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Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907230/reverse-geroscience-how-does-exposure-to-early-diseases-accelerate-the-age-related-decline-in-health
#1
Ronald A Kohanski, Steven G Deeks, Claudia Gravekamp, Jeffrey B Halter, Kevin High, Arti Hurria, Rebecca Fuldner, Paige Green, Robin Huebner, Francesca Macchiarini, Felipe Sierra
Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level...
December 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880855/the-paradoxical-pro-and-antiangiogenic-actions-of-resveratrol-therapeutic-applications-in-cancer-and-diabetes
#2
Mohammad Amin Kamaleddin
Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes, peanuts, and red wine, plays different roles in diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Existing information indicates that resveratrol provides cardioprotection, as evidenced by superior postischemic ventricular recovery, reduced myocardial infarct size, and decreased number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes associated with resveratrol treatment in animal models. Cardiovascular benefits are experienced in humans with routine but not acute consumption of red wine. In this concise review, the paradoxical pro- and antiangiogenic effects of resveratrol are described, and different roles for resveratrol in the formation of new blood vessels are explained through different mechanisms...
November 23, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875856/antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-in-the-genomic-age
#3
Andrew G McArthur, Kara K Tsang
The loss of effective antimicrobials is reducing our ability to protect the global population from infectious disease. However, the field of antibiotic drug discovery and the public health monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is beginning to exploit the power of genome and metagenome sequencing. The creation of novel AMR bioinformatics tools and databases and their continued development will advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and threat severity of antibiotic resistance, while simultaneously improving our ability to accurately predict and screen for antibiotic resistance genes within environmental, agricultural, and clinical settings...
November 22, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862006/developmental-sexual-dimorphism-and-the-evolution-of-mechanisms-for-adjustment-of-sex-ratios-in-mammals
#4
Elissa Z Cameron, Amy M Edwards, Laura M Parsley
Sex allocation theory predicts biased offspring sex ratios in relation to local conditions if they would maximize parental lifetime reproductive return. In mammals, the extent of the birth sex bias is often unpredictable and inconsistent, leading some to question its evolutionary significance. For facultative adjustment of sex ratios to occur, males and females would need to be detectably different from an early developmental stage, but classic sexual dimorphism arises from hormonal influences after gonadal development...
November 18, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862002/distributed-data-networks-a-blueprint-for-big-data-sharing-and-healthcare-analytics
#5
Jennifer R Popovic
This paper defines the attributes of distributed data networks and outlines the data and analytic infrastructure needed to build and maintain a successful network. We use examples from one successful implementation of a large-scale, multisite, healthcare-related distributed data network, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-sponsored Sentinel Initiative. Analytic infrastructure-development concepts are discussed from the perspective of promoting six pillars of analytic infrastructure: consistency, reusability, flexibility, scalability, transparency, and reproducibility...
November 18, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859325/a-caseian-point-for-the-evolution-of-a-diaphragm-homologue-among-the-earliest-synapsids
#6
Markus Lambertz, Christen D Shelton, Frederik Spindler, Steven F Perry
The origin of the diaphragm remains a poorly understood yet crucial step in the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates, as this unique structure serves as the main respiratory motor for mammals. Here, we analyze the paleobiology and the respiratory apparatus of one of the oldest lineages of mammal-like reptiles: the Caseidae. Combining quantitative bone histology and functional morphological and physiological modeling approaches, we deduce a scenario in which an auxiliary ventilatory structure was present in these early synapsids...
November 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862010/extension-of-research-data-repository-system-to-support-direct-compute-access-to-biomedical-datasets-enhancing-dataverse-to-support-large-datasets
#7
Bill McKinney, Peter A Meyer, Mercè Crosas, Piotr Sliz
Access to experimental X-ray diffraction image data is important for validation and reproduction of macromolecular models and indispensable for the development of structural biology processing methods. In response to the evolving needs of the structural biology community, we recently established a diffraction data publication system, the Structural Biology Data Grid (SBDG, data.sbgrid.org), to preserve primary experimental datasets supporting scientific publications. All datasets published through the SBDG are freely available to the research community under a public domain dedication license, with metadata compliant with the DataCite Schema (schema...
November 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861983/genomic-and-metagenomic-technologies-to-explore-the-antibiotic-resistance-mobilome
#8
José L Martínez, Teresa M Coque, Val F Lanza, Fernando de la Cruz, Fernando Baquero
Antibiotic resistance is a relevant problem for human health that requires global approaches to establish a deep understanding of the processes of acquisition, stabilization, and spread of resistance among human bacterial pathogens. Since natural (nonclinical) ecosystems are reservoirs of resistance genes, a health-integrated study of the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance requires the exploration of such ecosystems with the aim of determining the role they may play in the selection, evolution, and spread of antibiotic resistance genes, involving the so-called resistance mobilome...
November 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859384/new-views-on-the-selection-acting-on-genetic-polymorphism-in-central-metabolic-genes
#9
Walter F Eanes
Studies of the polymorphism of central metabolic genes as a source of fitness variation in natural populations date back to the discovery of allozymes in the 1960s. The unique features of these genes and their enzymes and our knowledge base greatly facilitates the systems-level study of this group. The expectation that pathway flux control is central to understanding the molecular evolution of genes is discussed, as well as studies that attempt to place gene-specific molecular evolution and polymorphism into a context of pathway and network architecture...
November 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859320/advanced-literature-analysis-in-a-big-data-world
#10
Chris Cheadle, Hongbao Cao, Andrey Kalinin, Jaqui Hodgkinson
Comprehensive data mining of the scientific literature has become an increasing challenge. To address this challenge, Elsevier's Pathway Studio software uses the techniques of natural language processing to systematically extract specific biological information from journal articles and abstracts that is then used to create a very large, structured, and constantly expanding literature knowledgebase. Highly sophisticated visualization tools allow the user to interactively explore the vast number of connections created and stored in the Pathway Studio database...
November 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801989/executive-function-and-neural-activation-in-adults-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-an-event-related-potentials-study
#11
Sivan Raz, Ariel Koren, Orrie Dan, Carina Levin
In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding the involvement of the nervous system and neurological complications in β-thalassemia major (β-TM). Several reports have demonstrated β-TM-related neurological abnormalities, and these have been postulated to be responsible for impaired cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. We investigated neural correlates of cognitive function in adults with β-TM and healthy controls using scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). To date, there have been no ERP studies in β-TM adult patients...
November 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801987/big-data-access-and-infrastructure-for-modern-biology-case-studies-in-data-repository-utility
#12
Nathan C Boles, Tyler Stone, Charles Bergeron, Thomas R Kiehl
Big Data is no longer solely the purview of big organizations with big resources. Today's routine tools and experimental methods can generate large slices of data. For example, high-throughput sequencing can quickly interrogate biological systems for the expression levels of thousands of different RNAs, examine epigenetic marks throughout the genome, and detect differences in the genomes of individuals. Multichannel electrophysiology platforms produce gigabytes of data in just a few minutes of recording. Imaging systems generate videos capturing biological behaviors over the course of days...
November 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801985/global-regulatory-framework-for-production-and-marketing-of-crops-biofortified-with-vitamins-and-minerals
#13
Luis A Mejia, Omar Dary, Hala Boukerdenna
Biofortification of crops is being introduced in several countries as a strategy to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortified products, with increased contents of micronutrients, are currently produced by conventional plant breeding, genetic modification, or nutrient-enhanced fertilization. Corn, rice, wheat, beans, pearl millet, sweet potato, and cassava have been biofortified with increased contents of provitamin A carotenoids, iron, or zinc. However, regulatory considerations are rare or nonexistent...
November 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801945/metabolic-engineering-of-micronutrients-in-crop-plants
#14
Dieter Blancquaert, Hans De Steur, Xavier Gellynck, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread phenomenon, most prevalent in developing countries. Being causally linked to the occurrence of a range of diseases, it affects billions of people worldwide. Enhancing the content of micronutrients in crop products through biotechnology is a promising technique to fight micronutrient malnutrition worldwide. Micronutrient fortification of food products has been implemented in a number of Western countries, but remains inaccessible for poor rural populations in a major part of the developing world...
November 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783881/the-emergence-of-the-il-36-cytokine-family-as-novel-targets-for-inflammatory-diseases
#15
Patrick T Walsh, Padraic G Fallon
The recently discovered interleukin (IL)-36 family of cytokines form part of the broader IL-1 family and are emerging as important mediators of inflammatory disease. The IL-36 subfamily consists of three ligands-IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ-and the natural antagonist IL-36Ra. The cytokines exert their effects through a specific IL-36 receptor consisting of IL-36R and IL-1RAcP chains. IL-36 cytokines can direct both innate and adaptive immune responses by acting on parenchymal, stromal, and specific immune cell subsets...
October 26, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768825/genomic-and-functional-techniques-to-mine-the-microbiome-for-novel-antimicrobials-and-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#16
Boahemaa Adu-Oppong, Andrew J Gasparrini, Gautam Dantas
Microbial communities contain diverse bacteria that play important roles in every environment. Advances in sequencing and computational methodologies over the past decades have illuminated the phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities from diverse habitats. Among the activities encoded in microbiomes are the abilities to synthesize and resist small molecules, yielding antimicrobial activity. These functions are of particular interest when viewed in light of the public health emergency posed by the increase in clinical antimicrobial resistance and the dwindling antimicrobial discovery and approval pipeline, and given the intimate ecological and evolutionary relationship between antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768822/genomics-and-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance
#17
Michael R Gillings, Ian T Paulsen, Sasha G Tetu
Antibiotic resistance arises as a consequence of complex interactions among genes, mobile elements, and their bacterial hosts, coupled with the intense selection pressures imposed by humans in an attempt to control bacterial growth. Understanding the evolution of resistance requires an understanding of interacting cellular and genetic components. Here, we review how DNA analysis has helped reconstruct the origins of the mosaic, multiresistant mobile elements that have spread through pathogens in the last 60 years...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768821/neuronal-systems-and-circuits-involved-in-the-control-of-food-intake-and-adaptive-thermogenesis
#18
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750400/introducing-the-big-knowledge-to-use-bk2u-challenge
#19
Yehoshua Perl, James Geller, Michael Halper, Christopher Ochs, Ling Zheng, Joan Kapusnik-Uner
The purpose of the Big Data to Knowledge initiative is to develop methods for discovering new knowledge from large amounts of data. However, if the resulting knowledge is so large that it resists comprehension, referred to here as Big Knowledge (BK), how can it be used properly and creatively? We call this secondary challenge, Big Knowledge to Use. Without a high-level mental representation of the kinds of knowledge in a BK knowledgebase, effective or innovative use of the knowledge may be limited. We describe summarization and visualization techniques that capture the big picture of a BK knowledgebase, possibly created from Big Data...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750378/pophr-a-knowledge-based-platform-to-support-integration-analysis-and-visualization-of-population-health-data
#20
Arash Shaban-Nejad, Maxime Lavigne, Anya Okhmatovskaia, David L Buckeridge
Population health decision makers must consider complex relationships between multiple concepts measured with differential accuracy from heterogeneous data sources. Population health information systems are currently limited in their ability to integrate data and present a coherent portrait of population health. Consequentially, these systems can provide only basic support for decision makers. The Population Health Record (PopHR) is a semantic web application that automates the integration and extraction of massive amounts of heterogeneous data from multiple distributed sources (e...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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