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Brain and Language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145029/captive-gorillas-manual-laterality-the-impact-of-gestures-manipulators-and-interaction-specificity
#1
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Simone Pika
Relationships between humans' manual laterality in non-communicative and communicative functions are still poorly understood. Recently, studies showed that chimpanzees' manual laterality is influenced by functional, interactional and individual factors and their mutual intertwinement. However, what about manual laterality in species living in stable social groups? We tackled this question by studying three groups of captive gorillas (N=35) and analysed their most frequent manual signals: three manipulators and 16 gesture types...
November 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132048/brain-white-matter-structure-and-language-ability-in-preschool-aged-children
#2
Matthew Walton, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5.6 years who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and participated in assessments of Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography revealed relationships between Phonological Processing and diffusion parameters in bilateral ventral white matter pathways and the corpus callosum...
November 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128550/neural-correlates-of-quantity-processing-of-chinese-numeral-classifiers
#3
One-Soon Her, Ying-Chun Chen, Nai-Shing Yen
Linguistic analysis suggests that numeral classifiers carry quantity information. However, previous neuroimaging studies have shown that classifiers did not elicit higher activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), associated with representation of numerical magnitude, than tool nouns did. This study aimed to control the semantic attributes of classifiers and reexamine the underlying neural correlates. Participants performed a semantic distance comparison task in which they judged which one of the two items was semantically closer to the target...
November 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125966/stopping-and-slowing-manual-and-spoken-responses-similar-oscillatory-signatures-recorded-from-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#4
Ayda Ghahremani, Jan R Wessel, Kaviraja Udupa, Bogdan Neagu, Ping Zhuang, Utpal Saha, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, Adam R Aron, Robert Chen
Response control in the forms of stopping and slowing responses is thought to be implemented by a frontal-subcortical network, which includes the subthalamic nucleus (STN). For manual control, stopping is linked to STN beta (13-30 Hz) and slowing responses are linked to lower frequencies (<12 Hz). Whether similar STN oscillatory activities are associated with the control of spoken responses is not clear. We studied 16 patients with STN LFP recordings during manual and vocal stop signal tasks in two experiments...
November 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102823/neural-correlates-for-naming-disadvantage-of-the-dominant-language-in-bilingual-word-production
#5
Yongben Fu, Di Lu, Chunyan Kang, Junjie Wu, Fengyang Ma, Guosheng Ding, Taomei Guo
The present study investigated the neural correlates of naming disadvantage of the dominant language under the mixed language context. Twenty one unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals completed a cued picture naming task while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results showed that naming pictures in the second lanuage (L2) was significantly slower than naming pictures in the first language (L1) under a single language context. When comparing picture naming in L2 to naming in L1, enhanced activity in the left inferior parietal lobule and left cerebellum was observed...
November 2, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078151/representation-and-processing-of-multi-word-expressions-in-the-brain
#6
Anna Siyanova-Chanturia, Kathy Conklin, Sendy Caffarra, Edith Kaan, Walter J B van Heuven
Language comprehension is sensitive to the predictability of the upcoming information. Prediction allows for smooth, expedient and successful communication. While general discourse-based constraints have been investigated in detail, more specific phrase-level prediction has received little attention. We address this gap by exploring the ERPs elicited during the comprehension of English binomials - familiar and predictable multi-word expressions. In Experiment 1a, participants read binomial expressions (knife and fork), infrequent strongly associated phrases (spoon and fork), and semantic violations (theme and fork)...
October 24, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059544/neural-oscillatory-mechanisms-during-novel-grammar-learning-underlying-language-analytical-abilities
#7
Olga Kepinska, Ernesto Pereda, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
The goal of the present study was to investigate the initial phases of novel grammar learning on a neural level, concentrating on mechanisms responsible for individual variability between learners. Two groups of participants, one with high and one with average language analytical abilities, performed an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task consisting of learning and test phases. During the task, EEG signals from 32 cap-mounted electrodes were recorded and epochs corresponding to the learning phases were analysed...
October 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059543/spread-the-word-mmn-brain-response-reveals-whole-form-access-of-discontinuous-particle-verbs
#8
Jeff Hanna, Bert Cappelle, Friedemann Pulvermüller
The status of particle verbs such as rise (…) up as either lexically stored or combinatorially assembled is an issue which so far has not been settled decisively. In this study, we use the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to observe neurophysiological responses to discontinuous particle verbs. The MMN can be used to distinguish between whole-form storage and combinatorial processes, as it is enhanced to stored words compared to unknown pseudowords, whereas combinatorially legal strings elicit a reduced MMN relative to ungrammatical ones...
October 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045921/commonalities-and-differences-in-the-neural-representations-of-english-portuguese-and-mandarin-sentences-when-knowledge-of-the-brain-language-mappings-for-two-languages-is-better-than-one
#9
Ying Yang, Jing Wang, Cyntia Bailer, Vladimir Cherkassky, Marcel Adam Just
This study extended cross-language semantic decoding (based on a concept's fMRI signature) to the decoding of sentences across three different languages (English, Portuguese and Mandarin). A classifier was trained on either the mapping between words and activation patterns in one language or the mappings in two languages (using an equivalent amount of training data), and then tested on its ability to decode the semantic content of a third language. The model trained on two languages was reliably more accurate than a classifier trained on one language for all three pairs of languages...
October 15, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024845/intracerebral-stimulation-of-left-and-right-ventral-temporal-cortex-during-object-naming
#10
Line Bédos Ulvin, Jacques Jonas, Hélène Brissart, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Anne Thiriaux, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Louis Maillard
While object naming is traditionally considered asa left hemisphere function, neuroimaging studies have reported activations related to naming in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) bilaterally. Our aim was to use intracerebral electrical stimulation to specifically compare left and right VTC in naming. In twenty-three epileptic patients tested for visual object naming during stimulation, the proportion of naming impairments was significantly higher in the left than in the right VTC (31.3% vs 13.6%). The highest proportions of positive naming sites were found in the left fusiform gyrus and occipito-temporal sulcus (47...
October 9, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020645/neural-correlates-of-the-lexicality-effect-in-children
#11
Yael Weiss, James R Booth
The comparison of words and pseudowords has been extensively used in adult neuroimaging studies to inform neurocognitive models of reading but has rarely been used to inform models of reading acquisition. Using a rhyming judgment task, the current study examined age-related differences in the spelling to sound mapping mechanisms involved in word and pseudoword reading. We hypothesized a developmental increase in specialization of the brain mechanisms engaged for word and pseudoword processing. Consistent with adult studies, children in the current study demonstrated a greater activation for words as compared to pseudowords in the anterior left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOT)...
October 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017088/anterior-cingulate-cortex-sulcation-and-its-differential-effects-on-conflict-monitoring-in-bilinguals-and-monolinguals
#12
Arnaud Cachia, Nicola Del Maschio, Gregoire Borst, Pasquale Anthony Della Rosa, Christophe Pallier, Albert Costa, Olivier Houdé, Jubin Abutalebi
The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in modulating the effect of bilingual experience on cognitive control has been reported at both functional and structural neural levels. Individual differences in the ACC sulcal patterns have been recently correlated with cognitive control efficiency in monolinguals. We aimed to investigate whether differences of ACC sulcation mediate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control efficiency. We contrasted the performance of bilinguals and monolinguals during a cognitive control task (i...
October 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992603/sex-steroid-hormones-and-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-levels-cyp17-msp-ai-34t-c-and-cyp19-codon-39-trp-arg-variants-in-children-with-developmental-stuttering
#13
Hiwa Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Zohreh Rahimi, Faezeh Faghihi, Habibolah Khazaie, Hashem Farhangdoost, Masoud Mehrpour
Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS)...
October 6, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987707/epilepsy-language-and-social-skills
#14
REVIEW
Rochelle Caplan
Language and social skills are essential for intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning and quality of life. Since epilepsy impacts these important domains of individuals' functioning, understanding the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the relationship among epilepsy, language, and social skills has important theoretical and clinical implications. This review first describes the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the association between language and social behavior in children and in adults and their relevance for epilepsy...
October 4, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963910/alpha-band-event-related-desynchronization-underlying-social-situational-context-processing-during-irony-comprehension-a-magnetoencephalography-source-localization-study
#15
Yoritaka Akimoto, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Atsuko Gunji, Yuu Kaneko, Michiko Asano, Junko Matsuo, Miho Ota, Hiroshi Kunugi, Takashi Hanakawa, Reiko Mazuka, Yoko Kamio
Irony comprehension requires integration of social contextual information. Previous studies have investigated temporal aspects of irony processing and its neural substrates using psychological/electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging methods, but have not clarified the temporospatial neural mechanisms of irony comprehension. Therefore, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the neural generators of alpha-band (8-13Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) occurring from 600 to 900ms following the onset of a critical sentence at which social situational contexts activated ironic representation...
September 27, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926795/dissociable-intrinsic-functional-networks-support-noun-object-and-verb-action-processing
#16
Huichao Yang, Qixiang Lin, Zaizhu Han, Hongyu Li, Luping Song, Lingjuan Chen, Yong He, Yanchao Bi
The processing mechanism of verbs-actions and nouns-objects is a central topic of language research, with robust evidence for behavioral dissociation. The neural basis for these two major word and/or conceptual classes, however, remains controversial. Two experiments were conducted to study this question from the network perspective. Experiment 1 found that nodes of the same class, obtained through task-evoked brain imaging meta-analyses, were more strongly connected with each other than nodes of different classes during resting-state, forming segregated network modules...
September 18, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917165/cerebellar-induced-differential-polyglot-aphasia-a-neurolinguistic-and-fmri-study
#17
Peter Mariën, Kim van Dun, Johanna Van Dormael, Dorien Vandenborre, Stefanie Keulen, Mario Manto, Jo Verhoeven, Jubin Abutalebi
Research has shown that linguistic functions in the bilingual brain are subserved by similar neural circuits as in monolinguals, but with extra-activity associated with cognitive and attentional control. Although a role for the right cerebellum in multilingual language processing has recently been acknowledged, a potential role of the left cerebellum remains largely unexplored. This paper reports the clinical and fMRI findings in a strongly right-handed (late) multilingual patient who developed differential polyglot aphasia, ataxic dysarthria and a selective decrease in executive function due to an ischemic stroke in the left cerebellum...
September 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899551/relationship-between-neuronal-network-architecture-and-naming-performance-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-connectome-based-approach-using-machine-learning
#18
REVIEW
B C Munsell, G Wu, J Fridriksson, K Thayer, N Mofrad, N Desisto, D Shen, L Bonilha
Impaired confrontation naming is a common symptom of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying this impairment are poorly understood but may indicate a structural disorganization of broadly distributed neuronal networks that support naming ability. Importantly, naming is frequently impaired in other neurological disorders and by contrasting the neuronal structures supporting naming in TLE with other diseases, it will become possible to elucidate the common systems supporting naming...
September 9, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869842/changes-in-intrinsic-local-connectivity-after-reading-intervention-in-children-with-autism
#19
Jose O Maximo, Donna L Murdaugh, Sarah O'Kelley, Rajesh K Kana
Most of the existing behavioral and cognitive intervention programs in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have not been tested at the neurobiological level, thus falling short of finding quantifiable neurobiological changes underlying behavioral improvement. The current study takes a translational neuroimaging approach to test the impact of a structured visual imagery-based reading intervention on improving reading comprehension and assessing its underlying local neural circuitry. Behavioral and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data were collected from children with ASD who were randomly assigned to an Experimental group (ASD-EXP; n=14) and a Wait-list control group (ASD-WLC; n=14)...
September 1, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865283/the-supramarginal-and-angular-gyri-underlie-orthographic-competence-in-spanish-language
#20
Andrés Antonio González-Garrido, Fernando Alejandro Barrios, Fabiola Reveca Gómez-Velázquez, Daniel Zarabozo-Hurtado
Orthographic competence allows automatic word recognition and reading fluency. To elucidate how the orthographic competence in Spanish-speaking adults might affect the neurofunctional mechanisms of visual word recognition, 32 young adults equally divided in two groups (HSS: High Spelling Skills, and LSS: Low Spelling Skills) were evaluated using fMRI methods, while they performed an orthographic recognition task involving pseudohomophones. HSS achieved significantly more correct responses and lower reaction times than LSS...
August 30, 2017: Brain and Language
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