AIM: The current study aimed to explore further how AD affects visual-spatial perspective taking (VSPT) by examining the effect of positive emotional stimuli on VSPT in both an AD and non-AD sample...
June 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Filipa Raposo Pereira, Minni T B McMaster, Nikki Polderman, Yvon D A T de Vries, Wim van den Brink, Guido A van Wingen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug of abuse associated with increasing numbers of GHB-dependent patients and emergency attendances often related to GHB-induced coma. Animal studies suggest that GHB induces oxidative stress in the hippocampus, resulting in memory impairments. However, the consequences of chronic GHB use and GHB-induced coma on human brain function and cognition are unknown. METHODS: We recruited 27 GHB users with ≥4 GHB-induced comas (GHB-Coma), 27 GHB users without a coma (GHB-NoComa), and 27 polydrug users who never used GHB (No-GHB)...
June 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Geoff Bardwell, Thomas Kerr, Jade Boyd, Ryan McNeil
OBJECTIVES: A growing body of research points to increasing peer involvement in programs for people who use drugs, although this work has focused primarily on naloxone education and distribution. This study extends this work by examining the roles of peers in leading a novel overdose response program within emergency shelters. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 people who use drugs, recruited from two emergency shelters, as well as ethnographic observation in these settings...
June 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Junchao Tong, Paul S Fitzmaurice, Anna Moszczynska, Gausiha Rathitharan, Lee-Cyn Ang, Jeffrey H Meyer, Romina Mizrahi, Isabelle Boileau, Yoshiaki Furukawa, Tina McCluskey, Napapon Sailasuta, Stephen J Kish
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that exposure to either of the two widely used drugs of abuse, heroin or cocaine, causes depletion of the antioxidant, reduced glutathione, a hallmark of oxidative stress, in the brain. However, the relevance of the animal findings to the human is uncertain and clinical trials with the antioxidant GSH precursor n-acetylcysteine have produced mixed results in cocaine dependence. METHODS: Our major objective was to compare glutathione levels, determined by an HPLC-coulometric procedure, in autopsied brain of chronic heroin (n = 11) and cocaine users (n = 9), who were positive for the drugs in the brain, to those of matched controls (n = 16)...
June 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Nathaniel R Riggs, Bradley T Conner, Jamie E Parnes, Mark A Prince, Audrey M Shillington, Melissa W George
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use is common among U.S. college students. Liberalization of marijuana use policies is hypothesized to decrease social norms discouraging use, which protects against marijuana use. This may increase the importance of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) to reduce marijuana use harm. METHODS: This study tested direct and moderated (by sex) program effects of an adapted version of the Marijuana eCHECKUPTO GO, a web-based marijuana use intervention providing university-specific personalized feedback (PF) with normative information and PBS to students attending a university in a state with legalized adult recreational marijuana...
June 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jon-Patrick Allem, Likhit Dharmapuri, Jennifer B Unger, Tess Boley Cruz
BACKGROUND: As vaping rapidly becomes more prevalent, social media data can be harnessed to capture individuals' discussions of e-cigarette products quickly. The JUUL vaporizer is the latest advancement in e-cigarette technology, which delivers nicotine to the user from a device that is the size and shape of a thumb drive. Despite JUUL's growing popularity, little research has been conducted on JUUL. Here we utilized Twitter data to determine the public's early experiences with JUUL describing topics of posts...
June 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Alex K Gertner, Marisa Elena Domino, Corey S Davis
BACKGROUND: Naloxone is a prescription medication that can quickly and effectively reverse opioid overdose. Medicaid is a major payer of substance use disorder services, and Medicaid beneficiaries experience especially high rates of opioid overdose. As opioid overdose rates have risen sharply, every state has modified its laws to make naloxone easier to access. The aim of this paper is to determine whether implementation of different provisions of naloxone access laws led to increased naloxone dispensing financed by Medicaid...
June 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Amanda R Bolbecker, Deborah Apthorp, Ashley Schnakenberg Martin, Behdad Tahayori, Leah Moravec, Karen L Gomez, Brian F O'Donnell, Sharlene D Newman, William P Hetrick
INTRODUCTION: A prominent effect of acute cannabis use is impaired motor coordination and driving performance. However, few studies have evaluated balance in chronic cannabis users, even though density of the CB1 receptor, which mediates the psychoactive effects of cannabis, is extremely high in brain regions critically involved in this fundamental behavior. The present study measured postural sway in regular cannabis users and used rambling and trembling analysis to quantify the integrity of central and peripheral nervous system contributions to the sway signal...
June 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Amanda K Gilmore, Jennifer L Jones, Angela D Moreland, Christine K Hahn, Kathleen T Brady, Sudie E Back
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) can be dangerous, and understanding factors contributing to alcohol use in this population is important. The current study examined alcohol use among individuals with prescription OUD based on distress tolerance. It was hypothesized that individuals with greater distress tolerance abilities would have a lower frequency and quantity of alcohol use compared to individuals with less distress tolerance. It was also hypothesized that this association would differ based on gender...
June 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ty S Schepis, Christian J Teter, Sean Esteban McCabe
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug misuse (PDM) rates are highest in adolescents and young adults. Little research in these high-risk groups has examined PDM differences by educational status or attainment. This investigation attempted to further our understanding of adolescent and young adult prescription drug use and misuse through examining PDM type (i.e., nonmedical misuse, medical misuse and mixed misuse) and substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms from PDM by educational status/attainment...
June 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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