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Neuropsychobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332099/association-between-the-intron-8-vntr-polymorphism-of-the-dat1-gene-and-crack-cocaine-addiction
#1
Anderson R Stolf, Diana Müller, Jaqueline B Schuch, Gláucia C Akutagava-Martins, Luciano S P Guimaraes, Claudia M Szobot, Ricardo Halpern, Felix H P Kessler, Flavio Pechansky, Tatiana Roman
BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare allele and genotype frequencies of a 30-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, located at intron 8, between adult crack cocaine users and nonaddicted individuals. Due to its involvement in drug addiction, this gene is a good candidate for molecular studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 239 current adult crack abusers or dependents from in- and outpatient clinics and 211 control individuals was collected in Brazil...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332095/both-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-interleukin-6-levels-are-not-associated-with-therapeutic-response-to-lamotrigine-augmentation-therapy-in-treatment-resistant-depressive-disorder
#2
Shoko Kagawa, Kazuo Mihara, Takeshi Suzuki, Goyo Nagai, Akifumi Nakamura, Kenji Nemoto, Tsuyoshi Kondo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were prospectively monitored in relation with therapeutic response to lamotrigine augmentation therapy in 46 (15 males and 31 females) inpatients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder during an 8-week treatment with lamotrigine using an open-study design. METHODS: The subjects were 46 depressed patients who had already shown insufficient response to at least 3 psychotropics including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and atypical antipsychotics...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332063/diffusion-tensor-imaging-investigation-of-uncinate-fasciculus-anatomy-in-healthy-controls-description-of-a-subgenual-stem
#3
Kartik Bhatia, Luke Henderson, Mark Yim, Eugene Hsu, Rajiv Dhaliwal
The uncinate fasciculus is the largest white matter association tract connecting the prefrontal cortex and the anteromedial temporal lobe. The traditional anatomical description outlines a temporal stem that hooks around the posterior insula, a subinsular body, and 2 prefrontal stems extending to the lateral orbital gyri and the frontopolar cortex. Recent imaging studies of the white matter tracts deep to the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 25: BA25) suggest the presence of white matter fibers extending from BA25 to the amygdala, via a route that would run in close proximity to the uncinate fasciculus, that are of functional importance in mood disorders...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258118/commentary-on-systems-neuroscience-of-psychosis-synopsis-mapping-schizophrenia-symptoms-onto-brain-systems
#4
Peter Falkai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258110/systems-neuroscience-of-psychosis-synopsis-provides-a-promising-framework-for-advancing-the-field
#5
Vijay A Mittal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258103/synopsis-response-to-the-commentators
#6
Werner Strik, Katharina Stegmayer, Sebastian Walther, Thomas Dierks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258083/synopsis-a-novel-perspective-on-schizophrenia
#7
Christian Walter Hess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258082/synopsis-disruptive-innovation-for-mapping-schizophrenia-onto-the-brain
#8
Stephan Heckers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258073/systems-neuroscience-of-psychosis-mapping-schizophrenia-symptoms-onto-brain-systems
#9
Werner Strik, Katharina Stegmayer, Sebastian Walther, Thomas Dierks
Schizophrenia research has been in a deadlock for many decades. Despite important advances in clinical treatment, there are still major concerns regarding long-term psychosocial reintegration and disease management, biological heterogeneity, unsatisfactory predictors of individual course and treatment strategies, and a confusing variety of controversial theories about its etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms. In the present perspective on schizophrenia research, we first discuss a methodological pitfall in contemporary schizophrenia research inherent in the attempt to link mental phenomena with the brain: we claim that the time-honored phenomenological method of defining mental symptoms should not be contaminated with the naturalistic approach of modern neuroscience...
December 19, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258071/a-new-step-forward-in-carving-nature-by-its-joints-in-psychopathology-psychosis
#10
Manuel J Cuesta, Víctor Peralta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258060/deconstructing-schizophrenia
#11
William T Carpenter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151101/psychoacoustics-and-neurophysiological-alterations-after-30-36-hours-of-sleep-deprivation
#12
Adrián Poblano, Sergio Díaz-Leines, Olga Gama-Moreno, Blanca Flores-Avalos
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sleep deprivation (SD) may result in perceptual and cognitive alterations in healthy subjects. Our objective was to compare whether psychoacoustics and neurophysiological variables in healthy subjects were altered after SD of 30-36 h. METHOD: We examined 22 subjects by means of several psychoacoustics tests, P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) recordings, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) before and after 30-36 h of SD. RESULTS: In the psychoacoustics tests, we found that after SD, difficulties were experienced by the left ear in the discrimination of words in noise and by the right ear in music discrimination...
November 18, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131015/therapeutic-response-to-paroxetine-in-major-depressive-disorder-predicted-by-dna-methylation
#13
Naohiro Takeuchi, Shinpei Nonen, Masaki Kato, Masataka Wakeno, Yoshiteru Takekita, Toshihiko Kinoshita, Fumihiko Kugawa
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants have variable therapeutic effects, depending on genetic and environmental factors. Approximately 30% of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients do not respond significantly to antidepressants such as paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). However, the biological mechanisms behind this phenomenon are mostly unknown. Here, we examined the role of patients' epigenetic background in SSRI efficacy. METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of the peripheral blood of Japanese MDD patients was performed by using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip...
November 4, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065422/acute-phencyclidine-alters-neural-oscillations-evoked-by-tones-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-rats
#14
Ashley M Schnakenberg Martin, Brian F OʼDonnell, James B Millward, Jenifer L Vohs, Emma Leishman, Amanda R Bolbecker, Olga Rass, Sandra L Morzorati
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The onset response to a single tone as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) is diminished in power and synchrony in schizophrenia. Because neural synchrony, particularly at gamma frequencies (30-80 Hz), is hypothesized to be supported by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) system, we tested whether phencyclidine (PCP), an NMDAr antagonist, produced similar deficits to tone stimuli in rats. METHODS: Experiment 1 tested the effect of a PCP dose (1...
October 24, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065417/comparisons-between-psychiatric-symptoms-of-patients-with-anti-nmdar-encephalitis-and-new-onset-psychiatric-patients
#15
Jinxiang Wang, Bo Zhang, Manxue Zhang, Junming Chen, Hong Deng, Qiang Wang, Xueli Sun
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a potentially lethal autoimmune disease. Early diagnosis and immunotherapy can improve prognosis; however, early prominent psychiatric symptoms have led to misdiagnosis in numerous cases, delaying diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to explore the clinical features and psychiatric symptoms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis and the association between antibody titers and psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 43 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and 70 new-onset psychiatric patients were enrolled...
October 24, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065400/dose-dependent-effects-of-binge-like-methamphetamine-dosing-on-dopamine-and-neurotrophin-levels-in-rat-brain
#16
Andreia Moreira da Silva Santos, John P Kelly, Karen M Doyle
This study investigated the acute effect of a dose range of low-to-moderate binge-like methamphetamine treatments on the regional expression of neurotrophin proteins in the brain and serum 2 h after the last dose, in addition to assessing the behavioural effects and dopamine neurotransmitter changes produced. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 subcutaneous doses of methamphetamine (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, or saline as a control) 2 h apart. Methamphetamine had a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on locomotor activity over the 8 h of observation...
October 24, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035887/valeriana-officinalis-root-extract-modulates-cortical-excitatory-circuits-in-humans
#17
Ludovico Mineo, Carmen Concerto, Dhaval Patel, Tyrone Mayorga, Michael Paula, Eileen Chusid, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Valeriana officinalis extract (VE) is a popular herbal medicine used for the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. Although the anxiolytic and sedative effects are mainly attributed to the modulation of GABA-ergic transmission, the mechanism of action has not been fully investigated in humans. Noninvasive brain stimulation protocols can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of psychoactive substances at the cortical level in humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of a single dose of VE on cortical excitability as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032375/erratum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848102/plasma-bdnf-level-in-major-depression-biomarker-of-the-val66met-bdnf-polymorphism-and-of-the-clinical-course-in-met-carrier-patients
#19
Romain Colle, Séverine Trabado, Denis J David, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Patrick Hardy, Bruno Falissard, Bruno Fève, Laurent Becquemont, Céline Verstuyft, Emmanuelle Corruble
AIMS: Despite the involvement of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the physiopathology of major depressive disorder (MDD), the coherence between the components of the BDNF pathway and their link with the clinical features of MDD are insufficiently studied. We aimed to assess in Caucasian depressed patients the impact of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on plasma BDNF levels taking into account the clinical characteristics of MDD. METHODS: A total of 328 Caucasian adult MDD patients with a current major depressive episode (MDE) were assessed for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, plasma BDNF levels and clinical characteristics of the MDD...
August 23, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803247/potential-gender-related-aging-processes-occur-earlier-and-faster-in-the-vermis-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-an-mri-study
#20
Marta Serati, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Giulia Orsenigo, Cinzia Perlini, Marco Barillari, Mirella Ruggeri, Alfredo Carlo Altamura, Marcella Bellani, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, there has been increasing interest in investigating the role of the vermis in bipolar disorder (BD), especially because of its involvement in cognitive processes. The main aims of this study were to explore the integrity of the vermis and elucidate the role of demographic and clinical variables on vermis volumes in BD patients, stratified according to gender. METHODS: T1-weighted images were obtained for 38 BD patients and 38 healthy controls using a 1...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
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