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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763641/ischemic-stroke-across-sexes-what-is-the-status-quo
#1
REVIEW
Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Cathérine Gebhard, Thomas F Lüscher, Susanne Wegener, Giovanni G Camici
Stroke prevalence is expected to increase in the next decades due to the aging of the Western population. Ischemic stroke (IS) shows an age- and sex-dependent distribution in which men represent the most affected population within 65 years of age, being passed by post-menopausal women in older age groups. Furthermore, a sexual dimorphism concerning risk factors, presentation and treatment of IS has been widely recognized. In order to address these phenomena, a number of issue have been raised involving both socio-economical and biological factors...
May 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753798/sex-related-responses-after-traumatic-brain-injury-considerations-for-preclinical-modeling
#2
REVIEW
Claudia B Späni, David J Braun, Linda J Van Eldik
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has historically been viewed as a primarily male problem, since men are more likely to experience a TBI because of more frequent participation in activities that increase risk of head injuries. This male bias is also reflected in preclinical research where mostly male animals have been used in basic and translational science. However, with an aging population in which TBI incidence is increasingly sex-independent due to falls, and increasing female participation in high-risk activities, the attention to potential sex differences in TBI responses and outcomes will become more important...
May 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753797/drug-development-for-brain-disorders-why-sex-matters-ischemic-stroke-across-sexes-what-is-the-status-quo
#3
REVIEW
Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Cathérine Gebhard, Thomas F Lüscher, Susanne Wegener, Giovanni G Camici
Stroke prevalence is expected to increase in the next decades due to the aging of the Western population. Ischemic stroke (IS) shows an age- and sex-dependent distribution in which men represent the most affected population within 65 years of age, being passed by post-menopausal women in older age groups. Furthermore, a sexual dimorphism concerning risk factors, presentation and treatment of IS has been widely recognized. In order to address these phenomena, a number of issue have been raised involving both socio-economical and biological factors...
May 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753796/the-neuroendocrinology-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-a-behavioural-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Sofia Cussotto, Kiran V Sandhu, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The human gut harbours trillions of symbiotic bacteria that play a key role in programming different aspects of host physiology in health and disease. These intestinal microbes are also key components of the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional communication pathway between the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the CNS is closely interconnected with the endocrine system to regulate many physiological processes. An expanding body of evidence is supporting the notion that gut microbiota modifications and/or manipulations may also play a crucial role in the manifestation of specific behavioural responses regulated by neuroendocrine pathways...
May 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608929/regulation-of-lh-secretion-by-rfrp-3-from-the-hypothalamus-to-the-pituitary
#5
REVIEW
Kai-Lun Hu, Hsun-Ming Chang, Rong Li, Yang Yu, Jie Qiao
RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs) have long been identified as inhibitors of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in mammals. However, less progress has been made in the detailed roles of RFRPs in the control of LH secretion. Recent studies have suggested that RFRP-3 neurons in the hypothalamus can regulate the secretion of LH at different levels, including kisspeptin neurons, GnRH neurons, and the pituitary. Additionally, conflicting results regarding the effects of RFRP-3 on these levels exist. In this review, we collect the latest evidence related to the effects of RFRP-3 neurons in regulating LH secretion by acting on kisspeptin neurons, GnRH neurons, and the pituitary and discuss the potential role of the timely reduction of RFRP-3 signaling in the modulation of the preovulatory LH surge...
March 30, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596867/the-short-term-stress-response-mother-nature-s-mechanism-for-enhancing-protection-and-performance-under-conditions-of-threat-challenge-and-opportunity
#6
REVIEW
Firdaus S Dhabhar
Our group has proposed that in contrast to chronic stress that can have harmful effects, the short-term (fight-or-flight) stress response (lasting for minutes to hours) is nature's fundamental survival mechanism that enhances protection and performance under conditions involving threat/challenge/opportunity. Short-term stress enhances innate/primary, adaptive/secondary, vaccine-induced, and anti-tumor immune responses, and post-surgical recovery. Mechanisms and mediators include stress hormones, dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking/function and local/systemic chemokine and cytokine production...
March 26, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574115/fifty-years-of-stress-and-more-to-come-a-tribute-to-bruce-s-mcewen
#7
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth Gould, Liisa A M Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551356/more-than-a-feeling-a-unified-view-of-stress-measurement-for-population-science
#8
REVIEW
Elissa S Epel, Alexandra D Crosswell, Stefanie E Mayer, Aric A Prather, George M Slavich, Eli Puterman, Wendy Berry Mendes
Stress can influence health throughout the lifespan, yet there is little agreement about what types and aspects of stress matter most for human health and disease. This is in part because "stress" is not a monolithic concept but rather, an emergent process that involves interactions between individual and environmental factors, historical and current events, allostatic states, and psychological and physiological reactivity. Many of these processes has alone been labeled as "stress." Stress science would be further advanced if researchers adopted a common conceptual model that incorporates epidemiological, affective, and psychophysiological perspectives, with more precise language for describing stress measures...
March 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551355/transposons-stress-and-the-functions-of-the-deep-genome
#9
REVIEW
Andrew A Bartlett, Richard G Hunter
The brain is responsible for both recognition and adaptation to stressful stimuli. Many molecular mechanisms have been implicated in this response including those governing neuronal plasticity, neurogenesis and, changes gene expression. Far less is known regarding effects of stress on the deep genome. In the hippocampus, stress appears to regulate expression of non-coding elements of the genome as well as the chromatin permissive for their transcription. Specifically, hippocampal retrotransposon (RT) elements are regulated by acute stress via the accumulation of the repressive H3K9me3 mark at RT loci...
March 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470993/stress-common-themes-toward-the-next-frontier
#10
REVIEW
Ilia N Karatsoreos
"Stress is complicated". A phrase uttered by many a stress researcher. This is true, from the vast array of stimuli considered "stressors" to the interactive and hormetic nature of the molecular, cellular, endocrine, and behavioral responses generated by such stressors. This commentary takes the position that stress researchers are poised to make even bigger contributions if they begin to shift from investigating the myriad effects of stress on brain and body, and to refocus a larger part of our efforts on more in-depth investigations of common themes in stress biology, with the goal of uncovering potential "universal principles" of stress that may help us better interpret the findings at higher levels of analysis, and provide a structured approach to help breach the next frontiers of stress research...
February 19, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438737/neurogenesis-and-sexual-behavior
#11
REVIEW
M Bedos, W Portillo, R G Paredes
Different conditions induce proliferation, migration and integration of new neurons in the adult brain. This process of neurogenesis is a clear example of long lasting plastic changes in the brain of different species. Sexual behavior is a motivated behavior that is crucial for the survival of the species, but an individual can spend all his life without displaying sexual behavior. In the present review, we briefly describe some of the effects of pheromones on neurogenesis. We review in detail studies describing the effects of sexual behavior in both males and females on proliferation, migration and integration of new cells and neurons...
February 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428549/importance-of-the-brain-corticosteroid-receptor-balance-in-metaplasticity-cognitive-performance-and-neuro-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
E R de Kloet, O C Meijer, A F de Nicola, R H de Rijk, M Joëls
Bruce McEwen's discovery of receptors for corticosterone in the rat hippocampus introduced higher brain circuits in the neuroendocrinology of stress. Subsequently, these receptors were identified as mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) that are involved in appraisal processes, choice of coping style, encoding and retrieval. The MR-mediated actions on cognition are complemented by slower actions via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) on contextualization, rationalization and memory storage of the experience. These sequential phases in cognitive performance depend on synaptic metaplasticity that is regulated by coordinate MR- and GR activation...
February 8, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428548/the-impact-from-the-aftermath-of-chronic-stress-on-hippocampal-structure-and-function-is-there-a-recovery
#13
REVIEW
J Bryce Ortiz, Cheryl D Conrad
Chronic stress results in functional and structural changes to the brain and especially the hippocampus. Decades of research have provided insights into the mechanisms by which chronic stress impairs hippocampal-mediated cognition and the corresponding reduction of hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic complexity. Yet, when chronic stress ends and time passes, which we refer to as a "post-stress rest period," hippocampal-mediated spatial memory deficits begin to improve and CA3 apical dendritic arbors increase in complexity...
February 8, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421159/the-effects-of-chronic-stress-on-the-human-brain-from-neurotoxicity-to-vulnerability-to-opportunity
#14
REVIEW
Sonia J Lupien, Robert-Paul Juster, Catherine Raymond, Marie-France Marin
For the last five decades, science has managed to delineate the mechanisms by which stress hormones can impact on the human brain. Receptors for glucocorticoids are found in the hippocampus, amygdala and frontal cortex, three brain regions involved in memory processing and emotional regulation. Studies have shown that chronic exposure to stress is associated with reduced volume of the hippocampus and that chronic stress can modulate volumes of both the amygdala and frontal cortex, suggesting neurotoxic effects of stress hormones on the brain...
February 5, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421158/behavioral-and-structural-adaptations-to-stress
#15
REVIEW
Heather A Cameron, Timothy J Schoenfeld
Unpredictable aversive experiences, or stressors, lead to changes in depression- and anxiety-related behavior and to changes in hippocampal structure including decreases in adult neurogenesis, granule cell and pyramidal cell dendritic morphology, and volume. Here we review the relationship between these behavioral and structural changes and discuss the possibility that these changes may be largely adaptive. Specifically, we suggest that new neurons in the dentate gyrus enhance behavioral adaptability to changes in the environment, biasing behavior in novel situations based on previous experience with stress...
February 5, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402452/impacts-of-stress-on-reproductive-and-social-behaviors
#16
REVIEW
A M Magariños, S M Schaafsma, D W Pfaff
Impacts of steroid stress hormones on the brain have provided multiple opportunities for linking specific molecular phenomena to behavioral state. The negative impacts of stress on female reproductive biological processes have been documented thoroughly at the endocrine and behavioral levels. More recently, a '3-hit' theory of autism has identified early stress as one of the hits. The multiple biochemical effects of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) indicated that it would serve as a powerful maternal immune activator...
February 2, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339091/an-energetic-view-of-stress-focus-on-mitochondria
#17
REVIEW
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen, Elissa S Epel, Carmen Sandi
Energy is required to sustain life and enable stress adaptation. At the cellular level, energy is largely derived from mitochondria - unique multifunctional organelles with their own genome. Four main elements connect mitochondria to stress: (1) Energy is required at the molecular, (epi)genetic, cellular, organellar, and systemic levels to sustain components of stress responses; (2) Glucocorticoids and other steroid hormones are produced and metabolized by mitochondria; (3) Reciprocally, mitochondria respond to neuroendocrine and metabolic stress mediators; and (4) Experimentally manipulating mitochondrial functions alters physiological and behavioral responses to psychological stress...
January 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146109/neuroactive-steroids-and-metabolic-axis
#18
EDITORIAL
R C Melcangi, G C Panzica
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042142/fat-brain-connections-adipocyte-glucocorticoid-control-of-stress-and-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
Annette D de Kloet, James P Herman
Glucocorticoids act via multiple mechanisms to mobilize energy for maintenance and restoration of homeostasis. In adipose tissue, glucocorticoids can promote lipolysis and facilitate adipocyte differentiation/growth, serving both energy-mobilizing and restorative processes during negative energy balance. Recent data suggest that adipose-dependent feedback may also be involved in regulation of stress responses. Adipocyte glucocorticoid receptor (GR) deletion causes increased HPA axis stress reactivity, due to a loss of negative feedback signals into the CNS...
January 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987779/thyroid-hormone-and-estrogen-receptor-interactions-with-natural-ligands-and-endocrine-disruptors-in-the-cerebellum
#20
REVIEW
Attila Zsarnovszky, David Kiss, Gergely Jocsak, Gabor Nemeth, Istvan Toth, Tamas L Horvath
Although the effects of phytoestrogens on brain function is widely unknown, they are often regarded as "natural" and thus as harmless. However, the effects of phytoestrogens or environmental pollutants on brain function is underestimated. Estrogen (17beta-estradiol, E2) and thyroid hormones (THs) play pivotal roles in brain development. In the mature brain, these hormones regulate metabolism on cellular and organismal levels. Thus, E2 and THs do not only regulate the energy metabolism of the entire organism, but simultaneously also regulate important homeostatic parameters of neurons and glia in the CNS...
January 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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