journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319653/the-ecology-of-human-microbiota-dynamics-and-diversity-in-health-and-disease
#1
Antti Karkman, Jenni Lehtimäki, Lasse Ruokolainen
Social welfare, better health care, and urbanization have greatly improved human health and well-being. On the other hand, Western societies suffer from the downsides of the elevated standard of living. Among other factors, the Western diet (poor in dietary fiber), lack of contact with natural biodiversity, and excessive antibiotic use are known to be associated with the increase in chronic inflammatory disorders. Limited exposure to microbial biodiversity, in combination with severe lifestyle-related disturbances to commensal microbial communities, especially during early life, is changing the diversity and composition of human microbiota...
March 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306140/dietary-and-nutritional-change-in-india-implications-for-strategies-policies-and-interventions
#2
Bhavani Shankar, Sutapa Agrawal, Amy R Beaudreault, Laxmaiah Avula, Reynaldo Martorell, Saskia Osendarp, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Mireille Seneclauze Mclean
Despite the global transition to overnutrition, stunting affected approximately 159 million children worldwide in 2014, while an estimated 50 million children were wasted. India is an important front in the fight against malnutrition and is grappling with the coexistence of undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. This report summarizes discussions on trends in malnutrition in India, its evolution in the context of economic growth, intrahousehold aspects, infant and young child feeding practices, women's status, maternal nutrition, and nutrition policymaking...
March 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260249/recent-theoretical-neural-and-clinical-advances-in-sustained-attention-research
#3
REVIEW
Francesca C Fortenbaugh, Joseph DeGutis, Michael Esterman
Models of attention often distinguish among attention subtypes, with classic models separating orienting, switching, and sustaining functions. Compared with other forms of attention, the neurophysiological basis of sustaining attention has received far less notice, yet it is known that momentary failures of sustained attention can have far-ranging negative effects in healthy individuals, and lasting sustained attention deficits are pervasive in clinical populations. In recent years, however, there has been increased interest in characterizing moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained attention, in addition to the overall vigilance decrement, and understanding how these neurocognitive systems change over the life span and across various clinical populations...
March 5, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253445/preparatory-attention-in-visual-cortex
#4
REVIEW
Elisa Battistoni, Timo Stein, Marius V Peelen
Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories...
March 2, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229472/human-capital-gaps-in-vaccine-development-an-issue-for-global-vaccine-development-and-global-health
#5
Andrea Cawein, Emilio Emini, Michael Watson, Joanna Dailey, John Donnelly, Dina Tresnan, Tom Evans, Stanley Plotkin, William Gruber
Despite the success of vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, many infectious diseases, both newly emerging and well known, lack vaccines. The global capability for beginning-to-end vaccine development has become limited, primarily owing to a scarcity of human capital necessary to guide the development of novel vaccines from the laboratory to the marketplace. Here, we identify and discuss the gaps in human capital necessary for robust vaccine development and make recommendations to begin to address these deficiencies...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199022/recent-advances-in-exploring-the-neural-underpinnings-of-auditory-scene-perception
#6
Joel S Snyder, Mounya Elhilali
Studies of auditory scene analysis have traditionally relied on paradigms using artificial sounds-and conventional behavioral techniques-to elucidate how we perceptually segregate auditory objects or streams from each other. In the past few decades, however, there has been growing interest in uncovering the neural underpinnings of auditory segregation using human and animal neuroscience techniques, as well as computational modeling. This largely reflects the growth in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and computational neuroscience and has led to new theories of how the auditory system segregates sounds in complex arrays...
February 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187236/zika-and-chikungunya-mosquito-borne-viruses-in-a-changing-world
#7
Talya Shragai, Blanka Tesla, Courtney Murdock, Laura C Harrington
The reemergence and growing burden of mosquito-borne virus infections have incited public fear and growing research efforts to understand the mechanisms of infection-associated health outcomes and to provide better approaches for mosquito vector control. While efforts to develop therapeutics, vaccines, and novel genetic mosquito-control technologies are underway, many important underlying ecological questions remain that could significantly enhance our understanding and ability to predict and prevent transmission...
February 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141904/catheter-based-high-frequency-intraluminal-ultrasound-imaging-is-a-powerful-tool-to-study-esophageal-dysmotility-patients
#8
Cecilio Santander, Elena Perea, María Caldas, Pere Clave
High-resolution manometry (HRM) is currently the most important diagnostic test for esophageal motility disorders, providing information on the contraction pattern of the circular muscle layer, which helps classify these esophageal motor diseases. However, with the increasing development of ultrasound, other techniques, such as high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS), have gained importance. This technique uses a flexible shaft with a central wire integrated into a standard endoscope, which facilitates real-time sonography...
January 31, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072904/resistance-diagnosis-and-the-changing-economics-of-antibiotic-discovery
#9
David McAdams
Point-of-care diagnostics that can determine an infection's antibiotic sensitivity increase the profitability of new antibiotics that enjoy patent protection, even when such diagnostics reduce the quantity of antibiotics sold. Advances in the science and technology underpinning rapid resistance diagnostics can therefore be expected to spur efforts to discover and develop new antibiotics, especially those with a narrow spectrum of activity that would otherwise fail to find a market.
January 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319656/the-role-of-pulses-in-sustainable-and-healthy-food-systems
#10
REVIEW
John McDermott, Amanda J Wyatt
Improving nutrition is a development priority, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and South Asia, in which there is a persistent burden of undernutrition and increasing obesity. Healthy food systems can play a necessary role, aligned with other multisectoral actions, in addressing this challenge. Contributing to improved nutrition and health outcomes through food-based solutions is complex. In considering the role that pulses can play in addressing this challenge, there are useful conceptual frameworks and emerging lessons...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319655/meeting-nutritional-needs-in-the-first-1000-days-a-place-for-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements
#11
Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Anna Lartey, Kathryn G Dewey
The first 1000 days of life is marked by intense metabolic activity and tissue deposition. The increased nutritional needs during this period, and the challenges to meeting them, are often not understood or appreciated. Here, we describe the nutritional needs during the first 1000 days, highlight the challenges to meeting these needs in developing countries, outline intervention strategies, and examine the consumption of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) as a promising strategy. In low-income settings, the challenge to meeting nutritional needs during the first 1000 days is worsened by overreliance on cereal-based diets of low nutrient density and high prevalence of infections and infestations...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253438/collaboration-among-sectors-to-increase-pulse-consumption
#12
Julianne Curran, Milla McLachlan, Richard Black, Irv Widders, Mark Manary
The United Nations declaration of 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (IYP) provided an unprecedented opportunity to showcase pulses on the global stage for their contribution to affordable nutrition, health, and sustainability. Despite the IYP's successes in stakeholder engagement, continuing to foster and strengthen partnerships and collaborations is necessary to meet the IYP goals of increased pulse production and consumption for human benefit. Shifting consumer behavior to increase pulse consumption emerged during IYP meetings as a shared priority for all stakeholders...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253436/can-pulses-play-a-role-in-improving-cardiometabolic-health-evidence-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#13
Effie Viguiliouk, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Cyril W C Kendall, John L Sievenpiper
Obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) present important unmet prevention and treatment challenges. Dietary pulses are sustainable, affordable, and nutrient-dense foods that have shown a wide range of health benefits in the prevention and management of these conditions. Despite these findings, recommendations for pulse intake continue to vary across chronic disease guidelines, and intake levels continue to remain low. Here, we summarize findings from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses assessing the relationship between dietary pulse consumption and cardiometabolic health and assess the overall strength of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146277/dietary-guidance-for-pulses-the-challenge-and-opportunity-to-be-part-of-both-the-vegetable-and-protein-food-groups
#14
REVIEW
Stefanie Havemeier, Jennifer Erickson, Joanne Slavin
Pulses are a dry, edible variety of beans, peas, and lentils that have been consumed for 10,000 years. Pulses are rich in plant-based protein and fiber, as well as micronutrients such as iron and potassium. The satiating effect of both fiber and protein assists in managing weight and combating obesity. The high fiber content and low glycemic index of pulses aid people with diabetes in maintaining blood glucose and insulin levels. Pulse consumption may improve serum lipid levels to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918837/global-pulses-scenario-status-and-outlook
#15
P K Joshi, P Parthasarathy Rao
Although pulse production grew significantly by 1.3% between 1980 and 2013, its per capita availability remained stagnant at around 6.5 kg/capita/year. In 1961, its availability was 9.3 kg/capita/year. One consequence of slower growth in its production is rising pulse prices, which are twice that of cereals. The declining availability of pulses also triggered a boom in its trade, with 19% of the global pulse production traded in 2011 compared with 7% in 1980. In absolute terms, there has been a more than fourfold increase in pulse trade, compared with an only 1...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768821/neuronal-systems-and-circuits-involved-in-the-control-of-food-intake-and-adaptive-thermogenesis
#16
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750377/cortisol-dysregulation-the-bidirectional-link-between-stress-depression-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Joshua J Joseph, Sherita H Golden
Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723940/metabolically-healthy-obesity-across-the-life-course-epidemiology-determinants-and-implications
#18
Catherine M Phillips
In recent years, different subphenotypes of obesity have been described, including metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), in which a proportion of obese individuals, despite excess body fat, remain free of metabolic abnormalities and increased cardiometabolic risk. In the absence of a universally accepted set of criteria to classify MHO, the reported prevalence estimates vary widely. Our understanding of the determinants and stability of MHO over time and the associated cardiometabolic and mortality risks is improving, but many questions remain...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706830/innovative-ways-of-studying-the-effect-of-migration-on-obesity-and-diabetes-beyond-the-common-designs-lessons-from-the-rodam-study
#19
Charles Agyemang, Erik Beune, Karlijn Meeks, Juliet Addo, Ama de-Graft Aikins, Silver Bahendeka, Ina Danquah, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Matthias B Schulze, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Liam Smeeth, Karien Stronks
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are major global public health problems, with migrant populations in high-income countries being particularly affected. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are also major threats in low- and middle-income countries, from which most migrant populations originate. Transitioning of societies and the resulting changes in lifestyles are thought to be major driving forces, but the key specific factors within this broad category still need to be determined. Migrant studies provide a unique opportunity to understand the potential underlying causes of these conditions, but current research is mainly geared toward analyzing the differences between migrants and the host populations in the countries of settlement...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706820/the-role-of-primary-cilia-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#20
Francesco Volta, Jantje M Gerdes
One in 12 people worldwide suffers from diabetes and more than 90% of affected adult individuals are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity adds to the personal risk to develop T2DM, and both metabolic diseases are rampantly increasing worldwide. Over recent years, primary cilia have moved into the focus of basic and clinical research, after several human diseases have been identified as ciliopathies (i.e., they are linked to ciliary dysfunction). A subset of ciliopathies presents with obesity and diabetes, either as core symptoms or major complications...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
journal
journal
26210
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"