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Brain and Language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912073/dissociable-substrates-underlie-the-production-of-abstract-and-concrete-nouns
#1
Katheryn A Q Cousins, Sharon Ash, David J Irwin, Murray Grossman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912072/lexical-retrieval-and-semantic-memory-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-question-of-noun-and-verb-dissociation
#2
Henrique Salmazo-Silva, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Sheila Rocha, Roberta Roque Baradel, André M Cravo, João Ricardo Sato, Fabio Godinho, Maria Teresa Carthery-Goulart
The dissociation between the processing of verbs and nouns has been debated in light of the Embodied Cognition Theory (EC). The objective of this paper is to verify how action and verb processing deficits of PD patients are modulated by different tasks with different cognitive demands. Action and object lexical-semantic processing was evaluated in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and cognitively healthy controls through three different tasks (verbal fluency, naming and semantic association). Compared to controls, PD patients presented worse performance in naming actions and in the two semantic association tasks (action/object)...
November 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898342/voice-sensitive-brain-networks-encode-talker-specific-phonetic-detail
#3
Emily B Myers, Rachel M Theodore
The speech stream simultaneously carries information about talker identity and linguistic content, and the same acoustic property (e.g., voice-onset-time, or VOT) may be used for both purposes. Separable neural networks for processing talker identity and phonetic content have been identified, but it is unclear how a singular acoustic property is parsed by the neural system for talker identification versus phonetic processing. In the current study, listeners were exposed to two talkers with characteristically different VOTs...
November 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898341/tracking-competition-and-cognitive-control-during-language-comprehension-with-multi-voxel-pattern-analysis
#4
Elizabeth Musz, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
To successfully comprehend a sentence that contains a homonym, readers must select the ambiguous word's context-appropriate meaning. The outcome of this process is influenced both by top-down contextual support and bottom-up, word-specific characteristics. We examined how these factors jointly affect the neural signatures of lexical ambiguity resolution. We measured the similarity between multi-voxel patterns evoked by the same homonym in two distinct linguistic contexts: once after subjects read sentences that biased interpretation toward each homonym's most frequent, dominant meaning, and again after interpretation was biased toward a weaker, subordinate meaning...
November 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894006/distinct-patterns-of-imprecise-consonant-articulation-among-parkinson-s-disease-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#5
Tereza Tykalova, Jan Rusz, Jiri Klempir, Roman Cmejla, Evzen Ruzicka
Distinct speech characteristics that may aid in differentiation between Parkinson's disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) remain tremendously under-explored. Here, the patterns and degree of consonant articulation deficits across voiced and voiceless stop plosives in 16 PD, 16 PSP, 16 MSA and 16 healthy control speakers were evaluated using acoustic and perceptual methods. Imprecise consonant articulation was observed across all Parkinsonian groups. Voice onset time of voiceless plosives was more prolonged in both PSP and MSA compared to PD, presumably due to greater severity of dysarthria and slower articulation rate...
November 25, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838547/neural-substrates-of-sublexical-processing-for-spelling
#6
Andrew T DeMarco, Stephen M Wilson, Kindle Rising, Steven Z Rapcsak, Pélagie M Beeson
We used fMRI to examine the neural substrates of sublexical phoneme-grapheme conversion during spelling in a group of healthy young adults. Participants performed a writing-to-dictation task involving irregular words (e.g., choir), plausible nonwords (e.g., kroid), and a control task of drawing familiar geometric shapes (e.g., squares). Written production of both irregular words and nonwords engaged a left-hemisphere perisylvian network associated with reading/spelling and phonological processing skills. Effects of lexicality, manifested by increased activation during nonword relative to irregular word spelling, were noted in anterior perisylvian regions (posterior inferior frontal gyrus/operculum/precentral gyrus/insula), and in left ventral occipito-temporal cortex...
November 10, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833037/atypical-neural-synchronization-to-speech-envelope-modulations-in-dyslexia
#7
Astrid De Vos, Sophie Vanvooren, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Pol Ghesquière, Jan Wouters
A fundamental deficit in the synchronization of neural oscillations to temporal information in speech could underlie phonological processing problems in dyslexia. In this study, the hypothesis of a neural synchronization impairment is investigated more specifically as a function of different neural oscillatory bands and temporal information rates in speech. Auditory steady-state responses to 4, 10, 20 and 40Hz modulations were recorded in normal reading and dyslexic adolescents to measure neural synchronization of theta, alpha, beta and low-gamma oscillations to syllabic and phonemic rate information...
November 7, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821280/the-hearing-ear-is-always-found-close-to-the-speaking-tongue-review-of-the-role-of-the-motor-system-in-speech-perception
#8
REVIEW
Jeremy I Skipper, Joseph T Devlin, Daniel R Lametti
Does "the motor system" play "a role" in speech perception? If so, where, how, and when? We conducted a systematic review that addresses these questions using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review of behavioural, computational modelling, non-human animal, brain damage/disorder, electrical stimulation/recording, and neuroimaging research suggests that distributed brain regions involved in producing speech play specific, dynamic, and contextually determined roles in speech perception...
November 4, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810647/investigating-the-feasibility-of-using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-enhance-fluency-in-people-who-stutter
#9
Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins, Riikka Möttönen
Developmental stuttering is a disorder of speech fluency affecting 1% of the adult population. Long-term reductions in stuttering are difficult for adults to achieve with behavioural therapies. We investigated whether a single session of transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) could improve fluency in people who stutter (PWS). In separate sessions, either anodal TDCS (1mA for 20min) or sham stimulation was applied over the left inferior frontal cortex while PWS read sentences aloud. Fluency was induced during the stimulation period by using choral speech, that is, participants read in unison with another speaker...
October 31, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810646/the-unbridged-gap-between-clinical-diagnosis-and-contemporary-research-on-aphasia-a-short-discussion-on-the-validity-and-clinical-utility-of-taxonomic-categories
#10
Dimitrios S Kasselimis, Panagiotis G Simos, Christos Peppas, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Constantin Potagas
Even if the traditional aphasia classification is continuously questioned by many scholars, it remains widely accepted among clinicians and included in textbooks as the gold standard. The present study aims to investigate the validity and clinical utility of this taxonomy. For this purpose, 65 left-hemisphere stroke patients were assessed and classified with respect to aphasia type based on performance on a Greek adaptation of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. MRI and/or CT scans were obtained for each patient and lesions were identified and coded according to location...
October 31, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792887/cortico-striatal-language-pathways-dynamically-adjust-for-syntactic-complexity-a-computational-study
#11
Krisztina Szalisznyó, David Silverstein, Marc Teichmann, Hugues Duffau, Anja Smits
A growing body of literature supports a key role of fronto-striatal circuits in language perception. It is now known that the striatum plays a role in engaging attentional resources and linguistic rule computation while also serving phonological short-term memory capabilities. The ventral semantic and the dorsal phonological stream dichotomy assumed for spoken language processing also seems to play a role in cortico-striatal perception. Based on recent studies that correlate deep Broca-striatal pathways with complex syntax performance, we used a previously developed computational model of frontal-striatal syntax circuits and hypothesized that different parallel language pathways may contribute to canonical and non-canonical sentence comprehension separately...
October 25, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701006/incorporation-of-feedback-during-beat-synchronization-is-an-index-of-neural-maturation-and-reading-skills
#12
Kali Woodruff Carr, Ahren B Fitzroy, Adam Tierney, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
Speech communication involves integration and coordination of sensory perception and motor production, requiring precise temporal coupling. Beat synchronization, the coordination of movement with a pacing sound, can be used as an index of this sensorimotor timing. We assessed adolescents' synchronization and capacity to correct asynchronies when given online visual feedback. Variability of synchronization while receiving feedback predicted phonological memory and reading sub-skills, as well as maturation of cortical auditory processing; less variable synchronization during the presence of feedback tracked with maturation of cortical processing of sound onsets and resting gamma activity...
October 1, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694017/subjective-experience-of-inner-speech-in-aphasia-preliminary-behavioral-relationships-and-neural-correlates
#13
Mackenzie E Fama, William Hayward, Sarah F Snider, Rhonda B Friedman, Peter E Turkeltaub
Many individuals with aphasia describe anomia with comments like "I know it but I can't say it." The exact meaning of such phrases is unclear. We hypothesize that at least two discrete experiences exist: the sense of (1) knowing a concept, but failing to find the right word, and (2) saying the correct word internally but not aloud (successful inner speech, sIS). We propose that sIS reflects successful lexical access; subsequent overt anomia indicates post-lexical output deficits. In this pilot study, we probed the subjective experience of anomia in 37 persons with aphasia...
September 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694016/reading-ability-reflects-individual-differences-in-auditory-brainstem-function-even-into-adulthood
#14
Erika Skoe, Lisa Brody, Rachel M Theodore
Research with developmental populations suggests that the maturational state of auditory brainstem encoding is linked to reading ability. Specifically, children with poor reading skills resemble biologically younger children with respect to their auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to speech stimulation. Because ABR development continues into adolescence, it is possible that the link between ABRs and reading ability changes or resolves as the brainstem matures. To examine these possibilities, ABRs were recorded at varying presentation rates in adults with diverse, yet unimpaired reading levels...
September 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693846/grey-matter-volume-differences-in-the-left-caudate-nucleus-of-people-who-stutter
#15
Paul F Sowman, Margaret Ryan, Blake W Johnson, Greg Savage, Stephen Crain, Elisabeth Harrison, Erin Martin, Hana Burianová
The cause of stuttering has many theoretical explanations. A number of research groups have suggested changes in the volume and/or function of the striatum as a causal agent. Two recent studies in children and one in adults who stutter (AWS) report differences in striatal volume compared that seen in controls; however, the laterality and nature of this anatomical volume difference is not consistent across studies. The current study investigated whether a reduction in striatal grey matter volume, comparable to that seen in children who stutter (CWS), would be found in AWS...
September 28, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690125/bilateral-parietal-contributions-to-spatial-language
#16
Julie Conder, Julius Fridriksson, Gordon C Baylis, Cameron M Smith, Timothy W Boiteau, Amit Almor
It is commonly held that language is largely lateralized to the left hemisphere in most individuals, whereas spatial processing is associated with right hemisphere regions. In recent years, a number of neuroimaging studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the role of language and spatial processing areas in processing language about space (e.g., Carpenter, Just, Keller, Eddy, & Thulborn, 1999; Damasio et al., 2001). In the present study, we used sparse scanning event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of spatial language, that is; language used to communicate the spatial relationship of one object to another...
September 27, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690124/effects-of-acoustic-periodicity-intelligibility-and-pre-stimulus-alpha-power-on-the-event-related-potentials-in-response-to-speech
#17
Kurt Steinmetzger, Stuart Rosen
Magneto- and electroencephalographic (M/EEG) signals in response to acoustically degraded speech have been examined by several recent studies. Unambiguously interpreting the results is complicated by the fact that speech signal manipulations affect acoustics and intelligibility alike. In the current EEG study, the acoustic properties of the stimuli were altered and the trials were sorted according to the correctness of the listeners' spoken responses to separate out these two factors. Firstly, more periodicity (i...
September 27, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684988/fluency-tasks-generate-beta-gamma-activity-in-language-related-cortical-areas-of-patients-during-stereo-eeg-monitoring
#18
Chiara Pastori, Stefano Francione, Federica Pelle, Marco de Curtis, Vadym Gnatkovsky
A quantitative method was developed to map cortical areas responsive to cognitive tasks during intracerebral stereo-EEG recording sessions in drug-resistant patients candidate for epilepsy surgery. Frequency power changes were evaluated with a computer-assisted analysis in 7 patients during phonemic fluency tasks. All patients were right-handed and were explored with depth electrodes in the dominant frontal lobe. We demonstrate that fluency tasks enhance beta-gamma frequencies and reduce background activities in language network regions of the dominant hemisphere...
September 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669107/mental-representations-of-vowel-features-asymmetrically-modulate-activity-in-superior-temporal-sulcus
#19
Mathias Scharinger, Ulrike Domahs, Elise Klein, Frank Domahs
Research in auditory neuroscience illustrated the importance of superior temporal sulcus (STS) for speech sound processing. However, evidence for abstract processing beyond the level of phonetics in STS has remained elusive. In this study, we follow an underspecification approach according to which the phonological representation of vowels is based on the presence vs. absence of abstract features. We hypothesized that phonological mismatch in a same/different task is governed by underspecification: A less specified vowel in second position of same/different minimal pairs (e...
September 23, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664779/discourse-comprehension-in-l2-making-sense-of-what-is-not-explicitly-said
#20
Alice Foucart, Carlos Romero-Rivas, Bernharda Lottie Gort, Albert Costa
Using ERPs, we tested whether L2 speakers can integrate multiple sources of information (e.g., semantic, pragmatic information) during discourse comprehension. We presented native speakers and L2 speakers with three-sentence scenarios in which the final sentence was highly causally related, intermediately related, or causally unrelated to its context; its interpretation therefore required simple or complex inferences. Native speakers revealed a gradual N400-like effect, larger in the causally unrelated condition than in the highly related condition, and falling in-between in the intermediately related condition, replicating previous results...
September 21, 2016: Brain and Language
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