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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959945/beyond-bikini-medicine-the-need-of-a-gender-and-sex-sensitive-approach-for-brain-and-mental-diseases
#1
EDITORIAL
Maria Teresa Ferretti, Liisa A M Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935915/the-forgotten-effects-of-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-metabolic-functions-and-medical-applications
#2
REVIEW
Eleonore Fröhlich, Richard Wahl
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) causes a variety of thyroidal and non-thyroidal effects, the best known being the feedback regulation of thyroid hormone levels. This was employed in the TRH stimulation test, which is currently little used. The role of TRH as a cancer biomarker is minor, but exaggerated responses to TSH and prolactin levels in breast cancer led to the hypothesis of a potential role for TRH in the pathogenesis of this disease. TRH is a rapidly degraded peptide with multiple targets, limiting its suitability as a biomarker and drug candidate...
June 21, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935190/sex-differences-in-how-inflammation-affects-behavior-what-we-can-learn-from-experimental-inflammatory-models-in-humans
#3
REVIEW
Julie Lasselin, Mats Lekander, John Axelsson, Bianka Karshikoff
Human models demonstrate that experimental activation of the innate immune system has profound effects on brain activation and behavior, inducing fatigue, worsened mood and pain sensitivity. It has been proposed that inflammation is a mechanism involved in the etiology and maintenance of depression, chronic pain and long-term fatigue. These diseases show a strong female overrepresentation, suggesting that a better understanding of sex differences in how inflammation drives behavior could help the development of individualized treatment interventions...
June 20, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932958/orexins-and-stress
#4
REVIEW
Laura A Grafe, Seema Bhatnagar
The neuropeptides orexins are important in regulating the neurobiological systems that respond to stressful stimuli. Furthermore, orexins are known to play a role many of the phenotypes associated with stress-related mental illness such as changes in cognition, sleep-wake states, and appetite. Interestingly, orexins are altered in stress-related psychiatric disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders. Thus, orexins may be a potential target for treatment of these disorders. In this review, we will focus on what is known about the role of orexins in acute and repeated stress, in stress-induced phenotypes relevant to psychiatric illness in preclinical models, and in stress-related psychiatric illness in humans...
June 19, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908879/exogenous-melatonin-as-a-treatment-for-secondary-sleep-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Mengzhen Han, Zhi Yang, Jianjun Lv, Chao Deng, Russel J Reiter, Yang Yang
Melatonin is a physiological indoleamine involved in circadian rhythm regulation and it is currently used for secondary sleep disorders supported by empirical evidence. A small amount of evidence and some controversial results have been obtained in some randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of this meta-analysis is to determine the efficacy of exogenous melatonin versus placebo in managing secondary sleep disorders. Literature retrieval of eligible RCT was performed in 5 databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials...
June 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902481/precision-medicine-and-drug-development-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-importance-of-sexual-dimorphism-and-patient-stratification
#6
REVIEW
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Filippo Sean Giorgi, Seung Hyun Kim, Herman Depypere, Manuela Graziani, Amira Saidi, Robert Nisticò, Simone Lista
Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) are among the leading causes of disability and mortality. Considerable sex differences exist in the occurrence of the various manifestations leading to cognitive decline. Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits substantial sexual dimorphisms and disproportionately affects women. Women have a higher life expectancy compared to men and, consequently, have more lifespan to develop AD. The emerging precision medicine and pharmacology concepts - taking into account the individual genetic and biological variability relevant for disease risk, prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment - are expected to substantially enhance our knowledge and management of AD...
June 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890191/homeostatic-sensing-of-dietary-protein-restriction-a-case-for-fgf21
#7
REVIEW
Cristal M Hill, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
Restriction of dietary protein intake increases food intake and energy expenditure, reduces growth, and alters amino acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. While these responses suggest that animals 'sense' variations in amino acid consumption, the basic physiological mechanism mediating the adaptive response to protein restriction has been largely undescribed. In this review we make the case that the liver-derived metabolic hormone FGF21 is the key signal which communicates and coordinates the homeostatic response to dietary protein restriction...
June 8, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859883/trpcing-around-the-hypothalamus
#8
REVIEW
Martin J Kelly, Jian Qiu, Oline K Rønnekleiv
All of the canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) with the exception of TRPC 2 are expressed in hypothalamic neurons and are involved in multiple homeostatic functions. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptors have been shown to be coupled to TRPC channel activation in cortical and sub-cortical brain regions, in the hypothalamus multiple amine and peptidergic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and growth factor/cytokine receptors are linked to activation of TRPC channels that are vital for reproduction, temperature regulation, arousal and energy homeostasis...
May 31, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859882/the-impact-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-search-for-novel-antidepressants
#9
REVIEW
Alexia V Williams, Brian C Trainor
A roadblock to successful treatment for anxiety and depression is the high proportion of individuals that do not respond to existing treatments. Different underlying neurobiological mechanisms may drive similar symptoms, so a more personalized approach to treatment could be more successful. There is increasing evidence that sex is an important biological variable modulating efficacy of antidepressants and anxiolytics. We review evidence for sex-specific effects of traditional monoamine based antidepressants and newer pharmaceuticals targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR), oxytocin receptors (OTR), and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (ketamine)...
May 31, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842887/thalamic-integration-of-social-stimuli-regulating-parental-behavior-and-the-oxytocin-system
#10
REVIEW
Arpad Dobolyi, Melinda Cservenák, Larry J Young
Critically important components of the maternal neural circuit in the preoptic area robustly activated by suckling were recently identified. In turn, suckling also contributes to hormonal adaptations to motherhood, which includes oxytocin release and consequent milk ejection. Other reproductive or social stimuli can also trigger the release of oxytocin centrally, influencing parental or social behaviors. However, the neuronal pathways that transfer suckling and other somatosensory stimuli to the preoptic area and oxytocin neurons have been poorly characterized...
May 26, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753798/sex-related-responses-after-traumatic-brain-injury-considerations-for-preclinical-modeling
#11
REVIEW
Claudia B Späni, David J Braun, Linda J Van Eldik
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has historically been viewed as a primarily male problem, since men are more likely to experience a TBI because of more frequent participation in activities that increase risk of head injuries. This male bias is also reflected in preclinical research where mostly male animals have been used in basic and translational science. However, with an aging population in which TBI incidence is increasingly sex-independent due to falls, and increasing female participation in high-risk activities, the attention to potential sex differences in TBI responses and outcomes will become more important...
May 18, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753797/ischemic-stroke-across-sexes-what-is-the-status-quo
#12
REVIEW
Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Cathérine Gebhard, Thomas F Lüscher, Susanne Wegener, Giovanni G Camici
Stroke prevalence is expected to increase in the next decades due to the aging of the Western population. Ischemic stroke (IS) shows an age- and sex-dependent distribution in which men represent the most affected population within 65 years of age, being passed by post-menopausal women in older age groups. Furthermore, a sexual dimorphism concerning risk factors, presentation and treatment of IS has been widely recognized. In order to address these phenomena, a number of issue have been raised involving both socio-economical and biological factors...
May 16, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753796/the-neuroendocrinology-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-a-behavioural-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Sofia Cussotto, Kiran V Sandhu, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The human gut harbours trillions of symbiotic bacteria that play a key role in programming different aspects of host physiology in health and disease. These intestinal microbes are also key components of the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional communication pathway between the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the CNS is closely interconnected with the endocrine system to regulate many physiological processes. An expanding body of evidence is supporting the notion that gut microbiota modifications and/or manipulations may also play a crucial role in the manifestation of specific behavioural responses regulated by neuroendocrine pathways...
May 14, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763641/ischemic-stroke-across-sexes-what-is-the-status-quo
#14
REVIEW
Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Cathérine Gebhard, Thomas F Lüscher, Susanne Wegener, Giovanni G Camici
Stroke prevalence is expected to increase in the next decades due to the aging of the Western population. Ischemic stroke (IS) shows an age- and sex-dependent distribution in which men represent the most affected population within 65 years of age, being passed by post-menopausal women in older age groups. Furthermore, a sexual dimorphism concerning risk factors, presentation and treatment of IS has been widely recognized. In order to address these phenomena, a number of issue have been raised involving both socio-economical and biological factors...
May 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596867/the-short-term-stress-response-mother-nature-s-mechanism-for-enhancing-protection-and-performance-under-conditions-of-threat-challenge-and-opportunity
#15
REVIEW
Firdaus S Dhabhar
Our group has proposed that in contrast to chronic stress that can have harmful effects, the short-term (fight-or-flight) stress response (lasting for minutes to hours) is nature's fundamental survival mechanism that enhances protection and performance under conditions involving threat/challenge/opportunity. Short-term stress enhances innate/primary, adaptive/secondary, vaccine-induced, and anti-tumor immune responses, and post-surgical recovery. Mechanisms and mediators include stress hormones, dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking/function and local/systemic chemokine and cytokine production...
April 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574115/fifty-years-of-stress-and-more-to-come-a-tribute-to-bruce-s-mcewen
#16
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth Gould, Liisa A M Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551356/more-than-a-feeling-a-unified-view-of-stress-measurement-for-population-science
#17
REVIEW
Elissa S Epel, Alexandra D Crosswell, Stefanie E Mayer, Aric A Prather, George M Slavich, Eli Puterman, Wendy Berry Mendes
Stress can influence health throughout the lifespan, yet there is little agreement about what types and aspects of stress matter most for human health and disease. This is in part because "stress" is not a monolithic concept but rather, an emergent process that involves interactions between individual and environmental factors, historical and current events, allostatic states, and psychological and physiological reactivity. Many of these processes alone have been labeled as "stress." Stress science would be further advanced if researchers adopted a common conceptual model that incorporates epidemiological, affective, and psychophysiological perspectives, with more precise language for describing stress measures...
April 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551355/transposons-stress-and-the-functions-of-the-deep-genome
#18
REVIEW
Andrew A Bartlett, Richard G Hunter
The brain is responsible for both recognition and adaptation to stressful stimuli. Many molecular mechanisms have been implicated in this response including those governing neuronal plasticity, neurogenesis and, changes gene expression. Far less is known regarding effects of stress on the deep genome. In the hippocampus, stress appears to regulate expression of non-coding elements of the genome as well as the chromatin permissive for their transcription. Specifically, hippocampal retrotransposon (RT) elements are regulated by acute stress via the accumulation of the repressive H3K9me3 mark at RT loci...
April 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470993/stress-common-themes-toward-the-next-frontier
#19
REVIEW
Ilia N Karatsoreos
"Stress is complicated". A phrase uttered by many a stress researcher. This is true, from the vast array of stimuli considered "stressors" to the interactive and hormetic nature of the molecular, cellular, endocrine, and behavioral responses generated by such stressors. This commentary takes the position that stress researchers are poised to make even bigger contributions if they begin to shift from investigating the myriad effects of stress on brain and body, and to refocus a larger part of our efforts on more in-depth investigations of common themes in stress biology, with the goal of uncovering potential "universal principles" of stress that may help us better interpret the findings at higher levels of analysis, and provide a structured approach to help breach the next frontiers of stress research...
April 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428549/importance-of-the-brain-corticosteroid-receptor-balance-in-metaplasticity-cognitive-performance-and-neuro-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
E R de Kloet, O C Meijer, A F de Nicola, R H de Rijk, M Joëls
Bruce McEwen's discovery of receptors for corticosterone in the rat hippocampus introduced higher brain circuits in the neuroendocrinology of stress. Subsequently, these receptors were identified as mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) that are involved in appraisal processes, choice of coping style, encoding and retrieval. The MR-mediated actions on cognition are complemented by slower actions via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) on contextualization, rationalization and memory storage of the experience. These sequential phases in cognitive performance depend on synaptic metaplasticity that is regulated by coordinate MR- and GR activation...
April 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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