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Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146109/neuroactive-steroids-and-metabolic-axis
#1
EDITORIAL
R C Melcangi, G C Panzica
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132949/redefining-neuroendocrinology-epigenetics-of-brain-body-communication-over-the-life-course
#2
REVIEW
Bruce S McEwen
The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress that perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor, and it does so somewhat differently in males and females. The expression of steroid hormone receptors throughout the brain has broadened the definition of 'neuroendocrinology' to include the reciprocal communication between the entire brain and body via hormonal and neural pathways. Mediated in part via systemic hormonal influences, the adult and developing brain possess remarkable structural and functional plasticity in response to stress, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling, and synapse turnover...
November 10, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110974/the-psychoneuroimmunology-of-pregnancy
#3
Morgan L Sherer, Caitlin K Posillico, Jaclyn M Schwarz
Pregnancy is associated with a number of significant changes in maternal physiology. Perhaps one of the more notable changes is the significant alteration in immune function that occurs during pregnancy. This change in immune function is necessary to support a successful pregnancy, but also creates a unique period of life during which a female is susceptible to disease and, as we'll speculate here, may also contribute to mental health disorders associated with pregnancy and the postpartum period. Here, we review the known changes in peripheral immune function that occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period, while highlighting the impact of hormones during these times on immune function, brain or neural function, as well as behavior...
October 27, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074127/sex-differences-in-the-pituitary-tgf%C3%AE-1-system-the-role-of-tgf%C3%AE-1-in-prolactinoma-development
#4
REVIEW
M Victoria Recouvreux, Erika Y Faraoni, M Andrea Camilletti, Laura Ratner, Alejandra Abeledo-Machado, Susana Rulli, Graciela Díaz-Torga
Prolactinomas are the most frequent functioning pituitary adenomas, and sex differences in tumor size, behavior and incidence have been described. These differences have been associated with earlier diagnosis in woman, as well as with serum estradiol levels. Experimental models of prolactinomas in rodents also show a higher incidence in females, and recent findings suggest that gender differences in the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) system might be involved in the sex-specific development of prolactinomas in these models...
October 23, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054552/cross-talk-among-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-receptors-relevance-for-basic-and-clinical-studies-of-the-brain-and-periphery
#5
REVIEW
Zhimin Song, H Elliott Albers
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in the brain to regulate social cognition/social behavior and in the periphery to influence a variety of physiological processes. Although the chemical structures of OT and AVP as well as their receptors are quite similar, OT and AVP can have distinct or even opposing actions. Here, we review the increasing body of evidence that exogenously administered and endogenously released OT and AVP can activate each other's canonical receptors (i.e., cross-talk) and examine the possibility that receptor cross-talk following the synaptic and non-synaptic release of OT and AVP contributes to their distinct roles in the brain and periphery...
October 18, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042142/fat-brain-connections-adipocyte-glucocorticoid-control-of-stress-and-metabolism
#6
Annette D de Kloet, James P Herman
Glucocorticoids act via multiple mechanisms to mobilize energy for in maintenance and restoration of homeostasis. In adipose tissue, glucocorticoids can promote lipolysis and facilitate adipocyte differentiation/growth, serving both energy-mobilizing and restorative processes during negative energy balance. Recent data suggest that adipose-dependent feedback may also be involved in regulation of stress responses. Adipocyte glucocorticoid receptor (GR) deletion causes increased HPA axis stress reactivity, due to a loss of negative feedback signals into the CNS...
October 14, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038028/adiponectin-and-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-and-molecular-links
#7
REVIEW
Liliana Letra, Tiago Rodrigues, Paulo Matafome, Isabel Santana, Raquel Seiça
Obesity has been consistently associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) though the exact mechanisms by which it influences cognition are still elusive and subject of current research. Adiponectin, the most abundant adipokine in circulation, is inversely correlated with adipose tissue dysfunction and seems to be a central player in this association. In fact, different signalling pathways are shared by adiponectin and proteins involved in AD pathophysiology and considerable amount of evidence supports its direct and indirect influence on β-amyloid and tau aggregates formation...
October 13, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987779/thyroid-hormone-and-estrogen-receptor-interactions-with-natural-ligands-and-endocrine-disruptors-in-the-cerebellum
#8
REVIEW
Attila Zsarnovszky, David Kiss, Gergely Jocsak, Gabor Nemeth, Istvan Toth, Tamas L Horvath
Although the effects of phytoestrogens on brain function is widely unknown, they are often regarded as "natural" and thus as harmless. However, the effects of phytoestrogens or environmental pollutants on brain function is underestimated. Estrogen (17beta-estradiol, E2) and thyroid hormones (THs) play pivoltal roles in brain development. In the mature brain, these hormones regulate metabolism on cellular and organismal levels. Thus, E2 and THs do not only regulate the energy metabolism of the entire organism, but simultaneously also regulate important homeostatic parameters of neurons and glia in the CNS...
October 5, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974386/sex-differences-in-parkinson%C3%AC-s-disease-features-on-clinical-symptoms-treatment-outcome-sexual-hormones-and-genetics
#9
REVIEW
Juan Camilo Jurado-Coronel, Ricardo Cabezas, Marco Fidel Ávila Rodríguez, Valentina Echeverría, Luis Miguel García-Segura, George E Barreto
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Sex is an important factor in the development of PD, as reflected by the fact that it is more common in men than in women by an approximate ratio of 2:1. Our hypothesis is that differences in PD among men and women are highly determined by sex-dependent differences in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, which arise from environmental, hormonal and genetic influences. Sex hormones, specifically estrogens, influence PD pathogenesis and might play an important role in PD differences between men and women...
September 30, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965857/modeling-prenatal-opioid-exposure-in-animals-current-findings-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth M Byrnes, Fair M Vassoler
The past decade has seen a drastic rise in the number of infants exposed to opioids in utero. It is unclear what lasting effect this exposure may have on these children. Animal models of prenatal opioid exposure may provide insight into potential areas of vulnerability. The present review summarizes the findings across animal models of prenatal opioid exposure, including exposure to morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, and oxycodone. Details regarding the drug, doses, and duration of treatment, as well as key findings, are summarized in tables with associated references...
September 28, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837830/between-litter-variation-in-developmental-studies-of-hormones-and-behavior-inflated-false-positives-and-diminished-power
#11
REVIEW
Donald R Williams, Rickard Carlsson, Paul-Christian Bürkner
Developmental studies of hormones and behavior often include littermates-rodent siblings that share early-life experiences and genes. Due to between-litter variation (i.e., litter effects), the statistical assumption of independent observations is untenable. In two literatures-natural variation in maternal care and prenatal stress-entire litters are categorized based on maternal behavior or experimental condition. Here, we (1) review both literatures; (2) simulate false positive rates for commonly used statistical methods in each literature; and (3) characterize small sample performance of multilevel models (MLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE)...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803147/ovarian-hormones-sleep-and-cognition-across-the-adult-female-lifespan-an-integrated-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Nicole J Gervais, Jessica A Mong, Agnès Lacreuse
Loss of ovarian function in women is associated with sleep disturbances and cognitive decline, which suggest a key role for estrogens and/or progestins in modulating these symptoms. The effects of ovarian hormones on sleep and cognitive processes have been studied in separate research fields that seldom intersect. However, sleep has a considerable impact on cognitive function. Given the tight connections between sleep and cognition, ovarian hormones may influence selective aspects of cognition indirectly, via the modulation of sleep...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801100/neuroendocrine-disruption-in-animal-models-due-to-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-analogues
#13
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Animal and human studies provide evidence that exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), bisphenol A (BPA), can lead to neurobehavioral disorders. Consequently, there is an impetus to identify safer alternatives to BPA. Three bisphenol compounds proposed as potential safer alternatives to BPA are bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF). However, it is not clear whether these other compounds are safer in terms of inducing less endocrine disrupting effects in animals and humans who are now increasingly coming into contact with these BPA-substitutes...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757114/sex-differences-in-age-related-changes-in-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#14
REVIEW
Julie Carrier, Kazue Semba, Samuel Deurveilher, Lauren Drogos, Jessica Cyr-Cronier, Catherine Lord, Zoran Sekerovick
Age-related changes in sleep and circadian regulation occur as early as the middle years of life. Research also suggests that sleep and circadian rhythms are regulated differently between women and men. However, does sleep and circadian rhythms regulation age similarly in men and women? In this review, we present the mechanisms underlying age-related differences in sleep and the current state of knowledge on how they interact with sex. We also address how testosterone, estrogens, and progesterone fluctuations across adulthood interact with sleep and circadian regulation...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739508/endocannabinoids-effectors-of-glucocorticoid-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Georgia Balsevich, Gavin N Petrie, Matthew N Hill
For decades, there has been speculation regarding the interaction of cannabinoids with glucocorticoid systems. Given the functional redundancy between many of the physiological effects of glucocorticoids and cannabinoids, it was originally speculated that the biological mechanisms of cannabinoids were mediated by direct interactions with glucocorticoid systems. With the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, additional research demonstrated that it was actually the opposite; glucocorticoids recruit endocannabinoid signaling, and that the engagement of endocannabinoid signaling mediated many of the neurobiological and physiological effects of glucocorticoids...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736323/offspring-neuroimmune-consequences-of-maternal-malnutrition-potential-mechanism-for-behavioral-impairments-that-underlie-metabolic-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#16
REVIEW
B L Smith, T M Reyes
Maternal malnutrition significantly increases offspring risk for both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of maternal malnutrition have identified behavioral changes in the adult offspring related to executive function and reward processing. Together, these changes in executive and reward-based behaviors likely contribute to the etiology of both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with maternal malnutrition. Concomitant with the behavioral effects, maternal malnutrition alters offspring expression of reward-related molecules and inflammatory signals in brain pathways that control executive function and reward...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705582/polymorphisms-in-sex-steroid-receptors-from-gene-sequence-to-behavior
#17
REVIEW
Donna L Maney
Sex steroid receptors have received much interest as potential mediators of human behaviors and mental disorders. Candidate gene association studies have identified about 50 genetic variants of androgen and estrogen receptors that correlate with human behavioral phenotypes. Because most of these polymorphisms lie outside coding regions, discerning their effect on receptor function is not straightforward. Thus, although discoveries of associations improve our ability to predict risk, they have not greatly advanced our understanding of underlying mechanisms...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687473/brain-functional-alterations-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-of-fmri-studies
#18
REVIEW
Helen Macpherson, Melissa Formica, Elizabeth Harris, Robin M Daly
Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is emerging as a major global health issue. T2DM can adversely affect cognition and increase dementia risk. This systematic review aimed to examine the functional brain changes that may underlie cognitive dysfunction in adults with T2DM. Studies were restricted to those which used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen independent studies were identified, mostly comprised of middle aged or older adults. Resting-state studies demonstrated that compared to controls, connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) was reduced and the majority of task-based studies identified reduced activation in T2DM patients in regions relevant to task performance...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676436/functional-significance-of-men-s-testosterone-reactivity-to-social-stimuli
#19
REVIEW
Samuele Zilioli, Brian M Bird
Rapid testosterone fluctuations in response to social stimuli are observed across a wide range of species, and the highly conserved nature of these fluctuations suggests an adaptive function. This paper reviews the current literature on testosterone reactivity, primarily in human males, and illustrates how life-history theory provides an adequate theoretical framework to interpret findings. The review is structured around supporting evidence suggesting that situations implicated in mating effort either directly (e...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673758/estrogens-and-the-cognitive-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-possible-neuroprotective-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Claire McGregor, Alexander Riordan, Janice Thornton
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric illness with marked sex differences. Women have later onset and lesser symptoms, which has led to the hypothesis that estrogens are protective in schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction is a hallmark of the disease and the symptom most correlated with functional outcome. Here we describe a number of mechanisms by which estrogens may be therapeutic in schizophrenia, with a focus on cognitive symptoms. We review the relationship between estrogens and brain derived neurotrophic factor, neuroinflammation, NMDA receptors, GABA receptors, and luteinizing hormone...
October 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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