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February 9, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
Ewa Dopierala, Adrian Chrobak, Flavio Kapczinski, Michał Michalak, Anna Tereszko, Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Dominika Dudek, Jan Jaracz, Marcin Siwek, Janusz K Rybakowski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN) is a novel tool allowing for a complex assessment of biological rhythms. We compared patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy control subjects (HC) using the Polish version of the BRIAN scale. METHOD: Fifty-four remitted BD patients (17 males and 37 females aged 52 ± 13 years) and 54 healthy control subjects (25 males and 29 females aged 42 ± 14 years) were studied...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Mehran Shayganfard, Leila Jahangard, Marzieh Nazaribadie, Mohammad Haghighi, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Hafez Bajoghli, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
OBJECTIVE: Whereas there is growing evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) favorably impacts on symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), less is known regarding the influence of rTMS on cognitive performance of patients with OCD. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rTMS has a positive impact both on symptom severity and executive functions in such patients. METHODS: We assessed 10 patients diagnosed with OCD (mean age: 33.5 years) and treated with a standard medication; they were randomly assigned either to a treatment-first or to a sham-first condition...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Anjali Janardhanan, Anjana Sadanand, Arambakkam Janardhanam Vanisree
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia, a common neurological disorder appearing in the late teens or early adulthood, is characterized by disorganized thinking, behaviour, and perception of emotions. Aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity is a major pathological event here due to dysfunction of dopamine and glutamate transmission at NMDA receptors. De-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), i.e., its signalling through the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, is a major feature of schizophrenia...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Erika Comasco, Ravi Vumma, Simone Toffoletto, Jessica Johansson, Lena Flyckt, Tommy Lewander, Lars Oreland, Lars Bjerkenstedt, Dimitrios Andreou, Erik Söderman, Lars Terenius, Ingrid Agartz, Erik G Jönsson, Nikolaos Venizelos
Schizophrenia involves neural catecholaminergic dysregulation. Tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines, and its major transporter, according to studies on fibroblasts, in the brain is the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1). The present study assessed haplotype tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SLC7A5/LAT1 gene in 315 patients with psychosis within the schizophrenia spectrum and 233 healthy controls to investigate genetic vulnerability to the disorder as well as genetic relationships to homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), the major catecholamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Jens Gaab, Julia Jiménez, Livia Voneschen, Daniel Oschwald, Andrea H Meyer, Urs M Nater, Peter Krummenacher
Stress-induced analgesia (SIA) is an adaptive response of reduced nociception following demanding acute internal and external stressors. Although a psychobiological understanding of this phenomenon is of importance for stress-related psychiatric and pain conditions, comparably little is known about the psychobiological mechanisms of SIA in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on heat pain perception and its possible neuroendocrine mediation by salivary cortisol levels and α-amylase activity in healthy men...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Lena C Quilty, Victoria Marshe, Daniela S S Lobo, Kate L Harkness, Daniel J Müller, R Michael Bagby
OBJECTIVES: Childhood abuse is a powerful prognostic indicator in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and is associated with numerous biological risk factors for depression. The purpose of this investigation was to explore if antidepressant medication affinity for the serotonin transporter moderates the association between childhood abuse and treatment response. METHODS: Our sample included 52 outpatients with MDD who had received up to 26 weeks of pharmacotherapy, stratifying antidepressant medications with a high versus a low affinity for the serotonin transporter...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Masahiro Takamura, Yasumasa Okamoto, Go Okada, Shigeru Toki, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Osamu Yamamoto, Hiroaki Jitsuiki, Norio Yokota, Tatsuji Tamura, Akiko Kurata, Yoko Kaichi, Yuji Akiyama, Kazuo Awai, Shigeto Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibit cognitive impairment, and evidence suggests that the semantic version of the verbal fluency task is a reliable cognitive marker of the disorder. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the dysfunction of neural processing in acute depression and examined the effects of a 6-week pharmacological intervention. METHODS: Sixteen patients with MDD participated in 2 fMRI sessions, and 16 healthy control (HC) subjects participated in 1 fMRI session...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Masatoshi Miyauchi, Ikuko Kishida, Akira Suda, Yohko Shiraishi, Saki Hattori, Mami Fujibayashi, Masataka Taguri, Chie Ishii, Norio Ishii, Toshio Moritani, Yoshio Hirayasu
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have abnormal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity compared with the general population. One reason for this difference is the muscarinic affinity for antipsychotic drugs; therefore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the muscarinic receptor gene influence this ANS dysfunction. This study sought to determine the effect of SNPs of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor (CHRM) gene on ANS activity in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic drugs...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Paolo Ranzi, Jan A Freund, Christiane M Thiel, Christoph S Herrmann
We present an encephalography (EEG) connectivity study where 30 healthy male nonsmokers were randomly allocated either to a nicotine group (14 subjects, 7 mg of transdermal nicotine) or to a placebo group. EEG activity was recorded in an eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) condition before and after drug administration. This is a reanalysis of a previous dataset. Through a source reconstruction procedure, we extracted 13 time series representing 13 sources belonging to a resting-state network. Here, we conducted connectivity analysis (renormalized partial directed coherence; rPDC) on sources, focusing on the frequency range of 8...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
George Bakanidze, Eva J Brandl, Christine Hutzler, Friederike Aurass, Silke Onken, Michael A Rapp, Imke Puls
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive research in the past decades, the influence of genetics on cognitive functions in schizophrenia remains unclear. Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) is one of the most promising candidate genes in schizophrenia. An association of DTNBP1 with cognitive dysfunction, particularly memory impairment, has been reported in a number of studies. However, the results remain inconsistent. The aim of this study was to measure the association between DTNBP1 polymorphisms and cognitive domains in a well-characterized sample...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Chunli Zhao, Jinting Liu, Pingyuan Gong, Jie Hu, Xiaolin Zhou
BACKGROUND: People often change their opinions or behavior to match the responses of others, a phenomenon known as social conformity. Conforming behavior varies substantially across individuals. However, little is known about the genetic basis underlying individual differences in social conformity. A recent study demonstrated an association between enhanced dopaminergic function and increased conforming behavior. Given the effect of the dopamine receptor 3 gene (DRD3) Ser9Gly polymorphism (rs6280) on dopamine release in the striatum, this study investigated to what extent this polymorphism affects conforming behavior...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Antonio Del Casale, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Chiara Rapinesi, Serena Sorice, Nicoletta Girardi, Stefano Ferracuti, Paolo Girardi
BACKGROUND: The nature of the alteration of the response to cognitive tasks in first-episode psychosis (FEP) still awaits clarification. We used activation likelihood estimation, an increasingly used method in evaluating normal and pathological brain function, to identify activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of FEP during attentional and memory tasks. METHODS: We included 11 peer-reviewed fMRI studies assessing FEP patients versus healthy controls (HCs) during performance of attentional and memory tasks...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Gianluca Rosso, Roberta Zanardini, Daniela Francesca Chiodelli, Clarissa Ferrari, Massimo Gennarelli, Luisella Bocchio-Chiavetto
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent findings suggest an involvement of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the pathogenesis of many psychiatric disorders; however, there is a lack of data regarding IGF-1 in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aims of the present study were (1) to analyze putative alterations of IGF-1 serum content in patients with OCD compared to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls, and (2) to analyze putative changes of IGF-1 levels during drug treatment in subjects with OCD compared to patients with MDD...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Martin Schaefer, Susanne Sarkar, Markus Schwarz, Astrid Friebe
BACKGROUND: Immunological and vascular markers may play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and mood changes. AIM: To test whether the cell adhesion molecule soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) may serve as a biomarker for patients with unipolar or bipolar affective disorders when compared to a healthy control group, and whether sICAM-1 blood levels change during different mood states. METHODS: sICAM-1 serum concentrations were compared between 20 healthy controls and 48 patients with affective disorders (unipolar, bipolar II and bipolar I disorder) during different mood states (euthymic mood state, depression or mania)...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Alessandra Nivoli, Stefano Porcelli, Diego Albani, Gianluigi Forloni, Federica Fusco, Francesc Colom, Eduard Vieta, Alessandro Serretti
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Suicidal behavior (SB) in bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex multifactorial event resulting from an interaction of genetic, neurobiological and psychosocial factors. Recent studies identified new possible mechanisms, suggesting a role for sirtuins (SIRTs 1-7), a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes with a multifaceted role in the central nervous system. The aims of the present study were: (1) to investigate the effects of the rs10997870 SIRT1 gene variant on SB in BD; (2) to explore the effects of the same gene variant on specific depressive symptoms at the severest episode...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Shoko Tsuchimine, Ayako Kaneda, Norio Yasui-Furukori
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with mood and behaviors including depression and suicide risk. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PUFAs and personality traits in healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 279 subjects completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Serum levels of the PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the x03C9;-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA), and dihomo-x03B3;-linolenic acid were measured...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Livia Ambrus, Charlotta Sunnqvist, Rolf Ekman, Lil Träskman-Bendz, Åsa Westrin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing evidence suggests a link between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and suicidal behaviour (SB). Furthermore, decreased peripheral BDNF levels have been associated with clinical symptoms in various psychiatric disorders as well as with personality dimensions in healthy individuals. However, the relationship between BDNF and psychopathology is poorly investigated regarding SB. METHODS: Plasma BDNF concentrations were analysed in 61 recent suicide attempters...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Tze Jen Chow, Shiau Foon Tee, Hoi Sen Yong, Pek Yee Tang
BACKGROUND: Age at onset (AAO) is a known prognostic indicator for schizophrenia and is hypothesized to correlate with cognition and symptom severity. TCF4 and AKT1 are schizophrenia risk genes involved in cognitive functions. The current study examined the interactive effects of TCF4 and AKT1 variants with gender, family history of psychiatric disorders and ethnicity on the AAO of schizophrenia. METHODS: This study consisted of 322 patients with schizophrenia meeting the DSM-IV criteria...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
Leila Jahangard, Mohammad Haghighi, Mehran Shyayganfard, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Hafez Bajoghli, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
OBJECTIVE: There is some evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective method of treating patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that rTMS has a positive impact both on symptom severity and cognitive performance in such patients. Specifically, short-term verbal processing speed and flexibility were assessed. METHOD: Ten patients suffering from refractory OCD and treated with standard medication were randomly assigned either to a treatment-first or to a sham-first condition...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
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