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Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003536/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-nonhealing-diabetic-wounds
#1
REVIEW
Lindsay R Kalan, Meghan B Brennan
Wound healing is a highly coordinated and complex process, and there can be devastating consequences if it is interrupted. It is believed that, in combination with host factors, microorganisms in a wound bed can not only impair wound healing but can lead to stalled, chronic wounds. It is hypothesized that the wound microbiota persists in chronic wounds as a biofilm, recalcitrant to antibiotic and mechanical intervention. Cultivation-based methods are the gold standard for identification of pathogens residing in wounds...
July 13, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984433/adenosine-diphosphate-regulates-mmp2-and-mmp9-activity-in-malignant-mesothelioma-cells
#2
Antonella Muscella, Luca Giulio Cossa, Carla Vetrugno, Giovanna Antonaci, Santo Marsigliante
Although an association between cancer progression and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MPP9 expression has been known, the expression, nuclear localization, and physiologically controlled activation of these two MMPs have not been investigated in malignant mesothelioma cells. We examined the expression and intracellular localization of MMP2/9 in ZL55 malignant mesothelioma cells, as well as their regulation by ADP. Using real-time PCR, we showed that activation of the P2Y1 receptor by ADP increased the expression of MMP2/9 mRNAs; MMP2/9 collected from conditioned media also showed an increase in activity; and ADP induced the nuclear localization of MMP2/9...
July 8, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984413/diagnosis-assessment-and-management-of-surgical-complications-following-esophagectomy
#3
REVIEW
Peter P Grimminger, Lucas Goense, Ines Gockel, Damien Bergeat, Nicolas Bertheuil, Servarayan M Chandramohan, Ke-Neng Chen, Seung-Hon Chon, Collet Denis, Khean-Lee Goh, Caroline Gronnier, Jun-Feng Liu, Bernard Meunier, Phillippe Nafteux, Enrique D Pirchi, Marc Schiesser, René Thieme, Aaron Wu, Peter C Wu, Navtej Buttar, Andrew C Chang
Despite improvements in operative strategies for esophageal resection, anastomotic leaks, fistula, postoperative pulmonary complications, and chylothorax can occur. Our review seeks to identify potential risk factors, modalities for early diagnosis, and novel interventions that may ameliorate the potential adverse effects of these surgical complications following esophagectomy.
July 8, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974975/recent-advances-in-barrett-s-esophagus
#4
REVIEW
John Inadomi, Hani Alastal, Luigi Bonavina, Seth Gross, Richard H Hunt, Hiroshi Mashimo, Massimiliano di Pietro, Horace Rhee, Marmy Shah, Salvatore Tolone, David H Wang, Shao-Hua Xie
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma, one of the few cancers with increasing incidence in developed countries. The pathogenesis of BE is unclear with regard to either the cellular origin of this metaplastic epithelium or the manner in which malignant transformation occurs, although recent data indicate a possible junctional origin of stem cells for BE. Treatment of BE may be achieved using endoscopic eradication therapy; however, there is a lack of discriminatory tools to identify individuals at sufficient risk for cancer development in whom intervention is warranted...
July 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974961/preclinical-models-for-the-study-of-barrett-s-carcinogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Matthew D Read, Kausilia K Krishnadath, Nicholas J Clemons, Wayne A Phillips
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is clinically significant, as it is the only known precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. To develop improved therapies for the treatment of BE, a greater understanding of the disease process at the molecular genetic level is needed. However, achieving a greater understanding will require improved preclinical models so that the disease process can be more closely studied and novel therapies can be tested. Our concise review highlights progress in the development of preclinical models for the study of BE and identifies the most suitable model in which to test novel therapies...
July 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974959/the-neurobiology-of-interoception-in-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Lisa Quadt, Hugo D Critchley, Sarah N Garfinkel
Interoception is the sensing of internal bodily sensations. Interoception is an umbrella term that encompasses (1) the afferent (body-to-brain) signaling through distinct neural and humoral (including immune and endocrine) channels; (2) the neural encoding, representation, and integration of this information concerning internal bodily state; (3) the influence of such information on other perceptions, cognitions, and behaviors; (4) and the psychological expression of these representations as consciously accessible physical sensations and feelings...
July 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968302/on-the-extraordinary-winter-flood-episode-over-the-north-atlantic-basin-in-1936
#7
Juan Antonio Ballesteros-Cánovas, Markus Stoffel, Gerardo Benito, Mario Rohrer, David Barriopedro, Ricardo García-Herrera, Martin Beniston, Stefan Brönnimann
In this study, we analyze the linkage between atmosphere and ocean modes and winter flood variability over the 20th century based on long-term flow-discharge series, historical archives, and tree-ring records of past floods in the North Atlantic Basin (NAB). The most extreme winter floods occurred in 1936 and had strong impacts on either side of the Atlantic. We hypothesize that the joint effects of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Arctic Oscillation (AO), which is closely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation, play a significant role when describing flood variability in North America and Europe since 1900...
July 2, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952014/role-of-pannexin-1-channels-in-load-induced-skeletal-response
#8
Zeynep Seref-Ferlengez, Marcia Urban-Maldonado, Hui B Sun, Mitchell B Schaffler, Sylvia O Suadicani, Mia M Thi
The pannexin 1 (Panx1) channel is a mechanosensitive channel that interacts with P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) to form a functional complex that has been shown in vitro to play an essential role in osteocyte mechanosignaling. While the participation of P2X7R in skeletal responses to mechanical loading has been demonstrated, the role of Panx1 and its interplay with P2X7R still remain to be determined. In this study, we use a global Panx1-/- mouse model and in vivo mechanical loading to demonstrate that Panx1 channels play an essential role in load-induced skeletal responses...
June 28, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947055/socioeconomic-influences-on-brain-function-implications-for-health
#9
REVIEW
Keely A Muscatell
Socioeconomic-based disparities in physical health outcomes are well established, with individuals from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds being more likely to experience chronic disease morbidity and early mortality compared to those from higher SES strata. While numerous studies in recent decades have focused on understanding the contextual, psychosocial, and biological mechanisms linking SES and health, the neural pathways that contribute to this relationship are currently underinvestigated. The present paper reviews and synthesizes the small number of published studies that have explored links between SES and health-relevant neural functioning...
June 27, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947058/behavioral-interventions-in-health-neuroscience
#10
REVIEW
Janine M Dutcher, J David Creswell
Many chronic health concerns (obesity, addiction, stress, chronic pain, and depression) have garnered recent attention for their increasing frequency, intractability, and serious health consequences. Because they are often difficult to treat and there are not always effective pharmacological treatments, many patients are pursuing behavioral interventions for these conditions. Experimental behavioral intervention studies have shown some efficacy for health, but the mechanisms for these treatments are not well understood...
June 26, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943456/land-atmospheric-feedbacks-during-droughts-and-heatwaves-state-of-the-science-and-current-challenges
#11
Diego G Miralles, Pierre Gentine, Sonia I Seneviratne, Adriaan J Teuling
Droughts and heatwaves cause agricultural loss, forest mortality, and drinking water scarcity, especially when they occur simultaneously as combined events. Their predicted increase in recurrence and intensity poses serious threats to future food security. Still today, the knowledge of how droughts and heatwaves start and evolve remains limited, and so does our understanding of how climate change may affect them. Droughts and heatwaves have been suggested to intensify and propagate via land-atmosphere feedbacks...
June 25, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931688/eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-as-a-treatment-for-ptsd-current-neurobiological-theories-and-a-new-hypothesis
#12
REVIEW
Olivia G Calancie, Sarosh Khalid-Khan, Linda Booij, Douglas P Munoz
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a form of psychotherapy for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), has long been a controversial topic, hampered in part by a lack of understanding of the neural mechanisms that contribute to its remedial effect. Here, we review current theories describing EMDR's potential neurobiological mechanisms of action involving working memory, interhemispheric communication, de-arousal, and memory reconsolidation. We then discuss recent studies describing the temporal and spatial aspects of smooth pursuit and predictive saccades, which resemble those made during EMDR, and their neural correlates within the default mode network (DMN) and cerebellum...
June 21, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923611/evolution-and-inevitability
#13
Ian Tattersall
Questions not only about the nature of evolution but also about the vastness of the Universe are addressed, as are speculations about the nature of life had evolution taken another route or on other planets.
June 20, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923606/major-challenges-for-correlational-ecological-niche-model-projections-to-future-climate-conditions
#14
REVIEW
A Townsend Peterson, Marlon E Cobos, Daniel Jiménez-García
Species-level forecasts of distributional potential and likely distributional shifts, in the face of changing climates, have become popular in the literature in the past 20 years. Many refinements have been made to the methodology over the years, and the result has been an approach that considers multiple sources of variation in geographic predictions, and how that variation translates into both specific predictions and uncertainty in those predictions. Although numerous previous reviews and overviews of this field have pointed out a series of assumptions and caveats associated with the methodology, three aspects of the methodology have important impacts but have not been treated previously in detail...
June 20, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920695/telemedicine-as-a-tool-for-digital-medical-education-a-15-year-journey-inside-the-raft-network
#15
REVIEW
Mirana Randriambelonoro, Cheick-Oumar Bagayoko, Antoine Geissbuhler
This paper presents the evolution and growth of continuous medical education through the Réseau en Afrique Francophone pour la Télémédecine (RAFT) network. RAFT is a telemedicine network present on four continents and built through years of experience, with the goal of supporting isolated healthcare professionals by providing them with the right expertise at the right time using affordable, low-bandwidth technologies. Much more than a platform to share and exchange knowledge, RAFT has put in place a solid local infrastructure to ensure the sustainability and maintenance of the network...
June 19, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917250/molecular-landscape-of-esophageal-cancer-implications-for-early-detection-and-personalized-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Fazlur Rahman Talukdar, Massimiliano di Pietro, Maria Secrier, Markus Moehler, Katrin Goepfert, Sheila Soares Coelho Lima, Luis Felipe Ribeiro Pinto, Denver Hendricks, Mohamed Iqbal Parker, Zdenko Herceg
Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most lethal cancers and a public health concern worldwide, owing to late diagnosis and lack of efficient treatment. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are main histopathological subtypes of EC that show striking differences in geographical distribution, possibly due to differences in exposure to risk factors and lifestyles. ESCC and EAC are distinct diseases in terms of cell of origin, epidemiology, and molecular architecture of tumor cells...
June 19, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917249/exposure-to-hypoglycemia-and-risk-of-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Logan Smith, Diya Chakraborty, Pallab Bhattacharya, Deepaneeta Sarmah, Sebastian Koch, Kunjan R Dave
In the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintaining a euglycemic state represents one of the key challenges. Improper dosing and administration of glucose-lowering drugs is associated with an increased risk of recurrent hypoglycemia episodes. In addition, the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in diabetic patients, particularly myocardial infarctions and strokes, is well established. Current research indicates a potential link between the baseline risk of cardio/cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients and exposure to hypoglycemia...
June 19, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917247/inflammasomes-in-stroke-a-triggering-role-for-acid-sensing-ion-channels
#18
REVIEW
Kanchan Vats, Deepaneeta Sarmah, Harpreet Kaur, Madhuri Wanve, Kiran Kalia, Anupom Borah, Kunjan R Dave, Dileep R Yavagal, Pallab Bhattacharya
Stroke is devastating and a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The innate immune response plays an important role in various brain injuries, including stroke, and targeting it for therapeutic interventions would likely prove beneficial. The panoply of inflammatory cells, which induce various cellular, hormonal, and biochemical alterations, mediates the rapid progression of injury in stroke. The inflammasome, a multiprotein oligomer and a key component of specific innate immune responses, contributes toward the worsening of stroke outcomes by activating inflammatory cytokines...
June 19, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917244/neural-basis-of-bilingual-language-control
#19
REVIEW
Marco Calabria, Albert Costa, David W Green, Jubin Abutalebi
Acquiring and speaking a second language increases demand on the processes of language control for bilingual as compared to monolingual speakers. Language control for bilingual speakers involves the ability to keep the two languages separated to avoid interference and to select one language or the other in a given conversational context. This ability is what we refer with the term "bilingual language control" (BLC). It is now well established that the architecture of this complex system of language control encompasses brain networks involving cortical and subcortical structures, each responsible for different cognitive processes such as goal maintenance, conflict monitoring, interference suppression, and selective response inhibition...
June 19, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900549/using-patient-cases-to-educate-health-professionals-patients-institutions-and-society-the-swallowing-disorder-example
#20
Michaela Wagner-Menghin, Alexander Hirsch, Peter Pokieser
The problems and symptoms of patients are at the heart of medicine and pertinent to information, communication, and education. Patients present their problems to health professionals looking for relief and a cure, while institutions collect data about symptoms of patients and the way health professionals treated them to support society's care providers in administrating and managing care. The information on the problems of patients and the way health professionals treated them, which is gathered and stored in patient files, is valuable as educational material in the field of medicine...
June 13, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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