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Monique Aucoin, Laura LaChance, Kieran Cooley, Sean Kidd
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) represent a cluster of severe mental illnesses. Diet has been identified as a modifiable risk factor and opportunity for intervention in many physical illnesses and more recently in mental illnesses such as unipolar depression; however, no dietary guidelines exist for patients with SSD. OBJECTIVE: This review sought to systematically scope the existing literature in order to identify nutritional interventions for the prevention or treatment of mental health symptoms in SSD as well as gaps and opportunities for further research...
October 25, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Eva Z Reininghaus, Lisa-Christin Wetzlmair, Frederike T Fellendorf, Martina Platzer, Robert Queissner, Armin Birner, Ren Pilz, Carlo Hamm, Alexander Maget, Alexandra Rieger, Antonia Prettenhofer, Walter Wurm, Sabrina Mörkl, Nina Dalkner
The importance of the microbiome for psychological well-being has gained rising interest in the last decade. A strategy to examine the role of the microbiome in different diseases is the intake of supplements that modulate the gut microbiome. Despite promising results in animal studies, research in humans is sparse to date and especially in individuals with psychiatric disorders almost missing. The current report of the ProbioBIP-one pilot study aims at describing general effects of the intake of the probiotic OMNi-BiOTiC Stress repair® on psychological parameters as well as gastrointestinal symptoms and general compliance in a cohort of euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), receiving daily probiotic treatment over a time period of 3 months...
October 19, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Marlena Wójcicka, Elzbieta Kaufman-Szukalska, Sebastian Dziuda, Agnieszka Remlinger-Molenda, Agnieszka Szeliga-Neymann, Jacek Losy, Janusz K Rybakowski
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of the antineuronal antibodies anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), during manic and depressive episodes and in remission compared to euthymic patients receiving long-term lithium therapy. METHODS: Serum levels of anti-NMDAR and anti-GAD 450/620 antibodies, as well as IGF-1, were measured using the ELISA method in 19 manic and 17 depressed patients both in an acute episode and in remission after the episode...
October 18, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Keliang Chen, Lin Huang, Biying Lin, Yan Zhou, Qianhua Zhao, Qihao Guo
OBJECTS: Different variations of the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) exist and the tests differ in the number of items on each test card. The optimal number of items per card of the SCWT is unclear. METHODS: A comprehensive neuropsychological battery including the SCWT was administered to 237 cognitively normal controls (NC), 221 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 160 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We compared the accuracy for different items of card C (SCWT-C10accuracy, SCWT-C24accuracy, and SCWT-C50accuracy) in distinguishing patients with MCI and AD from NC...
October 18, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Sho Horikoshi, Tetsuya Shiga, Hiroshi Hoshino, Haruka Ochiai, Keiko Kanno-Nozaki, Kazuko Kanno, Haruka Kaneko, Yasuto Kunii, Itaru Miura, Hirooki Yabe
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of auditory event-related potentials that reflects automatic change detection in the brain, showing qualities of endophenotypes in schizophrenia. MMN deficiency is one of the robust findings in patients, and it reflects both cognitive and functional decline. Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme involved in regulating dopamine transmission within the prefrontal cortex. A preliminary study suggested that the COMTVal108/158Met genotype (rs4680) is related to cognitive function in schizophrenia...
October 16, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Daiki Takekawa, Tetsuya Kushikata, Masahiro Akaishi, Yoshikazu Nikaido, Kazuyoshi Hirota
BACKGROUND: The orexinergic (OXergic) system contributes to the defense system. It has also been reported that the degeneration of OXergic neurons occurs during sepsis. Thus, the decline of OXergic activity may contribute to impairment of the defense system in sepsis. In this study, we determined whether: (i) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces the brain orexin A (OXA) content and (ii) the OXergic system contributes to survival from sepsis in rats. METHODS: With approval of our protocol by our University Animal Ethics Committee, OX neuron-ablated (OX/ataxin-3 transgenic [OX/AT3 TG]) and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-350 g, were used...
October 16, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Masafumi Yoshimura, Roberto D Pascual-Marqui, Keiichiro Nishida, Yuichi Kitaura, Hiroshi Mii, Yukiko Saito, Shunichiro Ikeda, Koji Katsura, Satsuki Ueda, Shota Minami, Toshiaki Isotani, Toshihiko Kinoshita
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of brain electric field induced by symptom provocation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in comparison to healthy controls in the resting state. For this purpose, EEG recordings in conditions of initial rest, clean control, symptom provocation by imaginal exposure, and final rest were used for computing spatiotemporal activity characteristics based on microstate segmentation. Within-group comparisons were significant for the symptom provocation condition: OCD showed high global field power (GFP) and transition rates into a medial frontal microstate, whereas healthy controls showed high frequency of occurrence and high percent of dwelling time for a medial occipitoparietal microstate...
September 24, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Eva Z Reininghaus, Lisa-Christin Wetzlmair, Frederike T Fellendorf, Martina Platzer, Robert Queissner, Armin Birner, Rene Pilz, Carlo Hamm, Alexander Maget, Christoph Koidl, Karin Riedrich, Kerstin Klampfer, Kerstin Ferk, Nina Dalkner
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in depressive as well as manic episodes in individuals with Bipolar Disorder (BD). Even more, after symptom remission, many individuals with BD experience persisting cognitive impairment also in euthymic periods, leading to high illness burden and low quality of life. According to a recent research in animals and healthy humans, microbiota may influence cognitive processes via the brain-gut axis. A strategy to examine the role of the microbiota in different diseases is the intake of supplements that modulate the gut microbiome...
September 18, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Sabrina Mörkl, Jolana Wagner-Skacel, Theresa Lahousen, Sonja Lackner, Sandra Johanna Holasek, Susanne Astrid Bengesser, Annamaria Painold, Anna Katharina Holl, Eva Reininghaus
INTRODUCTION: Individuals suffering from psychiatric disorders experience high levels of illness burden and a significantly reduced quality of life. Despite targeted psychopharmacological strategies and complementary psychotherapeutic procedures only moderate effects are obtained, and the risk of relapse is high in many patients. Worldwide, psychiatric diseases such as depression are continuously increasing, challenging the personal life of the affected as well as their families, but also whole societies by increasing disability, early retirement and hospitalization...
September 17, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Qi-He Dai, Dao-Kai Gong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the polymorphisms and plasma level of chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of 166 patients who were initially diagnosed with AD were enrolled as the case group, and 184 healthy subjects were recruited as the healthy controls. TaqMan® SNP genotyping assays were applied for the genotyping of rs4950928, rs10399931 and rs6691378. The plasma level of CHI3L1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
September 17, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Laura Kranaster, Carolin Hoyer, Suna S Aksay, J Malte Bumb, Norbert Müller, Peter Zill, Markus J Schwarz, Natalie Moll, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila, Inga Zerr, Matthias Schmitz, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Dieter Haffner, Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Cagakan Ozbalci, Christoph Janke, Manfred Thiel, Alexander Sartorius
BACKGROUND: No candidate biomarkers based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been identified as prognostic factors in patients with major depression treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), yet. METHOD: Following different underlying hypotheses, we analysed baseline CSF levels of markers of neurodegeneration (tau proteins, β-amyloids and neurogranin), elements of the innate immune system (interleukin [IL]-6, neopterin, soluble CD14, soluble CD163, migration inhibitory factor and monocyte chemotactic protein 1), endocannabinoids, sphingolipids and Klotho before ECT in patients with depression (n = 12) to identify possible correlations with the clinical antidepressant response to ECT...
August 17, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Vincenzo De Luca, Gianfranco Spalletta, Renan P Souza, Ariel Graff, Luciana Bastos-Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Camargos Bicalho
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 influencing the age at onset (AAO) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, the AAO of dementia varies from 40 to 90 years. Usually, AD patients who develop symptoms before the age of 65 are considered as early-onset AD (EOAD). However, considering the heterogeneity of the AD onset, the definition of late-onset AD (LOAD) cannot rely on an arbitrary cut-off. Thus, we aim to validate the anticipation effect of the APOE e4 allele in LOAD...
August 15, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Penelope M Sheehan, Chad Bousman, Angela Komiti, Fiona Judd, Louise Newman, Bruce Tonge, David Castle, Ian Everall
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to expand on this field of work by examining, within a cohort of pregnant women with diagnosed clinical anxiety, the mRNA expression of a panel of genes associated with the cortisol pathway and comparing them to controls. METHODS: Placental samples were obtained from 24 pregnant women, 12 with a diagnosed anxiety disorder and 12 with no psychiatric history, within 30 min of delivery. Differential expression analysis of 85 genes known to be involved in glucocorticoid synthesis, metabolism or signalling was conducted for the: (1) full sample, (2) those at term without labour (5 cases, 7 controls) and (3) those at term with labour (7 cases, 5 controls)...
August 15, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Maurizio Pompili, Luana Lionetto, Martina Curto, Alberto Forte, Denise Erbuto, Franco Montebovi, Maria Elena Seretti, Isabella Berardelli, Gianluca Serafini, Marco Innamorati, Mario Amore, Ross J Baldessarini, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Simmaco
BACKGROUND: Some previous studies found decreased concentrations of L-tryptophan (TRY) and increased L-kynurenine (KYN), or its metabolites, in the body fluids of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), sometimes in association with suicidal behavior. Such changes might indicate a shift of TRY away from serotonin production, possibly via the effects of inflammatory peptides which activate indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase. However, these findings have been inconsistent and require replication...
August 15, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Eiji Kirino, Shoji Tanaka, Mayuko Fukuta, Rie Inami, Reiichi Inoue, Shigeki Aoki
BACKGROUND: Aberrant functional connectivity (FC) is increasingly implicated in the clinical phenomenology of schizophrenia. This study focused on the FC of the cortico-striatal network, which is thought to be disrupted in schizophrenia and to contribute to its clinical manifestations. METHODS: We used simultaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to investigate FC in patients with schizophrenia...
July 26, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Berend Malchow, Katrin Levold, Marcin Labusga, Katriona Keller-Varady, Thomas Schneider-Axmann, Thomas Wobrock, Andrea Schmitt, Peter Falkai, Alkomiet Hasan
BACKGROUND: Aerobic endurance training has been discussed to induce brain plasticity and improve cognitive functions in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. For schizophrenia, a motor cortical inhibitory deficit has been established as one aspect of impaired plasticity, especially involving impairments in GABAergic interneuron networks, but the possibility to restore these deficits via exercise-induced plasticity has not been evaluated yet. METHODS: 17 schizophrenia patients and 16 matched healthy controls underwent 3 months of aerobic endurance training (30 min, 3 times a week) on bicycle ergometers...
July 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
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May 8, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
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October 13, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
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February 9, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
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2017: Neuropsychobiology
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