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Biochemical Society Transactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986939/msc-exosome-works-through-a-protein-based-mechanism-of-action
#1
REVIEW
Wei Seong Toh, Ruenn Chai Lai, Bin Zhang, Sai Kiang Lim
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosome specifically defines the 50-200 nm vesicles that are secreted into the extracellular space when multivesicular bodies in the MSC fuse with the plasma membrane. However, the exosome is just one of several 50-200 nm extracellular vesicles (EVs) known to be secreted by cells. Nevertheless, the term 'MSC exosome' is often used to describe populations of 50-200 nm EVs that are prepared from culture medium conditioned by MSCs on the basis that these populations collectively exhibited typical exosome-associated proteins such as endosomal proteins, TSG101 and Alix, and tetraspanin proteins, CD9, CD63 and CD81...
July 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986938/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-neurodegenerative-proteinopathies-mechanisms-and-prospects-for-therapeutic-intervention
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Briston, Amy R Hicks
Neurodegenerative proteinopathies are a group of pathologically similar, progressive disorders of the nervous system, characterised by structural alterations within and toxic misfolding of susceptible proteins. Oligomerisation of Aβ, tau, α-synuclein and TDP-43 leads to a toxin gain- or loss-of-function contributing to the phenotype observed in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Misfolded proteins can adversely affect mitochondria, and post-mitotic neurones are especially sensitive to metabolic dysfunction...
July 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986937/specialized-ribosomes-and-the-control-of-translation
#3
REVIEW
Huili Guo
The control of translation is increasingly recognized as a major factor in determining protein levels in the cell. The ribosome - the cellular machine that mediates protein synthesis - is typically seen as a key, but invariant, player in this process. This is because translational control is thought to be mediated by other auxiliary factors while ribosome recruitment is seen as the end-point of regulation. However, recent developments have made it clear that heterogeneous ribosome types can exist in different tissues, and more importantly, that these ribosomes can preferentially translate different subsets of mRNAs...
July 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970448/is-there-a-causal-link-between-intracellular-na-elevation-and-metabolic-remodelling-in-cardiac-hypertrophy
#4
REVIEW
Dunja Aksentijevic, Brett A O'Brien, Thomas R Eykyn, Michael J Shattock
Alterations in excitation-contraction coupling and elevated intracellular sodium (Nai ) are hallmarks of pathological cardiac remodelling that underline contractile dysfunction. In addition, changes in cardiac metabolism are observed in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF) that lead to a mismatch in ATP supply and demand, contributing to poor prognosis. A link between Nai and altered metabolism has been proposed but is not well understood. Many mitochondrial enzymes are stimulated by mitochondrial calcium (Camito ) during contraction, thereby sustaining production of reducing equivalents to maintain ATP supply...
July 3, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934303/regulation-of-the-meiotic-divisions-of-mammalian-oocytes-and-eggs
#5
REVIEW
Jessica R Sanders, Keith T Jones
Initiated by luteinizing hormone and finalized by the fertilizing sperm, the mammalian oocyte completes its two meiotic divisions. The first division occurs in the mature Graafian follicle during the hours preceding ovulation and culminates in an extreme asymmetric cell division and the segregation of the two pairs of homologous chromosomes. The newly created mature egg rearrests at metaphase of the second meiotic division prior to ovulation and only completes meiosis following a Ca2+ signal initiated by the sperm at gamete fusion...
June 22, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934302/the-role-of-heparan-sulfate-in-host-macrophage-infection-by-leishmania-species
#6
REVIEW
Marissa L Maciej-Hulme, Mark A Skidmore, Helen P Price
The leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical diseases caused by parasites from the Leishmania genus. More than 20 Leishmania species are responsible for human disease, causing a broad spectrum of symptoms ranging from cutaneous lesions to a fatal visceral infection. There is no single safe and effective approach to treat these diseases and resistance to current anti-leishmanial drugs is emerging. New drug targets need to be identified and validated to generate novel treatments. Host heparan sulfates (HSs) are abundant, heterogeneous polysaccharides displayed on proteoglycans that bind various ligands, including cell surface proteins expressed on Leishmania promastigote and amastigote parasites...
June 22, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934301/fine-details-in-complex-environments-the-power-of-cryo-electron-tomography
#7
REVIEW
Joshua Hutchings, Giulia Zanetti
Cryo-electron tomography (CET) is uniquely suited to obtain structural information from a wide range of biological scales, integrating and bridging knowledge from molecules to cells. In particular, CET can be used to visualise molecular structures in their native environment. Depending on the experiment, a varying degree of resolutions can be achieved, with the first near-atomic molecular structures becoming recently available. The power of CET has increased significantly in the last 5 years, in parallel with improvements in cryo-EM hardware and software that have also benefited single-particle reconstruction techniques...
June 22, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903935/o-linked-mucin-type-glycosylation-in-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Joy M Burchell, Richard Beatson, Rosalind Graham, Joyce Taylor-Papadimitriou, Virginia Tajadura-Ortega
Changes in mucin-type O-linked glycosylation are seen in over 90% of breast cancers where increased sialylation is often observed and a change from branched glycans to linear glycans is often seen. There are many mechanisms involved including increased/altered expression of glycosyltransferases and relocalisation to the endoplasmic reticulum of the enzymes responsible for the addition of the first sugar, N -acetyl-d-galactosamine. It is now becoming clear that these changes can contribute to tumour growth and progression by modulating the micro-environment through glycan-sensing lectins expressed on immune cells, by modulating interactions with tumour surface receptors and by binding to selectins...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903934/escrts-in-membrane-sealing
#9
REVIEW
Maja Radulovic, Harald Stenmark
The multisubunit endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is a key regulator of cellular membrane dynamics. Initially characterized in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its involvement in cargo sorting to the vacuole, the yeast lysosome, this protein complex has emerged over the past decade as a driver for diverse membrane remodeling processes. Its pleiotropic functional connection is mirrored in numerous cellular processes, such as cytokinetic abscission during the final step of cell division, nuclear pore quality control, nuclear envelope sealing and repair, plasma membrane repair, vesicle shedding from the plasma membrane, viral budding, and axonal pruning...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678956/local-actin-polymerization-during-endocytic-carrier-formation
#10
REVIEW
Claudia Hinze, Emmanuel Boucrot
Extracellular macromolecules, pathogens and cell surface proteins rely on endocytosis to enter cells. Key steps of endocytic carrier formation are cargo molecule selection, plasma membrane folding and detachment from the cell surface. While dedicated proteins mediate each step, the actin cytoskeleton contributes to all. However, its role can be indirect to the actual molecular events driving endocytosis. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular steps mediating local actin polymerization during the formation of endocytic carriers...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678955/studying-x-chromosome-inactivation-in-the-single-cell-genomic-era
#11
REVIEW
Andrew Keniry, Marnie E Blewitt
Single-cell genomics is set to revolutionise our understanding of how epigenetic silencing works; by studying specific epigenetic marks or chromatin conformations in single cells, it is possible to ask whether they cause transcriptional silencing or are instead a consequence of the silent state. Here, we review what single-cell genomics has revealed about X chromosome inactivation, perhaps the best characterised mammalian epigenetic process, highlighting the novel findings and important differences between mouse and human X inactivation uncovered through these studies...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678954/self-organization-entropy-and-allostery
#12
REVIEW
Alexandr P Kornev
Allostery is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in biology. Although generally accepted that it is a dynamics-driven process, the exact molecular mechanism of allosteric signal transmission is hotly debated. We argue that allostery is as a part of a bigger picture that also includes fractal-like properties of protein interior, hierarchical protein folding and entropy-driven molecular recognition. Although so far all these phenomena were studied separately, they stem from the same common root: self-organization of polypeptide chains and, thus, has to be studied collectively...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678953/metabolic-adjustment-to-high-altitude-hypoxia-from-genetic-signals-to-physiological-implications
#13
REVIEW
Andrew J Murray, Hugh E Montgomery, Martin Feelisch, Michael P W Grocott, Daniel S Martin
Ascent to high altitude is associated with physiological responses that counter the stress of hypobaric hypoxia by increasing oxygen delivery and by altering tissue oxygen utilisation via metabolic modulation. At the cellular level, the transcriptional response to hypoxia is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and results in promotion of glycolytic capacity and suppression of oxidative metabolism. In Tibetan highlanders, gene variants encoding components of the HIF pathway have undergone selection and are associated with adaptive phenotypic changes, including suppression of erythropoiesis and increased blood lactate levels...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678952/subverting-the-mechanisms-of-cell-death-flavivirus-manipulation-of-host-cell-responses-to-infection
#14
REVIEW
Elisa Vicenzi, Isabel Pagani, Silvia Ghezzi, Sarah L Taylor, Timothy R Rudd, Marcelo A Lima, Mark A Skidmore, Edwin A Yates
Viruses exploit host metabolic and defence machinery for their own replication. The flaviviruses, which include Dengue (DENV), Yellow Fever (YFV), Japanese Encephalitis (JEV), West Nile (WNV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, infect a broad range of hosts, cells and tissues. Flaviviruses are largely transmitted by mosquito bites and humans are usually incidental, dead-end hosts, with the notable exceptions of YFV, DENV and ZIKV. Infection by flaviviruses elicits cellular responses including cell death via necrosis, pyroptosis (involving inflammation) or apoptosis (which avoids inflammation)...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871878/rho-gtpases-in-cancer-known-facts-open-questions-and-therapeutic-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Xosé R Bustelo
RHO GTPases have been traditionally associated with protumorigenic functions. While this paradigm is still valid in many cases, recent data have unexpectedly revealed that RHO proteins can also play tumor suppressor roles. RHO signaling elements can also promote both pro- and antitumorigenic effects using GTPase-independent mechanisms, thus giving an extra layer of complexity to the role of these proteins in cancer. Consistent with these variegated roles, both gain- and loss-of-function mutations in RHO pathway genes have been found in cancer patients...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871877/observing-dna-in-live-cells
#16
REVIEW
Lucien E Weiss, Tal Naor, Yoav Shechtman
The structural organization and dynamics of DNA are known to be of paramount importance in countless cellular processes, but capturing these events poses a unique challenge. Fluorescence microscopy is well suited for these live-cell investigations, but requires attaching fluorescent labels to the species under investigation. Over the past several decades, a suite of techniques have been developed for labeling and imaging DNA, each with various advantages and drawbacks. Here, we provide an overview of the labeling and imaging tools currently available for visualizing DNA in live cells, and discuss their suitability for various applications...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871876/the-fam83-family-of-proteins-from-pseudo-plds-to-anchors-for-ck1-isoforms
#17
REVIEW
Polyxeni Bozatzi, Gopal P Sapkota
The eight members of the FAM83 (FAMily with sequence similarity 83) family of poorly characterised proteins are only present in vertebrates and are defined by the presence of the conserved DUF1669 domain of unknown function at their N-termini. The DUF1669 domain consists of a conserved phospholipase D (PLD)-like catalytic motif. However, the FAM83 proteins display no PLD catalytic (PLDc) activity, and the pseudo-PLDc motif present in each FAM83 member lacks the crucial elements of the native PLDc motif. In the absence of catalytic activity, it is likely that the DUF1669 domain has evolved to espouse novel function(s) in biology...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802218/coenzyme-a-protein-coalation-and-redox-regulation-in-mammalian-cells
#18
REVIEW
Ivan Gout
In a diverse family of cellular cofactors, coenzyme A (CoA) has a unique design to function in various biochemical processes. The presence of a highly reactive thiol group and a nucleotide moiety offers a diversity of chemical reactions and regulatory interactions. CoA employs them to activate carbonyl-containing molecules and to produce various thioester derivatives (e.g. acetyl CoA, malonyl CoA and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA), which have well-established roles in cellular metabolism, production of neurotransmitters and the regulation of gene expression...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802217/role-of-mucins-in-lung-homeostasis-regulated-expression-and-biosynthesis-in-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Breanna A Symmes, Adrianne L Stefanski, Chelsea M Magin, Christopher M Evans
In humans and mice, the first line of innate defense against inhaled pathogens and particles in the respiratory tract is airway mucus. The primary solid components of the mucus layer are the mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B, polymeric glycoproteins whose changes in abundance and structure can dramatically affect airway defense. Accordingly, MUC5AC/Muc5ac and MUC5B/Muc5b are tightly regulated at a transcriptional level by tissue-specific transcription factors in homeostasis and in response to injurious and inflammatory triggers...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802216/eat-it-right-er-phagy-and-recover-phagy
#20
REVIEW
Marisa Loi, Ilaria Fregno, Concetta Guerra, Maurizio Molinari
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein, lipid, phospholipid, steroid and oligosaccharide synthesis and modification, calcium ion storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous products. Its volume (and activity) must be maintained under normal growth conditions, must be expanded in a controlled manner on activation of ER stress programs and must be reduced to pre-stress size during the recovery phase that follows ER stress termination. ER-phagy is the constitutive or regulated fragmentation and delivery of ER fragments to lysosomal compartments for clearance...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
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