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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614695/sex-differences-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-older-rodents
#1
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Ryan S Falck, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Research in humans indicates that women may show greater cognitive benefits from aerobic training (AT) than men. To determine whether this sex difference extends to rodents, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in healthy, older rodents. Results indicate that compared to controls, AT improved hippocampus-dependent and -independent learning and memory. A sex difference was found with males showing larger benefits from AT on conditioned-avoidance and non-spatial memory tasks. AT also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor compared to controls, with larger effects in females...
June 11, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552663/sex-differences-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-metabolism-and-the-implication-of-astrocytes
#2
REVIEW
Julie A Chowen, Pilar Argente-Arizón, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Jesús Argente
Males and females have distinct propensities to develop obesity and its related comorbidities, partially due to gonadal steroids. There are sex differences in hypothalamic neuronal circuits, as well as in astrocytes, that participate in metabolic control and the development of obesity-associated complications. Astrocytes are involved in nutrient transport and metabolism, glucose sensing, synaptic remodeling and modulation of neuronal signaling. They express receptors for metabolic hormones and mediate effects of these metabolic signals on neurons, with astrogliosis occurring in response to high fat diet and excess weight gain...
May 25, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551304/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-understanding-the-role-of-the-brain
#3
REVIEW
Aleisha M Moore, Rebecca E Campbell
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. Characterised by hyperandrogenism, menstrual dysfunction and polycystic ovaries, PCOS is a broad-spectrum disorder unlikely to stem from a single common origin. Although commonly considered an ovarian disease, the brain is now a prime suspect in both the ontogeny and pathology of PCOS. We discuss here the neuroendocrine impairments present in PCOS that implicate involvement of the brain and review evidence gained from pre-clinical models of the syndrome about the specific brain circuitry involved...
May 25, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502781/checks-and-balances-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-nf%C3%A4-b-in-good-times-and-bad
#4
REVIEW
Mandakh Bekhbat, Sydney A Rowson, Gretchen N Neigh
Mutual regulation and balance between the endocrine and immune systems facilitate an organism's stress response and are impaired following chronic stress or prolonged immune activation. Concurrent alterations in stress physiology and immunity are increasingly recognized as contributing factors to several stress-linked neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired balance and crosstalk between the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) - effectors of the stress and immune axes, respectively - may play a key role in mediating the harmful effects of chronic stress on mood and behavior...
May 11, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455096/androgenic-mechanisms-of-sexual-differentiation-of-the-nervous-system-and-behavior
#5
REVIEW
A Swift-Gallant, D A Monks
Testicular androgens are the major endocrine factor promoting masculine phenotypes in vertebrates, but androgen signaling is complex and operates via multiple signaling pathways and sites of action. Recently, selective androgen receptor mutants have been engineered to study androgenic mechanisms of sexual differentiation of the nervous system and behavior. The focus of these studies has been to evaluate androgenic mechanisms within the nervous system by manipulating androgen receptor conditionally in neural tissues...
April 25, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442274/sex-differences-in-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-older-humans
#6
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Jennifer C Davis, Ryan S Falck, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Exercise is a non-pharmacological strategy to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. Sex of participants and exercise type are two possible factors contributing to this variation. To better understand this, we conducted a concurrent systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitively healthy older adults. Executive functions, episodic memory, visuospatial function, word fluency, processing speed and global cognitive function were examined for exercise- and sex-dependent effects...
April 22, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428055/sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-disease-impact-on-care-and-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
K H Humphries, M Izadnegahdar, T Sedlak, J Saw, N Johnston, K Schenck-Gustafsson, R U Shah, V Regitz-Zagrosek, J Grewal, V Vaccarino, J Wei, C N Bairey Merz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249715/sleep-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Brianne A Kent, Ralph E Mistlberger
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and currently there are no effective disease-modifying treatments available. Hallmark symptoms of AD include impaired hippocampus-dependent episodic memory and disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. The pathways connecting these symptoms are of particular interest because it is well established that sleep and circadian disruption can impair hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In rodents, these procedures also markedly suppress adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a form of brain plasticity that is believed to play an important role in pattern separation, and thus episodic memory...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237271/evidence-based-treatments-for-low-sexual-desire-in-women
#9
REVIEW
Lori A Brotto
Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women, with multinational studies finding that at least a third of women experience low sexual desire. No single etiology for the development of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, the diagnosis laid out by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, has been established. There has been considerable interest in pharmacological approaches to improving low desire, and agents targeting a range of neurotransmitters have been examined...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235557/multidisciplinary-consensus-on-the-therapeutic-recommendations-for-iatrogenic-hyperprolactinemia-secondary-to-antipsychotics
#10
REVIEW
Ángel L Montejo, Celso Arango, Miquel Bernardo, José L Carrasco, Benidicto Crespo-Facorro, Juan J Cruz, Javier Del Pino-Montes, Miguel A García-Escudero, Clemente García-Rizo, Ana González-Pinto, Ana I Hernández, Manuel Martín-Carrasco, Fermín Mayoral-Cleries, Jaqueline Mayoral-van Son, M Teresa Mories, Isabella Pachiarotti, Jesús Pérez, Salvador Ros, Eduard Vieta
Hyperprolactinemia is an underappreciated/unknown adverse effects of antipsychotics. The consequences of hyperprolactinemia compromise therapeutic adherence and can be serious. We present the consensus recommendations made by a group of experts regarding the management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. The current consensus was developed in 3 phases: 1, review of the scientific literature; 2, subsequent round table discussion to attempt to reach a consensus among the experts; and 3, review by all of the authors of the final conclusions until reaching a complete consensus...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232227/between-mind-and-heart-sex-based-cognitive-bias-in-cardiovascular-disease-treatment
#11
Amanda C Kentner, Sherry L Grace
Given that both men and women experience cardiovascular disease (CVD), a common misconception is that they have similar risk factors and clinical presentation, receive comparable treatment, and have equivalent clinical outcomes; in reality differences are observed between men and women for each of these endpoints. Moreover, these differences occur as a function of both gender and sex. A review of the literature reveals widespread bias in the selection of research subjects based on these factors, in addition to implicit patient and provider biases that impede the access of women to recommended primary and secondary CVD management...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049009/oxytocin-system-dysfunction-as-a-common-mechanism-underlying-metabolic-syndrome-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Daniel S Quintana, Ingrid Dieset, Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Lars T Westlye, Ole A Andreassen
There is growing interest in using intranasal oxytocin (OT) to treat social dysfunction in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (i.e., psychotic disorders). While OT treatment results have been mixed, emerging evidence suggests that OT system dysfunction may also play a role in the etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which appears in one-third of individuals with psychotic disorders and associated with increased mortality. Here we examine the evidence for a potential role of the OT system in the shared risk for MetS and psychotic disorders, and its prospects for ameliorating MetS...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007528/puberty-and-structural-brain-development-in-humans
#13
REVIEW
Megan M Herting, Elizabeth R Sowell
Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment...
January 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956050/the-exercise-glucocorticoid-paradox-how-exercise-is-beneficial-to-cognition-mood-and-the-brain-while-increasing-glucocorticoid-levels
#14
REVIEW
Chong Chen, Shin Nakagawa, Yan An, Koki Ito, Yuji Kitaichi, Ichiro Kusumi
Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on cognition, mood, and the brain. However, exercise also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increases levels of the glucocorticoid cortisol (CORT). CORT, also known as the "stress hormone," is considered a mediator between chronic stress and depression and to link various cognitive deficits. Here, we review the evidence that shows that while both chronic stress and exercise elevate basal CORT levels leading to increased secretion of CORT, the former is detrimental to cognition/memory, mood/stress coping, and brain plasticity, while the latter is beneficial...
January 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894927/the-dynamics-of-gaba-signaling-revelations-from-the-circadian-pacemaker-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#15
REVIEW
H Elliott Albers, James C Walton, Karen L Gamble, John K McNeill, Daniel L Hummer
Virtually every neuron within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) communicates via GABAergic signaling. The extracellular levels of GABA within the SCN are determined by a complex interaction of synthesis and transport, as well as synaptic and non-synaptic release. The response to GABA is mediated by GABAA receptors that respond to both phasic and tonic GABA release and that can produce excitatory as well as inhibitory cellular responses. GABA also influences circadian control through the exclusively inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors...
January 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663243/epigenetic-impacts-of-endocrine-disruptors-in-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Deena M Walker, Andrea C Gore
The acquisition of reproductive competence is organized and activated by steroid hormones acting upon the hypothalamus during critical windows of development. This review describes the potential role of epigenetic processes, particularly DNA methylation, in the regulation of sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus by hormones. We examine disruption of these processes by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in an age-, sex-, and region-specific manner, focusing on how perinatal EDCs act through epigenetic mechanisms to reprogram DNA methylation and sex steroid hormone receptor expression throughout life...
January 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998697/the-choroid-plexus-as-a-sex-hormone-target-functional-implications
#17
REVIEW
Cecília R A Santos, Ana Catarina Duarte, Telma Quintela, Joana Tomás, Tânia Albuquerque, Fernanda Marques, Joana Almeida Palha, Isabel Gonçalves
The choroid plexuses (CPs) are highly vascularized branched structures that protrude into the ventricles of the brain, and form a unique interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In recent years, novel functions have been attributed to this tissue such as in immune and chemical surveillance of the central nervous system, brain development, adult neurogenesis and circadian rhythm regulation. Sex hormones (SH) are widely recognized as modulators in several neurodegenerative diseases, and there is evidence that estrogens and androgens regulate several fundamental biological functions in the CPs...
December 18, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884682/sleep-metabolism-the-multitasking-ability-of-lateral-hypothalamic-inhibitory-circuitries
#18
REVIEW
Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Alexey Ponomarenko, Tatiana Korotkova, Denis Burdakov, Antoine Adamantidis
The anatomical and functional mapping of lateral hypothalamic circuits has been limited by the numerous cell types and complex, yet unclear, connectivity. Recent advances in functional dissection of input-output neurons in the lateral hypothalamus have identified subset of inhibitory cells as crucial modulators of both sleep-wake states and metabolism. Here, we summarize these recent studies and discuss the multi-tasking functions of hypothalamic circuitries in integrating sleep and metabolism in the mammalian brain...
November 21, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836673/a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-correlation-between-peripheral-oxytocin-and-cortisol-concentrations
#19
REVIEW
Christopher A Brown, Christopher Cardoso, Mark A Ellenbogen
The stress dampening effects of exogenous oxytocin in humans have been well documented. However, the relation between endogenous oxytocin and cortisol is poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis on the correlation between oxytocin and cortisol levels measured at baseline (k=24, N=739). The effect size for the baseline correlation statistic was small (Pearson r=0.163, p=0.008), with high heterogeneity (I(2)=67.88%). Moderation analysis revealed that studies where participants anticipated an experimental manipulation evidenced a greater positive correlation compared to those that did not (Pearson r=0...
October 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742561/the-neural-basis-of-sex-differences-in-sexual-behavior-a-quantitative-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Timm B Poeppl, Berthold Langguth, Rainer Rupprecht, Adam Safron, Danilo Bzdok, Angela R Laird, Simon B Eickhoff
Sexuality as to its etymology presupposes the duality of sexes. Using quantitative neuroimaging meta-analyses, we demonstrate robust sex differences in the neural processing of sexual stimuli in thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. In a narrative review, we show how these relate to the well-established sex differences on the behavioral level. More specifically, we describe the neural bases of known poor agreement between self-reported and genital measures of female sexual arousal, of previously proposed male proneness to affective sexual conditioning, as well as hints of unconscious activation of bonding mechanisms during sexual stimulation in women...
October 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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