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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739508/endocannabinoids-effectors-of-glucocorticoid-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Georgia Balsevich, Gavin N Petrie, Matthew N Hill
For decades, there has been speculation regarding the interaction of cannabinoids with glucocorticoid systems. Given the functional redundancy between many of the physiological effects of glucocorticoids and cannabinoids, it was originally speculated that the biological mechanisms of cannabinoids were mediated by direct interactions with glucocorticoid systems. With the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, additional research demonstrated that it was actually the opposite; glucocorticoids recruit endocannabinoid signalling, and that the engagement of endocannabinoid signalling mediated many of the neurobiological and physiological effects of glucocorticoids...
July 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739507/neuroactive-steroids-and-diabetic-complications-in-the-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
S Giatti, R Mastrangelo, M D'Antonio, M Pesaresi, S Romano, S Diviccaro, D Caruso, N Mitro, R C Melcangi
Important complications of diabetes mellitus in the nervous system are represented by diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic encephalopathy. In this context, an important link is represented by neuroactive steroids (i.e., steroids coming from peripheral glands and affecting nervous functionality as well as directly synthesized in the nervous system). Indeed, diabetes does not only affect the reproductive axis and consequently the levels of sex steroid hormones, but also those of neuroactive steroids. Indeed, as will be here summarized, the levels of these neuromodulators present in the central and peripheral nervous system are affected by the pathology in a sex-dimorphic way...
July 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736323/offspring-neuroimmune-consequences-of-maternal-malnutrition-potential-mechanism-for-behavioral-impairments-that-underlie-metabolic-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#3
REVIEW
B L Smith, T M Reyes
Maternal malnutrition significantly increases offspring risk for both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of maternal malnutrition have identified behavioral changes in the adult offspring related to executive function and reward processing. Together, these changes in executive and reward-based behaviors likely contribute to the etiology of both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with maternal malnutrition. Concomitant with the behavioral effects, maternal malnutrition alters offspring expression of reward-related molecules and inflammatory signals in brain pathways that control executive function and reward...
July 20, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705582/polymorphisms-in-sex-steroid-receptors-from-gene-sequence-to-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Donna L Maney
Sex steroid receptors have received much interest as potential mediators of human behaviors and mental disorders. Candidate gene association studies have identified about 50 genetic variants of androgen and estrogen receptors that correlate with human behavioral phenotypes. Because most of these polymorphisms lie outside coding regions, discerning their effect on receptor function is not straightforward. Thus, although discoveries of associations improve our ability to predict risk, they have not greatly advanced our understanding of underlying mechanisms...
July 10, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694181/allopregnanolone-involvement-in-feeding-regulation-overeating-and-obesity
#5
E Holmberg, J Sjöstedt, E Malinina, M Johansson, S Turkmen, G Ragagnin, A Lundqvist, M Löfgren, L Jaukkuri, M Bixo, T Bäckström
Obesity is strongly associated with ill health, primarily caused by consumption of excessive calories, and promoted (inter alia) by gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) stimulating food intake by activating GABAA receptors (primarily with α3 and α2 subunits) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. Allopregnanolone is a potent positive GABAA receptor modulating steroid (GAMS). As reviewed here, elevated allopregnanolone levels are associated with increases in food intake, preferences for energy-rich food, and obesity in humans and other mammals...
July 8, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687473/brain-functional-alterations-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-of-fmri-studies
#6
REVIEW
Helen Macpherson, Melissa Formica, Elizabeth Harris, Robin M Daly
Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is emerging as a major global health issue. T2DM can adversely affect cognition and increase dementia risk. This systematic review aimed to examine the functional brain changes that may underlie cognitive dysfunction in adults with T2DM. Studies were restricted to those which used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen independent studies were identified, mostly comprised of middle aged or older adults. Resting-state studies demonstrated that compared to controls, connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) was reduced and the majority of task-based studies identified reduced activation in T2DM patients in regions relevant to task performance...
July 4, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676436/functional-significance-of-men-s-testosterone-reactivity-to-social-stimuli
#7
REVIEW
Samuele Zilioli, Brian M Bird
Rapid testosterone fluctuations in response to social stimuli are observed across a wide range of species, and the highly conserved nature of these fluctuations suggests an adaptive function. This paper reviews the current literature on testosterone reactivity, primarily in human males, and illustrates how life-history theory provides an adequate theoretical framework to interpret findings. The review is structured around supporting evidence suggesting that situations implicated in mating effort either directly (e...
July 1, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673758/estrogens-and-the-cognitive-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-possible-neuroprotective-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Claire McGregor, Alexander Riordan, Janice Thornton
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric illness with marked sex differences. Women have later onset and lesser symptoms, which has led to the hypothesis that estrogens are protective in schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction is a hallmark of the disease and the symptom most correlated with functional outcome. Here we describe a number of mechanisms by which estrogens may be therapeutic in schizophrenia, with a focus on cognitive symptoms. We review the relationship between estrogens and brain derived neurotrophic factor, neuroinflammation, NMDA receptors, GABA receptors, and luteinizing hormone...
June 30, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552663/sex-differences-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-metabolism-and-the-implication-of-astrocytes
#9
REVIEW
Julie A Chowen, Pilar Argente-Arizón, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Jesús Argente
Males and females have distinct propensities to develop obesity and its related comorbidities, partially due to gonadal steroids. There are sex differences in hypothalamic neuronal circuits, as well as in astrocytes, that participate in metabolic control and the development of obesity-associated complications. Astrocytes are involved in nutrient transport and metabolism, glucose sensing, synaptic remodeling and modulation of neuronal signaling. They express receptors for metabolic hormones and mediate effects of these metabolic signals on neurons, with astrogliosis occurring in response to high fat diet and excess weight gain...
May 25, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614695/sex-differences-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-older-rodents
#10
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Ryan S Falck, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Research in humans indicates that women may show greater cognitive benefits from aerobic training (AT) than men. To determine whether this sex difference extends to rodents, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in healthy, older rodents. Results indicate that compared to controls, AT improved hippocampus-dependent and -independent learning and memory. A sex difference was found with males showing larger benefits from AT on conditioned-avoidance and non-spatial memory tasks. AT also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor compared to controls, with larger effects in females...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551304/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-understanding-the-role-of-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Aleisha M Moore, Rebecca E Campbell
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. Characterised by hyperandrogenism, menstrual dysfunction and polycystic ovaries, PCOS is a broad-spectrum disorder unlikely to stem from a single common origin. Although commonly considered an ovarian disease, the brain is now a prime suspect in both the ontogeny and pathology of PCOS. We discuss here the neuroendocrine impairments present in PCOS that implicate involvement of the brain and review evidence gained from pre-clinical models of the syndrome about the specific brain circuitry involved...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502781/checks-and-balances-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-nf%C3%A4-b-in-good-times-and-bad
#12
REVIEW
Mandakh Bekhbat, Sydney A Rowson, Gretchen N Neigh
Mutual regulation and balance between the endocrine and immune systems facilitate an organism's stress response and are impaired following chronic stress or prolonged immune activation. Concurrent alterations in stress physiology and immunity are increasingly recognized as contributing factors to several stress-linked neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired balance and crosstalk between the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) - effectors of the stress and immune axes, respectively - may play a key role in mediating the harmful effects of chronic stress on mood and behavior...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455096/androgenic-mechanisms-of-sexual-differentiation-of-the-nervous-system-and-behavior
#13
REVIEW
A Swift-Gallant, D A Monks
Testicular androgens are the major endocrine factor promoting masculine phenotypes in vertebrates, but androgen signaling is complex and operates via multiple signaling pathways and sites of action. Recently, selective androgen receptor mutants have been engineered to study androgenic mechanisms of sexual differentiation of the nervous system and behavior. The focus of these studies has been to evaluate androgenic mechanisms within the nervous system by manipulating androgen receptor conditionally in neural tissues...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442274/sex-differences-in-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-older-humans
#14
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Jennifer C Davis, Ryan S Falck, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Exercise is a non-pharmacological strategy to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. Sex of participants and exercise type are two possible factors contributing to this variation. To better understand this, we conducted a concurrent systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitively healthy older adults. Executive functions, episodic memory, visuospatial function, word fluency, processing speed and global cognitive function were examined for exercise- and sex-dependent effects...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428055/sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-disease-impact-on-care-and-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
K H Humphries, M Izadnegahdar, T Sedlak, J Saw, N Johnston, K Schenck-Gustafsson, R U Shah, V Regitz-Zagrosek, J Grewal, V Vaccarino, J Wei, C N Bairey Merz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249715/sleep-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Brianne A Kent, Ralph E Mistlberger
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and currently there are no effective disease-modifying treatments available. Hallmark symptoms of AD include impaired hippocampus-dependent episodic memory and disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. The pathways connecting these symptoms are of particular interest because it is well established that sleep and circadian disruption can impair hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In rodents, these procedures also markedly suppress adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a form of brain plasticity that is believed to play an important role in pattern separation, and thus episodic memory...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237271/evidence-based-treatments-for-low-sexual-desire-in-women
#17
REVIEW
Lori A Brotto
Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women, with multinational studies finding that at least a third of women experience low sexual desire. No single etiology for the development of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, the diagnosis laid out by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, has been established. There has been considerable interest in pharmacological approaches to improving low desire, and agents targeting a range of neurotransmitters have been examined...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235557/multidisciplinary-consensus-on-the-therapeutic-recommendations-for-iatrogenic-hyperprolactinemia-secondary-to-antipsychotics
#18
REVIEW
Ángel L Montejo, Celso Arango, Miquel Bernardo, José L Carrasco, Benidicto Crespo-Facorro, Juan J Cruz, Javier Del Pino-Montes, Miguel A García-Escudero, Clemente García-Rizo, Ana González-Pinto, Ana I Hernández, Manuel Martín-Carrasco, Fermín Mayoral-Cleries, Jaqueline Mayoral-van Son, M Teresa Mories, Isabella Pachiarotti, Jesús Pérez, Salvador Ros, Eduard Vieta
Hyperprolactinemia is an underappreciated/unknown adverse effects of antipsychotics. The consequences of hyperprolactinemia compromise therapeutic adherence and can be serious. We present the consensus recommendations made by a group of experts regarding the management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. The current consensus was developed in 3 phases: 1, review of the scientific literature; 2, subsequent round table discussion to attempt to reach a consensus among the experts; and 3, review by all of the authors of the final conclusions until reaching a complete consensus...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232227/between-mind-and-heart-sex-based-cognitive-bias-in-cardiovascular-disease-treatment
#19
Amanda C Kentner, Sherry L Grace
Given that both men and women experience cardiovascular disease (CVD), a common misconception is that they have similar risk factors and clinical presentation, receive comparable treatment, and have equivalent clinical outcomes; in reality differences are observed between men and women for each of these endpoints. Moreover, these differences occur as a function of both gender and sex. A review of the literature reveals widespread bias in the selection of research subjects based on these factors, in addition to implicit patient and provider biases that impede the access of women to recommended primary and secondary CVD management...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049009/oxytocin-system-dysfunction-as-a-common-mechanism-underlying-metabolic-syndrome-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Daniel S Quintana, Ingrid Dieset, Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Lars T Westlye, Ole A Andreassen
There is growing interest in using intranasal oxytocin (OT) to treat social dysfunction in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (i.e., psychotic disorders). While OT treatment results have been mixed, emerging evidence suggests that OT system dysfunction may also play a role in the etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which appears in one-third of individuals with psychotic disorders and associated with increased mortality. Here we examine the evidence for a potential role of the OT system in the shared risk for MetS and psychotic disorders, and its prospects for ameliorating MetS...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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