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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754629/connecting-metabolism-and-gonadal-function-novel-central-neuropeptide-pathways-involved-in-the-metabolic-control-of-puberty-and-fertility
#1
REVIEW
M Manfredi-Lozano, J Roa, M Tena-Sempere
Albeit essential for perpetuation of species, reproduction is an energy-demanding function that can be adjusted to body metabolic status. Reproductive maturation and function can be suppressed in conditions of energy deficit, but can be altered also in situations of persistent energy excess, e.g., morbid obesity. This metabolic-reproductive integration, of considerable pathophysiological relevance to explain different forms of perturbed puberty and sub/infertility, is implemented by the concerted action of numerous central and peripheral regulators, which impinge at different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, permitting a tight fit between nutritional/energy status and gonadal function...
July 25, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754628/differential-vulnerability-to-adverse-nutritional-conditions-in-male-and-female-rats-modulatory-role-of-estradiol-during-development
#2
REVIEW
Helena Pinos, Beatriz Carrillo, Francisca Díaz, Julie A Chowen, Paloma Collado
Many studies have shown the importance of an adequate nutritional environment during development to optimally establish the neurohormonal circuits that regulate feeding behavior. Under- or over-nutrition during early stages of life can lead to alterations in the physiology and brain networks that control food intake, resulting in a greater vulnerability to suffer maladjustments in energy metabolism in adulthood. These alterations produced by under- or over-nourishment during development differ between males and females, as does the modulatory action that estradiol exerts on the alterations produced by malnutrition...
July 25, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739507/neuroactive-steroids-and-diabetic-complications-in-the-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
S Giatti, R Mastrangelo, M D'Antonio, M Pesaresi, S Romano, S Diviccaro, D Caruso, N Mitro, R C Melcangi
Important complications of diabetes mellitus in the nervous system are represented by diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic encephalopathy. In this context, an important link is represented by neuroactive steroids (i.e., steroids coming from peripheral glands and affecting nervous functionality as well as directly synthesized in the nervous system). Indeed, diabetes does not only affect the reproductive axis and consequently the levels of sex steroid hormones, but also those of neuroactive steroids. Indeed, as will be here summarized, the levels of these neuromodulators present in the central and peripheral nervous system are affected by the pathology in a sex-dimorphic way...
July 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694181/allopregnanolone-involvement-in-feeding-regulation-overeating-and-obesity
#4
E Holmberg, J Sjöstedt, E Malinina, M Johansson, S Turkmen, G Ragagnin, A Lundqvist, M Löfgren, L Jaukkuri, M Bixo, T Bäckström
Obesity is strongly associated with ill health, primarily caused by consumption of excessive calories, and promoted (inter alia) by gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) stimulating food intake by activating GABAA receptors (primarily with α3 and α2 subunits) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. Allopregnanolone is a potent positive GABAA receptor modulating steroid (GAMS). As reviewed here, elevated allopregnanolone levels are associated with increases in food intake, preferences for energy-rich food, and obesity in humans and other mammals...
July 8, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837830/between-litter-variation-in-developmental-studies-of-hormones-and-behavior-inflated-false-positives-and-diminished-power
#5
REVIEW
Donald R Williams, Rickard Carlsson, Paul-Christian Bürkner
Developmental studies of hormones and behavior often include littermates-rodent siblings that share early-life experiences and genes. Due to between-litter variation (i.e., litter effects), the statistical assumption of independent observations is untenable. In two literatures-natural variation in maternal care and prenatal stress-entire litters are categorized based on maternal behavior or experimental condition. Here, we (1) review both literatures; (2) simulate false positive rates for commonly used statistical methods in each literature; and (3) characterize small sample performance of multilevel models (MLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE)...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803147/ovarian-hormones-sleep-and-cognition-across-the-adult-female-lifespan-an-integrated-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Nicole J Gervais, Jessica A Mong, Agnès Lacreuse
Loss of ovarian function in women is associated with sleep disturbances and cognitive decline, which suggest a key role for estrogens and/or progestins in modulating these symptoms. The effects of ovarian hormones on sleep and cognitive processes have been studied in separate research fields that seldom intersect. However, sleep has a considerable impact on cognitive function. Given the tight connections between sleep and cognition, ovarian hormones may influence selective aspects of cognition indirectly, via the modulation of sleep...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801100/neuroendocrine-disruption-in-animal-models-due-to-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-analogues
#7
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Animal and human studies provide evidence that exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), bisphenol A (BPA), can lead to neurobehavioral disorders. Consequently, there is an impetus to identify safer alternatives to BPA. Three bisphenol compounds proposed as potential safer alternatives to BPA are bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF). However, it is not clear whether these other compounds are safer in terms of inducing less endocrine disrupting effects in animals and humans who are now increasingly coming into contact with these BPA-substitutes...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757114/sex-differences-in-age-related-changes-in-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#8
REVIEW
Julie Carrier, Kazue Semba, Samuel Deurveilher, Lauren Drogos, Jessica Cyr-Cronier, Catherine Lord, Zoran Sekerovick
Age-related changes in sleep and circadian regulation occur as early as the middle years of life. Research also suggests that sleep and circadian rhythms are regulated differently between women and men. However, does sleep and circadian rhythms regulation age similarly in men and women? In this review, we present the mechanisms underlying age-related differences in sleep and the current state of knowledge on how they interact with sex. We also address how testosterone, estrogens, and progesterone fluctuations across adulthood interact with sleep and circadian regulation...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739508/endocannabinoids-effectors-of-glucocorticoid-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Georgia Balsevich, Gavin N Petrie, Matthew N Hill
For decades, there has been speculation regarding the interaction of cannabinoids with glucocorticoid systems. Given the functional redundancy between many of the physiological effects of glucocorticoids and cannabinoids, it was originally speculated that the biological mechanisms of cannabinoids were mediated by direct interactions with glucocorticoid systems. With the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, additional research demonstrated that it was actually the opposite; glucocorticoids recruit endocannabinoid signaling, and that the engagement of endocannabinoid signaling mediated many of the neurobiological and physiological effects of glucocorticoids...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736323/offspring-neuroimmune-consequences-of-maternal-malnutrition-potential-mechanism-for-behavioral-impairments-that-underlie-metabolic-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#10
REVIEW
B L Smith, T M Reyes
Maternal malnutrition significantly increases offspring risk for both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of maternal malnutrition have identified behavioral changes in the adult offspring related to executive function and reward processing. Together, these changes in executive and reward-based behaviors likely contribute to the etiology of both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with maternal malnutrition. Concomitant with the behavioral effects, maternal malnutrition alters offspring expression of reward-related molecules and inflammatory signals in brain pathways that control executive function and reward...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705582/polymorphisms-in-sex-steroid-receptors-from-gene-sequence-to-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Donna L Maney
Sex steroid receptors have received much interest as potential mediators of human behaviors and mental disorders. Candidate gene association studies have identified about 50 genetic variants of androgen and estrogen receptors that correlate with human behavioral phenotypes. Because most of these polymorphisms lie outside coding regions, discerning their effect on receptor function is not straightforward. Thus, although discoveries of associations improve our ability to predict risk, they have not greatly advanced our understanding of underlying mechanisms...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687473/brain-functional-alterations-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-of-fmri-studies
#12
REVIEW
Helen Macpherson, Melissa Formica, Elizabeth Harris, Robin M Daly
Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is emerging as a major global health issue. T2DM can adversely affect cognition and increase dementia risk. This systematic review aimed to examine the functional brain changes that may underlie cognitive dysfunction in adults with T2DM. Studies were restricted to those which used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen independent studies were identified, mostly comprised of middle aged or older adults. Resting-state studies demonstrated that compared to controls, connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) was reduced and the majority of task-based studies identified reduced activation in T2DM patients in regions relevant to task performance...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676436/functional-significance-of-men-s-testosterone-reactivity-to-social-stimuli
#13
REVIEW
Samuele Zilioli, Brian M Bird
Rapid testosterone fluctuations in response to social stimuli are observed across a wide range of species, and the highly conserved nature of these fluctuations suggests an adaptive function. This paper reviews the current literature on testosterone reactivity, primarily in human males, and illustrates how life-history theory provides an adequate theoretical framework to interpret findings. The review is structured around supporting evidence suggesting that situations implicated in mating effort either directly (e...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673758/estrogens-and-the-cognitive-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-possible-neuroprotective-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Claire McGregor, Alexander Riordan, Janice Thornton
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric illness with marked sex differences. Women have later onset and lesser symptoms, which has led to the hypothesis that estrogens are protective in schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction is a hallmark of the disease and the symptom most correlated with functional outcome. Here we describe a number of mechanisms by which estrogens may be therapeutic in schizophrenia, with a focus on cognitive symptoms. We review the relationship between estrogens and brain derived neurotrophic factor, neuroinflammation, NMDA receptors, GABA receptors, and luteinizing hormone...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614695/sex-differences-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-older-rodents
#15
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Ryan S Falck, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Research in humans indicates that women may show greater cognitive benefits from aerobic training (AT) than men. To determine whether this sex difference extends to rodents, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in healthy, older rodents. Results indicate that compared to controls, AT improved hippocampus-dependent and -independent learning and memory. A sex difference was found with males showing larger benefits from AT on conditioned-avoidance and non-spatial memory tasks. AT also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor compared to controls, with larger effects in females...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551304/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-understanding-the-role-of-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Aleisha M Moore, Rebecca E Campbell
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. Characterised by hyperandrogenism, menstrual dysfunction and polycystic ovaries, PCOS is a broad-spectrum disorder unlikely to stem from a single common origin. Although commonly considered an ovarian disease, the brain is now a prime suspect in both the ontogeny and pathology of PCOS. We discuss here the neuroendocrine impairments present in PCOS that implicate involvement of the brain and review evidence gained from pre-clinical models of the syndrome about the specific brain circuitry involved...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502781/checks-and-balances-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-nf%C3%A4-b-in-good-times-and-bad
#17
REVIEW
Mandakh Bekhbat, Sydney A Rowson, Gretchen N Neigh
Mutual regulation and balance between the endocrine and immune systems facilitate an organism's stress response and are impaired following chronic stress or prolonged immune activation. Concurrent alterations in stress physiology and immunity are increasingly recognized as contributing factors to several stress-linked neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired balance and crosstalk between the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) - effectors of the stress and immune axes, respectively - may play a key role in mediating the harmful effects of chronic stress on mood and behavior...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455096/androgenic-mechanisms-of-sexual-differentiation-of-the-nervous-system-and-behavior
#18
REVIEW
A Swift-Gallant, D A Monks
Testicular androgens are the major endocrine factor promoting masculine phenotypes in vertebrates, but androgen signaling is complex and operates via multiple signaling pathways and sites of action. Recently, selective androgen receptor mutants have been engineered to study androgenic mechanisms of sexual differentiation of the nervous system and behavior. The focus of these studies has been to evaluate androgenic mechanisms within the nervous system by manipulating androgen receptor conditionally in neural tissues...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442274/sex-differences-in-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-older-humans
#19
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Jennifer C Davis, Ryan S Falck, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Exercise is a non-pharmacological strategy to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. Sex of participants and exercise type are two possible factors contributing to this variation. To better understand this, we conducted a concurrent systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitively healthy older adults. Executive functions, episodic memory, visuospatial function, word fluency, processing speed and global cognitive function were examined for exercise- and sex-dependent effects...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428055/sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-disease-impact-on-care-and-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
K H Humphries, M Izadnegahdar, T Sedlak, J Saw, N Johnston, K Schenck-Gustafsson, R U Shah, V Regitz-Zagrosek, J Grewal, V Vaccarino, J Wei, C N Bairey Merz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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