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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903318/in-vitro-bioavailability-and-cellular-bioactivity-studies-of-flavonoids-and-flavonoid-rich-plant-extracts-questions-considerations-and-future-perspectives
#1
Gerard Bryan Gonzales
In vitro techniques are essential in elucidating biochemical mechanisms and for screening a wide range of possible bioactive candidates. The number of papers published reporting in vitro bioavailability and bioactivity of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich plant extracts is numerous and still increasing. However, even with the present knowledge on the bioavailability and metabolism of flavonoids after oral ingestion, certain inaccuracies still persist in the literature, such as the use of plant extracts to study bioactivity towards vascular cells...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903310/the-determinants-of-food-choice
#2
Gareth Leng, Roger A H Adan, Michele Belot, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Kees de Graaf, Suzanne L Dickson, Todd Hare, Silvia Maier, John Menzies, Hubert Preissl, Lucia A Reisch, Peter J Rogers, Paul A M Smeets
Health nudge interventions to steer people into healthier lifestyles are increasingly applied by governments worldwide, and it is natural to look to such approaches to improve health by altering what people choose to eat. However, to produce policy recommendations that are likely to be effective, we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846919/intestinal-bile-acid-receptors-are-key-regulators-of-glucose-homeostasis
#3
Mohamed-Sami Trabelsi, Sophie Lestavel, Bart Staels, Xavier Collet
In addition to their well-known function as dietary lipid detergents, bile acids have emerged as important signalling molecules that regulate energy homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted that disrupted bile acid metabolism is associated with metabolism disorders such as dyslipidaemia, intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases and obesity. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with quantitative and qualitative modifications in bile acid metabolism. Bile acids bind and modulate the activity of transmembrane and nuclear receptors (NR)...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821203/ageing-alters-the-impact-of-nutrition-on-immune-function
#4
Parveen Yaqoob
Immunosenescence during ageing is a major challenge which weakens the ability of older individuals to respond to infection or vaccination. There has been much interest in dietary strategies to improve immunity in older people, but there is an assumption that modulation of the immune response in older people will be based on the same principles as for younger adults. Recent evidence suggests that ageing fundamentally alters the impact of nutrition on immune function. As a result, interpretation of data from studies investigating the impact of diet on immune function is highly dependent on subject age...
November 8, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819203/nutrigenomics-in-the-modern-era
#5
John C Mathers
The concept that interactions between nutrition and genetics determine phenotype was established by Garrod at the beginning of the 20th century through his ground-breaking work on inborn errors of metabolism. A century later, the science and technologies involved in sequencing of the human genome stimulated development of the scientific discipline which we now recognise as nutritional genomics (nutrigenomics). Much of the early hype around possible applications of this new science was unhelpful and raised expectations, which have not been realised as quickly as some would have hoped...
November 7, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804896/investigating-cholesterol-metabolism-and-ageing-using-a-systems-biology-approach
#6
A E Morgan, K M Mooney, S J Wilkinson, N A Pickles, M T Mc Auley
CVD accounted for 27 % of all deaths in the UK in 2014, and was responsible for 1·7 million hospital admissions in 2013/2014. This condition becomes increasingly prevalent with age, affecting 34·1 and 29·8 % of males and females over 75 years of age respectively in 2011. The dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism with age, often observed as a rise in LDL-cholesterol, has been associated with the pathogenesis of CVD. To compound this problem, it is estimated by 2050, 22 % of the world's population will be over 60 years of age, in culmination with a growing resistance and intolerance to pre-existing cholesterol regulating drugs such as statins...
November 2, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804893/phenolic-enriched-foods-sources-and-processing-for-enhanced-health-benefits
#7
Gordon J McDougall
Polyphenols are ubiquitous secondary products present in many plant foods. Their intake has been associated with health benefits ranging from reduced incidence of CVD, diabetes and cancers to improved neurodegenerative outcomes. Major dietary sources include beverages such as coffee, teas and foods such as chocolate. Fruits are also major sources and berries in particular are a palatable source of a diverse range of polyphenol components. There are a number of ways that polyphenol uptake could be increased and healthier polyphenol-rich foods could be produced with specific compositions to target-specific health effects...
November 2, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776564/food-based-solutions-for-vitamin-d-deficiency-putting-policy-into-practice-and-the-key-role-for-research
#8
Aoife Hayes, Kevin D Cashman
Recent re-evaluations of dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin D have established intake requirements between 10 and 20 µg/d. National nutrition surveys indicate that habitual mean intakes of vitamin D in the population are typically in the range 3-7 µg/d. As vitamin D supplementation will not be effective at a population level because the uptake is generally low, creative food-based solutions are needed to bridge the gap between current intakes and these new requirement values. The overarching aim of this review is to highlight how food-based solutions can have an important role in bridging this gap and counteracting vitamin D inadequacy in Europe and elsewhere...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766990/providing-evidence-to-support-the-development-of-whole-grain-dietary-recommendations-in-the-united-kingdom
#9
Kay D Mann, Mark S Pearce, Chris J Seal
Observational evidence suggests that increased whole grain (WG) intake reduces the risks of many non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. More recently, studies have shown that WG intake lowers all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Much of the reported evidence on risk reduction is from US and Scandinavian populations, where there are tangible WG dietary recommendations. At present there is no quantity-specific WG dietary recommendation in the UK, instead we are advised to choose WG or higher fibre versions...
October 21, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609297/cardiovascular-benefits-of-lycopene-fantasy-or-reality
#10
Frank Thies, Lynsey M Mills, Susan Moir, Lindsey F Masson
Epidemiological evidence indicates that high consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD and cancer. Such potential benefits are often ascribed to high concentrations of lycopene present in tomato products. Mainly from the results of in vitro studies, potential biological mechanisms by which carotenoids could protect against heart disease and cancer have been suggested. These include cholesterol reduction, inhibition of oxidation processes, modulation of inflammatory markers, enhanced intercellular communication, inhibition of tumourigenesis and induction of apoptosis, metabolism to retinoids and antiangiogenic effects...
September 9, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609098/a-literature-review-of-flavonoids-and-lifespan-in-model-organisms
#11
Kathrin Pallauf, Nils Duckstein, Gerald Rimbach
Epidemiological data on consumption of flavonoid-containing food points to the notion that some of these secondary plant metabolites may favour healthy ageing. The aim of the present paper was to review the literature on lifespan extension by flavonoids in worms, flies and mice. In most studies, worms and flies experienced lifespan extension when supplemented with flavonoids either as extracts or single compounds. Studies with mutant worms and flies give hints as to which gene products may be regulated by flavonoids and consequently enhance longevity...
September 9, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527582/the-impact-of-fatty-acid-desaturase-genotype-on-fatty-acid-status-and-cardiovascular-health-in-adults
#12
Colette M O'Neill, Anne-Marie Minihane
The aim of this review was to determine the impact of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype on plasma and tissue concentrations of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA, including EPA and DHA, which are associated with the risk of several diet-related chronic diseases, including CVD. In addition to dietary intakes, which are low for many individuals, tissue EPA and DHA are also influenced by the rate of bioconversion from α-linolenic acid (αLNA). Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, encoded for by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key desaturation enzymes involved in the bioconversion of essential fatty acids (αLNA and linoleic acid (LA)) to longer chained PUFA...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507594/phytochemicals-in-animal-health-diet-selection-and-trade-offs-between-costs-and-benefits
#13
Juan J Villalba, Morgane Costes-Thiré, Cécile Ginane
Many plant tissues contain plant secondary compounds (PSC), which have long been recognised as defensive chemicals that deter herbivory via their toxic effects. However, herbivores may also benefit from including PSC into their diets. Plant-derived phenolics, terpenes and alkaloids have antiparasitic properties and sesquiterpene lactones have antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic properties. These actions are in part a consequence of the negative actions that PSC exert across several trophic levels, including the bacteria, parasites and fungi that inhabit herbivores' bodies...
August 10, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502053/wholesome-nutrition-an-example-for-a-sustainable-diet
#14
Karl von Koerber, Nadine Bader, Claus Leitzmann
'Wholesome Nutrition' is a concept of sustainable nutrition that was developed at the University of Giessen in the 1980s. In this concept, health and the ecologic, economic, social and cultural dimensions of nutrition are equally important. In 1992 at the UN-Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro the definition of 'Sustainable Development' comprised the dimensions environment, economy and society. Additionally to these three 'classical' dimensions of sustainability, we included 'health' as the fourth dimension because nutrition has far reaching effects on human health...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499509/nutrition-in-the-spotlight-metabolic-effects-of-environmental-light
#15
Ruth I Versteeg, Dirk J Stenvers, Andries Kalsbeek, Peter H Bisschop, Mireille J Serlie, Susanne E la Fleur
Use of artificial light resulted in relative independence from the natural light-dark (LD) cycle, allowing human subjects to shift the timing of food intake and work to convenient times. However, the increase in artificial light exposure parallels the increase in obesity prevalence. Light is the dominant Zeitgeber for the central circadian clock, which resides within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, and coordinates daily rhythm in feeding behaviour and metabolism. Eating during inappropriate light conditions may result in metabolic disease via changes in the biological clock...
August 8, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476856/aquaculture-a-rapidly-growing-and-significant-source-of-sustainable-food-status-transitions-and-potential
#16
D C Little, R W Newton, M C M Beveridge
The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334652/consumption-of-meat-and-dairy-products-in-china-a-review
#17
Yuna He, Xiaoguang Yang, Juan Xia, Liyun Zhao, Yuexin Yang
The objective of the present paper was to review the consumption status of meat and dairy products among Chinese residents. The research topics included production, consumption and health implications of dairy and meat, and the data sources included reports of national surveys, research papers and data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China. The average intake of meat, especially pork, has continued to increase in China. Pork intake increased from 37·1 g/d in 1992 to 64·3 g/d in 2012. There was a much higher margin in rural regions; pork intake of rural residents increased from 25·0 g/d in 1992 to 59·9 g/d in 2012, which resulted in a narrowed gap between urban and rural areas...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269202/veterinary-clinical-nutrition-success-stories-an-overview
#18
Mike Davies
In this overview of success stories in veterinary clinical nutrition topics in cats and dogs reviewed include the dietary management of chronic kidney disease, dissolution of urinary tract uroliths by dietary modification, the recognition that taurine and L-carnitine deficiencies can cause dilated cardiomyopathy; that clinical signs associated with feline hyperthyroidism (caused by a benign adenoma) can be controlled by a low-iodine diet alone; that dietary management of canine osteoarthritis can also reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses; and that disease-free intervals and survival times can be statistically longer in dogs with Stage III lymphoma managed with diet...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170557/berries-and-anthocyanins-promising-functional-food-ingredients-with-postprandial-glycaemia-lowering-effects
#19
Monica L Castro-Acosta, Georgia N Lenihan-Geels, Christopher P Corpe, Wendy L Hall
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170501/riboflavin-status-mthfr-genotype-and-blood-pressure-current-evidence-and-implications-for-personalised-nutrition
#20
E McAuley, H McNulty, C Hughes, J J Strain, M Ward
Clinical deficiency of the B-vitamin riboflavin (vitamin B2) is largely confined to developing countries; however accumulating evidence indicates that suboptimal riboflavin status is a widespread problem across the developed world. Few international data are available on riboflavin status as measured by the functional biomarker, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient, considered to be the gold standard index. One important role of riboflavin in the form of flavin dinucleotide is as a co-factor for the folate-metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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