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Biochemical Society Transactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330356/metabolic-and-molecular-changes-associated-with-the-increased-skeletal-muscle-insulin-action-24-48%C3%A2-h-after-exercise-in-young-and-old-humans
#1
REVIEW
Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single bout of exercise in humans remain unresolved. Moreover, whether these mechanisms differ with age is unclear. It is well established that a single bout of exercise increases the translocation of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Previous research using unilateral limb muscle contraction models in combination with hyperinsulinaemia has demonstrated that the increase in insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis 24 h after exercise is also associated with an increase in hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA and protein content, suggesting an increase in the capacity of the muscle to phosphorylate glucose and divert it towards glycogen synthesis...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330355/fatty-acids-and-related-lipid-mediators-in-the-regulation-of-cutaneous-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Magdalena Kiezel-Tsugunova, Alexandra C Kendall, Anna Nicolaou
Human skin has a distinct profile of fatty acids and related bioactive lipid mediators that regulate many aspects of epidermal and dermal homeostasis, including immune and inflammatory reactions. Sebum lipids act as effective antimicrobial agents, shape immune cell communications and contribute to the epidermal lipidome. The essential fatty acid linoleic acid is crucial for the structure of the epidermal barrier, while polyunsaturated fatty acids act as precursors to eicosanoids, octadecanoids and docosanoids through cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated reactions, and endocannabinoids and N-acyl ethanolamines...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305411/the-importance-of-the-photosynthetic-gibbs-effect-in-the-elucidation-of-the-calvin-benson-bassham-cycle
#3
REVIEW
Oliver Ebenhöh, Stephanie Spelberg
The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle, is now contained in every standard biochemistry textbook. Although the cycle was already proposed in 1954, it is still the subject of intense research, and even the structure of the cycle, i.e. the exact series of reactions, is still under debate. The controversy about the cycle's structure was fuelled by the findings of Gibbs and Kandler in 1956 and 1957, when they observed that radioactive 14CO2 was dynamically incorporated in hexoses in a very atypical and asymmetrical way, a phenomenon later termed the 'photosynthetic Gibbs effect'...
January 5, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305410/evolution-of-tools-and-methods-for-monitoring-autophagic-flux-in-mammalian-cells
#4
REVIEW
Kevin C Yang, Paalini Sathiyaseelan, Cally Ho, Sharon M Gorski
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-mediated degradation and recycling process, which functions in cellular homeostasis and stress adaptation. The process is highly dynamic and involves autophagosome synthesis, cargo recognition and transport, autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and cargo degradation. The multistep nature of autophagy makes it challenging to quantify, and it is important to consider not only the number of autophagosomes within a cell but also the autophagic degradative activity. The rate at which cargos are recognized, segregated, and degraded through the autophagy pathway is defined as autophagic flux...
January 5, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273621/recq-and-fe-s-helicases-have-unique-roles-in-dna-metabolism-dictated-by-their-unwinding-directionality-substrate-specificity-and-protein-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Katrina N Estep, Robert M Brosh
Helicases are molecular motors that play central roles in nucleic acid metabolism. Mutations in genes encoding DNA helicases of the RecQ and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) helicase families are linked to hereditary disorders characterized by chromosomal instabilities, highlighting the importance of these enzymes. Moreover, mono-allelic RecQ and Fe-S helicase mutations are associated with a broad spectrum of cancers. This review will discuss and contrast the specialized molecular functions and biological roles of RecQ and Fe-S helicases in DNA repair, the replication stress response, and the regulation of gene expression, laying a foundation for continued research in these important areas of study...
December 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273620/gene-expression-regulation-by-heat-shock-proteins-the-cardinal-roles-of-hsf1-and-hsp90
#6
REVIEW
Gisela I Mazaira, Cristina Daneri-Becerra, Nadia R Zgajnar, Cecilia M Lotufo, Mario D Galigniana
The ability to permit gene expression is managed by a set of relatively well known regulatory mechanisms. Nonetheless, this property can also be acquired during a life span as a consequence of environmental stimuli. Interestingly, some acquired information can be passed to the next generation of individuals without modifying gene information, but instead by the manner in which cells read and process such information. Molecular chaperones are classically related to the proper preservation of protein folding and anti-aggregation properties, but one of them, heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), is a refined sensor of protein function facilitating the biological activity of properly folded client proteins that already have a preserved tertiary structure...
December 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273619/approaches-to-single-molecule-studies-of-metalloprotein-electron-transfer-using-scanning-probe-based-techniques
#7
REVIEW
Martin Elliott, D Dafydd Jones
The single-molecule properties of metalloproteins have provided an intensely active research area in recent years. This brief review covers some of the techniques used to prepare, measure and analyse the electron transfer properties of metalloproteins, concentrating on scanning tunnelling microscopy-based techniques and advances in attachment of proteins to electrodes.
December 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273618/at-the-ends-of-their-tethers-how-coiled-coil-proteins-capture-vesicles-at-the-golgi
#8
REVIEW
Alison K Gillingham
Cells face a complex problem: how to transfer lipids and proteins between membrane compartments in an organized, timely fashion. Indeed, many thousands of membrane and secretory proteins must traffic out of the ER to different organelles to function, while others are retrieved from the plasma membrane having fulfilled their roles [Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (2013) 14, 382-392]. This process is highly dynamic and failure to target cargo accurately leads to catastrophic consequences for the cell, as is clear from the numerous human diseases associated with defects in membrane trafficking [Int...
December 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263138/the-10-nm-chromatin-fiber-and-its-relationship-to-interphase-chromosome-organization
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey C Hansen, Mark Connolly, Charles J McDonald, Anyu Pan, Anna Pryamkova, Kyle Ray, Erik Seidel, Sachiko Tamura, Ryan Rogge, Kazuhiro Maeshima
A chromosome is a single long DNA molecule assembled along its length with nucleosomes and proteins. During interphase, a mammalian chromosome exists as a highly organized supramolecular globule in the nucleus. Here, we discuss new insights into how genomic DNA is packaged and organized within interphase chromosomes. Our emphasis is on the structural principles that underlie chromosome organization, with a particular focus on the intrinsic contributions of the 10-nm chromatin fiber, but not the regular 30-nm fiber...
December 20, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196611/cell-signaling-abnormalities-in-cardiomyopathy-caused-by-lamin-a-c-gene-mutations
#10
REVIEW
Howard J Worman
Mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) encoding intermediate filament proteins associated with the inner nuclear membrane cause diseases known as laminopathies. Most LMNA mutations cause dilated cardiomyopathy with variable skeletal muscular dystrophy. Cell signaling abnormalities have been discovered in hearts of mouse models of cardiomyopathy caused by LMNA mutations that contribute to pathogenesis. These include abnormally increased signaling by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and kinase 2 and other mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and transforming growth factor-β...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196610/single-molecule-live-cell-imaging-of-bacterial-dna-repair-and-damage-tolerance
#11
REVIEW
Harshad Ghodke, Han Ho, Antoine M van Oijen
Genomic DNA is constantly under threat from intracellular and environmental factors that damage its chemical structure. Uncorrected DNA damage may impede cellular propagation or even result in cell death, making it critical to restore genomic integrity. Decades of research have revealed a wide range of mechanisms through which repair factors recognize damage and co-ordinate repair processes. In recent years, single-molecule live-cell imaging methods have further enriched our understanding of how repair factors operate in the crowded intracellular environment...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196609/microrna-based-therapeutics-in-cardiovascular-disease-screening-and-delivery-to-the-target
#12
REVIEW
David Mellis, Andrea Caporali
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of ∼22 nucleotides, which have increasingly been recognized as potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MiRNA targeting is defined by the complementarities between positions 2-8 of miRNA 5'-end with generally the 3'-untranslated region of target mRNAs (messenger RNAs). The capacity of miRNAs to simultaneously inhibit many different mRNAs allows for an amplification of biological responses. Hence, miRNAs are extremely attractive targets for therapeutic regulation in several diseases, including cardiovascular...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150528/autophagy-in-the-context-of-the-cellular-membrane-trafficking-system-the-enigma-of-atg9-vesicles
#13
REVIEW
Takeshi Noda
Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation system that involves the de novo formation of membrane structures called autophagosomes, although the detailed process by which membrane lipids are supplied during autophagosome formation is yet to be elucidated. Macroautophagy is thought to be associated with canonical membrane trafficking, but several mechanistic details are still missing. In this review, the current understanding and potential mechanisms by which membrane trafficking participates in macroautophagy are described, with a focus on the enigma of the membrane protein Atg9, for which the proximal mechanisms determining its movement are disputable, despite its key role in autophagosome formation...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150527/transcriptional-regulators-of-redox-balance-and-other-homeostatic-processes-with-the-potential-to-alter-neurodegenerative-disease-trajectory
#14
REVIEW
Scott W Burnside, Giles E Hardingham
Diverse neurodegenerative diseases share some common aspects to their pathology, with many showing evidence of disruption to the brain's numerous homeostatic processes. As such, imbalanced inflammatory status, glutamate dyshomeostasis, hypometabolism and oxidative stress are implicated in many disorders. That these pathological processes can influence each other both up- and downstream makes for a complicated picture, but means that successfully targeting one area may have an effect on others. This targeting requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which homeostasis is maintained during health, in order to uncover strategies to boost homeostasis in disease...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150526/the-devil-is-in-the-domain-understanding-protein-recognition-of-multiple-rna-targets
#15
REVIEW
Glen R Gronland, Andres Ramos
RNA regulation provides a finely tuned and highly co-ordinated control of gene expression. Regulation is mediated by hundreds to thousands of multi-functional RNA-binding proteins which often interact with large sets of RNAs. In this brief review, we focus on a recent work that highlights how the proteins use multiple RNA-binding domains to interact selectively with the different RNA targets. Deconvoluting the molecular complexity of the RNA regulatory network is essential to understanding cell differentiation and function, and requires accurate models for protein-RNA recognition and protein target selectivity...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150525/distinct-rna-unwinding-mechanisms-of-dead-box-and-deah-box-rna-helicase-proteins-in-remodeling-structured-rnas-and-rnps
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin Gilman, Pilar Tijerina, Rick Russell
Structured RNAs and RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) fold through complex pathways that are replete with misfolded traps, and many RNAs and RNPs undergo extensive conformational changes during their functional cycles. These folding steps and conformational transitions are frequently promoted by RNA chaperone proteins, notably by superfamily 2 (SF2) RNA helicase proteins. The two largest families of SF2 helicases, DEAD-box and DEAH-box proteins, share evolutionarily conserved helicase cores, but unwind RNA helices through distinct mechanisms...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150524/breaking-the-scale-how-disrupting-the-karyoplasmic-ratio-gives-cancer-cells-an-advantage-for-metastatic-invasion
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Rizzotto, Eric C Schirmer
Nuclear size normally scales with the size of the cell, but in cancer this 'karyoplasmic ratio' is disrupted. This is particularly so in more metastatic tumors where changes in the karyoplasmic ratio are used in both diagnosis and prognosis for several tumor types. However, the direction of nuclear size changes differs for particular tumor types: for example in breast cancer, larger nuclear size correlates with increased metastasis, while for lung cancer smaller nuclear size correlates with increased metastasis...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127216/emerging-candidate-treatment-strategies-for-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Charlotte Strandgren, Gwladys Revêchon, Agustín Sola Carvajal, Maria Eriksson
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, progeria) is an extremely rare premature aging disorder affecting children, with a disease incidence of ∼1 in 18 million individuals. HGPS is usually caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene (c.1824C>T, p.G608G), resulting in the increased usage of a cryptic splice site and production of a truncated unprocessed lamin A protein named progerin. Since the genetic cause for HGPS was published in 2003, numerous potential treatment options have rapidly emerged...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101310/snare-phosphorylation-a-control-mechanism-for-insulin-stimulated-glucose-transport-and-other-regulated-exocytic-events
#19
REVIEW
Kamilla M E Laidlaw, Rachel Livingstone, Mohammed Al-Tobi, Nia J Bryant, Gwyn W Gould
Trafficking within eukaryotic cells is a complex and highly regulated process; events such as recycling of plasma membrane receptors, formation of multivesicular bodies, regulated release of hormones and delivery of proteins to membranes all require directionality and specificity. The underpinning processes, including cargo selection, membrane fusion, trafficking flow and timing, are controlled by a variety of molecular mechanisms and engage multiple families of lipids and proteins. Here, we will focus on control of trafficking processes via the action of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) family of proteins, in particular their regulation by phosphorylation...
November 3, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101309/biochemical-targets-of-drugs-mitigating-oxidative-stress-via-redox-independent-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Bernd Gesslbauer, Valery Bochkov
Acute or chronic oxidative stress plays an important role in many pathologies. Two opposite approaches are typically used to prevent the damage induced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), namely treatment either with antioxidants or with weak oxidants that up-regulate endogenous antioxidant mechanisms. This review discusses options for the third pharmacological approach, namely amelioration of oxidative stress by 'redox-inert' compounds, which do not inactivate RONS but either inhibit the basic mechanisms leading to their formation (i...
November 3, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
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