journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Biochemical Society Transactions

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733489/interaction-of-misfolded-proteins-and-mitochondria-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Andrey Y Abramov, Alexey V Berezhnov, Evgeniya I Fedotova, Valery P Zinchenko, Ludmila P Dolgacheva
The number of the people affected by neurodegenerative disorders is growing dramatically due to the ageing of population. The major neurodegenerative diseases share some common pathological features including the involvement of mitochondria in the mechanism of pathology and misfolding and the accumulation of abnormally aggregated proteins. Neurotoxicity of aggregated β-amyloid, tau, α-synuclein and huntingtin is linked to the effects of these proteins on mitochondria. All these misfolded aggregates affect mitochondrial energy metabolism by inhibiting diverse mitochondrial complexes and limit ATP availability in neurones...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733488/identification-of-optimal-strategies-for-state-transition-of-complex-biological-networks
#2
REVIEW
Meichen Yuan, Weirong Hong, Pu Li
Complex biological networks typically contain numerous parameters, and determining feasible strategies for state transition by parameter perturbation is not a trivial task. In the present study, based on dynamical and structural analyses of the biological network, we optimized strategies for controlling variables in a two-node gene regulatory network and a T-cell large granular lymphocyte signaling network associated with blood cancer by using an efficient dynamic optimization method. Optimization revealed the critical value for each decision variable to steer the system from an undesired state into a desired attractor...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710289/nutritional-modulation-of-metabolic-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Anna M Kirwan, Yvonne M Lenighan, Marcella E O'Reilly, Fiona C McGillicuddy, Helen M Roche
Metabolic inflammation is a very topical area of research, wherein aberrations in metabolic and inflammatory pathways probably contribute to atherosclerosis, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic insults arising from obesity promote inflammation, which in turn impedes insulin signalling and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Key cells in the process are metabolically activated macrophages, which up-regulate both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways in response to lipid spillover from adipocytes...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710288/post-transcriptional-control-of-gene-expression-following-stress-the-role-of-rna-binding-proteins
#4
REVIEW
Robert Harvey, Veronica Dezi, Mariavittoria Pizzinga, Anne E Willis
The ability of mammalian cells to modulate global protein synthesis in response to cellular stress is essential for cell survival. While control of protein synthesis is mediated by the regulation of eukaryotic initiation and elongation factors, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) provide a crucial additional layer to post-transcriptional regulation. RBPs bind specific RNA through conserved RNA-binding domains and ensure that the information contained within the genome and transcribed in the form of RNA is exported to the cytoplasm, chemically modified, and translated prior to folding into a functional protein...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710287/rna-search-engines-empower-the-bacterial-intranet
#5
REVIEW
Tom Dendooven, Ben F Luisi
RNA acts not only as an information bearer in the biogenesis of proteins from genes, but also as a regulator that participates in the control of gene expression. In bacteria, small RNA molecules (sRNAs) play controlling roles in numerous processes and help to orchestrate complex regulatory networks. Such processes include cell growth and development, response to stress and metabolic change, transcription termination, cell-to-cell communication, and the launching of programmes for host invasion. All these processes require recognition of target messenger RNAs by the sRNAs...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710286/how-tetraspanins-shape-endothelial-and-leukocyte-nano-architecture-during-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Jonas Franz, Marco Tarantola, Christoph Riethmüller
Tetraspanins are ubiquitous membrane proteins that induce local membrane curvature and hence co-ordinate cell-to-cell contacts. This review highlights their role in inflammation, which requires control of the nano-architecture of attachment sites between endothelial cells and leukocytes. The active role of endothelial cells in preparing for transmigration of leukocytes and determining the severity of an inflammation is often underscored. A clear hint to endothelial pre-activation is their ability to protrude clustered adhesion proteins upward prior to leukocyte contact...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710285/p-rex1-and-p-rex2-racgefs-and-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Nuthasuda Srijakotre, Joey Man, Lisa M Ooms, Christina M Lucato, Andrew M Ellisdon, Christina A Mitchell
Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger (P-Rex) proteins are RacGEFs that are synergistically activated by phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and Gβγ subunits of G-protein-coupled receptors. P-Rex1 and P-Rex2 share similar amino acid sequence homology, domain structure, and catalytic function. Recent evidence suggests that both P-Rex proteins may play oncogenic roles in human cancers. P-Rex1 and P-Rex2 are altered predominantly via overexpression and mutation, respectively, in various cancer types, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687716/regulation-of-the-trafficking-and-the-function-of-the-metalloprotease-adam10-by-tetraspanins
#8
REVIEW
Julien Saint-Pol, Etienne Eschenbrenner, Emmanuel Dornier, Claude Boucheix, Stéphanie Charrin, Eric Rubinstein
By interacting directly with partner proteins and with one another, tetraspanins organize a network of interactions referred to as the tetraspanin web. ADAM10 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 10), an essential membrane-anchored metalloprotease that cleaves off the ectodomain of a large variety of cell surface proteins including cytokines, adhesion molecules, the precursor of the β-amyloid peptide APP or Notch, has emerged as a major component of the tetraspanin web. Recent studies have shown that ADAM10 associates directly with all members (Tspan5, Tspan10, Tspan14, Tspan15, Tspan17 and Tspan33) of a subgroup of tetraspanins having eight cysteines in the large extracellular domain and referred to as TspanC8...
July 7, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687715/resource-allocation-in-living-organisms
#9
REVIEW
Anne Goelzer, Vincent Fromion
Quantitative prediction of resource allocation for living systems has been an intensive area of research in the field of biology. Resource allocation was initially investigated in higher organisms by using empirical mathematical models based on mass distribution. A challenge is now to go a step further by reconciling the cellular scale to the individual scale. In the present paper, we review the foundations of modelling of resource allocation, particularly at the cellular scale: from small macro-molecular models to genome-scale cellular models...
July 7, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687714/lnc-ing-inflammation-to-disease
#10
REVIEW
Loretta Magagula, Maria Gagliardi, Jerolen Naidoo, Musa Mhlanga
Termed 'master gene regulators' long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as the true vanguard of the 'noncoding revolution'. Functioning at a molecular level, in most if not all cellular processes, lncRNAs exert their effects systemically. Thus, it is not surprising that lncRNAs have emerged as important players in human pathophysiology. As our body's first line of defense upon infection or injury, inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of several human diseases. At the center of the acute inflammatory response, as well as several pathologies, is the pleiotropic transcription factor NF-κβ...
July 7, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673939/the-sweet-tooth-of-the-circadian-clock
#11
REVIEW
Minnie Fu, Xiaoyong Yang
The endogenous circadian clock is a key regulator of daily metabolic processes. On the other hand, circadian clocks in a broad range of tissues can be tuned by extrinsic and intrinsic metabolic cues. The bidirectional interaction between circadian clocks and metabolism involves both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Nuclear receptors exemplify the transcriptional programs that couple molecular clocks to metabolism. The post-translational modifications of the core clock machinery are known to play a key role in metabolic entrainment of circadian clocks...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673938/design-starch-stochastic-modeling-of-starch-granule-biogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Adélaïde Raguin, Oliver Ebenhöh
Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants and the main source of carbohydrate in the human diet. Owing to its remarkable properties and commercial applications, starch is still of growing interest. Its unique granular structure made of intercalated layers of amylopectin and amylose has been unraveled thanks to recent progress in microscopic imaging, but the origin of such periodicity is still under debate. Both amylose and amylopectin are made of linear chains of α-1,4-bound glucose residues, with branch points formed by α-1,6 linkages...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673937/exercise-protects-from-cancer-through-regulation-of-immune-function-and-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Pernille Hojman
Exercise training has been extensively studied in cancer settings as part of prevention or rehabilitation strategies, yet emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can also directly affect tumor-specific outcomes. The underlying mechanisms for this exercise-dependent cancer protection are just starting to be elucidated. To this end, evasion of immune surveillance and tumor-associated inflammation are established as hallmarks of cancer, and exercise may target cancer incidence and progression through regulation of these mechanisms...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673936/targeting-the-hepatocyte-growth-factor-met-pathway-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Dinuka M De Silva, Arpita Roy, Takashi Kato, Fabiola Cecchi, Young H Lee, Kunio Matsumoto, Donald P Bottaro
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced activation of its cell surface receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase, drives mitogenesis, motogenesis and morphogenesis in a wide spectrum of target cell types and embryologic, developmental and homeostatic contexts. Typical paracrine HGF/Met signaling is regulated by HGF activation at target cell surfaces, HGF binding-induced receptor activation, internalization and degradation. Despite these controls, HGF/Met signaling contributes to oncogenesis, tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness, and tumor metastasis in many types of cancer, leading to the rapid growth of pathway-targeted anticancer drug development programs...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673935/functions-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-human-disease-and-their-conservation-in-drosophila-development
#15
REVIEW
Oliver M Rogoyski, Jose Ignacio Pueyo, Juan Pablo Couso, Sarah F Newbury
Genomic analysis has found that the transcriptome in both humans and Drosophila melanogaster features large numbers of long non-coding RNA transcripts (lncRNAs). This recently discovered class of RNAs regulates gene expression in diverse ways and has been involved in a large variety of important biological functions. Importantly, an increasing number of lncRNAs have also been associated with a range of human diseases, including cancer. Comparative analyses of their functions among these organisms suggest that some of their modes of action appear to be conserved...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630139/functional-interfaces-between-ticam-2-tram-and-ticam-1-trif-in-tlr4-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Kenji Funami, Misako Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Fuyuhiko Inagaki, Tsukasa Seya
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS), produces pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons, and associates with a trigger of endotoxin shock. TLR4 is interacted with a TIR domain-containing adaptor molecule-2 (TICAM-2)/TRAM [TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β)-related adaptor molecule] via its Toll-interleukin-1 receptor homology (TIR) domain. TICAM-2 acts as a scaffold protein and activates TIR domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 (TICAM-1)/TRIF. According to the structural analysis by NMR, TICAM-2 interacts with TICAM-1 by the acidic amino acids motif, E87/D88/D89...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630138/targeting-the-ras-palmitoylation-depalmitoylation-cycle-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
David Tse Shen Lin, Nicholas G Davis, Elizabeth Conibear
The Ras proteins are well-known drivers of many cancers and thus represent attractive targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Inhibitors that disrupt the association of the Ras proteins with membranes by blocking the addition of the farnesyl lipid moiety to the Ras C-terminus failed in clinical trials. Here, we explore the possibility of targeting a second lipid modification, S-acylation, commonly referred to as palmitoylation, as a strategy to disrupt the membrane interaction of specific Ras isoforms...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630137/structure-and-function-of-dhhc-protein-s-acyltransferases
#18
REVIEW
Colin D Gottlieb, Maurine E Linder
It has been estimated that 10% of the human genome encodes proteins that are fatty acylated at cysteine residues. The vast majority of these proteins are modified by members of the DHHC protein family, which carry out their enzymatic function on the cytoplasmic face of cell membranes. The biomedical importance of DHHC proteins is underscored by their association with human disease; unique and essential roles for DHHC proteins have been uncovered using DHHC-deficient mouse models. Accordingly, there is great interest in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie DHHC protein function...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620046/role-of-escrt-component-hd-ptp-ptpn23-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Marie-Claude Gingras, Jalal M Kazan, Arnim Pause
Sustained cellular signalling originated from the receptors located at the plasma membrane is widely associated with cancer susceptibility. Endosomal sorting and degradation of the cell surface receptors is therefore crucial to preventing chronic downstream signalling and tumorigenesis. Since the Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) controls these processes, ESCRT components were proposed to act as tumour suppressor genes. However, the bona fide role of ESCRT components in tumorigenesis has not been clearly demonstrated...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620045/fundamental-principles-of-vascular-network-topology
#20
REVIEW
Veronika S Kopylova, Stanislav E Boronovskiy, Yaroslav R Nartsissov
The vascular system is arguably the most important biological system in many organisms. Although the general principles of its architecture are simple, the growth of blood vessels occurs under extreme physical conditions. Optimization is an important aspect of the development of computational models of the vascular branching structures. This review surveys the approaches used to optimize the topology and estimate different geometrical parameters of the vascular system. The review is focused on optimizations using complex cost functions based on the minimum total energy principle and the relationship between the laws of growth and precise vascular network topology...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
journal
journal
26220
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"