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Brain and Language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216902/visual-and-linguistic-narrative-comprehension-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-neural-evidence-for-modality-independent-impairments
#1
Emily L Coderre, Neil Cohn, Sally K Slipher, Mariya Chernenok, Kerry Ledoux, Barry Gordon
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have notable language difficulties, including with understanding narratives. However, most narrative comprehension studies have used written or spoken narratives, making it unclear whether narrative difficulties stem from language impairments or more global impairments in the kinds of general cognitive processes (such as understanding meaning and structural sequencing) that are involved in narrative comprehension. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we directly compared semantic comprehension of linguistic narratives (short sentences) and visual narratives (comic panels) in adults with ASD and typically-developing (TD) adults...
September 11, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212746/cortical-regions-supporting-reading-comprehension-skill-for-single-words-and-discourse
#2
K Ryherd, K Jasinska, J A Van Dyke, Y-H Hung, E Baron, W E Mencl, J Zevin, N Landi
A substantial amount of variation in reading comprehension skill is explained by listening comprehension skill, suggesting tight links between printed and spoken discourse processing. In addition, both word level (e.g., vocabulary) and discourse-level sub-skills (e.g., inference-making) support overall comprehension. However, while these contributions to variation in comprehension skill have been well-studied behaviorally, the underlying neurobiological basis of these relationships is less well understood. In order to examine the neural bases of individual differences in reading comprehension as a function of input modality and processing level, we examined functional neural activation to both spoken and printed single words and passages in adolescents with a range of comprehension skill...
September 10, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205287/quantitative-assessment-of-grammar-in-amyloid-negative-logopenic-aphasia
#3
Katerina A Tetzloff, Jennifer L Whitwell, Rene L Utianski, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Mary M Machulda, Edythe A Strand, Keith A Josephs
Logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) typically results from underlying Alzheimer's disease, but subjects have been reported that do not show beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. These subjects do not differ on neurological and speech-language testing from Aβ-positive lvPPA, but they impressionistically show increased grammatical deficits. We performed a quantitative linguistic analysis of grammatical characteristics in Aβ-negative lvPPA compared to Aβ-positive lvPPA and agrammatic PPA, which is characterized by increased grammatical difficulties...
September 8, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199760/developmental-differences-in-the-neural-oscillations-underlying-auditory-sentence-processing-in-children-and-adults
#4
Julie M Schneider, Alyson D Abel, Diane A Ogiela, Cassandra McCord, Mandy J Maguire
Although very young children seem to process ongoing language quickly and effortlessly, neuroimaging and behavioral studies reveal that children continue to mature in their language skills through adolescence. During this prolonged development, children likely engage the same basic cognitive processes and neural mechanisms to perform language tasks as adults, but in somewhat different ways. In this study we used time frequency analysis of EEG to identify developmental differences in the engagement of neural oscillations between children (ages 10-12) and adults while listening to naturally-paced sentences...
September 7, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179752/neural-correlates-of-automatic-beliefs-about-gender-stereotypes-males-are-more-prejudicial
#5
Alice Mado Proverbio, Alice Alberio, Francesco De Benedetto
Aim of this study was to investigate the neural bases of stereotype representation, including the presence of gender bias. EEG was recorded from 128 sites in 38 Italian participants. While looking for rare animal words, participants read 240 sentences, half of which expressed notions congruent with gender stereotypes, and the other half did not (e.g., "Prepared the tomato sauce and then SHAVED", "The engineer stained HER SKIRT"). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were time-locked to critical words...
September 1, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179751/critical-brain-regions-related-to-post-stroke-aphasia-severity-identified-by-early-diffusion-imaging-are-not-the-same-when-predicting-short-and-long-term-outcome
#6
Chiara Zavanone, Yves Samson, Céline Arbizu, Sophie Dupont, Didier Dormont, Charlotte Rosso
OBJECTIVES: To identify the critical brain regions associated with 7-days, 3 and 6-months aphasia severity using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in acute post-stroke patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a voxel-based ADC (Apparent Diffusion Coefficient) analysis to identify the critical brain areas correlated with aphasia at the acute (7-days outcome) and chronic stages (3 and 6-months). The location of these areas was compared with the trajectory of the dorsal (the arcuate fasciculus) and the ventral language pathways (the inferior fronto-occipital and the uncinate fasciculi)...
September 1, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189332/global-gray-matter-morphometry-differences-between-children-with-reading-disability-adhd-and-comorbid-reading-disability-adhd
#7
Audreyana C Jagger-Rickels, Michelle Y Kibby, Jordan M Constance
Extensive, yet disparate, research exists elucidating structural anomalies in individuals with Reading Disability (RD) or ADHD. Despite ADHD and RD being highly comorbid, minimal research has attempted to determine shared patterns of morphometry between these disorders. In addition, there is no published research examining the morphometry of comorbid RD and ADHD (RD/ADHD). Hence, we conducted voxel-based morphometry on the MRI scans of 106 children, ages 8-12 years, with RD, ADHD, or RD/ADHD, and typically developing controls...
October 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110668/pragmatic-abilities-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-contribution-of-the-temporo-parietal-junction
#8
Antonio Carotenuto, Sirio Cocozza, Mario Quarantelli, Giorgio Arcara, Roberta Lanzillo, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Ilaria Cerillo, Enrico Tedeschi, Giuseppe Orefice, Valentina Bambini, Arturo Brunetti, Rosa Iodice
Recent studies showed that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients might experience communicative deficits, specifically in pragmatics (i.e., the ability to integrate the context-dependent aspects of language). A crucial region for pragmatics is the temporo-parietal junction, in particular the so-called Geschwind's area (GA), which is involved in high-level language processes, including the comprehension of narratives, metaphor, and irony. We evaluated the relationship between pragmatic abilities, measured through the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test, and the functional connectivity (FC) of the bilateral GAs, assessed through a seed-based analysis of Resting-State fMRI in patients with MS...
October 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092448/communication-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-impact-of-motor-and-cognitive-symptoms-on-speech-and-language
#9
REVIEW
Kara M Smith, David N Caplan
Communication impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may have both motor speech control and cognitive-linguistic underpinnings. The neurobiology of communication impairment in PD is poorly understood, and work is needed to disentangle the relative contributions of motor and cognitive dysfunction. In clinical practice, cognitive-linguistic impairments are often overlooked despite the large body of research on this topic in neurocognitive and linguistics literature. In this review, we will discuss the roles of motor speech changes, cognitive and linguistic impairment, and other related functions in the communication disabilities of individuals with PD...
October 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086421/the-language-of-music-common-neural-codes-for-structured-sequences-in-music-and-natural-language
#10
Jeffrey N Chiang, Matthew H Rosenberg, Carolyn A Bufford, Daniel Stephens, Antonio Lysy, Martin M Monti
The ability to process structured sequences is a central feature of natural language but also characterizes many other domains of human cognition. In this fMRI study, we measured brain metabolic response in musicians as they generated structured and non-structured sequences in language and music. We employed a univariate and multivariate cross-classification approach to provide evidence that a common neural code underlies the production of structured sequences across the two domains. Crucially, the common substrate includes Broca's area, a region well known for processing structured sequences in language...
October 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025355/cortical-phase-locking-to-accelerated-speech-in-blind-and-sighted-listeners-prior-to-and-after-training
#11
Ingo Hertrich, Susanne Dietrich, Hermann Ackermann
Cross-correlation of magnetoencephalography (MEG) with time courses derived from the speech signal has shown differences in phase-locking between blind subjects able to comprehend accelerated speech and sighted controls. The present training study contributes to disentangle the effects of blindness and training. Both subject groups (baseline: n = 16 blind, 13 sighted; trained: 10 blind, 3 sighted) were able to enhance speech comprehension up to ca. 18 syllables per second. MEG responses phase-locked to syllable onsets were captured in five pre-defined source locations comprising left and right auditory cortex (A1), right visual cortex (V1), left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left pre-supplementary motor area...
October 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990719/morpho-syntactic-complexity-modulates-brain-activation-in-persian-english-bilinguals-an-fmri-study
#12
Mohammad Momenian, Reza Nilipour, Reza Ghafar Samar, Stefano F Cappa, Narly Golestani
The Persian language can be considered to have a relatively more complex and combinatorial morpho-syntax than languages like Chinese and English. For example, the Persian verbal system is largely constituted of light verb constructions, in which light verbs are combined with specific items coming from other grammatical classes to generate entirely new verbal entities. This study was designed to examine the mediating effect of language-inherent properties related to morpho-syntax on activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), a brain area involved in morpho-syntactic processing...
October 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986168/listening-beyond-seeing-event-related-potentials-to-audiovisual-processing-in-visual-narrative
#13
Mirella Manfredi, Neil Cohn, Mariana De Araújo Andreoli, Paulo Sergio Boggio
Every day we integrate meaningful information coming from different sensory modalities, and previous work has debated whether conceptual knowledge is represented in modality-specific neural stores specialized for specific types of information, and/or in an amodal, shared system. In the current study, we investigated semantic processing through a cross-modal paradigm which asked whether auditory semantic processing could be modulated by the constraints of context built up across a meaningful visual narrative sequence...
October 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980072/prosodic-and-phonetic-subtypes-of-primary-progressive-apraxia-of-speech
#14
Rene L Utianski, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Hugo Botha, Christopher G Schwarz, Mary M Machulda, Matthew L Senjem, Anthony J Spychalla, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Val J Lowe, Jennifer L Whitwell, Keith A Josephs
Primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) is a clinical syndrome in which apraxia of speech is the initial indication of neurodegenerative disease. Prior studies of PPAOS have identified hypometabolism, grey matter atrophy, and white matter tract degeneration in the frontal gyri, precentral cortex, and supplementary motor area (SMA). Recent clinical observations suggest two distinct subtypes of PPAOS may exist. Phonetic PPAOS is characterized predominantly by distorted sound substitutions. Prosodic PPAOS is characterized predominantly by slow, segmented speech...
September 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980071/time-generalized-multivariate-analysis-of-eeg-responses-reveals-a-cascading-architecture-of-semantic-mismatch-processing
#15
Edvard Heikel, Jona Sassenhagen, Christian J Fiebach
Event-related brain potentials have a strong impact on neurocognitive models, as they inform about the temporal sequence of cognitive processes. Nevertheless, their value for deciding among alternative cognitive architectures is partly limited by component overlap and the possibility of ambiguity regarding component identity. Here, we apply temporally-generalized multivariate pattern analysis - a recently-proposed machine learning method capable of tracking the evolution of neurocognitive processes over time - to constrain possible alternative architectures underlying the processing of semantic incongruency in sentences...
September 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960165/the-time-course-of-cortical-responses-to-speech-revealed-by-fast-optical-imaging
#16
Joseph C Toscano, Nathaniel D Anderson, Monica Fabiani, Gabriele Gratton, Susan M Garnsey
Recent work has sought to describe the time-course of spoken word recognition, from initial acoustic cue encoding through lexical activation, and identify cortical areas involved in each stage of analysis. However, existing methods are limited in either temporal or spatial resolution, and as a result, have only provided partial answers to the question of how listeners encode acoustic information in speech. We present data from an experiment using a novel neuroimaging method, fast optical imaging, to directly assess the time-course of speech perception, providing non-invasive measurement of speech sound representations, localized to specific cortical areas...
September 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935302/electrophysiological-study-of-action-affordance-priming-between-object-names
#17
Isabel M Feven-Parsons, Jeremy Goslin
If our central representation of an object is defined through embodied experience, we might expect access to action affordances to be privileged over more abstract concepts. We used event-related potentials to examine the relative time course of access to affordances. Written object names were primed with the name of an object sharing the same affordance as the target (e.g. precision-grip: "grape" primed by "tweezers") or the same taxonomic category (e.g. fruit: "grape" primed by "apple")...
September 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913316/aging-modulates-fronto-temporal-cortical-interactions-during-lexical-production-a-dynamic-causal-modeling-study
#18
E Hoyau, A Roux-Sibilon, N Boudiaf, C Pichat, E Cousin, A Krainik, A Jaillard, C Peyrin, M Baciu
In this dynamic causal modeling (DCM) study, we evaluated the effect of age on the effective connectivity of a cerebral network involved in lexical production. Younger and older adults performed an object naming task during fMRI. The DCM was used to explore the interactions between four regions of interest: the occipital cortex, OC; the lateral temporal cortex, LTC; the medial temporal cortex, MTC; and the inferior frontal cortex, IFC. We mainly focused on the modulation of the fronto-temporal interaction, according to the hypothesis that aging requires strategies that modulate the access to the semantic knowledge, either through a neural reserve mechanism (increased MTC-LTC connectivity) or through a neural compensation mechanism (supplementary IFC-MTC connectivity)...
September 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913315/when-two-are-better-than-one-bilateral-mesial-temporal-lobe-contributions-associated-with-better-vocabulary-skills-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
Lisa Bartha-Doering, Astrid Novak, Kathrin Kollndorfer, Gregor Kasprian, Anna-Lisa Schuler, Madison M Berl, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, William D Gaillard, Johanna Alexopoulos, Daniela Prayer, Rainer Seidl
This study considered the involvement of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) in language and verbal memory functions in healthy children and adolescents. We investigated 30 healthy, right-handed children and adolescents, aged 7-16, with a fMRI language paradigm and a comprehensive cognitive test battery. We found significant MTL activations during language fMRI in all participants; 63% of them had left lateralized MTL activations, 20% exhibited right MTL lateralization, and 17% showed bilateral MTL involvement during the fMRI language paradigm...
September 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966815/hearing-and-orally-mimicking-different-acoustic-semantic-categories-of-natural-sound-engage-distinct-left-hemisphere-cortical-regions
#20
James W Lewis, Magenta J Silberman, Jeremy J Donai, Chris A Frum, Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis
Oral mimicry is thought to represent an essential process for the neurodevelopment of spoken language systems in infants, the evolution of language in hominins, and a process that could possibly aid recovery in stroke patients. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we previously reported a divergence of auditory cortical pathways mediating perception of specific categories of natural sounds. However, it remained unclear if or how this fundamental sensory organization by the brain might relate to motor output, such as sound mimicry...
August 2018: Brain and Language
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