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Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coelho, MacKayla A Class, Karen K Szumlinski
Binge alcohol-drinking elicits symptoms of negative affect such as anxiety upon cessation, which is a source of negative reinforcement for perpetuating this pattern of alcohol abuse. Binge-induced anxiety during early (24 h) withdrawal is associated with increased expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) within the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) of adult male mice, but was unchanged in anxiety-resilient adolescents. Herein, we determined the role of mGlu5 signaling in withdrawal-induced anxiety via pharmacological manipulation using the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator MTEP and the positive allosteric modulator CDPPB...
January 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Mandy J Hill, Michael Holt, Brett Hanscom, Zhe Wang, Marylou Cardenas-Turanzas, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Sexual contact has been shown to be a major mode of HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study examined gender and racial differences among PWID' sexual risk behaviors from the perspective of sexual scripts. METHODS: 696 PWID enrolled from Philadelphia on HPTN 037 were classified as engaging in high-risk sex behaviors if they reported having sex in the past 30 days and condomless sex with a non-primary partner, giving/receiving sex for money, or multiple partners...
January 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Dale S Mantey, Melissa B Harrell, Kathleen Case, Brittani Crook, Steven H Kelder, Cheryl L Perry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ryan T Hurt, Jon O Ebbert, Ivana T Croghan, Darrell R Schroeder, Richard D Hurt, J Taylor Hays
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is prevalent among persons with alcohol abuse and dependence. Varenicline has been shown to be the most effective pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation and may decrease alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of varenicline for increasing smoking abstinence rates in smokers with alcohol abuse or dependence. METHODS: Participants were eligible for enrollment if they were 18 years or older, smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day for at least 6 months, had current alcohol abuse or dependence, and were interested in quitting smoking...
January 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Natalie A Johnson, Kypros Kypri, Joanna Latter, Adrian Dunlop, Amanda Brown, Richard Saitz, John B Saunders, John Attia, Luke Wolfenden, Christopher Doran, Jim McCambridge
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of hospital outpatients are alcohol dependent (AD) but few are engaged in treatment for their drinking. Brief intervention, designed to raise patients' awareness of their drinking, might encourage uptake of referral to specialty treatment. We assessed the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of electronic brief intervention on the uptake of specialty treatment in hospital outpatients with likely AD. METHODS: This study was conducted in the outpatient department of a large public hospital in Newcastle, Australia...
January 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Verena E Metz, Qiana L Brown, Silvia S Martins, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic in the US is affecting pregnant women and their offspring, with rising numbers of maternal and neonatal treatment episodes. The aim of this study was to characterize pregnant drug users in order to inform intervention strategies based on sociodemographic, mental health, and substance use characteristics. METHODS: Data on pregnant women aged 18-44 reporting past-year, nonmedical opioid use or use of non-opioid illegal drugs (other than marijuana) were analyzed from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2005-2014)...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Francois R Lamy, Raminta Daniulaityte, Mussah Zatreh, Ramzi W Nahhas, Amit Sheth, Silvia S Martins, Edward W Boyer, Robert G Carlson
BACKGROUND: "Rosin tech" is an emerging solventless method consisting in applying moderate heat and constant pressure on marijuana flowers to prepare marijuana concentrates referred to as "rosin." This paper explores rosin concentrate-related Twitter data to describe tweet content and analyze differences in rosin-related tweeting across states with varying cannabis legal statuses. METHOD: English language tweets were collected between March 15, 2015 and April 17, 2017, using Twitter API...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Alexis Kuerbis, Hayley Treloar Padovano, Sijing Shao, Jessica Houser, Frederick J Muench, Jon Morgenstern
BACKGROUND: By 2030, numbers and proportions of older adults with substance-use problems are expected to increase. While risk factors for problem drinking in late life have been identified, it remains unknown whether these factors drive daily drinking among older problem drinkers. This study examined the daily drivers of drinking among problem drinkers, moderated by age, utilizing ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHOD: Participants (N = 139), ages 20-73, received daily EMA online surveys completed via a smartphone prior to initiation of treatment...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Pablo Barrio, Lídia Teixidor, Lluisa Ortega, Anna Lligoña, Nayra Rico, José Luis Bedini, Eduard Vieta, Antoni Gual
BACKGROUND: Efforts aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm include early detection of risky drinkers as well as detection of early relapse in patients with alcohol dependence. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been proven to be a reliable biomarker for the detection of recent drinking; however, no randomized, diagnostic trial to date has tested its impact on drinking outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess, in a randomized design, the implications of EtG screening on alcohol outcomes, compared to screening with a low sensitivity biomarker such as ethanol...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jie Yao, Robert B Voas, John H Lacey
BACKGROUND: The relationship between driver blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and crash involvement is well understood. However, the role of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) (i.e., dependence or abuse) in crash occurrence, as distinguished from non-clinical heavy alcohol consumption, has not been adequately explored. METHODS: Data from the 2010-2011 Crash Risk Study conducted in Virginia Beach, VA, were used in this study. Drivers involved in crashes were compared with control drivers, and four drinker groups were examined: alcohol dependent, alcohol abusers, heavy drinkers, and all other current (i...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Frank C Bandiera, Patrice A C Vaeth, Raul Caetano, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable
BACKGROUND: Border Mexican Americans (MA) are exposed to poverty and under-education, all of which are predictors of cigarette smoking. METHODS: This study analyzed two epidemiologic surveys among border and non-border MA. In the border sample, interviews were conducted in urban areas of U.S.-Mexico border counties of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. The non-border sample consisted of respondents interviewed in Los Angeles, Houston, New York, Philadelphia, and Miami...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Emilio Guillén-Mancina, José Manuel Calderón-Montaño, Miguel López-Lázaro
Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for cancer. Almost 6% of all cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol use. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the mutagenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. Recent findings indicate that the risk of cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue; the accumulation of stem cell divisions leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors such as mutations occurring during DNA replication...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Andrea Acevedo, Margaret T Lee, Deborah W Garnick, Constance M Horgan, Grant A Ritter, Lee Panas, Kevin Campbell, Jason Bean-Mortinson
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of continuity of care after detoxification and residential treatment, many clients do not receive further treatment services after discharged. This study examined whether offering financial incentives and providing client-specific electronic reminders to treatment agencies lead to improved continuity of care after detoxification or residential treatment. METHODS: Residential (N = 33) and detoxification agencies (N = 12) receiving public funding in Washington State were randomized into receiving one, both, or none (control group) of the interventions...
December 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Pengsheng Li, Yeen Huang, Lan Guo, Wanxin Wang, Chuhao Xi, Yiling Lei, Min Luo, Siyuan Pan, Xueqing Deng, Wei-Hong Zhang, Ciyong Lu
OBJECTIVE: The nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is attracting public attention. We aimed to explore the association between sexual attraction and NMUPD among Chinese adolescents. METHOD: A school-based survey was conducted in seven Chinese provinces, and a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used in this study. A total of 150,822 students from seven Chinese provinces completed the questionnaire; the response rate was 95.93%. All data were collected between November 2014 and January 2015...
December 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Natania A Crane, Stephanie M Gorka, Katie L Burkhouse, Kaveh Afshar, Justin E Greenstein, Darrin M Aase, Eric Proescher, Christopher Schroth, Amy E Kennedy, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Currently, we do not have biomarkers to help identify individuals at-risk for chronic, problematic alcohol use, especially among veteran populations, who have notoriously high rates of alcohol use. One biomarker that may predict individuals at risk for chronic, problematic alcohol use is error-related brain activity. We examined longitudinal associations between the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential observed following the commission of errors, and problematic alcohol use among U...
December 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Erin E Bonar, Maureen A Walton, Kristen L Barry, Amy S B Bohnert, Stephen T Chermack, Rebecca M Cunningham, Lynn S Massey, Rosalinda V Ignacio, Frederic C Blow
BACKGROUND: Drug use is an established risk factor for HIV. Brief Interventions (BIs) targeting reductions in both drug use and HIV risk behaviors may help curtail these related epidemics. The present study evaluates the impact of BIs for drug use and HIV risk reduction on sexual HIV risk behaviors among a primarily marijuana-using sample during a 12-month post-intervention follow-up period. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 780 adult patients in an Emergency Department (ED) with past 3-month drug use (primarily non-injecting)...
December 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Elissa K Fultz, Karen K Szumlinski
An alcohol use disorder is a major predisposing factor for methamphetamine (MA) abuse. Further, MA-alcohol co-abuse is a risk factor for treatment discontinuation and non-compliance in MA-dependent individuals. No effective treatment exists for MA addiction, let alone treatments directed at those suffering from MA-alcohol addiction co-morbidity. Thus, it is imperative that we develop high-throughput animal models to study the biobehavioral interactions between MA and alcohol of relevance to the etiology and treatment of co-abuse...
December 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Maria N Wilson, Donald B Langille, Rachel Ogilvie, Mark Asbridge
BACKGROUND: Youth obtain alcohol from many sources, including friends, siblings, parents and other adults. Whether parental supply, relative to other sources, is associated with experiencing a negative alcohol-related outcome is an area of considerable debate. Less well understood is whether the observed association is further contextualized by level of parental monitoring of the child. OBJECTIVES: This study has two main objectives: 1) determine if there is a relationship between parental supply, drinking frequency, and alcohol-related harms among youth; and 2) assess whether parental monitoring moderates this relationship...
December 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Francisco González-Saiz, Oscar Lozano Rojas, Joan Trujols, Saul Alcaraz, Núria Siñol, José Pérez de Los Cobos
OBJECTIVE: The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale (ODAS) is a clinical tool to individually measure the "adequacy" of opioid doses in patients on maintenance treatment. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the ODAS in a sample of patients in buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N) maintenance treatment. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of B/N-treated patients (n = 316) from four Autonomous Communities in Spain...
December 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kevin M King, Dale S Kim, Connor J McCabe
BACKGROUND: Some respondents may respond at random to self-report surveys, rather than responding conscientiously (Meade and Craig, 2012), and this has only recently come to the attention of researchers in the addictions field (Godinho et al., 2016). Almost no research in the published addictions literature has reported screening for random responses. We illustrate how random responses can bias statistical estimates using simulated and real data, and how this is especially problematic in skewed data, as is common with substance use outcomes...
December 9, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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