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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

H Elliott Albers, James C Walton, Karen L Gamble, John K McNeill, Daniel L Hummer
Virtually every neuron within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) communicates via GABAergic signaling. The extra-cellular levels of GABA within the SCN are determined by a complex interaction of synthesis and transport, as well as synaptic and non-synaptic release. The response to GABA is mediated by GABAA receptors that respond to both phasic and tonic GABA release and that can produce excitatory as well as inhibitory cellular responses. GABA also influences circadian control through the exclusively inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors...
November 25, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Alexey Ponomarenko, Tatiana Korotkova, Denis Burdakov, Antoine Adamantidis
The anatomical and functional mapping of lateral hypothalamic circuits has been limited by the numerous cell types and complex, yet unclear, connectivity. Recent advances in functional dissection of input-output neurons in the lateral hypothalamus have identified subset of inhibitory cells as crucial modulators of both sleep-wake states and metabolism. Here, we summarize these recent studies and discuss the multi-tasking functions of hypothalamic circuitries in integrating sleep and metabolism in the mammalian brain...
November 21, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Christopher A Brown, Christopher Cardoso, Mark A Ellenbogen
The stress dampening effects of exogenous oxytocin in humans have been well documented. However, the relation between endogenous oxytocin and cortisol is poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis on the correlation between oxytocin and cortisol levels measured at baseline (k=24, N=739). The effect size for the baseline correlation statistic was small (Pearson r=0.163, p=0.008), with high heterogeneity (I(2)=67.88%). Moderation analysis revealed that studies where participants anticipated an experimental manipulation evidenced a greater positive correlation compared to those that did not (Pearson r=0...
November 9, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Deena M Walker, Andrea C Gore
The acquisition of reproductive competence is organized and activated by steroid hormones acting upon the hypothalamus during critical windows of development. This review describes the potential role of epigenetic processes, particularly DNA methylation, in the regulation of sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus by hormones. We examine disruption of these processes by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in an age-, sex-, and region-specific manner, focusing on how perinatal EDCs act through epigenetic mechanisms to reprogram DNA methylation and sex steroid hormone receptor expression throughout life...
September 20, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Timm B Poeppl, Berthold Langguth, Rainer Rupprecht, Adam Safron, Danilo Bzdok, Angela R Laird, Simon B Eickhoff
Sexuality as to its etymology presupposes the duality of sexes. Using quantitative neuroimaging meta-analyses, we demonstrate robust sex differences in the neural processing of sexual stimuli in thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. In a narrative review, we show how these relate to the well-established sex differences on the behavioral level. More specifically, we describe the neural bases of known poor agreement between self-reported and genital measures of female sexual arousal, of previously proposed male proneness to affective sexual conditioning, as well as hints of unconscious activation of bonding mechanisms during sexual stimulation in women...
October 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jose L Labandeira-Garcia, Ana I Rodriguez-Perez, Rita Valenzuela, Maria A Costa-Besada, Maria J Guerra
The neuroprotective effects of menopausal hormonal therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not yet been clarified, and it is controversial whether there is a critical period for neuroprotection. Studies in animal models and clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that estrogens induce dopaminergic neuroprotection. Recent studies suggest that inhibition of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) mediates the effects of estrogens in PD models. In the substantia nigra, ovariectomy induces a decrease in levels of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and increases angiotensin activity, NADPH-oxidase activity and expression of neuroinflammatory markers, which are regulated by estrogen replacement therapy...
October 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Mariana F Uchoa, V Alexandra Moser, Christian J Pike
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder for which there are no effective strategies to prevent or slow its progression. Because AD is multifactorial, recent research has focused on understanding interactions among the numerous risk factors and mechanisms underlying the disease. One mechanism through which several risk factors may be acting is inflammation. AD is characterized by chronic inflammation that is observed before clinical onset of dementia. Several genetic and environmental risk factors for AD increase inflammation, including apolipoprotein E4, obesity, and air pollution...
October 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Sarah J Baracz, Jennifer L Cornish
The role of oxytocin in attenuating the abuse of licit and illicit drugs, including the psychostimulant methamphetamine, has been examined with increased ferocity in recent years. This is largely driven by the potential application of oxytocin as a pharmacotherapy. However, the neural mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates methamphetamine abuse are not well understood. Recent research identified an important role for the accumbens core and subthalamic nucleus in this process, which likely involves an interaction with dopamine, glutamate, GABA, and vasopressin...
August 18, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Liisa Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Caterina Palleria, Christian Leporini, Francesca Maida, Elena Succurro, Giovambattista De Sarro, Franco Arturi, Emilio Russo
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease that can cause serious damage to various organs. Among the best-known complications, an important role is played by cognitive impairment. Impairment of cognitive functioning has been reported both in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. While this comorbidity has long been known, no major advances have been achieved in clinical research; it is clear that appropriate control of blood glucose levels represents the best current (although unsatisfactory) approach in the prevention of cognitive impairment...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
P Barra de la Tremblaye, H Plamondon
Although it is well accepted that changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis may increase susceptibility to affective disorders in the general population, this link has been less examined in stroke patients. Yet, the bidirectional association between depression and cardiovascular disease is strong, and stress increases vulnerability to stroke. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the central stress hormone of the HPA axis pathway and acts by binding to CRH receptors (CRHR) 1 and 2, which are located in several stress-related brain regions...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Stephen C Gammie, Terri M Driessen, Changjiu Zhao, Michael C Saul, Brian E Eisinger
Changes in expression of hundreds of genes occur during the production and function of the maternal brain that support a wide range of processes. In this review, we synthesize findings from four microarray studies of different maternal brain regions and identify a core group of 700 maternal genes that show significant expression changes across multiple regions. With those maternal genes, we provide new insights into reward-related pathways (maternal bonding), postpartum depression, social behaviors, mental health disorders, and nervous system plasticity/developmental events...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jeffrey A French, Jack H Taylor, Aaryn C Mustoe, Jon Cavanaugh
Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are important hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate peripheral physiology, and have emerged as important modulators of brain function, particularly in the social realm. OT structure and the genes that ultimately determine structure are highly conserved among diverse eutherian mammals, but recent discoveries have identified surprising variability in OT and peptide structure in New World monkeys (NWM), with five new OT variants identified to date. This review explores these new findings in light of comparative OT/AVP ligand evolution, documents coevolutionary changes in the oxytocin and vasopressin receptors (OTR and V1aR), and highlights the distribution of neuropeptidergic neurons and receptors in the primate brain...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Susan L Zup, Amanda M K Madden
Hormones have wide-ranging effects throughout the nervous system, including the ability interact with and modulate many aspects of intracellular calcium regulation and calcium signaling. Indeed, these interactions specifically may help to explain the often opposing or paradoxical effects of hormones, such as their ability to both promote and prevent neuronal cell death during development, as well as reduce or exacerbate damage following an insult or injury in adulthood. Here, we review the basic mechanisms underlying intracellular calcium regulation-perhaps the most dynamic and flexible of all signaling molecules-and discuss how gonadal hormones might manipulate these mechanisms to coordinate diverse cellular responses and achieve disparate outcomes...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Carlos P Fitzsimons, Joe Herbert, Marijn Schouten, Onno C Meijer, Paul J Lucassen, Stafford Lightman
Psychosocial stress, and within the neuroendocrine reaction to stress specifically the glucocorticoid hormones, are well-characterized inhibitors of neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus, resulting in a marked reduction in the production of new neurons in this brain area relevant for learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which stress, and particularly glucocorticoids, inhibit neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation remain unclear and under debate. Here we review the literature on the topic and discuss the evidence for direct and indirect effects of glucocorticoids on neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and adult neurogenesis...
April 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Tracey J Shors, Emma M Millon
Sexual aggression and violence against women (VAM) are not only social problems; they are mental health problems. Women who experience sexual trauma often express disruptions in emotional and cognitive processes, some of which lead to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Animal models of neurogenesis and learning suggest that social yet aggressive interactions between a pubescent female and an adult male can disrupt processes of learning related to maternal care, which in turn reduce survival of new neurons in the female hippocampus...
April 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The identification of pronounced seasonal changes in the volume of avian song control nuclei stimulated the discovery of adult neurogenesis in songbirds as well as renewed studies in mammals including humans. Neurogenesis in songbirds is modulated by testosterone and other factors such as photoperiod, singing activity and social environment. Adult neurogenesis has been widely studied by labeling, with tritiated thymidine or its analog BrdU, cells duplicating their DNA in anticipation of their last mitotic division and following their fate as new neurons...
April 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Maya Opendak, Brandy A Briones, Elizabeth Gould
A variety of experiences have been shown to affect the production of neurons in the adult hippocampus. These effects may be mediated by experience-driven hormonal changes, which, in turn, interact with factors such as sex, age and life history to alter brain plasticity. Although the effects of physical experience and stress have been extensively characterized, various types of social experience across the lifespan trigger profound neuroendocrine changes in parallel with changes in adult neurogenesis. This review article focuses on the influence of specific social experiences on adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and the potential role of hormones in these effects...
April 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Juan Triviño-Paredes, Anna R Patten, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
The hippocampus plays an integral role in certain aspects of cognition. Hippocampal structural plasticity and in particular adult hippocampal neurogenesis can be influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here we review how hormones (i.e., intrinsic modulators) and physical exercise (i.e., an extrinsic modulator) can differentially modulate hippocampal plasticity in general and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in particular. Specifically, we provide an overview of the effects of sex hormones, stress hormones, and metabolic hormones on hippocampal structural plasticity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
April 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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