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Biochemical Society Symposium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17657876/the-cell-biology-of-inositol-lipids-and-phosphates-proceedings-of-the-2006-biochemical-society-annual-symposium-birmingham-united-kingdom-march-29-30-2006
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233595/trafficking-of-phosphatidylinositol-by-phosphatidylinositol-transfer-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Shamshad Cockcroft
PtdIns is synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum and its intracellular distribution to other organelles can be facilitated by lipid transfer proteins [PITPs (phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins)]. In this review, I summarize the current understanding of how PITPs are regulated by phosphorylation, how can they dock to membranes to exchange their lipid cargo and how cells use PITPs in signal transduction and membrane delivery. Mammalian PITPs, PITPalpha and PITPbeta, are paralogous genes that are 94% similar in sequence...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233594/regulation-of-phospholipase-d-activity-membrane-targeting-and-intracellular-trafficking-by-phosphoinositides
#3
REVIEW
Andrew J Morris
Generation of PA (phosphatidic acid) by PLD (phospholipase D)-catalysed hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine plays a pivotal role in cellular signalling pathways that regulate organization of the actin cytoskeleton, vesicular transport and exocytosis and stimulation of cell growth and survival. PLD regulation and function are intimately linked with phosphoinositide metabolism. Phosphatidyl 4-phosphate 5-kinase is stimulated by PA in vitro and this enzyme is the downstream effector of a significant subset of PLD signalling pathways...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233593/evolution-of-the-diverse-biological-roles-of-inositols
#4
REVIEW
Robert H Michell
Several of the nine hexahydroxycylohexanes (inositols) have functions in Biology, with myo-inositol (Ins) in most of the starring roles; and Ins polyphosphates are amongst the most abundant organic phosphate constituents on Earth. Many Archaea make Ins and use it as a component of diphytanyl membrane phospholipids and the thermoprotective solute di-L-Ins-1,1'-phosphate. Few bacteria make Ins or use it, other than as a carbon source. Those that do include hyperthermophilic Thermotogales (which also employ di-L-Ins-1,1'-phosphate) and actinomycetes such as Mycobacterium spp...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233592/understanding-the-biological-significance-of-diphosphoinositol-polyphosphates-inositol-pyrophosphates
#5
REVIEW
Stephen B Shears
Among the many derivatives of the inositol-based signalling family are a subgroup that possess diphosphates. In this review, some recent research into the actions of these specialized polyphosphates is analysed, and key goals for future studies are identified, which, it is hoped, will result in the wider cell-signalling community giving considerably greater attention to this intriguing but relatively neglected class of inositol polyphosphates.
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233591/multiple-functions-of-inositolphosphorylceramides-in-the-formation-and-intracellular-transport-of-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-proteins-in-yeast
#6
REVIEW
Régine Bosson, Andreas Conzelmann
The mature sphingolipids of yeast consist of IPCs (inositolphosphorylceramides) and glycosylated derivatives thereof. Beyond being an abundant membrane constituent in the organelles of the secretory pathway, IPCs are also used to constitute the lipid moiety of the majority of GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) proteins, while a minority of GPI proteins contain PI (phosphatidylinositol). Thus all GPI anchor lipids (as well as free IPCs) typically contain C26 fatty acids. However, the primary GPI lipid that isadded to newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum consists of a PI with conventional C16 and C18 fatty acids...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233590/inositol-polyphosphate-kinases-regulators-of-nuclear-function
#7
REVIEW
Andrew M Seeds, John D York
Recent work has uncovered roles for inositide signalling pathways downstream of phospholipase C activation and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the regulation of nuclear processes including gene expression, mRNA export and DNA metabolism. The identification of several IPKs (inositol polyphosphate kinases) has renewed interest in the cellular roles of inositol tetra-, penta-, hexa- and pyro-phosphates. Discoveries of inositide receptors and novel mechanisms of inositide action have provided important insights into how such messengers couple to nuclear machinery...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233589/the-inositol-polyphosphate-5-phosphatases-traffic-controllers-waistline-watchers-and-tumour-suppressors
#8
REVIEW
Megan V Astle, Kristy A Horan, Lisa M Ooms, Christina A Mitchell
Phosphoinositide signals regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeletal rearrangement and intracellular trafficking. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases regulates synaptic vesicle recycling (synaptojanin-1), hematopoietic cell function [SHIP1(SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase-1)], renal cell function [OCRL (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe)] and insulin signalling (SHIP2). We present here a detailed review of the characteristics of the ten mammalian 5-phosphatases...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233588/type-ii-ptdinsp-kinases-location-regulation-and-function
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan H Clarke, Jonathan P Richardson, Katherine A Hinchliffe, Robin F Irvine
The regulation of the synthesis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is emerging as being as complex as we might expect from the multi-functional nature of this lipid. In the present chapter we focus on one aspect of inositide metabolism, which is the functions of the Type II PIPkins (Type II PtdInsP kinases). These are primarily PtdIns5P 4-kinases, although in vitro they will also phosphorylate PtdIns3P to PtdIns(3,4)P2. Thus they have three, not necessarily exclusive, functions: to make PtdIns(4,5)P2 by a quantitatively minor route, to remove PtdIns5P and to make PtdIns(3,4)P2 by a route that does not involve a Class I PtdIns 3-kinase...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233587/phosphoinositides-in-phagolysosome-and-autophagosome-biogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Vojo Deretic, Sudha Singh, Sharon Master, George Kyei, Alex Davis, John Naylor, Sergio de Haro, James Harris, Monica Delgado, Esteban Roberts, Isabelle Vergne
Interconversions of phosphoinositides play a pivotal role during phagocytosis and at the subsequent stages of phagosomal maturation into the phagolysosome. Several model systems have been used to study the role of phosphoinositides in phagosomal membrane remodelling. These include phagosomes formed by inanimate objects such as latex beads, or pathogenic bacteria, e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The latter category provides naturally occurring tools to dissect membrane trafficking processes governing phagolysosome biogenesis...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233586/our-fabulous-vacation-a-decade-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-5-bisphosphate
#11
REVIEW
Stephen K Dove, Zoë E Johnson
PtdIns(3,5)P2 was discovered about a decade ago and much of the machinery that makes, degrades and senses it has been uncovered. Despite this, we still lack a complete understanding of how the pieces fit together but some patterns are beginning to emerge. Molecular functions for PtdIns(3,5)P2 are also elusive, but the identification of effectors offers a way into some of these processes. An examination of the defects associated with loss of synthesis of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in lower and higher eukaryotes begins to suggest a unifying theme; this lipid regulates membrane retrieval via retrograde trafficking from distal compartments to organelles that are more proximal in the endocytic/lysosomal system...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233585/ptdins5p-a-little-phosphoinositide-with-big-functions
#12
REVIEW
Sophie Coronas, Damien Ramel, Caroline Pendaries, Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni, Hélène Tronchère, Bernard Payrastre
Phosphoinositides are minor constituents of cell membranes playing a critical role in the regulation of many cellular functions. Recent discoveries indicate that mutations in several phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases generate imbalances in the levels of phosphoinositides, thereby leading to the development of human diseases. Although the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase products and PtdIns(4,5)P2 were largely studied these last years, the potential role of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates as direct signalling molecules is just emerging...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233584/the-role-of-the-phosphoinositides-at-the-golgi-complex
#13
REVIEW
Maria Antonietta De Matteis, Giovanni D'Angelo
Eukaryotic cells are organized into a complex system of subcompartments, each with its distinct protein and lipid composition. A continuous flux of membranes crosses these compartments, and in some cases direct connections exist between the different organelles. It is thus surprising that they can maintain their individual identities. Small GTPases and the phosphoinositides have emerged as the key regulators in the maintenance of the identity of the Golgi complex. This property is due to their ability to act either alone or, more often, in combination, as cues directing and controlling the recruitment of proteins that possess phosphoinositide-binding domains...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233583/evolutionarily-conserved-structural-and-functional-roles-of-the-fyve-domain
#14
REVIEW
Akira Hayakawa, Susan Hayes, Deborah Leonard, David Lambright, Silvia Corvera
The FYVE domain is an approx. 80 amino acid motif that binds to the phosphoinositide PtdIns3P with high specificity and affinity. It is present in 38 predicted gene products within the human genome, but only in 12-13 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Eight of these are highly conserved in all three organisms, and they include proteins that have not been characterized in any species. One of these, WDFY2, appears to play an important role in early endocytosis and was revealed in a RNAi (RNA interference) screen in C...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233582/pleckstrin-homology-ph-domains-and-phosphoinositides
#15
REVIEW
Mark A Lemmon
PH (pleckstrin homology) domains represent the 11th most common domain in the human proteome. They are best known for their ability to bind phosphoinositides with high affinity and specificity, although it is now clear that less than 10% of all PH domains share this property. Cases in which PH domains bind specific phosphoinositides with high affinity are restricted to those phosphoinositides that have a pair of adjacent phosphates in their inositol headgroup. Those that do not [PtdIns3P, PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)P2] are instead recognized by distinct classes of domains including FYVE domains, PX (phox homology) domains, PHD (plant homeodomain) fingers and the recently identified PROPPINs (b-propellers that bind polyphosphoinositides)...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233581/substrate-specificity-and-acute-regulation-of-the-tumour-suppressor-phosphatase-pten
#16
REVIEW
C Peter Downes, Nevin Perera, Sarah Ross, Nick R Leslie
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) is a tumour suppressor that functions as a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 3-phosphatase to inhibit cell proliferation, survival and growth by antagonizing PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent signalling. Recent work has begun to focus attention on potential biological functions of the protein phosphatase activity of PTEN and on the possibility that some of its functions are phosphatase-independent. We discuss here the structural and regulatory mechanisms that account for the remarkable specificity of PTEN with respect to its PtdIns substrates and how it avoids the soluble headgroups of PtdIns that occur commonly in cells...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233580/the-role-of-pi3ks-in-the-regulation-of-the-neutrophil-nadph-oxidase
#17
REVIEW
Phillip T Hawkins, Keith Davidson, Len R Stephens
The NADPH oxidase complex of neutrophils and macrophages is an important weapon used by these cells to kill microbial pathogens. The regulation of this enzyme complex is necessarily complicated by the diverse receptor types that are needed to trigger its activation and also the tight control that is required to deliver this activation at the appropriate time and place. As such, several signalling pathways have been established to regulate the NADPH oxidase downstream of cell surface receptors. Central amongst these are PI3K- (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent pathways, blockade of which severely limits activation of the oxidase to several soluble and particulate stimuli...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233579/structural-studies-of-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-dependent-traffic-to-multivesicular-bodies
#18
REVIEW
David J Gill, Hsiangling Teo, Ji Sun, Olga Perisic, Dmitry B Veprintsev, Yvonne Vallis, Scott D Emr, Roger L Williams
Three large protein complexes known as ESCRT I, ESCRT II and ESCRT III drive the progression of ubiquitinated membrane cargo from early endosomes to lysosomes. Several steps in this process critically depend on PtdIns3P, the product of the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Our work has provided insights into the architecture, membrane recruitment and functional interactions of the ESCRT machinery. The fan-shaped ESCRT I core and the trilobal ESCRT II core are essential to forming stable, rigid scaffolds that support additional, flexibly-linked domains, which serve as gripping tools for recognizing elements of the MVB (multivesicular body) pathway: cargo protein, membranes and other MVB proteins...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233578/inositol-lipids-and-trpc-channel-activation
#19
REVIEW
James W Putney
The original hypothesis put forth by Bob Michell in his seminal 1975 review held that inositol lipid breakdown was involved in the activation of plasma membrane calcium channels or 'gates'. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that while the interposition of inositol lipid breakdown upstream of calcium signalling was correct, it was predominantly the release of Ca2+ that was activated, through the formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane involved a secondary mechanism signalled in an unknown manner by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17233577/plczeta-a-sperm-specific-plc-and-its-potential-role-in-fertilization
#20
REVIEW
Christopher M Saunders, Karl Swann, F Anthony Lai
A dramatic rise in intracellular calcium plays a vital role at the moment of fertilization, eliciting the resumption of meiosis and the initiation of embryo development. In mammals, the rise takes the form of oscillations in calcium concentration within the egg, driven by an elevation in inositol trisphosphate. The causative agent of these oscillations is proposed to be a recently described phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta, a soluble sperm protein that is delivered into the egg following membrane fusion...
2007: Biochemical Society Symposium
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