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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen, Elissa Epel, Carmen Sandi
Energy is required to sustain life and enable stress adaptation. At the cellular level, energy is largely derived from mitochondria - unique multifunctional organelles with their own genome. Four main elements connect mitochondria to stress: 1) Energy is required at the molecular, (epi)genetic, cellular, organ, and systemic levels to sustain components of stress responses; 2) Glucocorticoids and other steroid hormones are produced and metabolized by mitochondria; 3) Reciprocally, mitochondria functionally respond to neuroendocrine and metabolic stress mediators; and 4) Experimentally manipulating mitochondrial functions alters physiological and behavioral responses to psychological stress...
January 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jennifer R Rainville, Mariya Tsyglakova, Georgia E Hodes
Certain mood disorders and autoimmune diseases are predominately female diseases but we do not know why. Here, we explore the relationship between depression and the immune system from a sex-based perspective. This review characterizes sex differences in the immune system in health and disease. We explore the contribution of gonadal and stress hormones to immune function at the cellular and molecular level in the brain and body. We propose hormonal and genetic sex specific immune mechanisms that may contribute to the etiology of mood disorders...
December 27, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Olivia Le Moëne, Anders Ågmo
Sexual attraction has two components: Emission of sexually attractive stimuli and responsiveness to these stimuli. In rodents, olfactory stimuli are necessary but not sufficient for attraction. We argue that body odors are far superior to odors from excreta (urine, feces) as sexual attractants. Body odors are produced by sebaceous glands all over the body surface and in specialized glands. In primates, visual stimuli, for example the sexual skin, are more important than olfactory. The role of gonadal hormones for the production of and responsiveness to odorants is well established...
December 26, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Robert L Spencer, Lauren E Chun, Matthew J Hartsock, Elizabeth R Woodruff
Glucocorticoid hormones are a powerful mammalian systemic hormonal signal that exerts regulatory effects on almost every cell and system of the body. Glucocorticoids act in a circadian and stress-directed manner to aid in adaptation to an ever-changing environment. Circadian glucocorticoid secretion provides for a daily waxing and waning influence on target cell function. In addition, the daily circadian peak of glucocorticoid secretion serves as a timing signal that helps entrain intrinsic molecular clock phase in tissue cells distributed throughout the body...
December 26, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Russell D Romeo
As adolescents transition from childhood to adulthood, many physiological and neurobehavioral changes occur. Shifts in neuroendocrine function are one such change, including the hormonal systems that respond to stressors. This review will focus on these hormonal changes, with a particular emphasis on the pubertal and adolescent maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, this review will concentrate on studies using animal models, as these model systems have contributed a great deal to our mechanistic understanding of how factors such as sex and experience with stress shape hormonal reactivity during development...
December 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, Desiree Wanders, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) is implemented using a semi-purified diet that reduces methionine by ∼80% and eliminates dietary cysteine. Within hours of its introduction, dietary MR initiates coordinated series of transcriptional programs and physiological responses that include increased energy intake and expenditure, decreased adiposity, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and reduction in circulating and tissue lipids. Significant progress has been made in cataloguing the physiological responses to MR in males but not females, but identities of the sensing and communication networks that orchestrate these responses remain poorly understood...
December 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Victoria A Macht, Lawrence P Reagan
The development of the organism is a critical variable which influences the magnitude, duration, and reversibility of the effects of chronic stress. Such factors are relevant to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as this brain region is the last to mature, the first to decline, and is highly stress-sensitive. Therefore, this review will examine the intersection between the nervous system and immune system at glutamatergic synapses in the PFC across three developmental periods: adolescence, adulthood, and aging. Glutamatergic synapses are tightly juxtaposed with microglia and astrocytes, and each of these cell types exhibits their own developmental trajectory...
December 16, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
R C Melcangi, G C Panzica
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Bruce S McEwen
The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress that perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor, and it does so somewhat differently in males and females. The expression of steroid hormone receptors throughout the brain has broadened the definition of 'neuroendocrinology' to include the reciprocal communication between the entire brain and body via hormonal and neural pathways. Mediated in part via systemic hormonal influences, the adult and developing brain possess remarkable structural and functional plasticity in response to stress, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling, and synapse turnover...
November 10, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Morgan L Sherer, Caitlin K Posillico, Jaclyn M Schwarz
Pregnancy is associated with a number of significant changes in maternal physiology. Perhaps one of the more notable changes is the significant alteration in immune function that occurs during pregnancy. This change in immune function is necessary to support a successful pregnancy, but also creates a unique period of life during which a female is susceptible to disease and, as we'll speculate here, may also contribute to mental health disorders associated with pregnancy and the postpartum period. Here, we review the known changes in peripheral immune function that occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period, while highlighting the impact of hormones during these times on immune function, brain or neural function, as well as behavior...
October 27, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
M Victoria Recouvreux, Erika Y Faraoni, M Andrea Camilletti, Laura Ratner, Alejandra Abeledo-Machado, Susana Rulli, Graciela Díaz-Torga
Prolactinomas are the most frequent functioning pituitary adenomas, and sex differences in tumor size, behavior and incidence have been described. These differences have been associated with earlier diagnosis in woman, as well as with serum estradiol levels. Experimental models of prolactinomas in rodents also show a higher incidence in females, and recent findings suggest that gender differences in the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) system might be involved in the sex-specific development of prolactinomas in these models...
October 23, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Zhimin Song, H Elliott Albers
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in the brain to regulate social cognition/social behavior and in the periphery to influence a variety of physiological processes. Although the chemical structures of OT and AVP as well as their receptors are quite similar, OT and AVP can have distinct or even opposing actions. Here, we review the increasing body of evidence that exogenously administered and endogenously released OT and AVP can activate each other's canonical receptors (i.e., cross-talk) and examine the possibility that receptor cross-talk following the synaptic and non-synaptic release of OT and AVP contributes to their distinct roles in the brain and periphery...
October 18, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Annette D de Kloet, James P Herman
Glucocorticoids act via multiple mechanisms to mobilize energy for in maintenance and restoration of homeostasis. In adipose tissue, glucocorticoids can promote lipolysis and facilitate adipocyte differentiation/growth, serving both energy-mobilizing and restorative processes during negative energy balance. Recent data suggest that adipose-dependent feedback may also be involved in regulation of stress responses. Adipocyte glucocorticoid receptor (GR) deletion causes increased HPA axis stress reactivity, due to a loss of negative feedback signals into the CNS...
October 14, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Liliana Letra, Tiago Rodrigues, Paulo Matafome, Isabel Santana, Raquel Seiça
Obesity has been consistently associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) though the exact mechanisms by which it influences cognition are still elusive and subject of current research. Adiponectin, the most abundant adipokine in circulation, is inversely correlated with adipose tissue dysfunction and seems to be a central player in this association. In fact, different signalling pathways are shared by adiponectin and proteins involved in AD pathophysiology and considerable amount of evidence supports its direct and indirect influence on β-amyloid and tau aggregates formation...
October 13, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Attila Zsarnovszky, David Kiss, Gergely Jocsak, Gabor Nemeth, Istvan Toth, Tamas L Horvath
Although the effects of phytoestrogens on brain function is widely unknown, they are often regarded as "natural" and thus as harmless. However, the effects of phytoestrogens or environmental pollutants on brain function is underestimated. Estrogen (17beta-estradiol, E2) and thyroid hormones (THs) play pivotal roles in brain development. In the mature brain, these hormones regulate metabolism on cellular and organismal levels. Thus, E2 and THs do not only regulate the energy metabolism of the entire organism, but simultaneously also regulate important homeostatic parameters of neurons and glia in the CNS...
October 5, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Donald R Williams, Rickard Carlsson, Paul-Christian Bürkner
Developmental studies of hormones and behavior often include littermates-rodent siblings that share early-life experiences and genes. Due to between-litter variation (i.e., litter effects), the statistical assumption of independent observations is untenable. In two literatures-natural variation in maternal care and prenatal stress-entire litters are categorized based on maternal behavior or experimental condition. Here, we (1) review both literatures; (2) simulate false positive rates for commonly used statistical methods in each literature; and (3) characterize small sample performance of multilevel models (MLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE)...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Nicole J Gervais, Jessica A Mong, Agnès Lacreuse
Loss of ovarian function in women is associated with sleep disturbances and cognitive decline, which suggest a key role for estrogens and/or progestins in modulating these symptoms. The effects of ovarian hormones on sleep and cognitive processes have been studied in separate research fields that seldom intersect. However, sleep has a considerable impact on cognitive function. Given the tight connections between sleep and cognition, ovarian hormones may influence selective aspects of cognition indirectly, via the modulation of sleep...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Animal and human studies provide evidence that exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), bisphenol A (BPA), can lead to neurobehavioral disorders. Consequently, there is an impetus to identify safer alternatives to BPA. Three bisphenol compounds proposed as potential safer alternatives to BPA are bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF). However, it is not clear whether these other compounds are safer in terms of inducing less endocrine disrupting effects in animals and humans who are now increasingly coming into contact with these BPA-substitutes...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Julie Carrier, Kazue Semba, Samuel Deurveilher, Lauren Drogos, Jessica Cyr-Cronier, Catherine Lord, Zoran Sekerovick
Age-related changes in sleep and circadian regulation occur as early as the middle years of life. Research also suggests that sleep and circadian rhythms are regulated differently between women and men. However, does sleep and circadian rhythms regulation age similarly in men and women? In this review, we present the mechanisms underlying age-related differences in sleep and the current state of knowledge on how they interact with sex. We also address how testosterone, estrogens, and progesterone fluctuations across adulthood interact with sleep and circadian regulation...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Georgia Balsevich, Gavin N Petrie, Matthew N Hill
For decades, there has been speculation regarding the interaction of cannabinoids with glucocorticoid systems. Given the functional redundancy between many of the physiological effects of glucocorticoids and cannabinoids, it was originally speculated that the biological mechanisms of cannabinoids were mediated by direct interactions with glucocorticoid systems. With the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, additional research demonstrated that it was actually the opposite; glucocorticoids recruit endocannabinoid signaling, and that the engagement of endocannabinoid signaling mediated many of the neurobiological and physiological effects of glucocorticoids...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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