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Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health

Paul A Schulte, Veruscka Leso, Mamadou Niang, Ivo Iavicoli
Objectives The widespread application of nano-enabled products and the increasing likelihood for workplace exposures make understanding engineered nanomaterial (ENM) effects in exposed workers a public and occupational health priority. The aim of this study was to report on the current state of knowledge on possible adverse effects induced by ENM in humans to determine the toxicological profile of each type of ENM and potential biomarkers for early detection of such effects in workers. Methods A systematic review of human studies and epidemiological investigations of exposed workers relative to the possible adverse effects for the most widely used ENM was performed through searches of major scientific databases including Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed...
January 17, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Jenni Ervasti, Jaakko Airaksinen, Jaana Pentti, Jussi Vahtera, Sakari Suominen, Marianna Virtanen, Mika Kivimäki
Objectives We examined the extent to which an increase in physical activity would reduce the excess risk of work disability among overweight and obese people (body mass index ≥ 25kg/m 2 ). Methods We used counterfactual modelling approaches to analyze longitudinal data from two Finnish prospective cohort studies (total N=38 744). Weight, height and physical activity were obtained from surveys and assessed twice and linked to electronic records of two indicators of long-term work disability (≥90-day sickness absence and disability pension) for a 7-year follow-up after the latter survey...
January 14, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Cai-Guo Yu, Wen-Yi Yang, Nelly Saenen, Fang-Fei Wei, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Blerim Mujaj, Lutgarde Thijs, Ying-Mei Feng, Tim S Nawrot, Jan A Staessen
Objectives Higher than contemporary exposure levels and advanced age of study participants have limited the interpretation of previous studies relating neurocognitive function to lead exposure. We reassessed this association in young American men prior to chronic occupational exposure at lead recycling plants, using baseline measurements of the Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (NCT02243904). Methods We administered the Stroop test (ST) and the digit-symbol test (DST) to 339 men (mean age, 28...
January 11, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Anne F Nielsen, Line Zinckernage, Jan B Tofte, Helle Timm
Objectives The aim of this study was to explore Danish cancer survivors perspectives on the process of returning to work. Methods Six focus-group interviews (N=32) were held with cancer survivors attending a five-day rehabilitation stay. Data were analyzed by applying meaning condensation then organized into themes. Results Most cancer survivors do not imagine themselves resuming work in the same way as before they had cancer. Many cancer survivors are missing support when navigating the bureaucracy involved with the process of returning to work and do not know how to become, or when they will be, ready for work...
January 8, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Thomas Clausen, Ida Eh Madsen, Karl Bang Christensen, Jakob B Bjorner, Otto M Poulsen, Thomas Maltesen, Vilhelm Borg, Reiner Rugulies
Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the development and the content of the Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Questionnaire (DPQ) and to test its reliability and validity. Methods We describe the identification of dimensions, the development of items, and the qualitative and quantitative tests of the reliability and validity of the DPQ. Reliability and validity of a 150 item version of the DPQ was evaluated in a stratified sample of 8958 employees in 14 job groups of which 4340 responded. Reliability was investigated using internal consistency and test-retest reliability...
December 28, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Andreas Elrond, Christian Stoltenberg, Lars Nissen, Anni Nielsen, Jacob Pedersen
Objectives Little is known about the employment prospects of formerly deployed soldiers (FDS) after returning from military deployment. The few studies that exist reported mixed results, and even fewer undertook comparisons with a civilian control population. This study compared labor market transitions of FDS within five years of returning from their first international deployment with those of a closely matched general-population control group. Methods Danish FDS (N=6653) returning from their first ever peacekeeping in Kosovo or Iraq, or more intense combat in Afghanistan (period 2002-2012), were matched with non-deployed controls from the general population (N=62 281)...
December 7, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Jennifer L Bell, James W Collins, Sharon Chiou
Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of a no-cost-to-workers, slip-resistant footwear (SRF) program in preventing workers' compensation injury claims caused by slipping on wet or greasy floors. Methods The study population was a dynamic cohort of food service workers from 226 school districts' kindergarten through 12th grade food service operations. A two-arm cluster randomized controlled study design was implemented, with school districts randomized to the intervention group receiving SRF. Data were analyzed according to the intent-to-treat principle...
December 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Juan Ángel Bellón, Sonia Conejo-Cerón, Cayetana Cortés-Abela, José Miguel Pena-Andreu, Antonio García-Rodríguez, Patricia Moreno-Peral
Objectives Psychological and educational interventions for the prevention of depression have a small-to-moderate effect. However, little is known about their effectiveness in the workplace. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT). Methods We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CIS-DOC and Open Grey for RCT. Search was supplemented with manual searches of reference lists of relevant meta-analyses and trials...
November 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Jacqueline M Ferguson, Sadie Costello, Andreas M Neophytou, John R Balmes, Patrick T Bradshaw, Mark R Cullen, Ellen A Eisen
Objectives Shift work, such as alternating day and nights, causes chronobiologic disruptions which may cause an increase in hypertension risk. However, the relative contributions of the components of shift work ‒ such as shift type (eg, night work) and rotations (ie, switching of shift times; day to night) ‒ on this association are not clear. To address this question, we constructed novel definitions of night work and rotational work and assessed their associations with risk of incident hypertension. Methods A cohort of 2151 workers at eight aluminum manufacturing facilities previously studied for cardiovascular disease was followed from 2003 through 2013 for incident hypertension, as defined by ICD-9 insurance claims codes...
November 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Clinton Hall, Julia E Heck, Dale P Sandler, Beate Ritz, Honglei Chen, Niklas Krause
Objectives Recent meta-analyses suggest a physical activity health paradox: high levels of occupational physical activity (OPA) increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) decreases risk. However, studies of women and cerebrovascular disease are limited. This report examines physical activity effects on stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) among working women in the United States. Methods OPA history, health status, and lifestyle were assessed by baseline interviews of 31 270 employed Sister Study participants aged 35-74 years...
November 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Pamela M Vacek, Robert E Glenn, Roy J Rando, John E Parker, Jeffrey P Kanne, Daniel A Henry, Cristopher A Meyer
Objectives This study aimed to characterize the relationship between radiographic silicosis and exposure to respirable quartz and determine how exposure affects disease progression. Methods Surveillance chest radiographs from a cohort of 1902 workers were examined to identify 67 cases of radiographic silicosis and 167 matched controls. Exposures were estimated by linking work histories to a job exposure matrix (JEM) based on samples collected by the participating companies and historical estimates. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine exposure‒response relationships...
November 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Therese Nordberg Hanvold, Tom Sterud, Petter Kristensen, Ingrid Sivesind Mehlum
Objectives The aim of this study was to (i) construct and evaluate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM) for mechanical and psychosocial work exposures and (ii) test its predictive validity for low-back pain. Methods We utilized data from the Norwegian nationwide Survey of Living Conditions on work environment in 2006 and 2009. We classified occupations on a 4-digit level based on the Norwegian version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88). The mechanical and psychosocial exposure information was collected by personal telephone interviews and included exposures that were known risk factors for low-back pain...
November 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Isa Koranyi, Johanna Jonsson, Torkel Rönnblad, Leo Stockfelt, Theo Bodin
We would like to thank the authors of the letter entitled "Multiple job holding is not a type of precarious employment" (1) and extend our thanks to the Editor-in-Chief for giving us the opportunity to respond. The authors of the letter point out that precarious employment is a multidimensional construct, with which we completely agree. There is however no consensus on which dimensions should be included in this construct, and therefore we chose a broad approach including three of the most wide-spread definitions: Guy Standing's (2), the Employment Precarious Scale (3) and the ILO`s (4)...
November 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Daniel Kim
Objectives The United States is the only advanced economy globally that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation leave. Although empirical studies have linked paid vacation leave to happiness and stress, no study has investigated the association between paid vacation leave and depression. Using a nationally-representative longitudinal sample of 3380 working men and women aged 45-52 years from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, this study explored whether paid vacation leave may protect against depression...
November 7, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Isabelle Deltour, Brigitte Schlehofer, Amélie Massardier-Pilonchéry, Klaus Schlaefer, Bruce Armstrong, Graham G Giles, Jack Siemiatycki, Marie-Elise Parent, Daniel Krewski, Mary McBride, Christoffer Johansen, Anssi Auvinen, Tiina Salminen, Martine Hours, Lucile Montestrucq, Maria Blettner, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Siegal Sadetzki, Angela Chetrit, Susanna Lagorio, Ivano Iavarone, Naohito Yamaguchi, Toru Takebayashi, Alistair Woodward, Angus Cook, Tore Tynes, Lars Klaeboe, Maria Feychting Maria Feychting, Stefan Lönn, Sarah Fleming, Anthony J Swerdlow, Minouk J Schoemaker, Monika Moissonnier, Ausrele Kesminiene, Elisabeth Cardis, Joachim Schüz
Objective Studies of loud noise exposure and vestibular schwannomas (VS) have shown conflicting results. The population-based INTERPHONE case‒control study was conducted in 13 countries during 2000-2004. In this paper, we report the results of analyses on the association between VS and self-reported loud noise exposure. Methods Self-reported noise exposure was analyzed in 1024 VS cases and 1984 matched controls. Life-long noise exposure was estimated through detailed questions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using adjusted conditional logistic regression for matched sets...
November 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Xiaoqin Liu, Kathrine Pape Madsen, Camilla Sandal Sejbaek, Henrik Albert Kolstad, Jens Peter Ellekilde Bonde, Jørn Olsen, Karin Sørig Hougaard, Kirsten Skamstrup Hansen, Niklas Worm Andersson, Reiner Rugulies, Vivi Schlünssen
Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events, job stressors (low job control or high psychosocial job demands) and offspring asthma phenotypes (early-onset transient, early-onset persistent and late-onset asthma). Methods In a population-based cohort study comprising 547 533 liveborn singletons, we determined negative life events and offspring asthma at age six years using data from Danish nationwide registers. We assessed job demands and job control from gender-specific job exposure matrices...
November 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Julie Elbæk Pedersen, Kajsa Ugelvig Petersen, Johnni Hansen
Objective This study aimed to demonstrate the possibility of using history science methods in occupational studies by evaluating overall historical changes in Danish firefighting modifying chemical exposures from smoke and fire trucks. Methods Data on changes in Danish firefighting after World War II were searched for in both museums and the Danish library catalogue REX, accessing collections of literature from all institutes of the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Royal Library. Results Several historical changes were identified either increasing or reducing chemical exposures in Danish firefighting...
November 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Amy Cm Dieker, Wilhelmina IJzelenberg, Karin I Proper, Alex Burdorf, Johannes Cf Ket, Allard J van der Beek, Gerben Hulsegge
Objective This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the contribution of work and lifestyle factors to socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health among workers. Methods A search for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies assessing the contribution of work and/or lifestyle factors to socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health among workers was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science in March 2017. Two independent reviewers performed eligibility and risk of bias assessment...
October 29, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Johan Hviid Andersen, Per Malmros, Niels Erik Ebbehoej, Esben Meulengracht Flachs, Elizabeth Bengtsen, Jens Peter Bonde
Objectives The aim of this review was to assess the evidence that occupational safety and health (OSH) legislative and regulatory policy could improve the working environment in terms of reduced levels of industrial injuries and fatalities, musculoskeletal disorders, worker complaints, sick leave and adverse occupational exposures. Methods A systematic literature review covering the years 1966‒2017 (February) was undertaken to capture both published and gray literature studies of OSH work environment interventions with quantitative measures of intervention effects...
October 29, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Cameron Mustard, Emile Tompa, Victoria Landsman, Morgan Lay
Objective This study aimed to estimate firm-level expenditures on occupational health and safety (OHS) for a representative sample of Canadian employers. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 334 employers with ≥20 employees in 18 economic sectors in the Ontario economy. Participants provided information on five dimensions of OHS expenditures: (i) organizational management and supervision; (ii) staff training in health and safety; (iii) personal protective equipment; (iv) professional services and, (v) estimates of the share of new capital investment that could be attributed to improved OHS performance...
October 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
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