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Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Zhixun Zhao, Xueliang Zhu, Na Wu, Xiaodong Qin, Caiyun Huang, Guohua Wu, Qiang Zhang, Zhidong Zhang
The role of interferon (IFN)-induced protein kinase R (PKR) in capripoxvirus (CaPV)-infected cells remains unknown. In this study, we show that CaPV infection triggered PKR and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) protein phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, and that this leads to decreased CaPV replication. Overexpression of PKR compromised viral gene expression and inhibited sheeppox virus (SPPV) replication. Downregulation of PKR with siRNAs significantly decreased eIF2α phosphorylation and reduced the mRNA level of IFN-β, which increased virus replication...
November 1, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Francesca Pistollato, Manuel Masias, Pablo Agudo, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
About 1 of 10 women, particularly those older than 60 years of age, shows some degree of thyroid hormone deficiency. Thyroid diseases are generally characterized by perturbations of thyroid signaling homeostasis. The most common examples of thyroid diseases include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and several types of thyroid cancers. Phytochemicals have been shown to have either beneficial or detrimental effects on thyroid function. Some flavonoids have been reported to affect the expression and the activity of several thyroid-related enzymes and proteins, and for this reason some concerns have been raised about the possible thyroid-disruptive properties of foods enriched in these substances...
November 1, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Kunming Tian, Sayoko Ogura, Peter J Little, Suo-Wen Xu, Tatsuya Sawamura
LOX-1 (lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1; also known as OLR1) is the dominant receptor that recognizes and internalizes oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs) in endothelial cells. Several genetic variants of LOX-1 are associated with the risk and severity of coronary artery disease. The LOX-1-ox-LDL interaction induces endothelial dysfunction, leukocyte adhesion, macrophage-derived foam cell formation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and platelet activation. LOX-1 activation eventually leads to the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and acute cardiovascular events...
November 1, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Luis A Mejia, Wan-Yuan Kuo, Filiberto Beltran-Velazquez
Countries around the world have been implementing public health interventions to provide vitamins and minerals. There is a concern that the cumulative micronutrient contribution of coexisting programs, when targeting the same population, may exceed their safe levels of intake, thus potentially challenging the primum non nocere principle. We assessed the regulatory framework of such interventions and determined qualitatively whether there were provisions in the regulations that called for coordination among programs to ensure their innocuousness...
October 22, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Laura E Webb, Ruut Veenhoven, Jes Lynning Harfeld, Margit Bak Jensen
Today, we see a growing concern for the quality of life of nonhuman animals and an accompanying call for viable means of assessing how well animals thrive. Past research focused on minimizing negatives such as stress, while more recent endeavors strive to promote positives such as happiness. But what is animal happiness? Although often mentioned, the term lacks a clear definition. With recent advances in the study of animal emotion, current interest into positive rather than negative experiences, and the call for captive and domesticated animals to have good lives, the time is ripe to examine the concept of animal happiness...
October 22, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Nathan J Wispinski, Jason P Gallivan, Craig S Chapman
Decision making is a fundamental cognitive function, which not only determines our day-to-day choices but also shapes the trajectories of our movements, our lives, and our societies. While immense progress has been made in recent years on our understanding of the mechanisms underlying decision making, research on this topic is still largely split into two halves. Good-based models largely state that decisions are made between representations of abstract value associated with available options; while action-based models largely state that decisions are made at the level of action representations...
October 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Stefan Brönnimann, Olivia Martius, Christian Rohr, David N Bresch, Kuan-Hui Elaine Lin
Weather- and climate-related hazards are responsible for monetary losses, material damages, and societal consequences. Quantifying related risks is, therefore, an important societal task, particularly in view of future climate change. For this task, climate risk assessment increasingly uses model chains, which mainly build on data from the last few decades. The past record of events could play a role in this context. New numerical techniques can make use of historical weather data to simulate impacts quantitatively...
October 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Maria Nieves Garcia-Casal, Robin Mowson, Lisa Rogers, Ruben Grajeda
The excessive consumption of certain vitamins and minerals could have deleterious consequences on health and development of individuals and populations. Simultaneous micronutrient-delivery interventions could be challenging in terms of safety as the target populations may overlap, posing a risk of excessive intake of certain micronutrients. The Evidence and Programme Guidance Unit of the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development of the World Health Organization convened a technical consultation on the risk of excessive intake of vitamins and minerals delivered through public health interventions in October 2017...
October 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Karolina Kozak, Aliya M Lucatch, Darby J E Lowe, Iris M Balodis, James MacKillop, Tony P George
Impulsivity is strongly associated with substance use disorders (SUDs). Our review discusses impulsivity as an underlying vulnerability marker for SUDs, and treatment of co-occurring impulsivity in SUDs. Three factors should be considered for the complex relationship between impulsivity and a SUD: (1) the trait effect of impulsivity, centering on decreased cognitive and response inhibition, (2) the state effect resulting from either acute or chronic substance use on brain structure and function, and (3) the genetic and environmental factors (e...
October 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Shira Rebecca Saul, Nathan Kase
The negative health consequences of age and the postmenopausal hypoestrogenic state and their clinical management are described in this paper. While some dysfunctional elements are irreversibly entrained, others can be modified by an updated menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) strategy reflecting revision and reassessment of the initial Women's Health Initiative (WHI) reports. However, until that positive outcome is realized, menopausal women and their healthcare providers must re-establish willingness to utilize these effective strategies...
October 4, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Chisela Kaliwile, Erick Boy, Muhammad A Dhansay, Martha E van Stuijvenberg
Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a serious public health problem, especially in preschool children who are at risk of increased mortality. In order to address this problem, the World Health Organization recommends periodic high-dose supplementation to children 6-59 months of age in areas of highest risk. Originally, supplementation was meant as a short-term solution until more sustainable interventions could be adopted. Currently, many countries are fortifying commercialized common staple and snack foods with retinyl palmitate...
September 28, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Tarmo Ketola, Ilkka Kronholm
Environments are changing rapidly, and to cope with these changes, organisms have to adapt. Adaptation can take many shapes and occur at different speeds, depending on the type of response, the trait, the population, and the environmental conditions. The biodiversity crisis that we are currently facing illustrates that numerous species and populations are not capable of adapting with sufficient speed to ongoing environmental changes. Here, we discuss current knowledge on the ability of animals and plants to adapt to environmental stress on different timescales, mainly focusing on thermal stress and ectotherms...
September 27, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Michael G Dieterle, Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young
Clostridium difficile is the leading infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. C. difficile infection (CDI) places a heavy burden on the healthcare system, with nearly half a million infections yearly and an approximate 20% recurrence risk after successful initial therapy. The high incidence has driven new research on improved prevention such as the emerging use of probiotics, intestinal microbiome manipulation during antibiotic therapies, vaccinations, and newer antibiotics that reduce the disruption of the intestinal microbiome...
September 21, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Alexandre M Ramos, Ross C Blamey, Iago Algarra, Raquel Nieto, Luis Gimeno, Ricardo Tomé, Chris J C Reason, Ricardo M Trigo
A Lagrangian analysis is applied to identify the main moisture source areas associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) making landfall along the west coast of South Africa during the extended austral winter months from 1980 to 2014. The results show that areas that provide the anomalous uptake of moisture can be categorized into four regions: (1) the South Atlantic Ocean between 10°S and 30°S, (2) a clear local maximum in the eastern South Atlantic, (3) a continental source of anomalous uptake to the north of the Western Cape, and (4) over South America at a distance of more than 7000 km from the target region...
September 18, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
BaekSun Kim, Heh-In Im
It has long been recognized that the dorsal striatum is an essential brain region for control of action selection based on action-outcome contingency learning, particularly when the available actions are bound to rewarding outcomes. In principle, intertemporal choice in the delay-discounting task-a validated measure of choice impulsivity-involves reward-associated actions that require the recruitment of the dorsal striatum. Here, we conjecture about ways the dorsal striatum is involved in choice impulsivity...
September 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Shashank Ghai, Gerd Schmitz, Tong-Hun Hwang, Alfred O Effenberg
Our study analyzed the effects of real-time auditory feedback on intermodal learning during a bilateral knee repositioning task. Thirty healthy participants were randomly allocated to control and experimental groups. Participants performed an active knee joint repositioning task for the four target angles (20°, 40°, 60°, and 80°) bilaterally, with or without additional real-time auditory feedback. Here, the frequency of auditory feedback was mapped to the knee's angle range (0-90°). Retention measurements were performed on the same four angles, without auditory feedback, after 15 min and 24 hours...
September 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sai Krishna Athuluri-Divakar, Yujin Hoshida
Chronic fibrotic liver disease caused by viral or metabolic etiologies is a high-risk condition for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even after curative treatment of early-stage HCC tumor, the carcinogenic microenvironment persists in the remnant diseased liver and supports the development of de novo HCC tumors (de novo HCC recurrence). Therefore, prevention of HCC development in patients at risk of not only first-primary but also second-primary HCC tumors is theoretically the most impactful strategy to improve patient prognosis...
September 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Xi Gu, Jinqi Xue, Liping Ai, Lisha Sun, Xudong Zhu, Yulun Wang, Caigang Liu
Staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing 1 (SND1) expression is crucial for breast cancer metastasis; however, the clinical implications of SND1 expression in breast cancer remain unclear. This study investigated the relationship of SND1 protein expression both with metastasis and the prognoses of 144 breast cancer patients over a 10-year follow-up. Chi-square tests revealed that the percentages of positive SND1 expression in breast cancer tumors were significantly associated with larger tumor size (>2 cm, P = 0...
September 14, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Suzanne S Gisbertz, Eliza R C Hagens, Jelle P Ruurda, Paul M Schneider, Li Jie Tan, Sergey A Domrachev, Jens Hoeppner, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen
Esophageal surgery for esophageal cancer has been performed for over a century now. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) was first described in 1992, and it is now a standard approach in many countries. However, MIE is technically difficult and requires a long learning curve. It takes >100 cases to train for MIE with gastric tube reconstruction with an intrathoracic anastomosis. A possible option to overcome several challenges of MIE might be the use of a robotic system. A robot-assisted MIE was first described in 2005, and long-term results have shown its feasibility and safety...
September 7, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Mickael Chevallay, Elfriede Bollschweiler, Servarayan M Chandramohan, Thomas Schmidt, Oliver Koch, Giovanni Demanzoni, Stefan Mönig, William Allum
Management of gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma is a controversial topic. The rising incidence of this cancer requires a clear consensus to ensure proper management. Application of oncological principles for tumors of the esophagus or stomach is not possible because of comparative differences in the biology of GEJ adenocarcinoma, leading to different therapeutic options. Staging work-up with endoscopy, endosonography, and PET is essential to inform the choice of neoadjuvant treatment and surgical approach to GEJ adenocarcinoma...
August 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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