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Drug and Alcohol Dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219802/marijuana-use-trajectories-among-drug-using-youth-presenting-to-an-urban-emergency-department-violence-and-social-influences
#1
Maureen A Walton, Quyen Epstein-Ngo, Patrick M Carter, Marc A Zimmerman, Frederic C Blow, Anne Buu, Jason Goldstick, Rebecca M Cunningham
AIMS: This paper examined longitudinal marijuana use trajectories among drug-using youth presenting to the ED to inform intervention development. METHODS: Given interest in substance use and violence, this study oversampled those presenting with assault injuries. Assault-injured youth (ages 14-24) endorsing past 6-month drug use (n=349), and a sex and age proportionally-sampled comparison group (n=250) endorsing drug use, completed a baseline assessment and follow-ups at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months...
February 3, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214392/reduced-nicotine-content-cigarette-advertising-how-false-beliefs-and-subjective-ratings-affect-smoking-behavior
#2
Melissa Mercincavage, Megan L Saddleson, Emily Gup, Angela Halstead, Darren Mays, Andrew A Strasser
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior...
February 3, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214391/correlates-of-willingness-to-initiate-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-anticipation-of-practicing-safer-drug-and-sex-related-behaviors-among-high-risk-drug-users-on-methadone-treatment
#3
Roman Shrestha, Pramila Karki, Frederick L Altice, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Jaimie P Meyer, Lynn Madden, Michael Copenhaver
BACKGROUND: Although people who use drugs (PWUD) are key populations recommended to receive pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV, few data are available to guide PrEP delivery in this underserved group. We therefore examined the willingness to initiate PrEP and the anticipation of HIV risk reduction while on PrEP among high-risk PWUD. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 400 HIV-negative, opioid dependent persons enrolled in a methadone program and reporting recent risk behaviors, we examined independent correlates of being willing to initiate PrEP...
February 2, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212515/combination-of-aldh2-and-adh1b-polymorphisms-is-associated-with-smoking-initiation-a-large-scale-cross-sectional-study-in-a-japanese-population
#4
Hiroyuki Masaoka, Hidemi Ito, Silvano Gallus, Miki Watanabe, Akira Yokomizo, Masatoshi Eto, Keitaro Matsuo
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2; rs671, Glu504Lys) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B; rs1229984, His47Arg) polymorphisms are known to strongly influence alcohol drinking behavior. Given evidence of an association between smoking and drinking behaviors, we hypothesized that ALDH2/ADH1B polymorphisms might also be associated with smoking initiation, and conducted a cross-sectional study to examine this hypothesis. METHODS: Study subjects were first-visit outpatients diagnosed not to have cancer at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital between 2001 and 2005, including 4141 never smokers and 2912 ever smokers...
February 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212516/sex-disparities-in-substance-abuse-research-evaluating-23-years-of-structural-neuroimaging-studies
#5
Kimberly E Lind, Eric J Gutierrez, Dorothy J Yamamoto, Michael F Regner, Sherry A McKee, Jody Tanabe
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in brain structure and clinical course of substance use disorders underscores the need to include women in structural brain imaging studies. The NIH has supported the need for research to address sex differences. We evaluated female enrollment in substance abuse structural brain imaging research and the methods used to study sex differences in substance effects. METHODS: Structural brain imaging studies published through 2016 (n=230) were evaluated for number of participants by sex and substance use status and methods used to evaluate sex differences...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208098/-don-t-think-i-m-going-to-leave-you-over-it-accounts-of-changing-hepatitis-c-status-among-couples-who-inject-drugs
#6
Jake Rance, Carla Treloar, Suzanne Fraser, Joanne Bryant, Tim Rhodes
BACKGROUND: While the health-related benefits of intimate partnership are well documented, little attention has been paid to couples exposed to high levels of social stigma and exclusion. In this project we investigated an important site of stigma for partnerships by collecting accounts of changing hepatitis C (HCV) status ("sero-change") among couples that inject drugs. We explored what these accounts reveal about the meaning of HCV for these couples, and how this understanding contributes to our collective efforts at prevention and care...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199918/factors-associated-with-alcohol-use-prior-to-and-during-pregnancy-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-cape-town-south-africa
#7
Kirsty Brittain, Robert H Remien, Tamsin Phillips, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer, Claude A Mellins
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent in South Africa, but there are few prospectively-collected data exploring patterns of consumption among HIV-infected women, which may be important to improve maternal and child health outcomes. We examined patterns of and factors associated with alcohol use prior to and during pregnancy among HIV-infected pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Participants were enrolled when entering antenatal care at a large primary care clinic, and alcohol use was assessed using the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test)...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199917/desomorphine-krokodil-an-overview-of-its-chemistry-pharmacology-metabolism-toxicology-and-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Diego Hernando Ângulo Florez, Ana Maria Dos Santos Moreira, Pedro Rafael da Silva, Ricardo Brandão, Marcella Matos Cordeiro Borges, Fernando José Malagueño de Santana, Keyller Bastos Borges
BACKGROUND: "Krokodil" or "Crocodile" is an illegal homemade desomorphine drug obtained from chemical reactions of commercial codeine drugs with several other powerful and highly toxic chemical agents increasing its addiction and hallucinogenic effects when compared with other morphine analogues. METHODS: This paper summarizes a complete review about an old drug called desomorphine (Krokodil), presenting its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196787/current-forms-of-inhibitory-training-produce-no-greater-reduction-in-drinking-than-simple-assessment-a-preliminary-study
#9
Janette L Smith, Nicole J Dash, Stuart J Johnstone, Katrijn Houben, Matt Field
BACKGROUND: Disinhibition is apparent in users of many substances, including heavy drinkers. Previous research has shown that brief training to improve inhibitory control is associated with reduced alcohol consumption. We investigated whether a new form of inhibitory training would produce greater reductions, relative to a carefully designed control condition and a proven method of reducing consumption, the Brief Alcohol Intervention (BAI). METHODS: One hundred and fourteen regular drinkers were assigned randomly to one of five training conditions: Control (no inhibitory training); Beer-NoGo (inhibit responses linked to task-irrelevant pictures of beer); Restrained-Stop (requiring more urgent inhibition but without pictures of beer); Combined (a previously untested form of training requiring urgent inhibition to pictures of beer); or BAI...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192722/a-preliminary-longitudinal-study-of-white-matter-alteration-in-cocaine-use-disorder-subjects
#10
Liangsuo Ma, Joel L Steinberg, Qin Wang, Joy M Schmitz, Edward L Boone, Ponnada A Narayana, F Gerard Moeller
BACKGROUND: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have consistently shown that subjects with cocaine use disorder (CocUD) had altered white matter microstructure in the corpus callosum. It is believed that these alterations are due to preexisting factors, chronic cocaine use, or both. However, there is no published longitudinal DTI study on human cocaine users yet which could shed light on the relationship between cocaine use and DTI findings. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal design and DTI to test if the white matter microstructure shows quicker alteration in CocUD subjects than controls...
January 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189032/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-alcohol-consumption-in-chile-and-finland
#11
Sebastián Peña, Pia Mäkelä, Gonzalo Valdivia, Satu Helakorpi, Niina Markkula, Paula Margozzini, Seppo Koskinen
BACKGROUND: Reasons for socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol harm are not sufficiently understood. One explanation relates to differential exposure to alcohol by socioeconomic status (SES). The present study investigated socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol use in two countries with high alcohol consumption and alcohol harm. METHODS: Data from nationally representative surveys in 2009-2010 in Chile and in 2008-2011 in Finland were used. Surveys comprised 3477 participants in Chile and 9994 in Finland aged 30-64 years...
January 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189925/impact-of-alcohol-use-motives-and-internalizing-symptoms-on-mood-changes-in-response-to-drinking-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-investigation
#12
Stephanie M Gorka, Donald Hedeker, Thomas M Piasecki, Robin Mermelstein
BACKGROUND: Theory implies that individuals who use alcohol to cope with negative emotions experience the acute mood-altering effects they desire. However, no study to date has directly tested whether alcohol coping motives map onto alcohol-induced changes in mood in real-time or how co-occurring internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety) impact the relation between coping motives and alcohol-induced changes in mood. METHOD: The current study tested the unique and interactive effects of alcohol coping motives and internalizing symptoms on mood changes during drinking using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in a sample of young adults (n=257)...
January 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182982/rapid-widespread-distribution-of-intranasal-naloxone-for-overdose-prevention
#13
Desiree Madah-Amiri, Thomas Clausen, Philipp Lobmaier
BACKGROUND: Take home naloxone programs have been successful internationally in training bystanders to reverse an opioid overdose with naloxone, an opioid antagonist. A multi-site naloxone distribution program began in Norway in 2014 as part of a national overdose prevention strategy. The aim of this study was to a) describe the program, and b) present findings from the government-supported intervention. METHODS: From July 2014 to December 2015, staff from multiple low-threshold facilities trained clients on how to use intranasal naloxone...
January 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232249/j-shaped-relationship-between-supervised-methadone-consumption-and-retention-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-in-primary-care-national-cohort-study
#14
Gráinne Cousins, Fiona Boland, Joseph Barry, Suzi Lyons, Eamon Keenan, Denis O'Driscoll, Kathleen Bennett, Tom Fahey
BACKGROUND: Supervised consumption ensures patients take methadone as prescribed and prevents diversion, however, the influence of supervised consumption on retention is unclear. We examined association between supervised consumption and retention across multiple treatment episodes. METHODS: Cohort study of persons experiencing ≥1 MMT episodes in primary care (2004-2010), excluding ongoing episodes at the start of follow-up. Length of treatment episodes based on methadone prescriptions, retention classified as no interruption in prescribed methadone lasting >7 days...
January 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182981/subjective-experiences-at-first-use-of-cigarette-e-cigarettes-hookah-and-cigar-products-among-texas-adolescents
#15
Dale S Mantey, Melissa B Harrell, Kathleen Case, Brittani Crook, Steven H Kelder, Cheryl L Perry
INTRODUCTION: Subjective experiences ("SEs") at first cigarette use have been thoroughly examined; however, limited research has examined SEs at first use of non-cigarette products. This study addresses this gap in the literature. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 6th, 8th and 10th grade students in four metropolitan areas of Texas (n=3907/N=461,069). Nausea, coughing, relaxation, rush/buzz, and dizziness at first use were assessed for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigar products...
January 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182980/bowling-alone-dying-together-the-role-of-social-capital-in-mitigating-the-drug-overdose-epidemic-in-the-united-states
#16
Michael J Zoorob, Jason L Salemi
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose deaths have risen precipitously over the last fifteen years. Substantial geographic variation, beyond a simple rural-urban dichotomy, exists in the concentration of overdose deaths, suggesting the existence of as-yet unidentified environmental variables that predict resilience (or vulnerability) to drug overdoses. Motivated by reports highlighting the role of community fragility in the opioid epidemic, we explore whether social capital attenuates overdose death rates...
January 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130990/psychiatric-symptoms-quality-of-life-and-hiv-status-among-people-using-opioids-in-saint-petersburg-russia
#17
Alethea Desrosiers, Elena Blokhina, Evgeny Krupitsky, Edwin Zvartau, Richard Schottenfeld, Marek Chawarski
BACKGROUND: The Russian Federation is experiencing a very high rate of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, few studies have explored characteristics of people with co-occurring opioid use disorders and HIV, including psychiatric symptom presentations and how these symptoms might relate to quality of life. The current study therefore explored a.) differences in baseline psychiatric symptoms among HIV+ and HIV- individuals with opioid use disorder seeking naltrexone treatment at two treatment centers in Saint Petersburg, Russia and b...
January 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157591/higher-prevalence-of-detectable-troponin-i-among-cocaine-users-without-known-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Elise D Riley, Priscilla Y Hsue, Eric Vittinghoff, Alan H B Wu, Phillip O Coffin, Peter K Moore, Kara L Lynch
BACKGROUND: While cocaine use is an established risk factor for acute cardiovascular complications, associations between cocaine use and markers of cardiac injury outside of acute hospital presentation remain poorly characterized. We leveraged advances in cardiac troponin (cTnI) testing to assess low but clinically meaningful levels of cardiac injury among cocaine users and non-users. METHODS: We conducted a case control study comparing cTnI levels by the presence of cocaine among patients presenting for non-cardiac care in an urban safety net hospital...
January 19, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157590/delivery-of-nicotine-aerosol-to-mice-via-a-modified-electronic-cigarette-device
#19
Timothy W Lefever, Youn O K Lee, Alexander L Kovach, Melanie A R Silinski, Julie A Marusich, Brian F Thomas, Jenny L Wiley
BACKGROUND: Although both men and women use e-cigarettes, most preclinical nicotine research has focused on its effects in male rodents following injection. The goals of the present study were to develop an effective e-cigarette nicotine delivery system, to compare results to those obtained after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, and to examine sex differences in the model. METHODS: Hypothermia and locomotor suppression were assessed following aerosol exposure or s...
January 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152448/high-frequency-of-the-drd2-ankk1-a1-allele-in-mexican-native-amerindians-and-mestizos-and-its-association-with-alcohol-consumption
#20
Arturo Panduro, Omar Ramos-Lopez, Octavio Campollo, Eloy Alfonso Zepeda-Carrillo, Karina Gonzalez-Aldaco, Rafael Torres-Valadez, Sonia Roman
BACKGROUND: Mexico has an ancient tradition of alcohol drinking influenced by genetic and sociocultural factors. This study aimed to determine the distribution of the DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism in Mexican populations and to analyze its association with heavy drinking. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and analytical study, 680 unrelated subjects including two Native Amerindians groups (87 Nahuas and 139 Huicholes), and two Mestizos groups (158 subjects from Tepic, Nayarit and 296 subjects from Guadalajara, Jalisco) were enrolled...
January 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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