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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392901/what-magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-a-systematic-review-of-the-relationship-between-type-ii-diabetes-and-associated-brain-distortions-of-structure-and-cognitive-functioning
#1
REVIEW
Jessica Rosenberg, Nazim Lechea, Gael N Pentang, Nadim J Shah
Due to its increasing prevalence, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a major health challenge for modern society. Despite it being of fundamental interest, only a few MRI studies have conducted statistical analyses to draw scientifically valid conclusions about the complex interplay of T2DM and its associated clinical, structural, functional, metabolite, as well as cognitive distortions. Therefore, a systematic review of 68 manuscripts, following the PRISMA guidelines, was conducted. Notably, although the associations between imaging, clinical, and cognitive variables are not fully homogeneous, findings show a clear trend towards a link between altered brain structure and a decline in cognitive processing ability...
October 27, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315826/the-relationship-between-oxytocin-dietary-intake-and-feeding-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-mice-and-rats
#2
REVIEW
Janelle A Skinner, Erin J Campbell, Christopher V Dayas, Manohar L Garg, Tracy L Burrows
The neuropeptide oxytocin has been associated with food intake and feeding behaviour. This systematic review aimed to investigate the impact of oxytocin on dietary intake and feeding behaviour in rodent studies. Six electronic databases were searched to identify published studies to April 2018. Preclinical studies in mice and rats were included if they reported: (1) a dietary measure (i.e. food or nutrient and/or behaviour (2) an oxytocin measure, and (3) relationship between the two measures. A total of 75 articles (n = 246 experiments) were included, and study quality appraised...
October 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223003/molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-the-protective-actions-of-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-in-brain-cells
#3
REVIEW
E Baez-Jurado, M A Rincón-Benavides, O Hidalgo-Lanussa, G Guio-Vega, G M Ashraf, A Sahebkar, V Echeverria, L M Garcia-Segura, G E Barreto
Synthetic selective modulators of the estrogen receptors (SERMs) have shown to protect neurons and glial cells against toxic insults. Among the most relevant beneficial effects attributed to these compounds are the regulation of inflammation, attenuation of astrogliosis and microglial activation, prevention of excitotoxicity and as a consequence the reduction of neuronal cell death. Under pathological conditions, the mechanism of action of the SERMs involves the activation of estrogen receptors (ERs) and G protein-coupled receptor for estrogens (GRP30)...
September 14, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932958/orexins-and-stress
#4
REVIEW
Laura A Grafe, Seema Bhatnagar
The neuropeptides orexins are important in regulating the neurobiological systems that respond to stressful stimuli. Furthermore, orexins are known to play a role many of the phenotypes associated with stress-related mental illness such as changes in cognition, sleep-wake states, and appetite. Interestingly, orexins are altered in stress-related psychiatric disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders. Thus, orexins may be a potential target for treatment of these disorders. In this review, we will focus on what is known about the role of orexins in acute and repeated stress, in stress-induced phenotypes relevant to psychiatric illness in preclinical models, and in stress-related psychiatric illness in humans...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890191/homeostatic-sensing-of-dietary-protein-restriction-a-case-for-fgf21
#5
REVIEW
Cristal M Hill, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
Restriction of dietary protein intake increases food intake and energy expenditure, reduces growth, and alters amino acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. While these responses suggest that animals 'sense' variations in amino acid consumption, the basic physiological mechanism mediating the adaptive response to protein restriction has been largely undescribed. In this review we make the case that the liver-derived metabolic hormone FGF21 is the key signal which communicates and coordinates the homeostatic response to dietary protein restriction...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859883/trpcing-around-the-hypothalamus
#6
REVIEW
Martin J Kelly, Jian Qiu, Oline K Rønnekleiv
All of the canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) with the exception of TRPC 2 are expressed in hypothalamic neurons and are involved in multiple homeostatic functions. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptors have been shown to be coupled to TRPC channel activation in cortical and sub-cortical brain regions, in the hypothalamus multiple amine and peptidergic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and growth factor/cytokine receptors are linked to activation of TRPC channels that are vital for reproduction, temperature regulation, arousal and energy homeostasis...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842887/thalamic-integration-of-social-stimuli-regulating-parental-behavior-and-the-oxytocin-system
#7
REVIEW
Arpad Dobolyi, Melinda Cservenák, Larry J Young
Critically important components of the maternal neural circuit in the preoptic area robustly activated by suckling were recently identified. In turn, suckling also contributes to hormonal adaptations to motherhood, which includes oxytocin release and consequent milk ejection. Other reproductive or social stimuli can also trigger the release of oxytocin centrally, influencing parental or social behaviors. However, the neuronal pathways that transfer suckling and other somatosensory stimuli to the preoptic area and oxytocin neurons have been poorly characterized...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753796/the-neuroendocrinology-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-a-behavioural-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Sofia Cussotto, Kiran V Sandhu, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The human gut harbours trillions of symbiotic bacteria that play a key role in programming different aspects of host physiology in health and disease. These intestinal microbes are also key components of the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional communication pathway between the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the CNS is closely interconnected with the endocrine system to regulate many physiological processes. An expanding body of evidence is supporting the notion that gut microbiota modifications and/or manipulations may also play a crucial role in the manifestation of specific behavioural responses regulated by neuroendocrine pathways...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274999/sensing-and-signaling-mechanisms-linking-dietary-methionine-restriction-to-the-behavioral-and-physiological-components-of-the-response
#9
REVIEW
Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, Desiree Wanders, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) is implemented using a semi-purified diet that reduces methionine by ∼80% and eliminates dietary cysteine. Within hours of its introduction, dietary MR initiates coordinated series of transcriptional programs and physiological responses that include increased energy intake and expenditure, decreased adiposity, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and reduction in circulating and tissue lipids. Significant progress has been made in cataloguing the physiological responses to MR in males but not females, but identities of the sensing and communication networks that orchestrate these responses remain poorly understood...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054552/cross-talk-among-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-receptors-relevance-for-basic-and-clinical-studies-of-the-brain-and-periphery
#10
REVIEW
Zhimin Song, H Elliott Albers
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in the brain to regulate social cognition/social behavior and in the periphery to influence a variety of physiological processes. Although the chemical structures of OT and AVP as well as their receptors are quite similar, OT and AVP can have distinct or even opposing actions. Here, we review the increasing body of evidence that exogenously administered and endogenously released OT and AVP can activate each other's canonical receptors (i.e., cross-talk) and examine the possibility that receptor cross-talk following the synaptic and non-synaptic release of OT and AVP contributes to their distinct roles in the brain and periphery...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965857/modeling-prenatal-opioid-exposure-in-animals-current-findings-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth M Byrnes, Fair M Vassoler
The past decade has seen a drastic rise in the number of infants exposed to opioids in utero. It is unclear what lasting effect this exposure may have on these children. Animal models of prenatal opioid exposure may provide insight into potential areas of vulnerability. The present review summarizes the findings across animal models of prenatal opioid exposure, including exposure to morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, and oxycodone. Details regarding the drug, doses, and duration of treatment, as well as key findings, are summarized in tables with associated references...
October 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040969/a-case-for-gender-based-approach-to-multiple-sclerosis-therapeutics
#12
REVIEW
Maria K Houtchens, Riley Bove
Despite established sex differences in multiple sclerosis (MS) risk and course, sex-specific efficacy and toxicity of existing MS therapies, and possible sex-specific therapeutic approaches, remain underexplored. We systematically reviewed published sex differences from Phase III pivotal trials for FDA or EMA-approved MS disease modifying therapies (DMTs), along with additional information from pharmaceutical companies, for pre-specified or post-hoc baseline characteristics, efficacy and safety outcomes by sex, and sex-specific concerns...
July 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959945/improving-pharmacological-treatment-in-brain-and-mental-health-disorders-the-need-for-gender-and-sex-analyses
#13
EDITORIAL
Maria Teresa Ferretti, Liisa A M Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935190/sex-differences-in-how-inflammation-affects-behavior-what-we-can-learn-from-experimental-inflammatory-models-in-humans
#14
REVIEW
Julie Lasselin, Mats Lekander, John Axelsson, Bianka Karshikoff
Human models demonstrate that experimental activation of the innate immune system has profound effects on brain activation and behavior, inducing fatigue, worsened mood and pain sensitivity. It has been proposed that inflammation is a mechanism involved in the etiology and maintenance of depression, chronic pain and long-term fatigue. These diseases show a strong female overrepresentation, suggesting that a better understanding of sex differences in how inflammation drives behavior could help the development of individualized treatment interventions...
July 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902481/precision-medicine-and-drug-development-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-importance-of-sexual-dimorphism-and-patient-stratification
#15
REVIEW
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Filippo Sean Giorgi, Seung Hyun Kim, Herman Depypere, Manuela Graziani, Amira Saidi, Robert Nisticò, Simone Lista
Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are among the leading causes of disability and mortality. Considerable sex differences exist in the occurrence of the various manifestations leading to cognitive decline. Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits substantial sexual dimorphisms and disproportionately affects women. Women have a higher life expectancy compared to men and, consequently, have more lifespan to develop AD. The emerging precision medicine and pharmacology concepts - taking into account the individual genetic and biological variability relevant for disease risk, prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment - are expected to substantially enhance our knowledge and management of AD...
July 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859882/the-impact-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-search-for-novel-antidepressants
#16
REVIEW
Alexia V Williams, Brian C Trainor
A roadblock to successful treatment for anxiety and depression is the high proportion of individuals that do not respond to existing treatments. Different underlying neurobiological mechanisms may drive similar symptoms, so a more personalized approach to treatment could be more successful. There is increasing evidence that sex is an important biological variable modulating efficacy of antidepressants and anxiolytics. We review evidence for sex-specific effects of traditional monoamine based antidepressants and newer pharmaceuticals targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR), oxytocin receptors (OTR), and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (ketamine)...
July 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753798/sex-related-responses-after-traumatic-brain-injury-considerations-for-preclinical-modeling
#17
REVIEW
Claudia B Späni, David J Braun, Linda J Van Eldik
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has historically been viewed as a primarily male problem, since men are more likely to experience a TBI because of more frequent participation in activities that increase risk of head injuries. This male bias is also reflected in preclinical research where mostly male animals have been used in basic and translational science. However, with an aging population in which TBI incidence is increasingly sex-independent due to falls, and increasing female participation in high-risk activities, the attention to potential sex differences in TBI responses and outcomes will become more important...
July 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753797/ischemic-stroke-across-sexes-what-is-the-status-quo
#18
REVIEW
Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Cathérine Gebhard, Thomas F Lüscher, Susanne Wegener, Giovanni G Camici
Stroke prevalence is expected to increase in the next decades due to the aging of the Western population. Ischemic stroke (IS) shows an age- and sex-dependent distribution in which men represent the most affected population within 65 years of age, being passed by post-menopausal women in older age groups. Furthermore, a sexual dimorphism concerning risk factors, presentation and treatment of IS has been widely recognized. In order to address these phenomena, a number of issue have been raised involving both socio-economical and biological factors...
July 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288680/deciphering-sex-differences-in-the-immune-system-and-depression
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer R Rainville, Mariya Tsyglakova, Georgia E Hodes
Certain mood disorders and autoimmune diseases are predominately female diseases but we do not know why. Here, we explore the relationship between depression and the immune system from a sex-based perspective. This review characterizes sex differences in the immune system in health and disease. We explore the contribution of gonadal and stress hormones to immune function at the cellular and molecular level in the brain and body. We propose hormonal and genetic sex specific immune mechanisms that may contribute to the etiology of mood disorders...
July 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074127/sex-differences-in-the-pituitary-tgf%C3%AE-1-system-the-role-of-tgf%C3%AE-1-in-prolactinoma-development
#20
REVIEW
M Victoria Recouvreux, Erika Y Faraoni, M Andrea Camilletti, Laura Ratner, Alejandra Abeledo-Machado, Susana B Rulli, Graciela Díaz-Torga
Prolactinomas are the most frequent functioning pituitary adenomas, and sex differences in tumor size, behavior and incidence have been described. These differences have been associated with earlier diagnosis in woman, as well as with serum estradiol levels. Experimental models of prolactinomas in rodents also show a higher incidence in females, and recent findings suggest that gender differences in the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) system might be involved in the sex-specific development of prolactinomas in these models...
July 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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