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Brain and Language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268943/an-interactive-model-of-auditory-motor-speech-perception
#1
REVIEW
Einat Liebenthal, Riikka Möttönen
Mounting evidence indicates a role in perceptual decoding of speech for the dorsal auditory stream connecting between temporal auditory and frontal-parietal articulatory areas. The activation time course in auditory, somatosensory and motor regions during speech processing is seldom taken into account in models of speech perception. We critically review the literature with a focus on temporal information, and contrast between three alternative models of auditory-motor speech processing: parallel, hierarchical, and interactive...
December 18, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241588/reanalyzing-neurocognitive-data-on-the-role-of-the-motor-system-in-speech-perception-within-cosmo-a-bayesian-perceptuo-motor-model-of-speech-communication
#2
Marie-Lou Barnaud, Pierre Bessière, Julien Diard, Jean-Luc Schwartz
While neurocognitive data provide clear evidence for the involvement of the motor system in speech perception, its precise role and the way motor information is involved in perceptual decision remain unclear. In this paper, we discuss some recent experimental results in light of COSMO, a Bayesian perceptuo-motor model of speech communication. COSMO enables us to model both speech perception and speech production with probability distributions relating phonological units with sensory and motor variables. Speech perception is conceived as a sensory-motor architecture combining an auditory and a motor decoder thanks to a Bayesian fusion process...
December 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223785/cortical-thickness-of-planum-temporale-and-pars-opercularis-in-native-language-tone-processing
#3
Andrea Schremm, Mikael Novén, Merle Horne, Pelle Söderström, Danielle van Westen, Mikael Roll
The present study investigated the relationship between linguistic tone processing and cortical thickness of bilateral planum temporale (PT) and pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFGpo). Swedish tones on word stems function as cues to upcoming endings. Correlating structural brain imaging data with participants' response time patterns for suffixes, we found that thicker cortex in the left PT was associated with greater reliance on tones to anticipate upcoming inflections on real words. On inflected pseudoword stems, however, the cortical thickness of left IFGpo was associated with tone-suffix processing...
December 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175380/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-enhances-sentence-comprehension
#4
Beatrice Giustolisi, Alessandra Vergallito, Carlo Cecchetto, Erica Varoli, Leonor J Romero Lauro
We tested the possibility of enhancing natural language comprehension through the application of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) over the left inferior frontal gyrus, a key region for verbal short-term memory and language comprehension. We designed a between subjects sham- and task-controlled study. During tDCS stimulation, participants performed a sentence to picture matching task in which targets were sentences with different load on short-term memory. Regardless of load on short-term memory, the Anodal group performed significantly better than the Sham group, thus providing evidence that a-tDCS over LIFG enhances natural language comprehension...
November 23, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172074/using-rotated-speech-to-approximate-the-acoustic-mismatch-negativity-response-to-speech
#5
Ellen Marklund, Francisco Lacerda, Iris-Corinna Schwarz
The mismatch negativity (MMN) response is influenced by the magnitude of the acoustic difference between standard and deviant, and the response is typically larger to linguistically relevant changes than to linguistically irrelevant changes. Linguistically relevant changes between standard and deviant typically co-occur with differences between the two acoustic signals. It is therefore not straightforward to determine the contribution of each of those two factors to the MMN response. This study investigated whether spectrally rotated speech can be used to determine the impact of the acoustic difference on the MMN response to a combined linguistic and acoustic change between standard and deviant...
November 21, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145029/captive-gorillas-manual-laterality-the-impact-of-gestures-manipulators-and-interaction-specificity
#6
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Simone Pika
Relationships between humans' manual laterality in non-communicative and communicative functions are still poorly understood. Recently, studies showed that chimpanzees' manual laterality is influenced by functional, interactional and individual factors and their mutual intertwinement. However, what about manual laterality in species living in stable social groups? We tackled this question by studying three groups of captive gorillas (N=35) and analysed their most frequent manual signals: three manipulators and 16 gesture types...
November 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132048/brain-white-matter-structure-and-language-ability-in-preschool-aged-children
#7
Matthew Walton, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5.6 years who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and participated in assessments of Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography revealed relationships between Phonological Processing and diffusion parameters in bilateral ventral white matter pathways and the corpus callosum...
November 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128550/neural-correlates-of-quantity-processing-of-chinese-numeral-classifiers
#8
One-Soon Her, Ying-Chun Chen, Nai-Shing Yen
Linguistic analysis suggests that numeral classifiers carry quantity information. However, previous neuroimaging studies have shown that classifiers did not elicit higher activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), associated with representation of numerical magnitude, than tool nouns did. This study aimed to control the semantic attributes of classifiers and reexamine the underlying neural correlates. Participants performed a semantic distance comparison task in which they judged which one of the two items was semantically closer to the target...
November 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125966/stopping-and-slowing-manual-and-spoken-responses-similar-oscillatory-signatures-recorded-from-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#9
Ayda Ghahremani, Jan R Wessel, Kaviraja Udupa, Bogdan Neagu, Ping Zhuang, Utpal Saha, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, Adam R Aron, Robert Chen
Response control in the forms of stopping and slowing responses is thought to be implemented by a frontal-subcortical network, which includes the subthalamic nucleus (STN). For manual control, stopping is linked to STN beta (13-30 Hz) and slowing responses are linked to lower frequencies (<12 Hz). Whether similar STN oscillatory activities are associated with the control of spoken responses is not clear. We studied 16 patients with STN LFP recordings during manual and vocal stop signal tasks in two experiments...
November 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102823/neural-correlates-for-naming-disadvantage-of-the-dominant-language-in-bilingual-word-production
#10
Yongben Fu, Di Lu, Chunyan Kang, Junjie Wu, Fengyang Ma, Guosheng Ding, Taomei Guo
The present study investigated the neural correlates of naming disadvantage of the dominant language under the mixed language context. Twenty one unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals completed a cued picture naming task while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results showed that naming pictures in the second lanuage (L2) was significantly slower than naming pictures in the first language (L1) under a single language context. When comparing picture naming in L2 to naming in L1, enhanced activity in the left inferior parietal lobule and left cerebellum was observed...
November 2, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078151/representation-and-processing-of-multi-word-expressions-in-the-brain
#11
Anna Siyanova-Chanturia, Kathy Conklin, Sendy Caffarra, Edith Kaan, Walter J B van Heuven
Language comprehension is sensitive to the predictability of the upcoming information. Prediction allows for smooth, expedient and successful communication. While general discourse-based constraints have been investigated in detail, more specific phrase-level prediction has received little attention. We address this gap by exploring the ERPs elicited during the comprehension of English binomials - familiar and predictable multi-word expressions. In Experiment 1a, participants read binomial expressions (knife and fork), infrequent strongly associated phrases (spoon and fork), and semantic violations (theme and fork)...
October 24, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850882/tone-grammar-association-within-words-concurrent-erp-and-fmri-show-rapid-neural-pre-activation-and-involvement-of-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-in-pseudoword-processing
#12
Pelle Söderström, Merle Horne, Peter Mannfolk, Danielle van Westen, Mikael Roll
Using a concurrent ERP/fMRI paradigm, we investigated how listeners take advantage of morphologically relevant tonal information at the beginning of words to predict and pre-activate likely word endings. More predictive, low tone word stems gave rise to a 'pre-activation negativity' (PrAN) in the ERPs, a brain potential which has previously been found to increase along with the degree of predictive certainty as regards how a word is going to end. It is suggested that more predictive, low tone stems lead to rapid access to word endings with processing subserved by the left primary auditory cortex as well as the supramarginal gyrus, while high tone stems - which are less predictive - decrease predictive certainty, leading to increased competition between activated word endings, which needs to be resolved by the left inferior frontal gyrus...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841425/insensitivity-to-response-contingent-feedback-in-adolescents-with-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#13
Joanna C Lee
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficiency of the use of response-contingent feedback in adolescents with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) by using the balloon analogue risk task (BART). The BIS/BAS scales were also used to evaluate a participant's responses to reward- or punishment-related events in everyday situations. The results showed that adolescents with DLD performed on the BART at a suboptimal level due to inefficient use of response-contingent feedback. Findings of the BIS/BAS scales also generate a possible hypothesis of reduced motivational salience for larger monetary outcomes in DLD...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818624/white-matter-microstructure-integrity-in-relation-to-reading-proficiency%C3%A2
#14
C Nikki Arrington, Paulina A Kulesz, Jenifer Juranek, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher
Components of reading proficiency such asaccuracy, fluency, and comprehension require the successful coordination of numerous, yet distinct, cortical regions. Underlying white matter tracts allow for communication among these regions. This study utilized unique residualized tract - based spatial statistics methodology to identify the relations of white matter microstructure integrity to three components of reading proficiency in 49 school - aged children with typically developing phonological decoding skills and 27 readers with poor decoders...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806599/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-striatum-and-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-reading-performance-in-school-age-children
#15
Sarael Alcauter, Liliana García-Mondragón, Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Martha B Moreno, Juan J Ortiz, Fernando A Barrios
The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed)...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803212/data-driven-classification-of-patients-with-primary-progressive-aphasia
#16
Paul Hoffman, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Karalyn Patterson, Peter J Nestor
Current diagnostic criteria classify primary progressive aphasia into three variants-semantic (sv), nonfluent (nfv) and logopenic (lv) PPA-though the adequacy of this scheme is debated. This study took a data-driven approach, applying k-means clustering to data from 43 PPA patients. The algorithm grouped patients based on similarities in language, semantic and non-linguistic cognitive scores. The optimum solution consisted of three groups. One group, almost exclusively those diagnosed as svPPA, displayed a selective semantic impairment...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750252/neural-correlates-of-bilingual-language-control-during-interlingual-homograph-processing-in-a-logogram-writing-system
#17
Ming-Che Hsieh, Hyeonjeong Jeong, Kelssy Hitomi Dos Santos Kawata, Yukako Sasaki, Hsun-Cheng Lee, Satoru Yokoyama, Motoaki Sugiura, Ryuta Kawashima
Bilingual studies using alphabetic languages have shown parallel activation of two languages during word recognition. However, little is known about the brain mechanisms of language control during word comprehension with a logogram writing system. We manipulated the types of words (interlingual homographs (IH), cognates, and language-specific words) and the types of participants (Chinese (L1)-Japanese (L2) bilinguals vs. Japanese monolinguals). Greater activation was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, supplementary motor area, caudate nucleus and left fusiform gyrus, when the bilinguals processed IH, as compared to cognates...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738219/finding-features-figuratively
#18
Sarah H Solomon, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
Object concepts refer to unique clusters of properties that can be selectively activated or inhibited depending on what information is currently relevant. This conceptual "stretching" enables limitless new meanings to be generated, and figurative language provides a useful framework in which to study this conceptual flexibility. Here we probe the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying the comprehension of novel metaphors as a means of understanding the conceptual flexibility inherent to language processing more generally...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738218/common-variation-in-the-autism-risk-gene-cntnap2-brain-structural-connectivity-and-multisensory-speech-integration
#19
Lars A Ross, Victor A Del Bene, Sophie Molholm, Young Jae Woo, Gizely N Andrade, Brett S Abrahams, John J Foxe
Three lines of evidence motivated this study. 1) CNTNAP2 variation is associated with autism risk and speech-language development. 2) CNTNAP2 variations are associated with differences in white matter (WM) tracts comprising the speech-language circuitry. 3) Children with autism show impairment in multisensory speech perception. Here, we asked whether an autism risk-associated CNTNAP2 single nucleotide polymorphism in neurotypical adults was associated with multisensory speech perception performance, and whether such a genotype-phenotype association was mediated through white matter tract integrity in speech-language circuitry...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715718/when-speaker-identity-is-unavoidable-neural-processing-of-speaker-identity-cues-in-natural-speech
#20
Alba Tuninetti, Kateřina Chládková, Varghese Peter, Niels O Schiller, Paola Escudero
Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word. Here we tested whether the process of normalizing speaker and accent differences, facilitating the recognition of linguistic information, is found at the level of neural processing, and whether it is modulated by the listeners' native language...
November 2017: Brain and Language
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