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Social Studies of Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199547/from-ships-to-robots-the-social-relations-of-sensing-the-world-ocean
#1
Jessica Lehman
The dominant practices of physical oceanography have recently shifted from being based on ship-based ocean sampling and sensing to being based on remote and robotic sensing using satellites, drifting floats and remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles. What are the implications of this change for the social relations of oceanographic science? This paper contributes to efforts to address this question, pursuing a situated view of ocean sensing technologies so as to contextualize and analyze new representations of the sea, and interactions between individual scientists, technologies and the ocean...
December 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160165/machine-learning-social-learning-and-the-governance-of-self-driving-cars
#2
Jack Stilgoe
Self-driving cars, a quintessentially 'smart' technology, are not born smart. The algorithms that control their movements are learning as the technology emerges. Self-driving cars represent a high-stakes test of the powers of machine learning, as well as a test case for social learning in technology governance. Society is learning about the technology while the technology learns about society. Understanding and governing the politics of this technology means asking 'Who is learning, what are they learning and how are they learning?' Focusing on the successes and failures of social learning around the much-publicized crash of a Tesla Model S in 2016, I argue that trajectories and rhetorics of machine learning in transport pose a substantial governance challenge...
November 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082830/hackers-against-technology-critique-and-recuperation-in-technological-cycles
#3
Maxigas
I offer an interpretation of hackers' technological choices through a theoretical framework of critique and recuperation in technological cycles, building on prior research that brings the pragmatic sociology of Boltanski and Chiapello to bear on matters in Science and Technology Studies. I argue that contextualizing technology choices in the development of capitalism through innovation illuminates their political significance. I start with the counterintuitive observation that some browser extensions popular with hackers, like RequestPolicy, make it considerably harder for them to look at websites...
October 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143591/the-machine-in-the-market-computers-and-the-infrastructure-of-price-at-the-new-york-stock-exchange-1965-1975
#4
Devin Kennedy
This article traces the development and expansion of early computer systems for managing and disseminating 'real-time' market data at the most influential stock market in the United States, the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). It follows electronic media at the NYSE over a roughly ten-year period, from the time of the deployment of a computer called the Market Data System (MDS) through debates surrounding the National Market System and the passage of the 1975 Securities Acts Amendments. Building on research at the archives of the NYSE and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), this history emphasizes the regulatory and managerial contexts in which market data became computerized...
December 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034796/no-funeral-bells-public-reason-in-a-post-truth-age
#5
Sheila Jasanoff, Hilton R Simmet
The label 'post-truth' signals for many a troubling turn away from principles of enlightened government. The word 'post', moreover, implies a past when things were radically different and whose loss should be universally mourned. In this paper, we argue that this framing of 'post-truth' is flawed because it is ahistorical and ignores the co-production of knowledge and norms in political contexts. Debates about public facts are necessarily debates about social meanings, rooted in realities that are subjectively experienced as all-encompassing and complete, even when they are partial and contingent...
October 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034794/transmissions
#7
Sergio Sismondo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641502/ordering-theories-typologies-and-conceptual-frameworks-for-sociotechnical-change
#8
Benjamin K Sovacool, David J Hess
What theories or concepts are most useful at explaining socio technical change? How can - or cannot - these be integrated? To provide an answer, this study presents the results from 35 semi-structured research interviews with social science experts who also shared more than two hundred articles, reports and books on the topic of the acceptance, adoption, use, or diffusion of technology. This material led to the identification of 96 theories and conceptual approaches spanning 22 identified disciplines. The article begins by explaining its research terms and methods before honing in on a combination of fourteen theories deemed most relevant and useful by the material...
October 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639539/foreskin-and-the-molecular-politics-of-risk
#9
Aaron T Norton
In this paper, I examine disputes over recent claims that male circumcision reduces HIV risk to suggest a complicated relationship between risk individualization and categorization. Whereas randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in sub-Saharan Africa appear to have provided key evidence for the World Health Organization's endorsement of male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy, RCTs alone did not provide evidence for the underlying causal mechanism. For that, medical authorities have turned to histo-immunological studies of the foreskin's biomolecular vulnerability to HIV, thus molecularizing risk...
October 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950802/we-get-the-algorithms-of-our-ground-truths-designing-referential-databases-in-digital-image-processing
#10
Florian Jaton
This article documents the practical efforts of a group of scientists designing an image-processing algorithm for saliency detection. By following the actors of this computer science project, the article shows that the problems often considered to be the starting points of computational models are in fact provisional results of time-consuming, collective and highly material processes that engage habits, desires, skills and values. In the project being studied, problematization processes lead to the constitution of referential databases called 'ground truths' that enable both the effective shaping of algorithms and the evaluation of their performances...
September 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914174/-dis-entangling-barad-materialisms-and-ethics
#11
Gregory Hollin, Isla Forsyth, Eva Giraud, Tracey Potts
In the wake of the widespread uptake of and debate surrounding the work of Karen Barad, this article revisits her core conceptual contributions. We offer descriptions, elaborations, problematizations and provocations for those intrigued by or invested in this body of work. We examine Barad's use of quantum physics, which underpins her conception of the material world. We discuss the political strengths of this position but also note tensions associated with applying quantum physics to phenomena at macro-scales...
September 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825361/climate-state-science-state-struggles-and-the-formation-of-climate-science-in-the-us-from-the-1930s-to-1960s
#12
Zeke Baker
This article has two aims: first, to understand the co-production of climate science and the state, and second, to provide a test case for Pierre Bourdieu's field theory. To these ends, the article reconstructs the historical formation of a US climate science field, with an analytic focus on inter-field dynamics and heterogeneous networking practices. Drawing from primary- and secondary-source materials, the historical analysis focuses on relations between scientists and state actors from the 1930s to the 1960s...
August 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820018/evidence-based-creativity-working-between-art-and-science-in-the-field-of-fine-dining
#13
Chad Borkenhagen
This article examines how scientific knowledge drives creativity in the small but influential culinary movement of 'modernist cuisine'. Originating in the mid-1990s, modernist cuisine began with a small group of avant-garde chefs using science to produce wildly innovative culinary creations. Since then, many of the movement's innovations, as well as its more general 'science-based' approach to cooking, have gained adoption among a diverse range of culinary professionals. But while science has enabled modernist chefs to produce a wide array of innovations and refinements, the group's embrace of scientific values poses a potential threat to the subjective, intuition-driven logic of culinary creativity...
August 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791930/sts-symmetry-and-post-truth
#14
Michael Lynch
This essay takes up a series of questions about the connection between 'symmetry' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) and 'post-truth' in contemporary politics. A recent editorial in this journal by Sergio Sismondo argues that current discussions of 'post-truth' have little to do with conceptions of 'symmetry' or with concerns about 'epistemic democracy' in STS, while others, such as Steve Fuller and Harry Collins, insist that there are such connections. The present essay discusses a series of questions about the meaning of 'post-truth' and 'symmetry', and the connections of those concepts to each other and to 'epistemic democracy'...
August 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791929/-anyone-can-edit-not-everyone-does-wikipedia-s-infrastructure-and-the-gender-gap
#15
Heather Ford, Judy Wajcman
Feminist STS has long established that science's provenance as a male domain continues to define what counts as knowledge and expertise. Wikipedia, arguably one of the most powerful sources of information today, was initially lauded as providing the opportunity to rebuild knowledge institutions by providing greater representation of multiple groups. However, less than ten percent of Wikipedia editors are women. At one level, this imbalance in contributions and therefore content is yet another case of the masculine culture of technoscience...
August 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791928/casting-a-wider-net-a-reply-to-collins-evans-and-weinel
#16
Sergio Sismondo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791927/from-just-the-facts-to-more-theory-and-methods-please-the-evolution-of-the-research-article-in-administrative-science-quarterly-1956-2008
#17
David Strang, Kyle Siler
This paper analyzes the surface structure of research articles published in Administrative Science Quarterly between 1956 and 2008. The period is marked by a shift from essays that interweave theory, methods and results to experimental reports that separate them. There is dramatic growth in the size of theory, methods and discussion sections, accompanied by a shrinking results section. Bibliographic references and hypotheses expand in number and become concentrated in theory sections. Article structure varies primarily with historical time and also with research design (broadly, quantitative vs...
August 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791926/the-science-of-value-economic-expertise-and-the-valuation-of-human-life-in-us-federal-regulatory-agencies
#18
Katherine Hood
This article explores efforts to apply economic logic to human life. To do so, it looks at federal regulatory agencies, where government planners and policy makers have spent over a century trying to devise a scientifically sound way to measure the economic value of lives lost or saved by public programs. The methods they have drawn on, however, have changed drastically in the past 40 years, shifting from a 'human capital' approach based on models of economic productivity and producing relatively low dollar values to a 'willingness-to-pay' approach reflecting consumer choice and producing much higher values...
August 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791925/modernizing-the-flow-of-blood-biomedical-technicians-working-knowledge-and-the-transformation-of-swedish-blood-centre-practices
#19
Boel Berner, Maria Björkman
The early 1980s saw a 'paradigm change' in how donated blood was handled and used by blood centres, hospitals and pharmaceutical companies. In Sweden, a five-year state-financed R&D programme initiated a swift modernization process, an alleged 'revolution' of existing blood centre practices. In this article, we use interviews and archival material to analyse the role of female biomedical technicians in this rapid technical and organizational change. In focus is their working knowledge, or savoir-faire, of blood, instruments and techniques...
August 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782432/affect-technoscience-and-textual-analysis-interrogating-the-affective-dynamics-of-the-zika-epidemic-through-media-texts
#20
Venla Oikkonen
Science and Technology Studies has become increasingly interested in the roles of affect and emotions in science and technology. Researchers have examined, for example, emotions in the production of scientific knowledge, patients' or users' affective experiences of technologies, and emotionally charged cultural representations of science. However, less attention has been paid to the underlying affective dynamics that connect these sites, experiences and representations. This article builds on the premises that, first, unpacking these underlying affective dynamics is pivotal to understanding emerging technoscientific phenomena, and, second, that such affective dynamics often need to be accessed through cultural texts such as media...
August 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
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