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Antonio Del Casale, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Chiara Rapinesi, Serena Sorice, Nicoletta Girardi, Stefano Ferracuti, Paolo Girardi
BACKGROUND: The nature of the alteration of the response to cognitive tasks in first-episode psychosis (FEP) still awaits clarification. We used activation likelihood estimation, an increasingly used method in evaluating normal and pathological brain function, to identify activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of FEP during attentional and memory tasks. METHODS: We included 11 peer-reviewed fMRI studies assessing FEP patients versus healthy controls (HCs) during performance of attentional and memory tasks...
October 4, 2016: Neuropsychobiology
Gianluca Rosso, Roberta Zanardini, Daniela Francesca Chiodelli, Clarissa Ferrari, Massimo Gennarelli, Luisella Bocchio-Chiavetto
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent findings suggest an involvement of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the pathogenesis of many psychiatric disorders; however, there is a lack of data regarding IGF-1 in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aims of the present study were (1) to analyze putative alterations of IGF-1 serum content in patients with OCD compared to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls, and (2) to analyze putative changes of IGF-1 levels during drug treatment in subjects with OCD compared to patients with MDD...
July 27, 2016: Neuropsychobiology
Martin Schaefer, Susanne Sarkar, Markus Schwarz, Astrid Friebe
BACKGROUND: Immunological and vascular markers may play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and mood changes. AIM: To test whether the cell adhesion molecule soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) may serve as a biomarker for patients with unipolar or bipolar affective disorders when compared to a healthy control group, and whether sICAM-1 blood levels change during different mood states. METHODS: sICAM-1 serum concentrations were compared between 20 healthy controls and 48 patients with affective disorders (unipolar, bipolar II and bipolar I disorder) during different mood states (euthymic mood state, depression or mania)...
July 22, 2016: Neuropsychobiology
Alessandra Nivoli, Stefano Porcelli, Diego Albani, Gianluigi Forloni, Federica Fusco, Francesc Colom, Eduard Vieta, Alessandro Serretti
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Suicidal behavior (SB) in bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex multifactorial event resulting from an interaction of genetic, neurobiological and psychosocial factors. Recent studies identified new possible mechanisms, suggesting a role for sirtuins (SIRTs 1-7), a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes with a multifaceted role in the central nervous system. The aims of the present study were: (1) to investigate the effects of the rs10997870 SIRT1 gene variant on SB in BD; (2) to explore the effects of the same gene variant on specific depressive symptoms at the severest episode...
July 16, 2016: Neuropsychobiology
Shoko Tsuchimine, Ayako Kaneda, Norio Yasui-Furukori
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with mood and behaviors including depression and suicide risk. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PUFAs and personality traits in healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 279 subjects completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Serum levels of the PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the x03C9;-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA), and dihomo-x03B3;-linolenic acid were measured...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Livia Ambrus, Charlotta Sunnqvist, Rolf Ekman, Lil Träskman-Bendz, Åsa Westrin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing evidence suggests a link between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and suicidal behaviour (SB). Furthermore, decreased peripheral BDNF levels have been associated with clinical symptoms in various psychiatric disorders as well as with personality dimensions in healthy individuals. However, the relationship between BDNF and psychopathology is poorly investigated regarding SB. METHODS: Plasma BDNF concentrations were analysed in 61 recent suicide attempters...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Tze Jen Chow, Shiau Foon Tee, Hoi Sen Yong, Pek Yee Tang
BACKGROUND: Age at onset (AAO) is a known prognostic indicator for schizophrenia and is hypothesized to correlate with cognition and symptom severity. TCF4 and AKT1 are schizophrenia risk genes involved in cognitive functions. The current study examined the interactive effects of TCF4 and AKT1 variants with gender, family history of psychiatric disorders and ethnicity on the AAO of schizophrenia. METHODS: This study consisted of 322 patients with schizophrenia meeting the DSM-IV criteria...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Leila Jahangard, Mohammad Haghighi, Mehran Shyayganfard, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Hafez Bajoghli, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
OBJECTIVE: There is some evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective method of treating patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that rTMS has a positive impact both on symptom severity and cognitive performance in such patients. Specifically, short-term verbal processing speed and flexibility were assessed. METHOD: Ten patients suffering from refractory OCD and treated with standard medication were randomly assigned either to a treatment-first or to a sham-first condition...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
A Ahnaou, W H I M Drinkenburg
Depression is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by alterations at psychological, behavioural, physiological, neurophysiological, and neurochemical levels. Social stress is a prevalent stress in man, and the repeated social defeat stress model in rats has been proposed as being the rodent equivalent to loss of control, which in subordinate animals produces alterations that resemble several of the cardinal symptoms found in depressed patients. Here, rats followed a resident-intruder protocol for 4 consecutive days during which behavioural, physiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were simultaneously monitored in subordinate rats...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Katharina Stegmayer, Jeanne Moor, Tim Vanbellingen, Stephan Bohlhalter, René M Müri, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
BACKGROUND/AIM: Gesturing plays an important role in social behavior and social learning. Deficits are frequent in schizophrenia and may contribute to impaired social functioning. Information about deficits during the course of the disease and presence of severity and patterns of impairment in first-episode patients is missing. Hence, we aimed to investigate gesturing in first- compared to multiple-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. METHODS: In 14 first-episode patients, 14 multiple-episode patients and 16 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education, gesturing was assessed by the comprehensive Test of Upper Limb Apraxia...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Paolo Ranzi, Christiane M Thiel, Christoph S Herrmann
Modern psychopharmacological research in humans focuses on how specific psychoactive molecules modulate oscillatory brain activity. We present state-of-the-art EEG methods applied in a resting-state drug study. Thirty healthy male nonsmokers were randomly allocated either to a nicotine group (14 subjects, 7 mg transdermal nicotine) or a placebo group (16 subjects). EEG activity was recorded in eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) conditions before and after drug administration. A source reconstruction (minimum norm algorithm) analysis was conducted within a frequency range of 8...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Adriana T Ramos, Sergio Tufik, Lanfranco R P Troncone
Vasopressin and CRH have complementary roles in the secretion of ACTH following different stress modalities. The concomitant use of V1b and CRF1 receptor antagonists completely inhibits ACTH secretion in response to different stress modalities. The combination of the CRF1 antagonist SSR125543 with the V1b antagonist SSR149415 effectively suppressed plasma ACTH 1.30 h after injection in rats stressed by ether vapor inhalation for 1 min, restraint stress for 1 h or forced swimming for 5 min. The duration of the effect was also studied...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Massimiliano Buoli, Alice Caldiroli, Marta Serati, Silvia Grassi, A Carlo Altamura
OBJECTIVE: Endocrine pathways seem to play a role in the etiology of major psychoses. The identification of biomarkers associated with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia (SKZ) and mood disorders would allow the identification of high-risk subjects for delusions and hallucinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone plasma levels in drug-free patients with major psychoses and their relation with the diagnosis and history of psychotic symptoms...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Attila Makkos, Endre Pál, Zsuzsanna Aschermann, József Janszky, Éva Balázs, Katalin Takács, Kázmér Karádi, Sámuel Komoly, Norbert Kovács
BACKGROUND: A recent evidence-based guideline demonstrated that bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the motor cortex (M1) can improve motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the impact of bilateral M1 rTMS on depression in PD. METHODS: Forty-six patients with PD and mild-to-moderate depression were randomly assigned to active (n = 23) and sham (n = 23) rTMS...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Stefano Porcelli, Beatrice Balzarro, Soo-Jung Lee, Changsu Han, Ashwin A Patkar, Chi-Un Pae, Alessandro Serretti
BACKGROUND: We investigated phosphodiesterase 7B (PDE7B), neuromedin B receptor (NMBR) and epilepsy progressive myoclonus type 2A (EPM2A) genes in schizophrenia (SCZ). To the best of our knowledge, these genes have been poorly investigated in studies of SCZ. METHODS: Five hundred and seventy-three SCZ inpatients of Korean ethnicity and 560 healthy controls were genotyped for 2 PDE7B, 3 NMBR and 3 EPM2A polymorphisms. Differences in the allelic and genetic frequencies among healthy subjects and patients were calculated using the x03C7;2 statistics...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Uwe Pühse, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Stefan Zimmerer, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Although the chance of surviving an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) has increased steadily, disturbed sleep and persistent psychological complaints are frequently experienced post-ictus. To date, however, few studies have sought to determine whether physiological parameters, such as objectively measured sleep and cortisol secretion, interrelate significantly with low sleep quality and psychological complaints such as depression. Furthermore, there is little evidence as to whether post-ictal complaints differ between aSAH patients and other groups who have experienced stressful medical intervention...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Arne Nagels, Paul Fährmann, Mirjam Stratmann, Sayed Ghazi, Christian Schales, Michael Frauenheim, Lena Turner, Tobias Hornig, Michael Katzev, Rüdiger Müller-Isberner, Michael Grosvald, Axel Krug, Tilo Kircher
The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking)...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Yoko Nakanishi, Yuko Suehiro, Hiroki Matsuura, Mitsuhiro Uratani, Kosuke Okazaki, Naoko Kishimoto, Shohei Tanaka, Hidemi Iwasaka, Toshifumi Kishimoto
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms can continue through adolescence and adulthood, including difficulty in staying focused, paying attention, and controlling behavior, as well as hyperactivity. While children and adolescents with ADHD have functional impairments at multiple dimensions, there are no objective biological indicators to assess the severity of ADHD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used as a noninvasive method for evaluating sensory and cognitive processes involved in attention tasks...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Marcin Siwek, Magdalena Sowa-Kucma, Krzysztof Styczen, Paulina Misztak, Bernadeta Szewczyk, Roman Topor-Madry, Gabriel Nowak, Dominika Dudek, Janusz K Rybakowski
BACKGROUND: Lowered antioxidant defense systems and increased oxidative stress are implicated in bipolar disorders (BD). Early and late stages of BD may present different biological features (including the level of oxidative stress) and may therefore require different treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze serum levels of lipid peroxidation [measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a derivative of malondialdehyde] in BD patients at various stages and phases of the illness and compare their TBARS levels with those of healthy controls...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Dominik Kwiatkowski, Piotr Czarny, Monika Toma, Anna Korycinska, Katarzyna Sowinska, Piotr Galecki, Agnieszka Bachurska, Anna Bielecka-Kowalska, Janusz Szemraj, Michael Maes, Tomasz Sliwinski
BACKGROUND: One of the factors that contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the DNA damage caused by oxidative stress and inflammation that occurs in nerve cells. It has been suggested that the risk of AD may be associated with an age-dependent reduction of the DNA repair efficiency. Base excision repair (BER) is, among other things, a main repair system of oxidative DNA damage. One of the reasons for the reduced efficiency of this system may be single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the genes encoding its proteins...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
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