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Brain and Language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209266/changes-in-functional-organization-and-functional-connectivity-during-story-listening-in-children-with-benign-childhood-epilepsy-with-centro-temporal-spikes
#1
Jennifer Vannest, Thomas C Maloney, Jeffrey R Tenney, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Diego Morita, Anna W Byars, Mekibib Altaye, Scott K Holland, Tracy A Glauser
Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS), despite high likelihood for seizure remission, are reported to have subtle difficulties in language and other cognitive skills. We used functional MRI and a story listening task to examine the effect of BECTS on patterns of activation and connectivity. Language and cognitive skills were assessed using standardized measures. Twenty-four children with recently diagnosed BECTS and 40 typically-developing children participated. In a functionally-defined region of interest in right inferior frontal gyrus, BECTS patients showed a lower level of activation...
February 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189047/eeg-beta-power-changes-reflect-motor-involvement-in-abstract-action-language-processing
#2
Franziska Schaller, Sabine Weiss, Horst M Müller
Brain oscillations in the α- and β-range become suppressed during motor processing and motor imagery. It has recently been discussed that such power changes also occur during action language processing. In our study, we compared β2-oscillations (16-25Hz) during the observation of prototypical arm movements (revealed via motion tracking) as well as during semantic processing of concrete and abstract sentences containing arm-related action verbs. Whereas we did find a strong desynchronization in the β2-range during action observation, the processing of action sentences evoked a rather weak desynchronization...
February 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189046/identifying-cortical-first-and-second-language-sites-via-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-left-hemisphere-in-bilinguals
#3
Lorena Tussis, Nico Sollmann, Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
The cortical areas that code for the first (L1) and second language (L2) in bilinguals have still not been sufficiently explored. Thus, this study investigated the left-hemispheric distribution of the L1 and L2 using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), in combination with an object-naming task, in 10 healthy, right-handed volunteers. In particular, higher error rates (ERs) were observed in the L1, and there was a statistically significant difference between the ERs of L1 and L2 for no-response errors (L1 mean 11...
February 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187331/temporal-acoustic-measures-distinguish-primary-progressive-apraxia-of-speech-from-primary-progressive-aphasia
#4
Joseph R Duffy, Holly Hanley, Rene Utianski, Heather Clark, Edythe Strand, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
The purpose of this study was to determine if acoustic measures of duration and syllable rate during word and sentence repetition, and a measure of within-word lexical stress, distinguish speakers with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) from nonapraxic speakers with the agrammatic or logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and control speakers. Results revealed that the PPAOS group had longer durations and reduced rate of syllable production for most words and sentences, and the measure of lexical stress...
February 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173964/sleep-deprivation-disrupts-the-contribution-of-the-hippocampus-to-the-formation-of-novel-lexical-associations
#5
Virginie Sterpenich, Leonardo Ceravolo, Sophie Schwartz
Sleep is involved in the mechanisms underlying memory consolidation and brain plasticity. Consolidation refers to a process through which labile memories are reorganized into more stable ones. An intriguing but often neglected question concerns how pre-existing knowledge is modified when new information enters memory, and whether sleep can influence this process. We investigated how nonword learning may modify the neural representations of closely-related existing words. We also tested whether sleep contributes to any such effect by comparing a group of participants who slept during the night following a first encoding session to a sleep deprived group...
February 4, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161678/communicative-pragmatic-disorders-in-traumatic-brain-injury-the-role-of-theory-of-mind-and-executive-functions
#6
Francesca M Bosco, Alberto Parola, Katiuscia Sacco, Marina Zettin, Romina Angeleri
Previous research has shown that communicative-pragmatic ability, as well as executive functions (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM), may be impaired in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the role of such cognitive deficits in explaining communicative-pragmatic difficulty in TBI has still not been fully investigated. The study examined the relationship between EF (working memory, planning and flexibility) and ToM and communicative-pragmatic impairment in patients with TBI. 30 individuals with TBI and 30 healthy controls were assessed using the Assessment Battery of Communication (ABaCo), and a set of cognitive, EF and ToM, tasks...
February 2, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160740/task-dependent-neural-and-behavioral-effects-of-verb-argument-structure-features
#7
Svetlana Malyutina, Dirk-Bart den Ouden
Understanding which verb argument structure (VAS) features (if any) are part of verbs' lexical entries and under which conditions they are accessed provides information on the nature of lexical representations and sentence construction. We investigated neural and behavioral effects of three understudied VAS characteristics (number of subcategorization options, number of thematic options and overall number of valency frames) in lexical decision and sentence well-formedness judgment in healthy adults. VAS effects showed strong dependency on processing conditions...
February 1, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160739/effects-of-motion-speed-in-action-representations
#8
Wessel O van Dam, Laura J Speed, Vicky T Lai, Gabriella Vigliocco, Rutvik H Desai
Grounded cognition accounts of semantic representation posit that brain regions traditionally linked to perception and action play a role in grounding the semantic content of words and sentences. Sensory-motor systems are thought to support partially abstract simulations through which conceptual content is grounded. However, which details of sensory-motor experience are included in, or excluded from these simulations, is not well understood. We investigated whether sensory-motor brain regions are differentially involved depending on the speed of actions described in a sentence...
February 1, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131052/unspeakable-motion-selective-action-verb-impairments-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-without-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Yamile Bocanegra, Adolfo M García, Francisco Lopera, David Pineda, Ana Baena, Paula Ospina, Diana Alzate, Omar Buriticá, Leonardo Moreno, Agustín Ibáñez, Fernando Cuetos
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show marked impairments in processing action verbs, and to a lesser extent, concrete (specially, manipulable) nouns. However, it is still unclear to what extent deficits in each of these categories are influenced by more general cognitive dysfunctions, and whether they are modulated by the words' implied motility. To examine these issues, we evaluated 49 non-demented PD patients and 49 healthy volunteers in an oral production task. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively)...
January 25, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113106/cohesive-and-coherent-connected-speech-deficits-in-mild-stroke
#10
Megan S Barker, Breanne Young, Gail A Robinson
Spoken language production theories and lesion studies highlight several important prelinguistic conceptual preparation processes involved in the production of cohesive and coherent connected speech. Cohesion and coherence broadly connect sentences with preceding ideas and the overall topic. Broader cognitive mechanisms may mediate these processes. This study aims to investigate (1) whether stroke patients without aphasia exhibit impairments in cohesion and coherence in connected speech, and (2) the role of attention and executive functions in the production of connected speech...
January 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113105/reorganization-of-brain-function-after-a-short-term-behavioral-intervention-for-stuttering
#11
Chunming Lu, Lifen Zheng, Yuhang Long, Qian Yan, Guosheng Ding, Li Liu, Danling Peng, Peter Howell
This study investigated changes in brain function that occurred over a 7-day behavioral intervention for adults who stutter (AWS). Thirteen AWS received the intervention (AWS+), and 13 AWS did not receive the intervention (AWS-). There were 13 fluent controls (FC-). All participants were scanned before and after the intervention. Whole-brain analysis pre-intervention showed significant differences in task-related brain activation between AWS and FC- in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle temporal cortex, but there were no differences between the two AWS groups...
January 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088666/vocal-emotion-decoding-in-the-subthalamic-nucleus-an-intracranial-erp-study-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Julie Péron, Olivier Renaud, Claire Haegelen, Lucas Tamarit, Valérie Milesi, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Thibaut Dondaine, Marc Vérin, Paul Sauleau, Didier Grandjean
Using intracranial local field potential (LFP) recordings in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS), we explored the electrophysiological activity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in response to emotional stimuli in the auditory modality. Previous studies focused on the influence of visual stimuli. To this end, we recorded LFPs within the STN in response to angry, happy, and neutral prosodies in 13 patients with PD who had just undergone implantation of DBS electrodes...
January 12, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088127/cerebral-laterality-for-language-is-related-to-adult-salivary-testosterone-levels-but-not-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-men-a-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-study
#13
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Maryanne Martin
The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D)...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013040/affective-speech-prosody-perception-and-production-in-stroke-patients-with-left-hemispheric-damage-and-healthy-controls
#14
Joan H Leung, Suzanne C Purdy, Lynette J Tippett, Sylvia H S Leão
PURPOSE: 'Affective prosody' defines the supra-segmental features of speech that, when manipulated, can change the type and intensity of emotion conveyed by the speaker. Although the right hemisphere is predominantly linked to the processing of affective prosodic cues, existing literature also suggests that damage to the left hemisphere can result in similar deficits. This study aims to demonstrate, and add to the evidence, that patients with left-hemisphere injury experience difficulties with affective prosodic perception and production, measured via a new combination of assessments and analyses...
December 22, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951437/engagement-of-the-left-extrastriate-body-area-during-body-part-metaphor-comprehension
#15
Simon Lacey, Randall Stilla, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Sinan Zhao, Careese Stephens, Kelly McCormick, David Kemmerer, K Sathian
Grounded cognition explanations of metaphor comprehension predict activation of sensorimotor cortices relevant to the metaphor's source domain. We tested this prediction for body-part metaphors using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants heard sentences containing metaphorical or literal references to body parts, and comparable control sentences. Localizer scans identified body-part-specific motor, somatosensory and visual cortical regions. Both subject- and item-wise analyses showed that, relative to control sentences, metaphorical but not literal sentences evoked limb metaphor-specific activity in the left extrastriate body area (EBA), paralleling the EBA's known visual limb-selectivity...
December 9, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912072/lexical-retrieval-and-semantic-memory-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-question-of-noun-and-verb-dissociation
#16
Henrique Salmazo-Silva, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Sheila Rocha, Roberta Roque Baradel, André M Cravo, João Ricardo Sato, Fabio Godinho, Maria Teresa Carthery-Goulart
The dissociation between the processing of verbs and nouns has been debated in light of the Embodied Cognition Theory (EC). The objective of this paper is to verify how action and verb processing deficits of PD patients are modulated by different tasks with different cognitive demands. Action and object lexical-semantic processing was evaluated in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and cognitively healthy controls through three different tasks (verbal fluency, naming and semantic association). Compared to controls, PD patients presented worse performance in naming actions and in the two semantic association tasks (action/object)...
November 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894006/distinct-patterns-of-imprecise-consonant-articulation-among-parkinson-s-disease-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#17
Tereza Tykalova, Jan Rusz, Jiri Klempir, Roman Cmejla, Evzen Ruzicka
Distinct speech characteristics that may aid in differentiation between Parkinson's disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) remain tremendously under-explored. Here, the patterns and degree of consonant articulation deficits across voiced and voiceless stop plosives in 16 PD, 16 PSP, 16 MSA and 16 healthy control speakers were evaluated using acoustic and perceptual methods. Imprecise consonant articulation was observed across all Parkinsonian groups. Voice onset time of voiceless plosives was more prolonged in both PSP and MSA compared to PD, presumably due to greater severity of dysarthria and slower articulation rate...
November 25, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110105/a-common-neural-hub-resolves-syntactic-and-non-syntactic-conflict-through-cooperation-with-task-specific-networks
#18
Nina S Hsu, Susanne M Jaeggi, Jared M Novick
Regions within the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) have simultaneously been implicated in syntactic processing and cognitive control. Accounts attempting to unify LIFG's function hypothesize that, during comprehension, cognitive control resolves conflict between incompatible representations of sentence meaning. Some studies demonstrate co-localized activity within LIFG for syntactic and non-syntactic conflict resolution, suggesting domain-generality, but others show non-overlapping activity, suggesting domain-specific cognitive control and/or regions that respond uniquely to syntax...
March 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086142/visual-statistical-learning-is-related-to-natural-language-ability-in-adults-an-erp-study
#19
Jerome Daltrozzo, Samantha N Emerson, Joanne Deocampo, Sonia Singh, Marjorie Freggens, Lee Branum-Martin, Christopher M Conway
Statistical learning (SL) is believed to enable language acquisition by allowing individuals to learn regularities within linguistic input. However, neural evidence supporting a direct relationship between SL and language ability is scarce. We investigated whether there are associations between event-related potential (ERP) correlates of SL and language abilities while controlling for the general level of selective attention. Seventeen adults completed tests of visual SL, receptive vocabulary, grammatical ability, and sentence completion...
March 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039735/language-control-in-bilingual-adults-with-and-without-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Ileana Ratiu, Tamiko Azuma
Adults with a history of traumatic brain injury often show deficits in executive functioning (EF), including the ability to inhibit, switch, and attend to tasks. These abilities are critical for language processing in bilinguals. This study examined the effect of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on EF and language processing in bilinguals using behavioral and eye-tracking measures. Twenty-two bilinguals with a history of mTBI and twenty healthy control bilinguals were administered executive function and language processing tasks...
March 2017: Brain and Language
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