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Drug and Alcohol Dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419406/longitudinal-patterns-of-amphetamine-use-from-adolescence-to-adulthood-a-latent-class-analysis-of-a-20-year-prospective-study-of-australians
#1
Gary C K Chan, Peter Butterworth, Denise Becker, Louisa Degenhardt, Emily Stockings, Wayne Hall, George Patton
BACKGROUND: To examine the longitudinal patterns of amphetamine use over twenty years from adolescence to the mid-thirties; and identify adolescent antecedents of future problematic patterns of use. DESIGN: Ten-wave longitudinal study following participants from age 15 to age 35 in Victoria, Australia. Participants (N = 1755; 47% males) first enrolled in the Victoria Adolescent Health Cohort Study in 1992. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome: Self-reported frequency of amphetamine use...
November 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419404/alcohol-consumption-and-s-klotho-plasma-levels-in-sedentary-healthy-middle-aged-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Lucas Jurado-Fasoli, Francisco J Amaro-Gahete, Alejandro De-la-O, Ángel Gutiérrez, Manuel J Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol consumption is related to several diseases and injuries that accelerate the ageing process and increase the mortality and morbidity risk. The soluble form of the α-Klotho gene (called S-Klotho) is widely considered as a powerful anti-ageing biomarker. AIM: The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and S-Klotho plasma levels in sedentary middle-aged adults. METHODS: 74 (39 women) middle-aged sedentary adults (40-65 years old) participated in the present study...
November 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419403/hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-diversity-and-distribution-among-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients-in-jiangsu-china
#3
Jing Lu, Li Zhang, Xiaoqin Xu, Yuanfang Chen, Ying Zhou, Zhi Zhang, Gengfeng Fu, Guohong Chen
BACKGROUND: Heroin users are vulnerable and represent a highly-infected reservoir for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study investigated HCV prevalence and genotypes distribution among heroin users who received methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Jiangsu. METHODS: From June to December in 2016, a total of 534 patients among nine MMT clinics in six regions of Jiangsu were enrolled, with their demographic characteristics collected and serum samples tested for HCV antibody...
November 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412899/relationship-between-childhood-abuse-and-substance-misuse-problems-is-mediated-by-substance-use-coping-motives-in-school-attending-south-african-adolescents
#4
Lee Hogarth, Lindi Martin, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: In adults, it has been shown that the relationship between childhood abuse and substance misuse problems is mediated by the belief that substance use helps cope with negative affective states. By contrast, in adolescents, it is unknown whether drug use coping motives play this same mediating role. METHODS: Secondary analysis of 1149 school attending adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa (average age = 16.24 years, range = 13-23; 60% female)...
October 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415173/externalizing-and-self-medicating-heterogeneity-among-repeat-dui-offenders
#5
Sarah E Nelson, Emily Shoov, Richard A LaBrie, Howard J Shaffer
AIM: Despite significant reductions in Driving Under the Influence (DUI) in the United States during recent decades, DUI continues to be a major public health threat. The current study investigated the intersection of two domains known to influence DUI: criminal history and psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: DUI recidivists (N = 743) attending a court-mandated two-week inpatient DUI program completed a computerized mental health assessment as part of their intake to that program...
October 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399498/young-adult-dual-combusted-cigarette-and-e-cigarette-users-anticipated-responses-to-a-nicotine-reduction-policy-and-menthol-ban-in-combusted-cigarettes
#6
Lauren R Pacek, Jason A Oliver, Maggie M Sweitzer, F Joseph McClernon
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess young adult dual e-cigarette (EC) and combusted cigarette (CC) users' anticipated responses to a hypothetical very low nicotine content product standard and menthol ban in CC. METHODS: Data came from 240 young adult (18-29 years) dual CC and EC users recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk between June 20-22, 2017. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics. McNemar's tests were used to assess differences between product categories in terms of anticipated responses to hypothetical regulations...
October 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391835/non-fatal-opioid-related-overdoses-among-adolescents-in-massachusetts-2012-2014
#7
Avik Chatterjee, Marc R Larochelle, Ziming Xuan, Na Wang, Dana Bernson, Michael Silverstein, Scott E Hadland, Thomas Land, Jeffrey H Samet, Alexander Y Walley, Sarah M Bagley
BACKGROUND: Opioid-related overdoses and deaths among adolescents in the United States continue to increase, but little is known about adolescents who experience opioid-related non-fatal overdose (NFOD). Our objective was to describe (1) the characteristics of adolescents aged 11-17 who experienced NFOD and (2) their receipt of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in the 12 months following NFOD, compared with adults. METHODS: We created a retrospective cohort using six Massachusetts state agency datasets linked at the individual level, with information on 98% of state residents...
October 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391834/sex-thc-and-hormones-effects-on-density-and-sensitivity-of-cb-1-cannabinoid-receptors-in-rats
#8
Charlotte E Farquhar, Christopher S Breivogel, Thomas F Gamage, Elaine A Gay, Brian F Thomas, Rebecca M Craft, Jenny L Wiley
BACKGROUND: The recent NIH mandate to consider sex as a biological variable in preclinical research has focused attention on delineation of sex differences in behavior. To investigate mechanisms underlying sex differences in Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) effects, we examined the effects of sex and gonadal hormones on CB1 receptors in cerebellum, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent gonadectomy (GDX) or sham-GDX...
October 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390550/recreational-marijuana-legalization-and-prescription-opioids-received-by-medicaid-enrollees
#9
Yuyan Shi, Di Liang, Yuhua Bao, Ruopeng An, Mark S Wallace, Igor Grant
OBJECTIVES: Medical marijuana use may substitute prescription opioid use, whereas nonmedical marijuana use may be a risk factor of prescription opioid misuse. This study examined the associations between recreational marijuana legalization and prescription opioids received by Medicaid enrollees. METHODS: State-level quarterly prescription drug utilization records for Medicaid enrollees during 2010-2017 were obtained from Medicaid State Drug Utilization Data. The primary outcome, opioid prescriptions received, was measured in three population-adjusted variables: number of opioid prescriptions, total doses of opioid prescriptions in morphine milligram equivalents, and related Medicaid spending, per quarter per 100 enrollees...
October 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414539/methamphetamine-use-and-cognitive-function-a-systematic-review-of-neuroimaging-research
#10
REVIEW
Sabrini Sabrini, Grace Y Wang, Joanne C Lin, J K Ian, Louise E Curley
BACKGROUND: Long-term use of MA has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in several domains. Neuroimaging studies have also reported structural, metabolic, and functional changes in MA users. However, no systematic review has been conducted on those studies in MA users that combined neuroimaging and cognitive tasks. METHODS: This article systematically reviews correlation between brain imaging measures and cognitive performance in subjects with current and previous history of MA use...
October 24, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399500/historical-trends-in-the-grade-of-onset-and-sequence-of-cigarette-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-among-adolescents-from-1976-2016-implications-for-gateway-patterns-in-adolescence
#11
Katherine M Keyes, Caroline Rutherford, Richard Miech
INTRODUCTION: In the past decade, marijuana use prevalence among adolescents has remained relatively steady while cigarette and alcohol prevalence has declined. We examined historical trends in: average grade of onset of marijuana, alcohol, and cigarette use by 12th grade; proportion who try alcohol/cigarettes before first marijuana use, among those who use by 12th grade; and conditional probability of marijuana use by 12th grade after trying alcohol/cigarettes. METHODS: Data were drawn from 40 yearly, cross-sectional surveys of 12th grade US adolescents...
October 24, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399499/prevalence-incidence-recovery-and-recurrence-of-alcohol-use-disorders-from-childhood-to-age-30
#12
John R Seeley, Richard F Farmer, Derek B Kosty, Jeff M Gau
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the course of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in representative samples during high-risk periods of adolescence and early adulthood. The primary objective of this research is to describe the prevalence and course of initial AUD episodes experienced between childhood and age 30 in a regionally representative cohort sample. METHODS: Study data are from an epidemiological study of 816 youth. Participants were initially selected at random from nine high schools in western Oregon, USA...
October 24, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391836/reward-and-executive-control-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-impulsivity-during-reward-based-decision-making-for-cocaine-users
#13
Andréa L Hobkirk, Ryan P Bell, Amanda V Utevsky, Scott Huettel, Christina S Meade
BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is related to impulsive decision making that is mediated by brain circuitry involved in reward processing and executive functions, such as cognitive control and attentional salience. Resting-state functional connectivity between reward and executive control circuitry is altered among cocaine users, with concomitant deficits in impulsivity and learning. Prior research has examined how select brain regions interact to influence impulsive decision making for drug users; however, research examining interactions between large-scale brain networks and impulsive behavior is limited...
October 24, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390551/differences-in-protective-factors-among-u-s-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-alcohol-use-disorder-and-their-comorbidity-results-from-the-national-health-and-resilience-in-veterans-study
#14
Elizabeth Straus, Sonya B Norman, Moira Haller, Steven M Southwick, Jessica L Hamblen, Robert H Pietrzak
BACKGROUND: Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are associated with greater clinical and functional impairments than either disorder alone, including higher rates of suicidality and reduced functioning and quality of life. Although PTSD/AUD is associated with more severe risk factors relative to either disorder alone, it is unclear whether PTSD/AUD and its related impairments are also associated with lower levels of protective factors. METHODS: We examined two composite factors of protective qualities derived from exploratory factor analyses-social connectedness (i...
October 24, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388462/perceived-social-status-and-unhealthy-habits-in-korea
#15
Younoh Kim
BACKGROUND: The association between socioeconomic status and unhealthy behaviors is well-documented in the literature. Less is known, however, about the role of subjective social status, but recent evidence shows that perceived standing in the social hierarchy has important roles in health. METHODS: This paper studies the association between perceived social status and the consumption of alcohol and tobacco among the South Korean elderly. Using data from a large longitudinal survey in Korea, we empirically estimate these correlations while controlling for a large set of confounders that include measures of objective social status...
October 24, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412898/approaches-for-creating-comparable-measures-of-alcohol-use-symptoms-harmonization-with-eight-studies-of-criminal-justice-populations
#16
Andrea M Hussong, Nisha C Gottfredson, Dan J Bauer, Patrick J Curran, Maleeha Haroon, Redonna Chandler, Shoshana Y Kahana, Joseph A C Delaney, Frederick L Altice, Curt G Beckwith, Daniel J Feaster, Patrick M Flynn, Michael S Gordon, Kevin Knight, Irene Kuo, Lawrence J Ouellet, Vu M Quan, David W Seal, Sandra A Springer
BACKGROUND: With increasing data archives comprised of studies with similar measurement, optimal methods for data harmonization and measurement scoring are a pressing need. We compare three methods for harmonizing and scoring the AUDIT as administered with minimal variation across 11 samples from eight study sites within the STTR (Seek-Test-Treat-Retain) Research Harmonization Initiative. Descriptive statistics and predictive validity results for cut-scores, sum scores, and Moderated Nonlinear Factor Analysis scores (MNLFA; a psychometric harmonization method) are presented...
October 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419407/associations-of-the-stoptober-smoking-cessation-program-with-information-seeking-for-smoking-cessation-a-google-trends-study
#17
Alieke Tieks, Sigrid A Troelstra, Trynke Hoekstra, Anton E Kunst
INTRODUCTION: The national smoking cessation program Stoptober was introduced in October 2012 in England and in October 2014 in the Netherlands. There is little evidence on the extent to which the Stoptober program has an impact on smoking-related outcomes at national levels. We aimed to measure the magnitude and timing of the associations of the Dutch Stoptober program with searching for smoking cessation on the internet. METHODS: An interrupted time series analysis was used on Google search queries...
October 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30384325/trends-and-correlates-of-perceived-access-to-heroin-among-young-adults-in-the-united-states-2002-2016
#18
Christopher P Salas-Wright, Sehun Oh, Michael G Vaughn, Jordana Muroff, Maryann Amodeo, Jorge Delva
BACKGROUND: We are at a unique moment in United States (US) history as heroin overdose rates are higher than at any time in recent memory. Based on prior research and the developmental risks faced by young adults (ages 18-25), we examine the trends and correlates of perceived access to heroin among this group over a 15-year period. METHODS: We analyzed national trend data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002-2016) on young adults' (N = 247,679; ages 18-25) perceived access to heroin...
October 18, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30384324/propylene-glycol-a-major-electronic-cigarette-constituent-attenuates-the-adverse-effects-of-high-dose-nicotine-as-measured-by-intracranial-self-stimulation-in-rats
#19
Andrew C Harris, Peter Muelken, Zach Haave, Yayi Swain, John R Smethells, Mark G LeSage
BACKGROUND: Non-nicotine tobacco constituents may contribute to the abuse liability of tobacco products. We previously reported that electronic cigarette (EC) refill liquids containing nicotine and a range of non-nicotine constituents attenuated the anhedonic/aversive effects of nicotine in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) model. The alcohol propylene glycol (PG) is a primary ingredient in these and other EC liquids, yet its abuse potential has not been established. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of parenteral administration of PG alone and PG combined with nicotine on ICSS in rats...
October 18, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30384321/a-hidden-aspect-of-the-u-s-opioid-crisis-rise-in-first-time-treatment-admissions-for-older-adults-with-opioid-use-disorder
#20
Andrew S Huhn, Eric C Strain, D Andrew Tompkins, Kelly E Dunn
BACKGROUND: Older adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) are a medically complex population. The current study evaluated trends in older adults seeking treatment for OUD, with a focus on primary heroin versus prescription opioid use. This study also compared older adults with OUD to the younger OUD population on demographics and drug use behaviors. METHODS: Publicly available data from state-certified addiction treatment centers were collected via the Treatment Episode Data Set - Admissions (TEDS-A) between 2004-2015...
October 18, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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