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Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Claude M Setodji, Katherine E Watkins, Sarah B Hunter, Colleen McCullough, Bradley D Stein, Karen Chan Osilla, Allison J Ober
BACKGROUND: To assess the mechanism by which a collaborative care (CC) intervention improves self-reported abstinence among primary care patients with opioid and alcohol use disorders (OAUD) compared to treatment as usual. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of SUMMIT, a randomized controlled trial of CC for OAUD. Participants were 258 patients with OAUD receiving primary care at a multi-site Federally Qualified Health Center. Using a mediation analysis decomposition of a total effect into a mediated and a direct effect, we examined the effect of CC on abstinence at six months, attributable to the HEDIS treatment initiation and engagement measures for the total sample, for individuals with alcohol use disorders alone, and for those with a co-morbid opioid use disorder...
September 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sarah S Dermody
BACKGROUND: Relative to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth exhibit increased substance use. Risk for polysubstance use, which magnifies drug-related harms, remains largely unexamined for sexual minority youth. This investigation used a nationally-representative dataset to compare polysubstance use patterns between sexual minority and heterosexual youth. METHODS: The cross-sectional 2015 CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (N = 15,624) was utilized...
September 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Adam W Carrico, Walter Gόmez, Jennifer Jain, Steven Shoptaw, Michael V Discepola, David Olem, Justin Lagana-Jackson, Rick Andrews, Torsten B Neilands, Samantha E Dilworth, Jennifer L Evans, William J Woods, Judith T Moskowitz
BACKGROUND: Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based intervention providing rewards in exchange for biomarkers that confirm abstinence from stimulants such as methamphetamine. We tested the efficacy of a positive affect intervention designed to boost the effectiveness of CM with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using sexual minority men. METHODS: This attention-matched, randomized controlled trial of a positive affect intervention delivered during CM was registered on www...
September 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Salim Mezaache, Camélia Protopopescu, Marie Debrus, Stéphane Morel, Marion Mora, Marie Suzan-Monti, Daniel Rojas Castro, Patrizia Carrieri, Perrine Roux
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs face several health issues because of unsafe injecting practices. We aimed to evaluate changes in supervised drug-injecting practices following the implementation of a face-to-face educational intervention. METHODS: The national study ANRS-AERLI was conducted in 17 harm reduction (HR) facilities in France between 2011 and 2013. Eight offered the intervention and nine did not. We conducted a pre-post analysis focusing on injecting practices data, collected in the 8 HR facilities providing the intervention...
September 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Elisha M Wachman, A Hutcheson Warden, Zoe Thomas, Jo Ann Thomas-Lewis, Hira Shrestha, F N U Nikita, Daniel Shaw, Kelley Saia, Davida M Schiff
BACKGROUND: Among opioid-exposed infants, psychiatric medication co-exposure is common. Our objective was to compare Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) outcomes based on individual psychiatric medication co-exposures. METHODS: A retrospective study of 744 opioid-exposed mother-infant dyads from a single institution was performed. Mothers on pharmacotherapy with methadone or buprenorphine at delivery were included. Data were collected on maternal demographics, psychiatric medication use, and NAS outcomes, including any medication treatment, adjunctive medication treatment, length of hospital stay (LOS), and opioid treatment days...
September 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Nicole L Tosun, Sharon S Allen, Lynn E Eberly, Meng Yao, William W Stoops, Justin C Strickland, Katherine A Harrison, Mustafa Al Absi, Marilyn E Carroll
INTRODUCTION: Despite extensive efforts to develop effective smoking cessation interventions, 70-85% of American cigarette smokers who quit relapse within one year. Exercise has shown promise as an intervention; however, many results have been equivocal. This study explored how exercise is associated with smoking-related symptomatology, smoking behavior and impulsivity in male and female smokers. METHODS: Participants were recruited throughout the United States using the on-line crowdsourcing platform, Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
September 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Yiyang Liu, Victoria Williamson, Barry Setlow, Linda B Cottler, Lori A Knackstedt
BACKGROUND: Polysubstance use (PSU) is prevalent among individuals with substance use disorders, but the vast majority of preclinical substance use research has focused on individual substances in isolation. Cocaine has been prevalent in the repertoire of persons who use more than one illicit substance. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis combining results from literature searches and secondary data analyses to estimate the prevalence of simultaneous and concurrent cocaine + alcohol and cocaine + cannabis use among cocaine users...
September 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Nhung Nguyen, Julia McQuoid, Danielle Ramo, Louisa M Holmes, Pamela M Ling, Johannes Thrul
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority young adults have higher smoking rates than the general young adult population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The current study aimed to: 1) identify real-time predictors of smoking among sexual minority and heterosexual smokers and 2) examine between-group differences in these predictors. METHODS: We conducted an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study in the San Francisco Bay Area, California in 2016-2017...
August 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Patricia R Freeman, Emily R Hankosky, Michelle R Lofwall, Jeffery C Talbert
Opioid overdose deaths have been on the rise in the United States since 1999. Naloxone is a competitive opioid antagonist that rapidly reverses opioid overdose. The implementation of naloxone access laws and development of naloxone formulations that can be administered by laypersons have coincided with changes in the landscape of naloxone availability in the United States. Using data from IQVIA's National Prescription Audit® we present the number of naloxone prescriptions dispensed quarterly from 2011 through the second quarter of 2017...
August 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Erin A McClure, Nathaniel L Baker, Susan C Sonne, Udi E Ghitza, Rachel L Tomko, LaTrice Montgomery, Shanna Babalonis, Garth E Terry, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND: It is common for cannabis users to also use tobacco. While data suggest that tobacco users have more difficulty achieving cannabis cessation, secondary analyses of clinical trial data sets may provide insight into the moderating variables contributing to this relationship, as well as changes in tobacco use during cannabis treatment. Those were the aims of this secondary analysis. METHODS: The parent study was a multi-site trial of N-acetylcysteine for cannabis dependence conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network...
August 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Benjamin H Han, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use is increasing among middle-aged and older adults in the US, but little is understood of its pattern of use by this population. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of responses from 17,608 adults aged ≥50 years from the 2015 and 2016 administrations of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Prevalence of past-year marijuana use was estimated and compared between middle-aged adults (age 50-64) and older adults (≥65)...
August 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jill A Rabinowitz, Rashelle J Musci, Adam J Milam, Kelly Benke, George R Uhl, Danielle Y Sisto, Nicholas S Ialongo, Brion S Maher
Externalizing disorders have been extensively linked to substance use problems. However, less is known about whether genetic factors underpinning externalizing disorders and environmental features interact to predict substance use disorders (i.e., marijuana abuse and dependence) among urban African Americans. We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) interacted with contextual factors (i.e., parental monitoring, community disadvantage) to influence risk for marijuana use disorders in a sample of African American youth...
August 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ruixiang Wang, Kathryn A Hausknecht, Ying-Ling Shen, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Paul Vezina, Roh-Yu Shen
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) leads to multiple cognitive and behavioral deficits including increased drug addiction risk. Previous studies have shown that rearing environment plays a significant role in impacting addiction risk. In the present study, we investigated if environmental enrichment during development could be effective in lowering the PE-induced increase in addiction risk. To simulate heavy drinking during pregnancy in humans, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received ethanol (6 g/kg/day) or vehicle through intragastric gavage on gestation days 8-20...
August 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Meg E Fluharty, Hannah Sallis, Marcus R Munafò
Observational studies suggest childhood externalizing disorders are associated with increased smoking and earlier initiation. However, causality cannot be inferred from observational data alone. The current study uses two-sample MR to examine the causal relationship between externalizing behaviors and tobacco use. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with aggression were obtained from the Early Life Epidemiology Consortium (mean age 8), ADHD from the Integrative Psychiatric Research and Psychiatric Genomics Consortiums (age range 6-18), and tobacco initiation and age of onset from the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium...
August 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sharon Sznitman, Yifat Ben Baruch, Talya Greene, Marc Gelkopf
BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that between individuals there is a positive association between medically motivated use and cannabis use frequency and quantity. While between-subjects' analyses are useful for understanding shared vulnerabilities, research has so far not examined within-subjects' relationships which are closer to evaluating functional relationships (i.e., do individuals tend to use cannabis more heavily subsequent to elevations in pain experiences?). To better understand the association between experiences of pain and cannabis use, the current paper examines whether there is a functional within-subjects association between experiences of pain and heavy cannabis use...
August 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Russell Turner, Kristian Daneback, Anette Skårner
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal reciprocal associations between substance use and delinquency are understudied in general adolescent populations, with previous research showing differing findings. This study aims to assess reciprocal associations between drunkenness, drug use and delinquency in a prospective, age-homogenous cohort study, using an analytical strategy that separates within- from between-person variance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data comes from the Longitudinal Research on Development in Adolescence (LoRDIA) study in Sweden...
August 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Declan T Barry, Brandon D L Marshall, William C Becker, Adam J Gordon, Stephen Crystal, Robert D Kerns, Julie R Gaither, Kirsha S Gordon, Amy C Justice, David A Fiellin, E Jennifer Edelman
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) is a public health problem, few studies have examined the new-onset NMUPO in clinical populations. We estimated NMUPO incidence among veterans in medical care who had received prescription opioid medication and examined correlates of new-onset NMUPO. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Veterans Health Administration primary care and infectious disease clinics in Atlanta, Baltimore, Bronx, Houston, Los Angeles, Manhattan, Pittsburgh, and Washington, DC...
August 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Nicole K Lee, Linda Jenner, Angela Harney, Jacqui Cameron
BACKGROUND: Demand for treatment for amphetamine use is increasing internationally. Establishing effective pharmacotherapy provides broader treatment options for people who are dependent on amphetamine and may encourage engagement in evidence-based behavioral treatment. This study aimed to identify medicines that have potential in improving treatment outcomes for people who are dependent on amphetamines. METHODS: Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from 1997 to 2012 and again from 2013 to 2016...
August 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lance O Bauer
BACKGROUND: The objective of this investigation was to detect evidence of the synergism in the effects of HIV-1 and drug abuse on brain function that has been hypothesized but rarely shown. The investigation incorporated several noteworthy improvements in the approach. It used urine toxicology tests to exclude participants complicated by recent methadone use and illicit drug use. Also, it defined drug abuse on a scale that considered symptom severity. Most importantly, it examined inter-trial variability in brain activity as a potentially more sensitive indicator of group differences and functional impairment than the across-trial average...
August 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Fabien D'Hondt, Charles Lescut, Pierre Maurage, Olivier Menard, Bernard Gibour, Olivier Cottencin, Solène Montègue, Renaud Jardri, Benjamin Rolland
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) frequently show cognitive deficits that can be efficiently identified using screening tools such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. These cognitive deficits, which reduce the efficacy of therapeutic interventions and may contribute to dropout and relapse, could be, however, partly due to a treatable other cause. Accordingly, this exploratory study examined whether psychiatric comorbid disorders can induce a positive MoCA screening among recently detoxified SAUD subjects...
August 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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