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Drug and Alcohol Dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535457/age-of-first-drunkenness-and-risks-for-all-cause-mortality-a-27-year-follow-up-from-the-epidemiologic-catchment-area-study
#1
Hui Hu, William W Eaton, James C Anthony, Li-Tzy Wu, Linda B Cottler
BACKGROUND: Early-onset drunkenness is associated with an increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD), which predicts excess mortality risk. Here, we estimated mortality risk for drinkers with and without early drunkenness. METHODS: For 14,848 adult participants interviewed about drinking, drunken episodes, and AUD in 1981-83 for the Epidemiologic Catchment Area in New Haven (Connecticut), Baltimore (Maryland), St. Louis (Missouri), and Durham (North Carolina), we linked National Death Index records through 2007...
May 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535455/the-effectiveness-of-telemedicine-delivered-opioid-agonist-therapy-in-a-supervised-clinical-setting
#2
Joseph K Eibl, Graham Gauthier, David Pellegrini, Jeffery Daiter, Michael Varenbut, John C Hogenbirk, David C Marsh
OBJECTIVE: Opioid use disorder has been declared a public health crisis across North America and opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the standard of care for these patients. Despite the increasing adoption of telemedicine as a delivery method for OAT, its effectiveness has not yet been evaluated against traditional in-person treatment. This study compared treatment outcomes for in-person versus telemedicine-delivered OAT. METHODS: We conducted a non-randomized cohort comparison study using an administrative database for patients who commenced OAT between 2011 and 2012 across 58 clinic sites in the province of Ontario, Canada...
May 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535454/frequency-and-severity-of-non-fatal-opioid-overdoses-among-clients-attending-the-sydney-medically-supervised-injecting-centre
#3
Amanda Roxburgh, Shane Darke, Allison M Salmon, Timothy Dobbins, Marianne Jauncey
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical opioid overdose rates have increased in recent years. The current study aimed to compare rates per 1000 injections of non-fatal overdose after heroin or oxycodone injection, and their comparative clinical severity. METHODS: Analysis of prospectively collected data from the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC). Severity of overdose was measured using the Glasgow Coma Scale, oxygen saturation levels, and the administration of naloxone...
May 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531766/development-and-initial-validation-of-a-cessation-fatigue-scale
#4
Amanda R Mathew, Bryan W Heckman, Ellen Meier, Matthew J Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation fatigue, or tiredness of attempting to quit smoking, has been posited as a latent construct encompassing loss of motivation, loss of hope in cessation success, decreased self-efficacy, and exhaustion of self-control resources. Despite the potential clinical impact of characterizing cessation fatigue, there is currently no validated measure to assess it. Using a rational scale development approach, we developed a cessation fatigue measure and examined its reliability and construct validity in relation to a) smokers' experience of a recently failed quit attempt (QA) and b) readiness to engage in a subsequent QA...
May 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544993/muscarinic-receptor-m4-positive-allosteric-modulators-attenuate-central-effects-of-cocaine
#5
Camilla Dall, Pia Weikop, Ditte Dencker, Anna C Molander, Gitta Wörtwein, P Jeffrey Conn, Anders Fink-Jensen, Morgane Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis that specific muscarinic M4 receptor stimulation can attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects and conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine, measures believed to predict the ability of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues to elicit relapse to drug taking...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535456/effectiveness-of-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder-a-national-five-year-prospective-observational-study-in-england
#6
Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This the first 5-year effectiveness study of publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in England. METHODS: All adults initiating treatment in 2008/09 in all 149 local treatment systems reporting to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (n=54,347). Admission polydrug use sub-populations were identified by Latent Class Analysis. The treatment outcome measure was 'successful completion and no re-presentation within six months' (SCNR) analysed by multilevel, multivariable logistic regression and funnel plots to contrast outcome by treatment system...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531770/treatment-consumption-and-treatment-re-enrollment-in-ghb-dependent-patients-in-the-netherlands
#7
Martijn S van Noorden, Ton Mol, Jeroen Wisselink, Wil Kuijpers, Boukje A G Dijkstra
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess treatment consumption and re-enrollment in treatment in patients with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-dependence in Dutch Addiction Treatment Centers (ATCs) in comparison with other addictions. METHODS: A cohort-study using nationwide administrative data from regular Dutch ATCs associated with the Dutch National Alcohol and Drugs Information System (LADIS), covering an estimated 95% of ATCs. We selected in- and out-patients with alcohol, drug and/or behavioral addictions with a first treatment episode in 2008-2011 and consecutive treatments until 2013 (n=71,679)...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531769/increases-in-prescription-opioid-injection-abuse-among-treatment-admissions-in-the-united-states-2004-2013
#8
Christopher M Jones, Aleta Christensen, R Matthew Gladden
BACKGROUND: The 2015 HIV outbreak in Indiana associated with prescription opioid injection coupled with rising rates of hepatitis C, especially in areas with long-standing opioid abuse, have raised concerns about prescription opioid injection. However, research on this topic is limited. We assessed trends in treatment admissions reporting injection, smoking, and inhalation abuse of prescription opioids and examined characteristics associated with non-oral routes of prescription opioid abuse in the U...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531767/the-standard-joint-unit
#9
Cristina Casajuana Kögel, María Mercedes Balcells-Olivero, Hugo López-Pelayo, Laia Miquel, Lídia Teixidó, Joan Colom, David John Nutt, Jürgen Rehm, Antoni Gual
OBJECTIVE: Reliable data on cannabis quantities is required to improve assessment of cannabis consumption for epidemiological analysis and clinical assessment, consequently a Standard Joint Unit (SJU) based on quantity of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC) has been established. METHODOLOGY: Naturalistic study of a convenience sample recruited from February 2015-June 2016 in universities, leisure spaces, mental health services and cannabis clubs in Barcelona. Adults, reporting cannabis use in the last 60 days, without cognitive impairment or language barriers, answered a questionnaire on cannabis use and were asked to donate a joint to further determine their 9-THC and Cannabidiol (CBD) content...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544994/12h-abstinence-induced-right-anterior-insula-network-pattern-changes-in-young-smokers
#10
Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Yangding Li, Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: The strong craving to smoke is a core factor of smoking abstinence that precipitates relapse. Insula plays critical roles in maintaining nicotine dependence, especially in the interoceptive awareness of craving. Despite evidence indicating a link between insula and abstinence-induced craving, less is known about the neural basis of abstinence-induced craving from the circuit level of insula. METHODS: The present study examined the effects of 12h of abstinence from smoking on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of anterior (AI) and posterior insula in young smokers using a within-subject design...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544995/intrauterine-exposure-to-tobacco-and-executive-functioning-in-high-school
#11
Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Mark A Richardson, Kathryn Buchanan-Howland, Clara A Chen, Howard Cabral, Timothy C Heeren, Jane Liebschutz, Leah Forman, Deborah A Frank
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527421/a-phase-iii-randomized-multi-center-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-lofexidine-for-relief-of-symptoms-in-individuals-undergoing-inpatient-opioid-withdrawal
#12
Charles W Gorodetzky, Sharon L Walsh, Peter R Martin, Andrew J Saxon, Kristen L Gullo, Kousick Biswas
BACKGROUND: Lofexidine is an alpha-2-adrenergic receptor agonist approved in the United Kingdom (UK) for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. Lofexidine has demonstrated better efficacy than placebo for reducing opioid withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid withdrawal with less reported hypotension than clonidine. METHODS: Designed as an FDA registration trial, this 8-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 264 patients dependent on short-acting opioids evaluated the efficacy of lofexidine hydrochloride in reducing withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid withdrawal...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525828/peripheral-immune-factors-are-elevated-in-women-with-current-or-recent-alcohol-dependence-and-associated-with-altered-mood-and-memory
#13
Clare J Wilhelm, Bret E Fuller, Marilyn Huckans, Jennifer M Loftis
BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of alcohol on brain function result, in part, from inflammatory processes. The sex-specific neuropsychiatric consequences and inflammatory status of active alcohol dependence and early remission from dependence have not been investigated. METHODS: Neuropsychiatric symptoms, inflammatory factors, and liver enzymes were compared in a prospective cohort study of adults with (n=51) or without (n=31) a current or recent history of alcohol dependence...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521200/patterns-of-kratom-use-and-health-impact-in-the-us-results-from-an-online-survey
#14
Oliver Grundmann
BACKGROUND: Kratom preparations have raised concerns of public health and safety in the US. Investigation into the demographics, perceived beneficial and detrimental effects of Kratom as well as common doses and purposes of its use are important to properly evaluate its potential health impact. METHODS: An anonymous cross-sectional online survey was conducted in October 2016 of 10,000 current Kratom users through available social media and online resources from the American Kratom Association...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521199/safety-profile-of-injectable-hydromorphone-and-diacetylmorphine-for-long-term-severe-opioid-use-disorder
#15
Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Suzanne Brissette, Scott MacDonald, Daphne Guh, Kirsten Marchand, Salima Jutha, Scott Harrison, Amin Janmohamed, Derek Z Zhang, Aslam H Anis, Michael Krausz, David C Marsh, Martin T Schechter
AIMS: To review the safety profile of injectable hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine and explore if adverse events (AEs) or serious adverse events (SAEs) were associated with dose and patterns of attendance. METHODS: This was a non-inferiority randomized double-blind controlled trial (Vancouver, Canada) testing hydromorphone (n=100) and diacetylmorphine (n=102) for the treatment of severe opioid use disorder. Medications were delivered under the supervision of trained Registered Nurses up to three times daily...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514696/alcohol-use-disorders-in-iran-prevalence-symptoms-correlates-and-comorbidity
#16
Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Vandad Sharifi, Ahmad Hajebi, Ramin Mojtabai, Reza Radgoodarzi, Mitra Hefazi, Abbas Motevalian
BACKGROUND: For nearly four decades, alcohol production and consumption has been banned in the Islamic country of Iran. However, little is known about the extent of alcohol use and associated problems in the country. The paper aims to present findings on the 12-month prevalence, symptoms, severity, correlates, and comorbidity of alcohol use disorders in the Iranian population. METHODS: This report is based on the 2011 Iranian household Mental Health survey (IranMHS), a nationally representative face-to-face household survey with a multi-stage, cluster sampling design...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511034/school-collective-occupation-movements-and-substance-use-among-adolescents-a-school-level-panel-design
#17
Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Jay S Kaufman, Esteban Pizarro, José D Marín, Garen Wintemute, Magdalena Cerdá
BACKGROUND: Recently, social movements across the world have demanded reforms to education systems and other institutions. Although such movements have affected large numbers of people across multiple countries, we know little about the impacts they have had on population health. We focus on one example: the massive strikes and collective occupation of secondary schools across Chile, which occurred contemporaneously with a large increase in marijuana use among students in this age group...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511033/comparing-adult-cannabis-treatment-seekers-enrolled-in-a-clinical-trial-with-national-samples-of-cannabis-users-in-the-united-states
#18
Erin A McClure, Jacqueline S King, Aimee Wahle, Abigail G Matthews, Susan C Sonne, Michelle R Lofwall, Aimee L McRae-Clark, Udi E Ghitza, Melissa Martinez, Kasie Cloud, Harvir S Virk, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use rates are increasing among adults in the United States (US) while the perception of harm is declining. This may result in an increased prevalence of cannabis use disorder and the need for more clinical trials to evaluate efficacious treatment strategies. Clinical trials are the gold standard for evaluating treatment, yet study samples are rarely representative of the target population. This finding has not yet been established for cannabis treatment trials. This study compared demographic and cannabis use characteristics of a cannabis cessation clinical trial sample (run through National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network) with three nationally representative datasets from the US; 1) National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, and 3) Treatment: Episodes Data Set - Admissions...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514695/new-product-trial-use-of-edibles-and-unexpected-highs-among-marijuana-and-hashish-users-in-colorado
#19
Jane A Allen, Kevin C Davis, Jennifer C Duke, James M Nonnemaker, Brian R Bradfield, Matthew C Farrelly
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationships between trial of new marijuana or hashish products and unexpected highs, and use of edible products and unexpected highs. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of 634 adult, past-year marijuana users in Colorado. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between new product trial or edible use and unexpected highs. RESULTS: In the first year that recreational marijuana was legal in Colorado, 71...
May 9, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514693/drinking-despite-health-problems-among-individuals-with-liver-disease-across-the-united-states
#20
Jennifer C Elliott, Malka Stohl, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinking is harmful for individuals with liver disease. However, some of these individuals drink despite knowledge of the risks. The current study aims to identify factors underlying drinking despite health problems among individuals with liver disease. METHODS: The current study utilizes a subsample of individuals reporting past-year liver disease and at least one drink in the past year (n=331), taken from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III), a large nationally representative survey of the United States...
May 9, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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