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Social Studies of Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676208/tactics-of-material-participation-how-patients-shape-their-engagement-through-e-health
#1
Karen Dam Nielsen, Henriette Langstrup
The increasingly popular goal of 'patient participation' comes with a conceptual vagueness, at times rendering it an all-too flexible political trope or platitude and, in practice, resulting in unclear invitations to patients. We seek to open up the alluring yet troubling figure of patient participation, by inquiring into how patients enact participation in different ways. Based on close ethnographic engagement in a user test of the e-health system P-Record, we show how a group of heart patients shaped their participation along three lines of tactics of material participation: 'activism', 'partnership' and 'compliance'...
April 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669445/-the-biggest-legal-battle-in-uk-casino-history-processes-and-politics-of-cheating-in-sociotechnical-networks
#2
Mark R Johnson
Previous literature on cheating has focused on defining the concept, assigning responsibility to individual players, collaborative social processes or technical faults in a game's rules. By contrast, this paper applies an actor-network perspective to understanding 'cheating' in games, and explores how the concept is rhetorically effective in sociotechnical controversies. The article identifies human and nonhuman actors whose interests and properties were translated in a case study of 'edge sorting' - identifying minor but crucial differences in tessellated patterns on the backs of playing cards, and using these to estimate their values...
April 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648504/creating-energy-citizenship-through-material-participation
#3
Marianne Ryghaug, Tomas Moe Skjølsvold, Sara Heidenreich
Transitions towards low-carbon energy systems will be comprehensive and demanding, requiring substantial public support. One important contribution from STS is to highlight the roles of citizens and public engagement. Until recently, energy users have often been treated as customers and passive market actors, or as recipients of technology at the margins of centralized systems. With respect to the latter role, critical or hesitant public action has been explained in terms of NIMBYism and knowledge deficits...
April 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600723/-civil-skepticism-and-the-social-construction-of-knowledge-a-case-in-dendroclimatology
#4
Meritxell Ramírez-I-Ollé
Early Science and Technology Studies (STS) scholars recognized that the social construction of knowledge depends on skepticism's parasitic relationship to background expectations and trust. Subsequent generations have paid less empirical attention to skepticism in science and its relationship with trust. I seek to rehabilitate skepticism in STS - particularly, Merton's view of skepticism as a scientific norm sustained by trust among status peers - with a study of what I call 'civil skepticism'. The empirical grounding is a case in contemporary dendroclimatology and the development of a method ('Blue Intensity') for generating knowledge about climate change from trees...
March 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570040/chemical-warfare-in-colombia-evidentiary-ecologies-and-senti-actuando-practices-of-justice
#5
Kristina Lyons
Between 1994 and 2015, militarized aerial fumigation was a central component of US-Colombia antidrug policy. Crop duster planes sprayed a concentrated formula of Monsanto's herbicide, glyphosate, over illicit crops, and also forests, soils, pastures, livestock, watersheds, subsistence food and human bodies. Given that a national peace agreement was signed in 2016 between FARC-EP guerrillas and the state to end Colombia's over five decades of war, certain government officials are quick to proclaim aerial fumigation of glyphosate an issue of the past...
March 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564959/how-experiments-age-gerontology-beagles-and-species-projection-at-davis
#6
Brad Bolman
Cold War curiosities about the dangers of radiation generated significant funding for an array of biomedical projects as enticing as they were unpredictable, introducing newly standardized experimental animals into laboratories and a novel merging of scientific disciplines. The desire to understand radiation's effects on human longevity spurred a multi-sited, multi-decade project that subjected beagle dogs to varying degrees of irradiation. One of those laboratories, located at the southern tip of the campus of the University of California, Davis, eventually hosted an elaborate experimental breeding kennel and a population of 'control' dogs that set new milestones for canine longevity...
March 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726810/algorithmic-psychometrics-and-the-scalable-subject
#7
Luke Stark
Recent public controversies, ranging from the 2014 Facebook 'emotional contagion' study to psychographic data profiling by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 American presidential election, Brexit referendum and elsewhere, signal watershed moments in which the intersecting trajectories of psychology and computer science have become matters of public concern. The entangled history of these two fields grounds the application of applied psychological techniques to digital technologies, and an investment in applying calculability to human subjectivity...
April 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726809/the-future-s-of-open-science
#8
Philip Mirowski
Almost everyone is enthusiastic that 'open science' is the wave of the future. Yet when one looks seriously at the flaws in modern science that the movement proposes to remedy, the prospect for improvement in at least four areas are unimpressive. This suggests that the agenda is effectively to re-engineer science along the lines of platform capitalism, under the misleading banner of opening up science to the masses.
April 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424285/shifting-syndromes-sex-chromosome-variations-and-intersex-classifications
#9
David Andrew Griffiths
The 2006 'Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders' recommended moving to a new classification of intersex variations, framed in terms of 'disorders of sex development' or DSD. Part of the rationale for this change was to move away from associations with gender, and to increase clarity by grounding the classification system in genetics. While the medical community has largely accepted the move, some individuals from intersex activist communities have condemned it. In addition, people both inside and outside the medical community have disagreed about what should be covered by the classification system, in particular whether sex chromosome variations and the related diagnoses of Turner and Klinefelter's syndromes should be included...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424284/puncturing-the-pipeline-do-technology-companies-alienate-women-in-recruiting-sessions
#10
Alison T Wynn, Shelley J Correll
A 'chilly' environment limits women's advancement through the educational pipeline leading to jobs in science and technology. However, we know relatively little about the environment women encounter after making it through the educational pipeline. Do technology companies create environments that may dampen women's interest at the juncture when they are launching their careers? Using original observational data from 84 recruiting sessions hosted by technology companies at a prominent university on the US West Coast, we find that company representatives often engage in behaviors that are known to create a chilly environment for women...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380673/the-new-watchdogs-vision-of-science-a-roundtable-with-ivan-oransky-retraction-watch-and-brandon-stell-pubpeer
#11
Emmanuel Didier, Catherine Guaspare-Cartron
On March 3rd, 2016, the authors of this note hosted a conference entitled 'Destabilized Science' at the University of California, Los Angeles, to which we invited two representatives of core actors within the new science watchdog pack: Ivan Oransky, co-founder in 2010 of Retraction Watch, and Brandon Stell, co-founder in 2012 of PubPeer. After the formal conference, we organized a roundtable to discuss these invitees' experience and their vision of contemporary science. Mario Biagioli (University of California, Davis), Michael Chwe (UCLA) and Aaron Panofsky (UCLA) participated to the conversation...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316862/-we-ve-been-here-for-2-000-years-white-settlers-native-american-dna-and-the-phenomenon-of-indigenization
#12
Darryl Leroux
Relying on a populace well-educated in family history based in ancestral genealogy, a robust national genomics sector has developed in Québec over the past decade-and-a-half. The same period roughly coincides with a fourfold increase in the number of individuals and organizations in the region self-identifying with a mixed-race form of indigeneity that is counter to existing Indigenous understandings of kinship and citizenship. This paper examines how recent efforts by genetic scientists, working on a multi-year research project on the 'diversity' of the Québec gene pool, intervene in complex settler-Indigenous relations by redefining indigeneity according to the logics of 'Native American DNA'...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316861/cultures-of-caring-healthcare-scandals-inquiries-and-the-remaking-of-accountabilities
#13
Dawn Goodwin
In the UK, a series of high-profile healthcare 'scandals' and subsequent inquiries repeatedly point to the pivotal role culture plays in producing and sustaining healthcare failures. Inquiries are a sociotechnology of accountability that signal a shift in how personal accountabilities of healthcare professionals are being configured. In focusing on problematic organizational cultures, these inquiries acknowledge, make visible, and seek to distribute a collective responsibility for healthcare failures. In this article, I examine how the output of one particular inquiry - The Report of the Morecambe Bay Investigation - seeks to make culture visible and accountable...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290151/sticky-technologies-plumpy-nut-%C3%A2-emergency-feeding-and-the-viscosity-of-humanitarian-design
#14
Tom Scott-Smith
Inspired by de Laet and Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwean Bush Pump and Peter Redfield's revival of fluidity as a central characteristic of humanitarian design, this paper argues that many humanitarian technologies are characterized not so much by fluidity as by stickiness. Sticky technologies lie somewhere between fluid technologies and Latourian immutable mobiles: They work precisely because they are mobile and not overly adaptable, yet they retain some flexibility by reaching out to shape and be shaped by their users...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199547/from-ships-to-robots-the-social-relations-of-sensing-the-world-ocean
#15
Jessica Lehman
The dominant practices of physical oceanography have recently shifted from being based on ship-based ocean sampling and sensing to being based on remote and robotic sensing using satellites, drifting floats and remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles. What are the implications of this change for the social relations of oceanographic science? This paper contributes to efforts to address this question, pursuing a situated view of ocean sensing technologies so as to contextualize and analyze new representations of the sea, and interactions between individual scientists, technologies and the ocean...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160165/machine-learning-social-learning-and-the-governance-of-self-driving-cars
#16
Jack Stilgoe
Self-driving cars, a quintessentially 'smart' technology, are not born smart. The algorithms that control their movements are learning as the technology emerges. Self-driving cars represent a high-stakes test of the powers of machine learning, as well as a test case for social learning in technology governance. Society is learning about the technology while the technology learns about society. Understanding and governing the politics of this technology means asking 'Who is learning, what are they learning and how are they learning?' Focusing on the successes and failures of social learning around the much-publicized crash of a Tesla Model S in 2016, I argue that trajectories and rhetorics of machine learning in transport pose a substantial governance challenge...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143591/the-machine-in-the-market-computers-and-the-infrastructure-of-price-at-the-new-york-stock-exchange-1965-1975
#17
Devin Kennedy
This article traces the development and expansion of early computer systems for managing and disseminating 'real-time' market data at the most influential stock market in the United States, the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). It follows electronic media at the NYSE over a roughly ten-year period, from the time of the deployment of a computer called the Market Data System (MDS) through debates surrounding the National Market System and the passage of the 1975 Securities Acts Amendments. Building on research at the archives of the NYSE and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), this history emphasizes the regulatory and managerial contexts in which market data became computerized...
December 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950802/we-get-the-algorithms-of-our-ground-truths-designing-referential-databases-in-digital-image-processing
#18
Florian Jaton
This article documents the practical efforts of a group of scientists designing an image-processing algorithm for saliency detection. By following the actors of this computer science project, the article shows that the problems often considered to be the starting points of computational models are in fact provisional results of time-consuming, collective and highly material processes that engage habits, desires, skills and values. In the project being studied, problematization processes lead to the constitution of referential databases called 'ground truths' that enable both the effective shaping of algorithms and the evaluation of their performances...
December 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082830/hackers-against-technology-critique-and-recuperation-in-technological-cycles
#19
Maxigas
I offer an interpretation of hackers' technological choices through a theoretical framework of critique and recuperation in technological cycles, building on prior research that brings the pragmatic sociology of Boltanski and Chiapello to bear on matters in Science and Technology Studies. I argue that contextualizing technology choices in the development of capitalism through innovation illuminates their political significance. I start with the counterintuitive observation that some browser extensions popular with hackers, like RequestPolicy, make it considerably harder for them to look at websites...
October 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034796/no-funeral-bells-public-reason-in-a-post-truth-age
#20
Sheila Jasanoff, Hilton R Simmet
The label 'post-truth' signals for many a troubling turn away from principles of enlightened government. The word 'post', moreover, implies a past when things were radically different and whose loss should be universally mourned. In this paper, we argue that this framing of 'post-truth' is flawed because it is ahistorical and ignores the co-production of knowledge and norms in political contexts. Debates about public facts are necessarily debates about social meanings, rooted in realities that are subjectively experienced as all-encompassing and complete, even when they are partial and contingent...
October 2017: Social Studies of Science
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