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Brain and Language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535366/comprehensibility-and-neural-substrate-of-communicative-gestures-in-severe-aphasia
#1
Katharina Hogrefe, Wolfram Ziegler, Nicole Weidinger, Georg Goldenberg
Communicative gestures can compensate incomprehensibility of oral speech in severe aphasia, but the brain damage that causes aphasia may also have an impact on the production of gestures. We compared the comprehensibility of gestural communication of persons with severe aphasia and non-aphasic persons and used voxel based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to determine lesion sites that are responsible for poor gestural expression in aphasia. On group level, persons with aphasia conveyed more information via gestures than controls indicating a compensatory use of gestures in persons with severe aphasia...
May 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527316/effects-of-contextual-relevance-on-pragmatic-inference-during-conversation-an-fmri-study
#2
Wangshu Feng, Yue Wu, Catherine Jan, Hongbo Yu, Xiaoming Jiang, Xiaolin Zhou
Contextual relevance, which is vital for understanding conversational implicatures (CI), engages both the frontal-temporal language and theory-of-mind networks. Here we investigate how contextual relevance affects CI processing and regulates the connectivity between CI-processing-related brain regions. Participants listened to dialogues in which the level of contextual relevance to dialogue-final utterance (reply) was manipulated. This utterance was either direct, indirect but relevant, irrelevant with contextual hint, or irrelevant with no contextual hint...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527315/longitudinal-decline-in-speech-production-in-parkinson-s-disease-spectrum-disorders
#3
Sharon Ash, Charles Jester, Collin York, Olga L Kofman, Rachel Langey, Amy Halpin, Kim Firn, Sophia Dominguez Perez, Lama Chahine, Meredith Spindler, Nabila Dahodwala, David J Irwin, Corey McMillan, Daniel Weintraub, Murray Grossman
We examined narrative speech production longitudinally in non-demented (n=15) and mildly demented (n=8) patients with Parkinson's disease spectrum disorder (PDSD), and we related increasing impairment to structural brain changes in specific language and motor regions. Patients provided semi-structured speech samples, describing a standardized picture at two time points (mean±SD interval=38±24months). The recorded speech samples were analyzed for fluency, grammar, and informativeness. PDSD patients with dementia exhibited significant decline in their speech, unrelated to changes in overall cognitive or motor functioning...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478355/the-right-hemisphere-s-contribution-to-discourse-processing-a-study-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Carolina Lomlomdjian, Claudia P Múnera, Daniel M Low, Verónica Terpiluk, Patricia Solís, Valeria Abusamra, Silvia Kochen
OBJECTIVE: Discourse skills - in which the right hemisphere has an important role - enables verbal communication by selecting contextually relevant information and integrating it coherently to infer the correct meaning. However, language research in epilepsy has focused on single word analysis related mainly to left hemisphere processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate discourse abilities in patients with right lateralized medial temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) by comparing their performance to that of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE)...
May 4, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445784/brain-potentials-predict-language-selection-before-speech-onset-in-bilinguals
#5
Yan Jing Wu, Guillaume Thierry
Studies of language production in bilinguals have seldom considered the fact that language selection likely involves proactive control. Here, we show that Chinese-English bilinguals actively inhibit the language not-to-be used before the onset of a picture to be named. Depending on the nature of a directive cue, participants named a subsequent picture in their native language, in their second language, or remained silent. The cue elicited a contingent negative variation of event-related brain potentials, greater in amplitude when the cue announced a naming trial as compared to when it announced a silent trial...
April 23, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437659/the-relationship-between-maternal-education-and-the-neural-substrates-of-phoneme-perception-in-children-interactions-between-socioeconomic-status-and-proficiency-level
#6
Lisa L Conant, Einat Liebenthal, Anjali Desai, Jeffrey R Binder
Relationships between maternal education (ME) and both behavioral performances and brain activation during the discrimination of phonemic and nonphonemic sounds were examined using fMRI in children with different levels of phoneme categorization proficiency (CP). Significant relationships were found between ME and intellectual functioning and vocabulary, with a trend for phonological awareness. A significant interaction between CP and ME was seen for nonverbal reasoning abilities. In addition, fMRI analyses revealed a significant interaction between CP and ME for phonemic discrimination in left prefrontal cortex...
April 21, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437658/how-does-first-language-l1-influence-second-language-l2-reading-in-the-brain-evidence-from-korean-english-and-chinese-english-bilinguals
#7
Say Young Kim, Li Liu, Fan Cao
To examine how L1 influences L2 reading in the brain, two late bilingual groups, Korean-English (KE) and Chinese-English (CE), performed a visual word rhyming judgment task in their L2 (English) and were compared to L1 control groups (i.e., KK and CC). The results indicated that the L2 activation is similar to the L1 activation for both KE and CE language groups. In addition, conjunction analyses revealed that the right inferior frontal gyrus and medial frontal gyrus were more activated in KK and KE than CC and CE, suggesting that these regions are more involved in Korean speakers than Chinese speakers for both L1 and L2...
April 21, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432988/comprehension-of-concrete-and-abstract-words-in-semantic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-study
#8
Sven Joubert, Guillaume T Vallet, Maxime Montembeault, Mariem Boukadi, Maximiliano A Wilson, Robert Jr Laforce, Isabelle Rouleau, Simona M Brambati
The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension of concrete, abstract and abstract emotional words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy elderly adults (HE) Three groups of participants (9 svPPA, 12 AD, 11 HE) underwent a general neuropsychological assessment, a similarity judgment task, and structural brain MRI. The three types of words were processed similarly in the group of AD participants. In contrast, patients in the svPPA group were significantly more impaired at processing concrete words than abstract words, while comprehension of abstract emotional words was in between...
April 19, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432987/multimodal-imaging-of-language-reorganization-in-patients-with-left-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Nobuko Kemmotsu, Kelly M Leyden, N Erkut Kucukboyaci, Vicente J Iragui, Evelyn S Tecoma, Leena Kansal, Marc A Norman, Rachelle Compton, Tobin J Ehrlich, Vedang S Uttarwar, Anny Reyes, Brianna M Paul, Carrie R McDonald
This study explored the relationships among multimodal imaging, clinical features, and language impairment in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE). Fourteen patients with LTLE and 26 controls underwent structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and neuropsychological language tasks. Laterality indices were calculated for each imaging modality and a principal component (PC) was derived from language measures. Correlations were performed among imaging measures, as well as to the language PC...
April 19, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431691/sensorimotor-activity-measured-via-oscillations-of-eeg-mu-rhythms-in-speech-and-non-speech-discrimination-tasks-with-and-without-segmentation-demands
#10
David Thornton, Ashley W Harkrider, David Jenson, Tim Saltuklaroglu
Better understanding of the role of sensorimotor processing in speech and non-speech segmentation can be achieved with more temporally precise measures. Twenty adults made same/different discriminations of speech and non-speech stimuli pairs, with and without segmentation demands. Independent component analysis of 64-channel EEG data revealed clear sensorimotor mu components, with characteristic alpha and beta peaks, localized to premotor regions in 70% of participants.Time-frequency analyses of mu components from accurate trials showed that (1) segmentation tasks elicited greater event-related synchronization immediately following offset of the first stimulus, suggestive of inhibitory activity; (2) strong late event-related desynchronization in all conditions, suggesting that working memory/covert replay contributed substantially to sensorimotor activity in all conditions; (3) stronger beta desynchronization in speech versus non-speech stimuli during stimulus presentation, suggesting stronger auditory-motor transforms for speech versus non-speech stimuli...
April 18, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426947/structural-neuroplasticity-of-the-superior-temporal-plane-in-early-and-late-blindness
#11
Hicret Atilgan, Olivier Collignon, Uri Hasson
Blindness is associated with well-documented changes to the morphometry and function of the occipital cortex. By comparison, its impact on the perisylvian regions in the superior temporal plane (STP) is poorly understood, with many studies reporting null findings on this issue. Here we re-approach this question using a morphometric analysis that relied on fine-scale, manual annotation of 13 sub-regions within the STP and that quantified both univariate and multivariate differences in morphometry. We applied these analyses to both cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) data from congenitally and late blind, as compared to two matched sighted control groups...
April 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411527/development-of-sensitivity-versus-specificity-for-print-in-the-visual-word-form-area
#12
Tracy M Centanni, Livia W King, Marianna D Eddy, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, John D E Gabrieli
An area near the left lateral occipito-temporal sulcus that responds preferentially to print has been designated as the visual word form area (VWFA). Research suggests that specialization in this brain region increases as reading expertise is achieved. Here we aimed to characterize that development in terms of sensitivity (response to printed words relative to non-linguistic faces) versus specificity (response to printed words versus line drawings of nameable objects) in typically reading children ages 7-14 versus young adults as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
April 12, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407510/implicit-co-activation-of-american-sign-language-in-deaf-readers-an-erp-study
#13
Gabriela Meade, Katherine J Midgley, Zed Sevcikova Sehyr, Phillip J Holcomb, Karen Emmorey
In an implicit phonological priming paradigm, deaf bimodal bilinguals made semantic relatedness decisions for pairs of English words. Half of the semantically unrelated pairs had phonologically related translations in American Sign Language (ASL). As in previous studies with unimodal bilinguals, targets in pairs with phonologically related translations elicited smaller negativities than targets in pairs with phonologically unrelated translations within the N400 window. This suggests that the same lexicosemantic mechanism underlies implicit co-activation of a non-target language, irrespective of language modality...
April 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407509/infant-word-segmentation-recruits-the-cerebral-network-of-phonological-short-term-memory
#14
Yasuyo Minagawa, Yoko Hakuno, Ai Kobayashi, Nozomi Naoi, Shozo Kojima
Segmenting word units from running speech is a fundamental skill infants must develop in order to acquire language. Despite ample behavioral evidence of this skill, its neurocognitive basis remains unclear. Using behavioral testing and functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to uncover the neurocognitive substrates of word segmentation and its development. Of three age-groups of Japanese infants (5-6, 7-8, and 9-10months of age), the two older age-groups showed significantly larger temporo-parietal (particularly supramarginal gyrus) responses to target words repeatedly presented for training, than to control words...
April 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391032/readers-select-a-comprehension-mode-independent-of-pronoun-evidence-from-fmri-during-narrative-comprehension
#15
Franziska Hartung, Peter Hagoort, Roel M Willems
Perspective is a crucial feature for communicating about events. Yet it is unclear how linguistically encoded perspective relates to cognitive perspective taking. Here, we tested the effect of perspective taking with short literary stories. Participants listened to stories with 1st or 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist, while undergoing fMRI. When comparing action events with 1st and 3rd person pronouns, we found no evidence for a neural dissociation depending on the pronoun. A split sample approach based on the self-reported experience of perspective taking revealed 3 comprehension preferences...
April 6, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391031/evaluation-of-the-language-profile-in-children-with-rolandic-epilepsy-and-developmental-dysphasia-evidence-for-distinct-strengths-and-weaknesses
#16
M Verly, R Gerrits, L Lagae, S Sunaert, N Rommel, I Zink
Although benign, rolandic epilepsy (RE) or benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes is often associated with language impairment. Recently, fronto-rolandic EEG abnormalities have been described in children with developmental dysphasia (DD), suggesting an interaction between language impairment and interictal epileptiform discharges. To investigate if a behavioral-linguistic continuum between RE and DD exists, a clinical prospective study was carried out to evaluate the language profile of 15 children with RE and 22 children with DD...
April 6, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364641/tracking-reorganization-of-large-scale-effective-connectivity-in-aphasia-following-right-hemisphere-stroke
#17
David W Gow, Seppo P Ahlfors
In this paper we demonstrate the application of new effective connectivity analyses to characterize changing patterns of task-related directed interaction in large (25-55 node) cortical networks following the onset of aphasia. The subject was a left-handed woman who became aphasic following a right-hemisphere stroke. She was tested on an auditory word-picture verification task administered one and seven months after the onset of aphasia. MEG/EEG and anatomical MRI data were used to create high spatiotemporal resolution estimates of task-related cortical activity...
March 29, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343082/lateralizing-language-function-with-pre-operative-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-early-proficient-bilingual-patients
#18
Monika M Połczyńska, Kevin Japardi, Susan Y Bookheimer
Research on bilinguals with brain lesions is complicated by high patient variability, making it difficult to find well-matched controls. We benefitted from a database of over 700 patients and conducted an analysis of pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess language dominance in 25 early, highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals, and 25 carefully matched monolingual controls. Our results showed that early bilingualism is associated with greater bilateral hemispheric involvement, and monolingualism is associated with stronger left hemisphere lateralization (p=0...
March 23, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327371/longitudinal-changes-in-linguistic-complexity-among-professional-football-players
#19
Visar Berisha, Shuai Wang, Amy LaCross, Julie Liss, Pamela Garcia-Filion
Reductions in spoken language complexity have been associated with the onset of various neurological disorders. The objective of this study is to analyze whether similar trends are found in professional football players who are at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We compare changes in linguistic complexity (as indexed by the type-to-token ratio and lexical density) measured from the interview transcripts of players in the National Football League (NFL) to those measured from interview transcripts of coaches and/or front-office NFL executives who have never played professional football...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327370/the-effects-of-age-on-visual-expertise-for-print
#20
Maxime Curzietti, Anne Bonnefond, Bérengère Staub, Pierre Vidailhet, Nadège Doignon-Camus
Progressive visual processing decline is a known factor in aging. The present study investigates the evolution of visual expertise for printed stimuli with aging. Fifty-five participants of increasing age (20-30, 40-50, 60-70, 75-85years old) were recruited. Behavioral and EEG data were collected during a lexical decision task, in which words and symbol strings were presented. Analyses of EEG data focused mainly on three major points: visual expertise for print, automatization of the expertise and differences in attentional demand between the processing of words and symbols...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Language
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