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Brain and Language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327371/longitudinal-changes-in-linguistic-complexity-among-professional-football-players
#1
Visar Berisha, Shuai Wang, Amy LaCross, Julie Liss, Pamela Garcia-Filion
Reductions in spoken language complexity have been associated with the onset of various neurological disorders. The objective of this study is to analyze whether similar trends are found in professional football players who are at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We compare changes in linguistic complexity (as indexed by the type-to-token ratio and lexical density) measured from the interview transcripts of players in the National Football League (NFL) to those measured from interview transcripts of coaches and/or front-office NFL executives who have never played professional football...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327370/the-effects-of-age-on-visual-expertise-for-print
#2
Maxime Curzietti, Anne Bonnefond, Bérengère Staub, Pierre Vidailhet, Nadège Doignon-Camus
Progressive visual processing decline is a known factor in aging. The present study investigates the evolution of visual expertise for printed stimuli with aging. Fifty-five participants of increasing age (20-30, 40-50, 60-70, 75-85years old) were recruited. Behavioral and EEG data were collected during a lexical decision task, in which words and symbol strings were presented. Analyses of EEG data focused mainly on three major points: visual expertise for print, automatization of the expertise and differences in attentional demand between the processing of words and symbols...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242518/-decoding-versus-comprehension-brain-responses-underlying-reading-comprehension-in-children-with-autism
#3
Haley M Bednarz, Jose O Maximo, Donna L Murdaugh, Sarah O'Kelley, Rajesh K Kana
Despite intact decoding ability, deficits in reading comprehension are relatively common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, few neuroimaging studies have tested the neural bases of this specific profile of reading deficit in ASD. This fMRI study examined activation and synchronization of the brain's reading network in children with ASD with specific reading comprehension deficits during a word similarities task. Thirteen typically developing children and 18 children with ASD performed the task in the MRI scanner...
February 24, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242517/when-a-hit-sounds-like-a-kiss-an-electrophysiological-exploration-of-semantic-processing-in-visual-narrative
#4
Mirella Manfredi, Neil Cohn, Marta Kutas
Researchers have long questioned whether information presented through different sensory modalities involves distinct or shared semantic systems. We investigated uni-sensory cross-modal processing by recording event-related brain potentials to words replacing the climactic event in a visual narrative sequence (comics). We compared Onomatopoeic words, which phonetically imitate action sounds (Pow!), with Descriptive words, which describe an action (Punch!), that were (in)congruent within their sequence contexts...
February 24, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237533/differential-sensitivity-to-changes-in-pitch-acceleration-in-the-auditory-brainstem-and-cortex
#5
Ananthanarayan Krishnan, Chandan H Suresh, Jackson T Gandour
The cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) is differentially sensitive to pitch contours varying in rate of acceleration-time-variant Mandarin Tone2 (T2) versus constant, linear rising ramp (Linear)-as a function of language experience (Krishnan, Gandour, & Suresh, 2014). CPR and brainstem frequency following response (FFR) data were recorded concurrently from native Mandarin listeners using the same stimuli. Results showed that T2 elicited larger responses than Linear at both cortical and brainstem levels (CPR: Na-Pb, Pb-Nb; FFR)...
February 23, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236762/relational-vs-attributive-interpretation-of-nominal-compounds-differentially-engages-angular-gyrus-and-anterior-temporal-lobe
#6
Christine Boylan, John C Trueswell, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
The angular gyrus (AG) and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) have been found to respond to a number of tasks involving combinatorial processing. In this study, we investigate the conceptual combination of nominal compounds, and ask whether ATL/AG activity is modulated by the type of combinatorial operation applied to a nominal compound. We compare relational and attributive interpretations of nominal compounds and find that ATL and AG both discriminate these two types, but in distinct ways. While right AG demonstrated greater positive task-responsive activity for relational compounds, there was a greater negative deflection in the BOLD response in left AG for relational compounds...
February 22, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236761/activity-associated-with-speech-articulation-measured-through-direct-cortical-recordings
#7
Alexandra Basilakos, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Roozbeh Behroozmand, Taylor Hanayik, Thomas Naselaris, John Del Gaizo, Jesse Breedlove, W A Vandergrift, Leonardo Bonilha
The insula has been credited with a role in a number of functions, including speech production. Here, we recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) signals from the left insula during pseudoword articulation in two patients undergoing pre-surgical monitoring for the management of medically-intractable epilepsy. Event-related band power (ERBP) activity from electrodes implanted in the superior precentral gyrus of the insula (SPGI) was compared to that of other left hemisphere regions implicated in speech production...
February 22, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209266/changes-in-functional-organization-and-functional-connectivity-during-story-listening-in-children-with-benign-childhood-epilepsy-with-centro-temporal-spikes
#8
Jennifer Vannest, Thomas C Maloney, Jeffrey R Tenney, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Diego Morita, Anna W Byars, Mekibib Altaye, Scott K Holland, Tracy A Glauser
Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS), despite high likelihood for seizure remission, are reported to have subtle difficulties in language and other cognitive skills. We used functional MRI and a story listening task to examine the effect of BECTS on patterns of activation and connectivity. Language and cognitive skills were assessed using standardized measures. Twenty-four children with recently diagnosed BECTS and 40 typically-developing children participated. In a functionally-defined region of interest in right inferior frontal gyrus, BECTS patients showed a lower level of activation...
February 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189047/eeg-beta-power-changes-reflect-motor-involvement-in-abstract-action-language-processing
#9
Franziska Schaller, Sabine Weiss, Horst M Müller
Brain oscillations in the α- and β-range become suppressed during motor processing and motor imagery. It has recently been discussed that such power changes also occur during action language processing. In our study, we compared β2-oscillations (16-25Hz) during the observation of prototypical arm movements (revealed via motion tracking) as well as during semantic processing of concrete and abstract sentences containing arm-related action verbs. Whereas we did find a strong desynchronization in the β2-range during action observation, the processing of action sentences evoked a rather weak desynchronization...
February 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189046/identifying-cortical-first-and-second-language-sites-via-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-left-hemisphere-in-bilinguals
#10
Lorena Tussis, Nico Sollmann, Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
The cortical areas that code for the first (L1) and second language (L2) in bilinguals have still not been sufficiently explored. Thus, this study investigated the left-hemispheric distribution of the L1 and L2 using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), in combination with an object-naming task, in 10 healthy, right-handed volunteers. In particular, higher error rates (ERs) were observed in the L1, and there was a statistically significant difference between the ERs of L1 and L2 for no-response errors (L1 mean 11...
February 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187331/temporal-acoustic-measures-distinguish-primary-progressive-apraxia-of-speech-from-primary-progressive-aphasia
#11
Joseph R Duffy, Holly Hanley, Rene Utianski, Heather Clark, Edythe Strand, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
The purpose of this study was to determine if acoustic measures of duration and syllable rate during word and sentence repetition, and a measure of within-word lexical stress, distinguish speakers with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) from nonapraxic speakers with the agrammatic or logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and control speakers. Results revealed that the PPAOS group had longer durations and reduced rate of syllable production for most words and sentences, and the measure of lexical stress...
February 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161678/communicative-pragmatic-disorders-in-traumatic-brain-injury-the-role-of-theory-of-mind-and-executive-functions
#12
Francesca M Bosco, Alberto Parola, Katiuscia Sacco, Marina Zettin, Romina Angeleri
Previous research has shown that communicative-pragmatic ability, as well as executive functions (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM), may be impaired in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the role of such cognitive deficits in explaining communicative-pragmatic difficulty in TBI has still not been fully investigated. The study examined the relationship between EF (working memory, planning and flexibility) and ToM and communicative-pragmatic impairment in patients with TBI. 30 individuals with TBI and 30 healthy controls were assessed using the Assessment Battery of Communication (ABaCo), and a set of cognitive, EF and ToM, tasks...
February 2, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160740/task-dependent-neural-and-behavioral-effects-of-verb-argument-structure-features
#13
Svetlana Malyutina, Dirk-Bart den Ouden
Understanding which verb argument structure (VAS) features (if any) are part of verbs' lexical entries and under which conditions they are accessed provides information on the nature of lexical representations and sentence construction. We investigated neural and behavioral effects of three understudied VAS characteristics (number of subcategorization options, number of thematic options and overall number of valency frames) in lexical decision and sentence well-formedness judgment in healthy adults. VAS effects showed strong dependency on processing conditions...
February 1, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160739/effects-of-motion-speed-in-action-representations
#14
Wessel O van Dam, Laura J Speed, Vicky T Lai, Gabriella Vigliocco, Rutvik H Desai
Grounded cognition accounts of semantic representation posit that brain regions traditionally linked to perception and action play a role in grounding the semantic content of words and sentences. Sensory-motor systems are thought to support partially abstract simulations through which conceptual content is grounded. However, which details of sensory-motor experience are included in, or excluded from these simulations, is not well understood. We investigated whether sensory-motor brain regions are differentially involved depending on the speed of actions described in a sentence...
February 1, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131052/unspeakable-motion-selective-action-verb-impairments-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-without-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Yamile Bocanegra, Adolfo M García, Francisco Lopera, David Pineda, Ana Baena, Paula Ospina, Diana Alzate, Omar Buriticá, Leonardo Moreno, Agustín Ibáñez, Fernando Cuetos
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show marked impairments in processing action verbs, and to a lesser extent, concrete (specially, manipulable) nouns. However, it is still unclear to what extent deficits in each of these categories are influenced by more general cognitive dysfunctions, and whether they are modulated by the words' implied motility. To examine these issues, we evaluated 49 non-demented PD patients and 49 healthy volunteers in an oral production task. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively)...
January 25, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113106/cohesive-and-coherent-connected-speech-deficits-in-mild-stroke
#16
Megan S Barker, Breanne Young, Gail A Robinson
Spoken language production theories and lesion studies highlight several important prelinguistic conceptual preparation processes involved in the production of cohesive and coherent connected speech. Cohesion and coherence broadly connect sentences with preceding ideas and the overall topic. Broader cognitive mechanisms may mediate these processes. This study aims to investigate (1) whether stroke patients without aphasia exhibit impairments in cohesion and coherence in connected speech, and (2) the role of attention and executive functions in the production of connected speech...
January 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113105/reorganization-of-brain-function-after-a-short-term-behavioral-intervention-for-stuttering
#17
Chunming Lu, Lifen Zheng, Yuhang Long, Qian Yan, Guosheng Ding, Li Liu, Danling Peng, Peter Howell
This study investigated changes in brain function that occurred over a 7-day behavioral intervention for adults who stutter (AWS). Thirteen AWS received the intervention (AWS+), and 13 AWS did not receive the intervention (AWS-). There were 13 fluent controls (FC-). All participants were scanned before and after the intervention. Whole-brain analysis pre-intervention showed significant differences in task-related brain activation between AWS and FC- in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle temporal cortex, but there were no differences between the two AWS groups...
January 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088666/vocal-emotion-decoding-in-the-subthalamic-nucleus-an-intracranial-erp-study-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Julie Péron, Olivier Renaud, Claire Haegelen, Lucas Tamarit, Valérie Milesi, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Thibaut Dondaine, Marc Vérin, Paul Sauleau, Didier Grandjean
Using intracranial local field potential (LFP) recordings in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS), we explored the electrophysiological activity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in response to emotional stimuli in the auditory modality. Previous studies focused on the influence of visual stimuli. To this end, we recorded LFPs within the STN in response to angry, happy, and neutral prosodies in 13 patients with PD who had just undergone implantation of DBS electrodes...
January 12, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088127/cerebral-laterality-for-language-is-related-to-adult-salivary-testosterone-levels-but-not-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-men-a-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-study
#19
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Maryanne Martin
The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D)...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268021/sleep-and-language-learning
#20
EDITORIAL
Björn Rasch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Brain and Language
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