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Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199022/recent-advances-in-exploring-the-neural-underpinnings-of-auditory-scene-perception
#1
Joel S Snyder, Mounya Elhilali
Studies of auditory scene analysis have traditionally relied on paradigms using artificial sounds-and conventional behavioral techniques-to elucidate how we perceptually segregate auditory objects or streams from each other. In the past few decades, however, there has been growing interest in uncovering the neural underpinnings of auditory segregation using human and animal neuroscience techniques, as well as computational modeling. This largely reflects the growth in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and computational neuroscience and has led to new theories of how the auditory system segregates sounds in complex arrays...
February 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187236/zika-and-chikungunya-mosquito-borne-viruses-in-a-changing-world
#2
Talya Shragai, Blanka Tesla, Courtney Murdock, Laura C Harrington
The reemergence and growing burden of mosquito-borne virus infections have incited public fear and growing research efforts to understand the mechanisms of infection-associated health outcomes and to provide better approaches for mosquito vector control. While efforts to develop therapeutics, vaccines, and novel genetic mosquito-control technologies are underway, many important underlying ecological questions remain that could significantly enhance our understanding and ability to predict and prevent transmission...
February 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187234/the-research-and-implementation-continuum-of-biofortified-sweet-potato-and-maize-in-africa
#3
Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Anna-Marie Ball, Chisela Kaliwile, Kevin V Pixley
The enhancement of sweet potato and maize with provitamin A carotenoids has been part of HarvestPlus's research continuum since the formation of the biofortification project. This review includes case studies of biofortification strategies used for sweet potato in Uganda and orange maize in Zambia. The current status of the science and release of biofortified varieties was reviewed by three scientists who were part of the HarvestPlus program for more than a decade with input from a scientist who experienced orange maize dissemination in Zambia...
February 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146277/dietary-guidance-for-pulses-the-challenge-and-opportunity-to-be-part-of-both-the-vegetable-and-protein-food-groups
#4
Stefanie Havemeier, Jennifer Erickson, Joanne Slavin
Pulses are a dry, edible variety of beans, peas, and lentils that have been consumed for 10,000 years. Pulses are rich in plant-based protein and fiber, as well as micronutrients such as iron and potassium. The satiating effect of both fiber and protein assists in managing weight and combating obesity. The high fiber content and low glycemic index of pulses aid people with diabetes in maintaining blood glucose and insulin levels. Pulse consumption may improve serum lipid levels to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease...
February 1, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141904/catheter-based-high-frequency-intraluminal-ultrasound-imaging-is-a-powerful-tool-to-study-esophageal-dysmotility-patients
#5
Cecilio Santander, Elena Perea, María Caldas, Pere Clave
High-resolution manometry (HRM) is currently the most important diagnostic test for esophageal motility disorders, providing information on the contraction pattern of the circular muscle layer, which helps classify these esophageal motor diseases. However, with the increasing development of ultrasound, other techniques, such as high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS), have gained importance. This technique uses a flexible shaft with a central wire integrated into a standard endoscope, which facilitates real-time sonography...
January 31, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099765/when-and-why-does-sex-chromosome-dosage-compensation-evolve
#6
Christopher H Chandler
In many species, sex is determined by sex chromosomes, and the sex-specific chromosome (Y or W) stops recombining until it degenerates and carries fewer genes than its recombining counterpart (X or Z). This creates an imbalance in the dosage of most sex-linked genes between males and females. Early work in model organisms demonstrated that X chromosomes in multiple groups independently evolved regulatory mechanisms maintaining balanced expression of X-linked genes. However, recent studies have shown that these dosage compensation mechanisms are far from universal...
January 18, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072904/resistance-diagnosis-and-the-changing-economics-of-antibiotic-discovery
#7
David McAdams
Point-of-care diagnostics that can determine an infection's antibiotic sensitivity increase the profitability of new antibiotics that enjoy patent protection, even when such diagnostics reduce the quantity of antibiotics sold. Advances in the science and technology underpinning rapid resistance diagnostics can therefore be expected to spur efforts to discover and develop new antibiotics, especially those with a narrow spectrum of activity that would otherwise fail to find a market.
January 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036113/evolutionary-ecology-of-virus-emergence
#8
John J Dennehy
The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge...
December 30, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009055/life-history-evolution-reproduction-and-the-origins-of-sex-dependent-aging-and-longevity
#9
Robert C Brooks, Michael G Garratt
Males and females in many species differ in how they age and how long they live. These differences have motivated much research, concerning both their evolution and the underlying mechanisms that cause them. We review how differences in male and female life histories have evolved to shape patterns of aging and some of the mechanisms and pathways involved. We pay particular attention to three areas where considerable potential for synergy between mechanistic and evolutionary research exists: (1) the role of estrogens, androgens, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway in sex-dependent growth and reproduction; (2) sexual conflict over mating rate and fertility, and how mate presence or mating can become an avenue for males and females to directly affect each other's life span; and (3) the link between dietary restriction and aging, and the emerging understanding that only the restriction of certain nutrients is involved and that this is linked to reproduction...
December 23, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009051/a-brief-primer-on-genomic-epidemiology-lessons-learned-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Jennifer L Guthrie, Jennifer L Gardy
Genomics is now firmly established as a technique for the investigation and reconstruction of communicable disease outbreaks, with many genomic epidemiology studies focusing on revealing transmission routes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this primer, we introduce the basic techniques underlying transmission inference from genomic data, using illustrative examples from M. tuberculosis and other pathogens routinely sequenced by public health agencies. We describe the laboratory and epidemiological scenarios under which genomics may or may not be used, provide an introduction to sequencing technologies and bioinformatics approaches to identifying transmission-informative variation and resistance-associated mutations, and discuss how variation must be considered in the light of available clinical and epidemiological information to infer transmission...
December 23, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009050/factors-influencing-micronutrient-bioavailability-in-biofortified-crops
#11
Aurélie Bechoff, Claudie Dhuique-Mayer
Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors influencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in biofortified crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, biofortified crops have been shown to be overall efficacious in reducing micronutrient deficiency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2...
December 23, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997700/evolution-of-bird-genomes-a-transposon-s-eye-view
#12
Aurélie Kapusta, Alexander Suh
Birds, the most species-rich monophyletic group of land vertebrates, have been subject to some of the most intense sequencing efforts to date, making them an ideal case study for recent developments in genomics research. Here, we review how our understanding of bird genomes has changed with the recent sequencing of more than 75 species from all major avian taxa. We illuminate avian genome evolution from a previously neglected perspective: their repetitive genomic parasites, transposable elements (TEs) and endogenous viral elements (EVEs)...
December 20, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997690/application-of-genomic-technologies-to-measure-and-monitor-antibiotic-resistance-in-animals
#13
Jian-Qiang Su, Li Cui, Qing-Lin Chen, Xin-Li An, Yong-Guan Zhu
One of the richest reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes, animal intestinal microbiota contributes to the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment and, potentially, to human pathogens. Both culture-based genomic technology and culture-independent metagenomics have been developed to investigate the abundance and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes. The characteristics, strengths, limitations, and challenges of these genomic approaches are discussed in this review in the context of antibiotic resistance in animals...
December 20, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936291/pleiotropy-constraint-and-modularity-in-the-evolution-of-life-histories-insights-from-genomic-analyses
#14
Kimberly A Hughes, Jeff Leips
Multicellular organisms display an enormous range of life history (LH) strategies and present an evolutionary conundrum; despite strong natural selection, LH traits are characterized by high levels of genetic variation. To understand the evolution of life histories and maintenance of this variation, the specific phenotypic effects of segregating alleles and the genetic networks in which they act need to be elucidated. In particular, the extent to which LH evolution is constrained by the pleiotropy of alleles contributing to LH variation is generally unknown...
December 9, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936288/staple-crops-biofortified-with-increased-vitamins-and-minerals-considerations-for-a-public-health-strategy
#15
Maria Nieves Garcia-Casal, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Boitshepo Giyose
Biofortification of staple crops has been proposed as a strategy to address micronutrient malnutrition, particularly with respect to insufficient intake of vitamin A, iron, zinc, and folate. The World Health Organization, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science at the New York Academy of Sciences, convened a technical consultation entitled "Staple Crops Biofortified with Vitamins and Minerals: Considerations for a Public Health Strategy" in April 2016...
December 9, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936284/utility-of-preclinical-drug-versus-food-choice-procedures-to-evaluate-candidate-medications-for-methamphetamine-use-disorder
#16
Matthew L Banks
Substance use disorders are diagnosed as a manifestation of inappropriate behavioral allocation toward abused drugs and away from other behaviors maintained by more adaptive nondrug reinforcers (e.g., money and social relationships). Substance use disorder treatment goals include not only decreasing drug-maintained behavior but also promoting behavioral reallocation toward these socially adaptive alternative reinforcers. Preclinical drug self-administration procedures that offer concurrent access to both drug and nondrug reinforcers provide a translationally relevant dependent measure of behavioral allocation that may be useful for candidate medication evaluation...
December 9, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918838/quality-of-governance-and-effectiveness-of-protected-areas-crucial-concepts-for-conservation-planning
#17
Johanna Eklund, Mar Cabeza
Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool for biodiversity conservation and play a central role in the Convention on Biological Diversity. Recently, the effectiveness of PAs has been questioned, and assessing how effective they are in enabling the future persistence of biodiversity is not trivial. Here, we focus on terrestrial PAs and clarify the terminology related to PA effectiveness, distinguishing between management and ecological aspects. We suggest that the quality of governance affects both aspects of effectiveness but recognize a lack of synthetic understanding of the topic...
December 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918837/global-pulses-scenario-status-and-outlook
#18
P K Joshi, P Parthasarathy Rao
Although pulse production grew significantly by 1.3% between 1980 and 2013, its per capita availability remained stagnant at around 6.5 kg/capita/year. In 1961, its availability was 9.3 kg/capita/year. One consequence of slower growth in its production is rising pulse prices, which are twice that of cereals. The declining availability of pulses also triggered a boom in its trade, with 19% of the global pulse production traded in 2011 compared with 7% in 1980. In absolute terms, there has been a more than fourfold increase in pulse trade, compared with an only 1...
December 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918835/the-ubiquitous-self-what-the-properties-of-self-bias-tell-us-about-the-self
#19
Jie Sui, Glyn W Humphreys
People show systematic biases in perception, memory, and attention to favor information related to themselves over information related to other people. Researchers have examined these biases in order to throw light on the nature of the self. We review this evidence in memory, face recognition, and simple perceptual matching tasks through objective measures of self-biases. We argue that the self serves as a stable anchor across different forms of judgment and that referring a stimulus to ourselves enhances the binding of stimulus features at different stages of processing (e...
December 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134444/resistance-diagnosis-and-the-changing-epidemiology-of-antibiotic-resistance
#20
David McAdams
Widespread adoption of point-of-care resistance diagnostics (POCRD) reduces ineffective antibiotic use but could increase overall antibiotic use. Indeed, in the context of a standard susceptible-infected epidemiological model with a single antibiotic, POCRD accelerates the rise of resistance in the disease-causing bacterial population. When multiple antibiotics are available, however, POCRD may slow the rise of resistance even as more patients receive antibiotic treatment, belying the conventional wisdom that antibiotics are "exhaustible resources" whose increased use necessarily promotes the rise of resistance...
January 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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