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Archives of Virology

Eugenia P Ponomareva, Vladimir A Ternovoi, Tamara P Mikryukova, Elena V Protopopova, Anastasia V Gladysheva, Alexander N Shvalov, Svetlana N Konovalova, Eugene V Chausov, Valery B Loktev
The C11-13 strain from the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was isolated from human brain using pig embryo kidney (PEK), 293, and Neuro-2a cells. Analysis of the complete viral genome of the C11-13 variants during six passages in these cells revealed that the cell-adapted C11-13 variants had multiple amino acid substitutions as compared to TBEV from human brain. Seven out of eight amino acids substitutions in the high-replicating C11-13(PEK) variant mapped to non-structural proteins; 13 out of 14 substitutions in the well-replicating C11-13(293) variant, and all four substitutions in the low-replicating C11-13(Neuro-2a) variant were also localized in non-structural proteins, predominantly in the NS2a (2), NS3 (6) and NS5 (3) proteins...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
Yongzhong Yu, Qiang Tan, Wenbo Zhao, Xue Zhang, Jinzhu Ma, Zhijun Wu, Zhanbo Zhu, Yudong Cui
Contagious ecthyma, caused by orf virus (ORFV), is an epitheliotrophic contagious disease with zoonotic implications that mainly affects sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans. Recently, a novel ORFV strain, OV/HLJ/04, was successfully isolated from the skin and mucosal lesions of a goat with severe clinical sore mouth symptoms in Heilongjiang province of China. The OV/HLJ/04 isolate was characterized by electron microscopy, serological tests, and experimental reproduction of disease. The purified virions exhibited a typical ovoid shape when observed by electron microscopy...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
Xuelin Chi, Xiancheng Zeng, Shuhong Luo
Outbreaks of orf virus on goat farms are common in China. In this study, we investigated a severe multifocal cutaneous orf virus outbreak with a correlative mixed bacterial infection which persisted for up to 6 months, and which had a high morbidity (93.7%) and mortality (15%) among kids in a herd of crossbreed goats in Fujian province in China. The disease was diagnosed as an orf virus (ORFV XD strain) infection associating with Streptococcus pluranimalium and Staphylococcus, identified using standard virological and bacteriological techniques...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
Changbo Qu, Lei Xu, Yuebang Yin, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan, Wenshi Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has emerged as a global health issue, but no approved medication is available. The nucleoside analogue 2'-C-methylcytidine (2CMC), a viral polymerase inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit infection with a variety of viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we report that 2CMC significantly inhibits the replication of HEV in a subgenomic replication model and in a system using a full-length infectious virus. Importantly, long-term treatment with 2CMC did not result in a loss of antiviral potency, indicating a high barrier to drug resistance development...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
Anuj Tyagi, B T Naveen Kumar, Niraj K Singh
We analysed the genomes and codon usage patterns of seven small (DNA and RNA) shrimp viruses. Effective number of codon (ENC) values indicated moderate (35 < ENC < 50) codon usage bias in shrimp viruses. Correlation analysis between GC compositions at non-synonymous codon and synonymous codon positions (GC1, 2 and GC3) as well as GC3 versus ENC curves indicated varying influences of mutational pressure on codon usage. The presence of deoptimized codons and host-antagonistic codon usage trends in shrimp viruses suggested the adaptation of a slow replication strategy by these viruses to avoid host defences...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
Vigna Seshan, Gopalsamy Sarangan, Khaleefathullah Sheriff, Kaveri Krishnasamy, Gunasekaran Palani, Padma Srikanth
Dengue disease is caused by dengue viruses 1-4 and has been ranked by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the fastest spreading vector-borne viral disease. Dengue is often underreported and misdiagnosed due to a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Diagnosis of dengue is based on clinical case definitions and laboratory methods. Newer case definitions of dengue have been formulated by clinical studies in order to improve case detection. Owing to its epidemic potential, mortality and morbidity, there is a need for a rapid and accurate diagnostic assay for dengue in order to help the clinician in the early detection of cases and to prevent disease progression...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
Flávia G G Leite, Alice A Torres, Leonardo C De Oliveira, André F P Da Cruz, Jamária A P Soares-Martins, Anna C T C Pereira, Giliane S Trindade, Jonatas S Abrahão, Erna G Kroon, Paulo C P Ferreira, Cláudio A Bonjardim
Usurpation of the host's signalling pathways is a common strategy employed by viruses to promote their successful replication. Here we show that infection with the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) leads to sustained stimulation of c-Jun activity during the entire infective cycle. This stimulation is temporally regulated through MEK/ERK or MKK/JNK pathways, i.e. during the early/mid phase (1 to 6 hpi) and in the late phase (9 to 24 hpi) of the infective cycle, respectively. As a transcriptional regulator, upon infection with VACV, c-Jun is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it binds to the AP-1 DNA sequence found at the promoter region of its target genes...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
Yassmin Moatasim, Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Sary Khaleel Abd Elghaffar, Rabeh El Shesheny, Ahmed Helmy M Elwahy, Mohamed Ahmed Ali
Avian influenza A H5N1 and H9N2 viruses have been extensively circulating in various avian species and frequently infect mammals, including humans. The synchronous circulation of both viruses in Egypt provides an opportunity for possible genetic assortment, posing a probable threat to global public health. To assess the potential risk of the IAV reassortants derived from co-circulation of these two AI subtypes, reverse genetics technology was used to generate a set of IAV reassortants carrying single genetic segments of clade 2...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
Fernando V Bauermann, Lok R Joshi, Kristin A Mohr, Gerald F Kutish, Petra Meier, Christopher Chase, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Diego G Diel
Papillomaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that are known to infect a wide range of animal species. Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are divided into at least 21 genotypes (BPV1 to BPV21),  with most BPV isolates/strains described to date belonging to one of four genera, including Deltapapillomavirus, Xipapillomavirus, Epsilonpapillomavirus and Dyoxipapillomavirus. Here, we describe the identification and genetic characterization of a new BPV type in the genus Dyokappapapillomavirus. A farm in the state of New York, USA, reported chronic cases of vulvovaginitis in Holstein cows in 2016...
June 14, 2017: Archives of Virology
Kaitong Du, Sijia Liu, Zhaorong Chen, Zaifeng Fan, He Wang, Guozhong Tian, Tao Zhou
We report a new circular DNA virus identified from a Chinese jujube tree showing mosaic-like symptoms. The genome of this virus is 7194 bp in length and contains five putative open reading frames (ORFs), all on the plus-strand of the genome. The genomic organization, primer binding sites and the sizes of the ORFs were similar to those reported for other badnaviruses (family Caulimoviridae), except for ORF3, which was split into ORF3a and ORF3b with a 70-nt intergenic region. Furthermore, this new virus shares low nucleotide sequence identity (<50%) with other members of the family Caulimoviridae...
June 13, 2017: Archives of Virology
Camila Schoueri Colaço, Adriano Reis de Matos, Martha Silva Estrêla, Maurício Cristiano Rocha-Júnior, Kátia Kaori Otaguiri, Evandra Strazza Rodrigues, Osvaldo Massaiti Takayanagui, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Simone Kashima, Fabio Pittella Silva, Rodrigo Haddad
Approximately 5% of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals will develop one of the HTLV-1-related diseases, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia. However, the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of symptoms have not been fully clarified. It is believed that viral factors, host genetic and epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in this process. Studies have shown the involvement of histone methyltransferases in retrovirus infection, but no study observed their expression in HTLV-1-infected patients...
June 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
Chaoqun Fu, Qin Zhao, Zhiying Li, Yongxia Wang, Shiying Zhang, Yonghong Lai, Wei Xiao, Xiaolong Cui
A virulent halovirus QHHSV-1 which lyses Halomonas ventosae QH52-2 originating from the Qiaohou salt mine in Yunnan, Southwest China was characterized. The complete genome of QHHSV-1 is composed of a circular double-stranded DNA of 37,270 base pairs in length, with 66.8% G+C content and 69 putative open reading frames (ORFs), which were classified into five functional groups, including morphogenesis, replication/regulation, packaging, lysis and lysogeny. A putative Cro repressor gene and an integrase gene were found in the genome, showing that QHHSV-1 may utilize a lambda-like repression system under unfavorable conditions...
June 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
Siping Li, Mingyu Xie, Wenrui Li, Qi Peng, Baimao Zhong, Xiaomei Lu, Qiang Ma
HBsAg point mutations within the major hydrophilic region (MHR) have frequently been reported to be associated with diagnostic failure, vaccine escape and immunotherapy escape. However, the prevalence of escape mutations in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients has not been systematically studied in patients from southern China within the past decade. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of escape mutations within the MHR of hepatitis B virus in patients in Dongguan, southern China. Between June 2015 and May 2016, 391 patients who were chronically infected with HBV were enrolled in the study, including 240 patients with the genotype B strain and 151 with the genotype C strain...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
Constanza Cárdenas, Nicolás Ojeda, Alvaro Labra, Sergio H Marshall
Biological databases contain a wealth of valuable information that can contribute to the enrichment of virtually any area. However, the exponential growth of information together with its dissemination through virtual networks has become a double-edged sword, promoting synonymy that leads to confusion and chaos. Organization of data is a big effort that must be accompanied by clarity, both in the deposited data and in the publications arising from them. In this report, an effort is made to organize the information related to infectious salmon anemia virus and its classification based on the variability of genomic segment 6...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
Diogo Lisbôa Basto, João Paulo Vidal, Valéria Barbosa Pontes, Shayany Pinto Felix, Laine Celestino Pinto, Bruno Moreira Soares, Luis Felipe Martins, Flávia Miranda Correa, Raquel Carvalho Montenegro, Cláudia Bessa Pereira Chaves, Liz Maria Almeida, Miguel Ângelo Martins Moreira
In Brazil, most studies of intra-type variants of human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on HPV16 and HPV18, but other high-risk HPV types have not been studied. Here, we report the prevalence of lineages and variants of HPV35, HPV45 and HPV58 in cervical cancers from the Amazonian and Southeast Brazilian regions. The most frequent sublineages were A1 for HPV35, B2 for HPV45, and A2 for HPV58. The Southeast region had a higher frequency of the B2 sublineage of HPV45, and for HPV35, the genetic and nucleotide sequence diversity were higher in the Southeast region, suggesting that regional factors are influencing the diversity and lineage prevalence...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
Lei Cai, Yajie Sun, Yabin Song, Likun Xu, Zhuchun Bei, Dongna Zhang, Yuanyuan Dou, Hongquan Wang
Since 2015, 69 countries and territories have reported evidence of vector-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Currently, there are no effective licensed vaccines or drugs available for the treatment or prevention of ZIKV infection. We tested a series of compounds for their ability to inhibit ZIKV replication in cell culture. The compounds in T-705 (favipiravir) and T-1105 were found to have antiviral activity, suggesting that these compounds are promising candidates for further development as specific antiviral drugs against ZIKV...
June 8, 2017: Archives of Virology
Shanhui Ren, Chongyang Wang, Xue Zhang, Lei Zhao, Xiangwei Wang, Wei Yao, Qingsong Han, Yanhong Wang, Mengfei Fan, Xiaolong Gao, Sa Xiao, Xinglong Wang, Zengqi Yang
Pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 (PPMV-1) is enzootic in pigeons, causing severe economic loss in the poultry industry in many countries. However, the exact epidemic process of PPMV-1 transmission is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the complete genome of the PPMV-1/SX-01/15 isolate. Sequence results show that the virus genome contains 15,192 nucleotides, with the gene order 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this genome belongs to subgenotype VIc in class II. The mean death time (MDT) and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were 62...
June 8, 2017: Archives of Virology
Kore Schlottau, Bernd Hoffmann, Timo Homeier-Bachmann, Christine Fast, Rainer G Ulrich, Martin Beer, Donata Hoffmann
The recently discovered variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1) caused the death of three squirrel breeders in Germany. Subsequent first screening of squirrels with in vivo collected swab samples and a VSBV-1-specific RT-qPCR revealed not only variegated squirrel infections (Sciurus variegatoides), but also Prevost's squirrels (Callosciurus prevostii) as positive for VSBV-1 genome. In this study, 328 squirrels were tested using the established RT-qPCR assays. In 16 individual animals VSBV-1 RNA could be detected; 15 individuals were from small breedings and zoological gardens in Germany, with the remaining individual being from a zoological garden in Croatia...
June 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
Shokouh Ghafari, Arash Memarnejadian, Alireza Samarbaf-Zadeh, Ehsan Mostafavi, Manoochehr Makvandi, Shokrolah Salmanzadeh, Ata Ghadiri, Michael R Jordan, Elham Mousavi, Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh, Kayhan Azadmanesh
The emergence and transmission of drug resistant HIV mutants is a major concern, especially in resource-limited countries with expanding antiretroviral therapy. Studies have recently reported the prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations in certain Iranian cities; however, no information is currently available about the level of TDR, as well as the nature of the circulating HIV-1 subtypes, in the Southwestern bordering province of Iran, Khuzestan. Herein, we used a WHO-recommended TDR survey method to classify the prevalence of TDR in indigenous people of Khuzestan province...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Virology
Anirban Kundu, Madhuparna Bose, Madhurima Roy, Soumita Dutta, Poulomi Biswas, Pradeep Gautam, Amit Kumar Das, Ananta Kumar Ghosh
Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) is responsible for morbidity of the Indian non-mulberry silkworm, A. mylitta. AmCPV belongs to the family Reoviridae and has 11 double-stranded (ds) RNA genome segments (S1-S11). Segment 2 (S2) encodes a 123-kDa polypeptide with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity. To examine the RNA-binding properties of the viral polymerase, the full-length RdRp and its three domains (N-terminal, polymerase and C-terminal domains) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells with hexahistidine and trigger factor tag fused consecutively at its amino terminus, and the soluble fusion proteins were purified...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Virology
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