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Archives of Virology

Lubiao Chen, Ying Zhang, Shaoquan Zhang, Youming Chen, Xin Shu, Jing Lai, Hong Cao, Yifan Lian, Zania Stamataki, Yuehua Huang
Restoring antiviral immunity is a promising immunotherapeutic approach to the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Dendritic cells play a crucial role in triggering antiviral immunity. In this study, we identified immunodominant epitopes prevalent in CD8+ T cell responses. We characterized the hierarchy of HBV epitopes targeted by CD8+ T cells following autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDC) expansion in HBV-infected subjects with distinct disease stages: treatment-naïve (TN group, n = 168), treatment with complete virological response (TR group, n = 72), and resolved HBV infection (RS group, n = 28)...
November 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Eleni Kleanthous, Ingrida Olendraite, Nina I Lukhovitskaya, Andrew E Firth
Three novel RNA viruses, named Formica fusca virus 1 (GenBank accession no. MH477287), Lasius neglectus virus 2 (MH477288) and Myrmica scabrinodis virus 2 (MH477289), were discovered in ants collected in Cambridge, UK. The proposed virus names were given based on the hosts in which they were identified. The genome sequences were obtained using de novo transcriptome assembly of high-throughput RNA sequencing reads and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Formica fusca virus 1 grouped within the family Nyamiviridae, Lasius neglectus virus 2 grouped within the family Rhabdoviridae and Myrmica scabrinodis virus 2 belongs to the family Dicistroviridae...
November 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Briana Quitadamo, Paul J Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez
Macrophage (mac)-tropic human immnunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immnunodeficiency virus (SIV) in brain are associated with neurological disease. Mac-tropic HIV-1 evolves enhanced CD4 interactions that enable macrophage infection via CD4, which is in low abundance. In contrast, mac-tropic SIV is associated with CD4-independent infection via direct CCR5 binding. Recently, mac-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) from macaque brain was also reported to infect cells via CCR5 without CD4...
November 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Junki Mine, Haruka Abe, Sujira Parchariyanon, Prakit Boonpornprasert, Namfon Ubonyaem, Bandit Nuansrichay, Nobuhiro Takemae, Taichiro Tanikawa, Ryota Tsunekuni, Yuko Uchida, Takehiko Saito
Surveillance studies of influenza A virus of swine (IAV-S) have accumulated information regarding IAVs-S circulating in Thailand, but how IAVs-S evolve within a farm remains unclear. In the present study, we isolated 82 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 87 H3N2 viruses from four farms from 2011 through 2017. We then phylogenetically and antigenically analyzed the isolates to elucidate their evolution within each farm. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated multiple introductions of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses that resembled epidemic A(H1N1)pdm09 strains in humans in Thailand, and they reassorted with H3N2 viruses as well as other A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses...
November 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Tamaš Petrović, Urška Kuhar, Sava Lazić, Jasna Prodanov-Radulović, Diana Lupulović, Gospava Lazić, Ivan Toplak
Two strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) (SRB/CSFV/1264/2005 and SRB/CSFV/6168/2006), producing serious clinical signs of disease during outbreaks in 2005 and 2006 in Serbia, were isolated on porcine kidney cells, and their complete genomes were determined by next-generation sequencing. This first complete genome characterization of Serbian CSFV strains provides new data about the evolution of CSFV in the Balkan region and enables further detailed phylogenetic studies of the various strains.
November 8, 2018: Archives of Virology
Seungmo Lim, Su-Heon Lee, Jae Sun Moon
The complete 9,556-nt genomic sequence of a putative new potyvirus, tentatively named "platycodon mild mottle virus" (PlaMMV), infecting Platycodon grandiflorum was determined (GenBank accession no. MH779625). A single large open reading frame (ORF; nt 121-9360, 3079 aa) encoding a polyprotein that was predicted to be cleaved into 10 mature proteins was detected. By comparison with other potyviruses, nine cleavage sites and conserved domains/motifs were identified. PlaMMV also has a highly conserved GA6 motif (nt 2857-2863) that could enable a small overlapping ORF (PIPO) embedded within the P3 cistron to be translated by a viral polymerase slippage mechanism...
November 8, 2018: Archives of Virology
Anna Karolina Matczuk, Katarzyna Ćwiek, Alina Wieliczko
Big liver and spleen disease, caused by avian hepatitis E virus, has been reported in Poland, but the prevalence of the virus has not yet been investigated. In this study, 1034 serum samples from 57 breeder broiler and laying hen flocks were screened for the presence of anti-aHEV antibodies. In a random serology study, 56.1% of flocks were positive. Seroprevalence was higher in laying hen flocks than in broiler breeder flocks. Phylogenetic analysis of partial ORF1 and ORF2 sequences revealed that all Polish isolates belonged to genotype 2...
November 3, 2018: Archives of Virology
Adrian Oo, Boon Teong Teoh, Sing Sin Sam, Sazaly Abu Bakar, Keivan Zandi
At present, there is no effective antiviral agent for Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus that is known for its teratogenic effects on newborns. Baicalein and baicalin were found to be capable of downregulating ZIKV replication up to 10 hours postinfection, while prophylactic effects were evident in pre-treated cells. Baicalein exhibited its highest potency during intracellular ZIKV replication, whereas baicalin was most effective against virus entry. Our in silico interaction assays predicted that both compounds exhibited the strongest binding affinities towards ZIKV NS5, while the virus envelope glycoprotein was the least likely target protein...
November 3, 2018: Archives of Virology
Midori Taniguchi, Yusuke Yanagi, Shinji Ohno
Measles virus (MeV) first infects immune cells in the respiratory tract of a human host, spreads to lymphoid organs throughout the body, and finally enters and grows in respiratory epithelial cells before being released and transmitted to the next host. Thus, efficient growth in respiratory epithelial cells is important for the person-to-person transmission of MeV. Upon viral entry, host cells detect viral nucleic acids and produce interferons (IFNs) to control viral growth. Type I (IFN-α/β) and type III (IFN-λ) IFNs have largely common induction and signaling mechanisms and stimulate expression of similar target genes but utilize distinct receptors...
November 2, 2018: Archives of Virology
Maryam Sheikh, Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Angila Ataei-Pirkooh, Maryam Esghaei, Najmeh Moradi, Roghayeh Babaei, Atousa Fakhim, Hossein Keyvani
Occult HCV infection (OCI) has been described as the presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomic RNA in hepatocytes and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) specimens and the lack of HCV genomic RNA and anti-HCV antibodies (Abs) in plasma samples. Injection drug users (IDUs) are the most important high-risk group for infection with blood-borne viruses, particularly HCV. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of OCI in IDUs. A prospective cross-sectional study of 126 consecutive Iranian IDUs was performed from March 2017 to January 2018...
November 2, 2018: Archives of Virology
Libin Wen, Aihua Mao, Jianping Xie, Kongwang He
Porcine circovirus (PCV) genomes are single-stranded circular DNAs of about 1770 nucleotides (nt). Here, we present for the first time two small PCV-like agents with circular DNA genomes (258 and 264 nt) in pigs and two (201 and 347 nt) in cattle, with no obvious protein-coding capacity. Sequences of the four PCV-like mini agents differed by 1.5%-18.7% from each other and by 4.5%-56.7% from other reference PCV strains and PCV-like viruses.
November 1, 2018: Archives of Virology
Meng-Jia Zhang, De-Jian Liu, Xiao-Li Liu, Xing-Yi Ge, Anan Jongkaewwattana, Qi-Gai He, Rui Luo
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first detected in Hong Kong and has recently spread to many countries around the world. PDCoV causes acute diarrhea and vomiting in pigs, resulting in significant economic losses in the global pork industry. In this study, a Chinese PDCoV strain, designated CHN-HG-2017, was isolated from feces of a suckling piglet with severe watery diarrhea on a farm located in central China. Subsequently, the virus was identified by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and electron microscopy...
October 30, 2018: Archives of Virology
Mirna Faz, José Simón Martínez, Linda Bautista Gómez, Israel Quijano-Hernández, Raúl Fajardo, Javier Del Ángel-Caraza
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged in the late 1970 s as a pathogen that is capable of causing high rates of morbidity and mortality in dogs. Currently, three genetic variants circulate worldwide (CPV 2a, 2b, and 2c); however, epidemiological studies have not been conducted in all countries to identify its variants. The objectives of this work were to determine which genotypes of CPV-2 circulate in Mexico and to identify the genetic relationships between CPV-2 sequences from Mexico and those from other parts of the world...
October 30, 2018: Archives of Virology
Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska, Mateusz Palusiński, Justyna Struzik, Karolina P Gregorczyk-Zboroch, Felix N Toka, Ada Schollenberger, Małgorzata Gieryńska
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus that productively replicates in dendritic cells (DCs), but its influence on the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton in DCs is not known. Here, we show that ECTV infection of primary murine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor-derived bone marrow cells (GM-BM) downregulates numerous genes engaged in MT cytoskeleton organization and dynamics. In infected cells, the MT cytoskeleton undergoes dramatic rearrangement and relaxation, accompanied by disappearance of the microtubule organizing centre (MTOC) and increased acetylation and stabilization of MTs, which are exploited by progeny virions for intracellular transport...
October 29, 2018: Archives of Virology
Charifa Drissi Touzani, Siham Fellahi, Fatima Gaboun, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri, Selene Baschieri, Rachid Mentag, Mohammed El Houadfi
Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV), the cause of significant economic losses in many poultry-producing areas, has been present in Morocco since 1991. In spite of the introduction of vaccination, disease outbreaks are frequently observed. To ascertain if vaccines failure may be due to the emergence of new strains, the aim of this study was to perform for the first time the molecular characterization of vvIBDV strains circulating in Morocco by focusing on the hypervariable region (HVR) of the VP2 protein, which is frequently used for molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies...
October 26, 2018: Archives of Virology
Maria V Murgia, Mark Mogler, Andrea Certoma, Diane Green, Paul Monaghan, David T Williams, Raymond R R Rowland, Natasha N Gaudreault
In this study, an alphavirus vector platform was used to deliver replicon particles (RPs) expressing African swine fever virus (ASFV) antigens to swine. Alphavirus RPs expressing ASFV p30 (RP-30), p54 (RP-54) or pHA-72 (RP-sHA-p72) antigens were constructed and tested for expression in Vero cells and for immunogenicity in pigs. RP-30 showed the highest expression in Vero cells and was the most immunogenic in pigs, followed by RP-54 and RP-sHA-p72. Pigs primed with two doses of the RP-30 construct were then boosted with a naturally attenuated ASFV isolate, OURT88/3...
October 26, 2018: Archives of Virology
Kore Schlottau, Sasan Fereidouni, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Hepacivirus, family Flaviviridae. Its genome has a length of 9.6 kb and encodes a single polyprotein flanked by two untranslated regions. HCV can cause liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and approximately 2% of the world's population is chronically infected. The investigation of pathogenesis is complicated due to the lack of an animal model. The origin of this virus remains unclear, but in the last few years, relatives of HCV were initially identified in dogs and later in horses, rodents, bats and Old World monkeys...
October 25, 2018: Archives of Virology
Ke Yang, Minyuan Ran, Zengping Li, Meijiao Hu, Li Zheng, Wenbo Liu, Pengfei Jin, Weiguo Miao, Peng Zhou, Wentao Shen, Hongguang Cui
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.
October 25, 2018: Archives of Virology
Daiki Tohma, Shigeru Tajima, Fumihiro Kato, Hirotaka Sato, Michinori Kakisaka, Takayuki Hishiki, Michiyo Kataoka, Haruko Takeyama, Chang-Kweng Lim, Yoko Aida, Masayuki Saijo
Dengue virus (DENV) infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical areas. Several compounds that act against DENV have been studied in clinical trials to date; however, there have been no compounds identified that are effective in reducing the severity of the clinical manifestations. To explore anti-DENV drugs, we examined small molecules that interact with DENV NS1 and inhibit DENV replication. Cyclofenil, which is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and has been used clinically as an ovulation-inducing drug, showed an inhibitory effect on DENV replication in mammalian cells but not in mosquito cells...
October 24, 2018: Archives of Virology
Hongliang Zhang, Chaoliang Leng, Yushan Ding, Hongyue Zhai, Zhen Li, Lirun Xiang, Wenli Zhang, Chunxiao Liu, Minhua Li, Jiazeng Chen, Yun Bai, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Jinmei Peng, Qian Wang, Yan-Dong Tang, Tongqing An, Xuehui Cai, Zhijun Tian, Guangzhi Tong
Different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have emerged and circulated in different regions of mainland China since 1996, particularly after 2006. In 2012, NADC30-like PRRSV was first isolated in Henan Province. By 2016, it had spread to most provinces in China. In the present study, the whole genomes (excluding the poly(A) tails) of 13 newly emerged NADC30-like PRRSV strains were sequenced and analyzed. Furthermore, the pathogenicity of SD53-1603, one of the 13 PRRSV strains, was assessed...
October 23, 2018: Archives of Virology
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