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Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731232/a-comprehensive-review-of-agrimoniin
#1
REVIEW
Daniel M Grochowski, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Jianbo Xiao, Marcello Locatelli, Jakub P Piwowarski, Sebastian Granica, Michał Tomczyk
Plant tannins are a unique class of polyphenols with relatively high molecular weights. Within the ellagitannins group, agrimoniin--dimeric ellagitannin--is one of the most representative compounds found in many plant materials belonging to the Rosaceae family. Agrimoniin was first isolated in 1982 from roots of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), a plant traditionally used in Japan and China as an antidiarrheal, hemostatic, and antiparasitic agent. Agrimoniin is a constituent of medicinal plants, which are often applied orally in the form of infusions, decoctions, or tinctures...
July 21, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722768/international-summit-on-the-nutrition-of-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-consensus-statement
#2
Nancy Krebs, Susan Bagby, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Kathryn Dewey, Caroline Fall, Fred Gregory, William Hay, Lisa Rhuman, Christine Wallace Caldwell, Kent L Thornburg
An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty-seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient-rich foods for girls and young women...
July 19, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719733/characterizing-a-mouse-model-for-evaluation-of-countermeasures-against-hydrogen-sulfide-induced-neurotoxicity-and-neurological-sequelae
#3
Poojya Anantharam, Elizabeth M Whitley, Belinda Mahama, Dong-Suk Kim, Paula M Imerman, Dahai Shao, Monica R Langley, Arthi Kanthasamy, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a highly neurotoxic gas. It is the second most common cause of gas-induced deaths. Beyond mortality, surviving victims of acute exposure may suffer long-term neurological sequelae. There is a need to develop countermeasures against H2 S poisoning. However, no translational animal model of H2 S-induced neurological sequelae exists. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of H2 S-induced neurotoxicity for translational research. In paradigm I, C57/BL6 mice were exposed to 765 ppm H2 S for 40 min on day 1, followed by 15-min daily exposures for periods ranging from 1 to 6 days...
July 18, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715605/how-to-select-a-nanosimilar
#4
Alain Astier, Amy Barton Pai, Marco Bissig, Daan J A Crommelin, Beat Flühmann, Jean-Daniel Hecq, Josefien Knoeff, Hans-Peter Lipp, Alberto Morell-Baladrón, Stefan Mühlebach
Nanomedicines in the class of nonbiological complex drugs (NBCDs) are becoming increasingly available. Up to 23 nanomedicines have been approved, and approximately 50 are in clinical development. Meanwhile, the first nanosimilars have entered the market through the generic approval pathway, but clinical differences have been observed. Many healthcare professionals may be unaware of this issue and must be informed of these clinically relevant variances. This article provides a tool for rational decision making for the inclusion of nanomedicines into the hospital formulary, including defined criteria for evaluation of substitutability or interchangeability...
July 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715602/winter-storm-intensity-hazards-and-property-losses-in-the-new-york-tristate-area
#5
Cari E Shimkus, Mingfang Ting, James F Booth, Susana B Adamo, Malgosia Madajewicz, Yochanan Kushnir, Harald E Rieder
Winter storms pose numerous hazards to the Northeast United States, including rain, snow, strong wind, and flooding. These hazards can cause millions of dollars in damages from one storm alone. This study investigates meteorological intensity and impacts of winter storms from 2001 to 2014 on coastal counties in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York and underscores the consequences of winter storms. The study selected 70 winter storms on the basis of station observations of surface wind strength, heavy precipitation, high storm tide, and snow extremes...
July 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704888/assessing-musical-ability-quickly-and-objectively-development-and-validation-of-the-short-proms-and-the-mini-proms
#6
Marcel Zentner, Hannah Strauss
The study of musical ability has gained considerable traction across disciplines in recent years. In comparison, less effort has been invested in the development of sound measures of musical ability. To redress this gap, we conducted four studies to empirically validate two brief measures derived from the Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS)-an exceptionally inclusive battery of musical abilities that takes about 1 h to complete. In the Short-PROMS, test duration was reduced to less than half an hour by substantially reducing the number of trials per subtest...
July 13, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700815/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-immunosuppressive-role-in-transplantation-tolerance
#7
REVIEW
Pamina Contreras-Kallens, Claudia Terraza, Karina Oyarce, Tania Gajardo, Mauricio Campos-Mora, María Teresa Barroilhet, Carla Álvarez, Ricardo Fuentes, Fernando Figueroa, Maroun Khoury, Karina Pino-Lagos
Since they were first described, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to have important effector mechanisms and the potential for use in cell therapy. A great deal of research has been focused on unveiling how MSCs contribute to anti-inflammatory responses, including describing several cell populations involved and identifying soluble and other effector molecules. In this review, we discuss some of the contemporary evidence for use of MSCs in the field of immune tolerance, with a special emphasis on transplantation...
July 12, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675763/resveratrol-derivatives-as-a-pharmacological-tool
#8
REVIEW
Lucia Biasutto, Andrea Mattarei, Michele Azzolini, Martina La Spina, Nicola Sassi, Matteo Romio, Cristina Paradisi, Mario Zoratti
Prodrugs of resveratrol are under development. Among the long-term goals, still largely elusive, are (1) modulating physical properties (e.g., water-soluble derivatives bearing polyethylene glycol chains), (2) changing distribution in the body (e.g., galactosyl derivatives restricted to the intestinal lumen), (3) increasing absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., derivatives imitating the natural substrates of endogenous transporters), and (4) hindering phase II metabolism (e.g., temporarily blocking the hydroxyls), all contributing to (5) increasing bioavailability...
July 4, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672425/effects-of-resveratrol-on-enos-in-the-endothelium-and-the-perivascular-adipose-tissue
#9
REVIEW
Ning Xia, Ulrich Förstermann, Huige Li
Under physiological conditions, nitric oxide (NO) is produced in the vasculature mainly by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Experiments using gene-disrupted mice have demonstrated that eNOS has antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Recent studies show that eNOS is expressed not only in the endothelium but also in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Resveratrol prevents eNOS uncoupling and upregulates eNOS expression and activity. These effects of resveratrol are well established for the eNOS enzyme in the endothelium...
July 3, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665033/resveratrol-and-polydatin-as-modulators-of-ca-2-mobilization-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#10
REVIEW
Wenjuan Liu, Peiya Chen, Jianxin Deng, Jingzhang Lv, Jie Liu
In the cardiovascular system, Ca(2+) controls cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and vascular contraction and dilation. Disturbances in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis induce malfunctions of the cardiovascular system, including cardiac pump dysfunction, arrhythmia, remodeling, and apoptosis, as well as hypertension and impairment of vascular reactivity. Therefore, developing drugs and strategies manipulating Ca(2+) handling are highly valued in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Resveratrol (Res) and polydatin (PD), a Res glucoside, have been well established to have beneficial effects on improving cardiovascular function...
June 30, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662316/therapeutic-potential-of-rhizoma-alismatis-a-review-on-ethnomedicinal-application-phytochemistry-pharmacology-and-toxicology
#11
REVIEW
Le-Le Zhang, Wen Xu, Yu-Lian Xu, Xiuping Chen, Mingqing Huang, Jin-Jian Lu
Rhizoma Alismatis (RA), the dried rhizome of Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzep, is a common traditional herbal medicine named Ze Xie in Chinese. RA is an important herbal component of a number of well-known Chinese medicinal preparations. It has been used to treat various ailments, such as dysuria, edema, nephropathy, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. A wide range of chemical compounds, mainly triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids, have been isolated from RA; among which the protostane-type triterpenoids, termed alisols, have attracted the most attention owing to their unique chemical structures and various biological activities...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662306/oxidative-stress-and-chronic-inflammation-in-osteoarthritis-can-nrf2-counteract-these-partners-in-crime
#12
REVIEW
Andrey S Marchev, Petya A Dimitrova, Andrew J Burns, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Milen I Georgiev
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint degenerative disease associated with pain, joint deformity, and disability. The disease starts with cartilage damage but then progressively involves subchondral bone, causing an imbalance between osteoclast-driven bone resorption and osteoblast-driven remodeling. Here, we summarize the data for the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in OA pathology and discuss how these two processes are integrated during OA progression, as well as their contribution to abnormalities in cartilage/bone metabolism and integrity...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662290/resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-as-a-microrna-mediated-chemopreventive-and-therapeutic-strategy-in-prostate-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Avinash Kumar, Agnes M Rimando, Anait S Levenson
Growing evidence indicates that deregulation of the epigenetic machinery comprising the microRNA (miRNA) network is a critical factor in the progression of various diseases, including cancer. Concurrently, dietary phytochemicals are being intensively studied for their miRNA-mediated health-beneficial properties, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antioxidative, and anticancer properties. Available experimental data have suggested that dietary polyphenols may be effective miRNA-modulating chemopreventive and therapeutic agents...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662275/childhood-cancer-chemotherapy-induced-bone-damage-pathobiology-and-protective-effects-of-resveratrol-and-other-nutraceuticals
#14
REVIEW
Yu-Wen Su, Ke-Ming Chen, Mohammadhossein Hassanshahi, Qian Tang, Peter R Howe, Cory J Xian
Intensive cancer chemotherapy causes significant bone loss, for which the mechanisms remain unclear and effective treatments are lacking. This is a significant issue particularly for childhood cancers, as the most common ones have a >75% cure rate following chemotherapy; there is an increasing population of survivors who live with chronic bone defects. Studies suggest that these defects are the result of reduced bone from increased marrow fat formation and increased bone resorption following chemotherapy...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662272/campylobacter-fetus-impairs-barrier-function-in-ht-29-b6-cells-through-focal-tight-junction-alterations-and-leaks
#15
Roland Bücker, Susanne M Krug, Anja Fromm, Hans Linde Nielsen, Michael Fromm, Henrik Nielsen, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke
Infections by Campylobacter species are the most common foodborne zoonotic disease worldwide. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are isolated most frequently from human stool samples, but severe infections by C. fetus (Cf), which can cause gastroenteritis, septicemia, and abortion, are also found. This study aims at the characterization of pathological changes in Cf infection using an intestinal epithelial cell model. The Cf-induced epithelial barrier defects appeared earlier than those of avian Campylobacter species like C...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661558/crystal-structure-of-the-tricellulin-c-terminal-coiled-coil-domain-reveals-a-unique-mode-of-dimerization
#16
Anja Schuetz, Veselina Radusheva, Susanne M Krug, Udo Heinemann
Tricellulin is a tight junction protein localized to tricellular contacts in many epithelial tissues, where it is required for full barrier control. Here, we present crystal structures of the tricellulin C-terminal coiled-coil domain, revealing a potential dimeric arrangement. By combining structural, biochemical, functional, and mutation analyses, we gain insight into the mode of tricellulin oligomerization and suggest a model where dimerization of its cytoplasmic C-terminus may play an auxiliary role in stabilizing homophilic and potentially also heterophilic cis-interactions within tight junctions...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#17
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640968/the-impact-of-andean-patagonian-mycoflora-in-the-search-for-new-lead-molecules
#18
REVIEW
Pedro M Aqueveque, Carlos L Cespedes, Isao Kubo, David S Seigler, Olov Sterner
Secondary metabolites from fungi have become a major source of chemical innovation in programs searching for lead molecules with bioactivities, especially over the last 50 years. In this review, we discuss the fundamental considerations in the discovery of molecules for agricultural and medicinal uses. This group of organisms possesses a strong potential for scientific and industrial communities. Recently, the incorporation of new technologies for the artificial cultivation of fungi and the use of better equipment to isolate and identify active metabolites has allowed the discovery of leading molecules for the design of new and safer drugs and pesticides...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640966/linking-the-degree-of-virilization-in-females-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-to-genotype
#19
Semyon Gurgov, Kerlly J Bernabé, John Stites, Christopher M Cunniff, Karen Lin-Su, Diane Felsen, Maria I New, Dix P Poppas
Mutations of CYP21A2 variably decrease 21-hydroxylase activity and result in a spectrum of disease expressions in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We examined the association between CYP21A2 mutations and virilization (Prader score) in females with CAH. The study population included 187 CAH females with fully characterized CYP21A2 mutations. One hundred fifty-eight patients were sorted into groups by expected enzyme activity (percent of normal activity) of the less severely affected allele: (A) null, 0%; (B) I2G, 1%; (C) I172N, 2%; and (D) V281L, >2%...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640959/the-deeper-self-an-expanded-view-of-consciousness
#20
Steve Paulson, Siri Hustvedt, Mark Solms, Sonu Shamdasani
As science continues to explore the mysteries of the unconscious, two critical questions remain. First, can unconscious impulses, desires, and feelings be willfully raised to the level of the conscious self?, and, if so, would the unveiling of unconscious mechanisms lead to genuine self-knowledge or empowerment? Second, can we methodically tap into the unconscious to gear ourselves along more creative lines? If the unconscious is a source of intuitive and creative inspiration, how might a more expansive understanding of consciousness help us to flourish? How can we harness the intuitive parts of ourselves to think "outside the box," transcending the limitations of preconceived categories? And along those same lines, how would an expanded view of the unconscious frame our spiritual experiences or offer spiritual nourishment? Writer Siri Hustvedt, historian of psychology Sonu Shamdasani, and neuropsychologist Mark Solms will tackle everything from noetic experiences and the role of intuition to the phenomenon of peak experience and Jung's "collective unconscious...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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