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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724452/exercise-energy-expenditure-and-energy-balance-as-measured-with-doubly-labelled-water
#1
Klaas R Westerterp
The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE...
July 20, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#2
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707609/the-role-of-diet-and-nutrition-on-mental-health-and-wellbeing
#3
Lauren Owen, Bernard Corfe
Mental, neurological and substance-use disorders presently represent the greatest global burden of disease. Likewise, depression and other psychopathologies are elevated risk comorbidities of other health hazards, such as obesity. Nutrition has been implicated in behaviour, mood and in the pathology and treatment of mental illness. In this brief editorial, we aim to set the scale of the problem in context and overview advances and recent evidence linking nutrition to psychological outcomes. The purpose of the 2016 Nutrition Society Winter Meeting, 'Diet, nutrition and mental health and wellbeing' was to review where the evidence is strong, where there are unmet needs for research and to draw together the communities working in this area to share their findings...
July 14, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662730/effective-nutrition-education-and-communication-for-sustainable-maternal-and-child-health
#4
Mary W Murimi, Ana Florencia Moyeda-Carabaza
Maternal and child health (MCH) consists of an interdependent reproductive system that collectively determines the survival of the mother during childbirth, and determines the health and survival of the child. This interdependency underscores the importance of appropriate and timely interventions during pregnancy through the first 1000 d at the minimum. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) recommended the use of the continuum of care for the development of interventions by addressing all the stages of MCH...
June 30, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659225/mediterranean-food-consumption-patterns-low-environmental-impacts-and-significant-health-nutrition-benefits
#5
Y Aboussaleh, R Capone, H El Bilali
The Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrient intakes. The Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for metabolic chronic diseases. It has also low ecological, carbon and water footprints due to its high share of plant-based foods. In fact, the share of plant-based dietary energy is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2300 plant species...
June 29, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651670/alterations-in-vitamin-a-retinoic-acid-homeostasis-in-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#6
Nimesh Mody
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient for life and the phytochemical β-carotene, also known as pro-vitamin A, is an important dietary source of this vitamin. Vitamin A (retinol) is the parent compound of all bioactive retinoids but it is retinoic acid (RA) that is the active metabolite of vitamin A. The plasma concentration of retinol is maintained in a narrow range and its normal biological activities strictly regulated since excessive intake can lead to toxicity and thus also be detrimental to life. The present review will give an overview of how vitamin A homeostasis is maintained and move on to focus on the link between circulating vitamin A and metabolic disease states...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651658/the-impact-of-diet-based-glycaemic-response-and-glucose-regulation-on-cognition-evidence-across-the-lifespan
#7
Sandra I Sünram-Lea, Lauren Owen
The brain has a high metabolic rate and its metabolism is almost entirely restricted to oxidative utilisation of glucose. These factors emphasise the extreme dependence of neural tissue on a stable and adequate supply of glucose. Whereas initially it was thought that only glucose deprivation (i.e. under hypoglycaemic conditions) can affect brain function, it has become apparent that low-level fluctuations in central availability can affect neural and consequently, cognitive performance. In the present paper the impact of diet-based glycaemic response and glucose regulation on cognitive processes across the lifespan will be reviewed...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629483/the-challenges-of-control-groups-placebos-and-blinding-in-clinical-trials-of-dietary-interventions
#8
Heidi M Staudacher, Peter M Irving, Miranda C E Lomer, Kevin Whelans
High-quality placebo-controlled evidence for food, nutrient or dietary advice interventions is vital for verifying the role of diet in optimising health or for the management of disease. This could be argued to be especially important where the benefits of dietary intervention are coupled with potential risks such as compromising nutrient intake, particularly in the case of exclusion diets. The objective of the present paper is to explore the challenges associated with clinical trials in dietary research, review the types of controls used and present the advantages and disadvantages of each, including issues regarding placebos and blinding...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595671/from-the-sain-lim-system-to-the-sens-algorithm-a-review-of-a-french-approach-of-nutrient-profiling
#9
Marion Tharrey, Matthieu Maillot, Véronique Azaïs-Braesco, Nicole Darmon
Nutrient profiling aims to classify or rank foods according to their nutritional composition to assist policies aimed at improving the nutritional quality of foods and diets. The present paper reviews a French approach of nutrient profiling by describing the SAIN,LIM system and its evolution from its early draft to the simplified nutrition labelling system (SENS) algorithm. Considered in 2010 by WHO as the 'French model' of nutrient profiling, SAIN,LIM classifies foods into four classes based on two scores: a nutrient density score (NDS) called SAIN and a score of nutrients to limit called LIM, and one threshold on each score...
June 9, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595659/uses-of-nutrient-profiling-to-address-public-health-needs-from-regulation-to-reformulation
#10
Adam Drewnowski
Nutrient profiling (NP) models rate the nutritional quality of individual foods, based on their nutrient composition. Their goal is to identify nutrient-rich foods, generally defined as those that contain more nutrients than calories and are low in fat, sugar and salt. NP models have provided the scientific basis for evaluating nutrition and health claims and regulating marketing and advertising to children. The food industry has used NP methods to reformulate product portfolios. To help define what we mean by healthy foods, NP models need to be based on published nutrition standards, mandated serving sizes and open-source nutrient composition databases...
June 9, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595658/nutrient-profiling-for-regulatory-purposes
#11
Mike Rayner
In this paper, I first provide definitions of nutrient profiling and of a nutrient profile model. I set out the purposes of nutrient profiling: both general and specific. I give two examples of nutrient profile models that have been developed for regulatory purposes by the Food Standards Agency (FSA) in the UK and the WHO for its European Region - the UK FSA/Ofcom and the WHO-Euro models - and compare the way the models are constructed and function, how they have been developed, the extent to which they have been tested and validated and their use in regulation...
June 9, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514985/new-technology-in-nutrition-research-and-practice
#12
Lorraine Brennan, Breige McNulty
Recent technology advancements are aiding the development of scientific discoveries and changing the methods by which we perform research. In order to gain full benefits for human health, it will be important to embrace these new technologies in nutrition research while also acknowledging their limitations. The present issue covers a range of technological approaches that impact on public health nutrition and molecular nutrition. The critical appraisal of these approaches in the context of nutrition research makes this issue a timely and pertinent addition to the scientific literature...
May 18, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514983/adverse-effects-of-consuming-high-fat-sugar-diets-on-cognition-implications-for-understanding-obesity
#13
Martin R Yeomans
There is increasing evidence for important roles of key cognitive processes, including attention, memory and learning, in the short-term decision making about eating. There is parallel evidence that people who are overweight or obese tend to perform worse on a variety of cognitive tasks. In this review, the evidence for these two ideas is summarised and then the idea that overconsumption of Western-style high-fat (HF)-high-sugar diets may underlie the association between obesity and poorer cognitive performance is explored...
May 18, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508737/the-future-for-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-the-prevention-of-coronary-heart-disease-do-we-need-to-target-non-fish-eaters
#14
W L Hall
Dietary guidelines in many countries include a recommendation to consume oily fish, mainly on the basis of evidence from prospective cohort studies that fish consumption is cardioprotective. However, average intakes are very low in a large proportion of the UK population. Some groups, such as vegans and vegetarians, purposely omit fish (along with meat) from their diet resulting in zero or trace intakes of long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Although the efficacy of dietary fish oil supplementation in the prevention of CVD has been questioned in recent years, the balance of evidence indicates that LC n-3 PUFA exert systemic pleiotropic effects through their influence on gene expression, cell signalling, membrane fluidity and by conversion to specialised proresolving mediators; autacoid lipid mediators that resolve inflammatory events...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488562/exploring-the-health-status-of-older-persons-in-sub-saharan-africa
#15
Keiron Audain, Michelle Carr, Derya Dikmen, Francis Zotor, Basma Ellahi
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has traditionally had a low life expectancy due to the onslaught of the HIV epidemic, high levels of chronic diseases, injuries, conflict and undernutrition. Therefore, research into public health concerns of older persons has largely been overlooked. With a growing population, the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment, and the effects of globalisation, SSA is experiencing an increase in the number of people over 50 years of age as well as an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD)...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162105/molecular-insights-into-cancer-therapeutic-effects-of-the-dietary-medicinal-phytochemical-withaferin-a
#16
Chandra Sekhar Chirumamilla, Claudina Pérez-Novo, Xaveer Van Ostade, Wim Vanden Berghe
Despite the worldwide research efforts to combat cancer, it remains a leading cause of death. Although various specific kinase inhibitors already have been approved for clinical cancer treatment, occurrence of intrinsic or acquired resistance and intermittent response over longer periods limits long-term success of single kinase-targeted therapies. In this respect, there is a renewed interest in polypharmaceutical natural compounds, which simultaneously target various hyperactivated kinases involved in tumour-inflammation, angiogenesis, cell survival, proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143625/potential-benefits-of-phytochemicals-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Emma L Wightman
Our current therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease are predominantly derived from the alkaloid class of plant phytochemicals. These drugs, such as galantamine and rivastigmine, attenuate the decline in the cholinergic system but, as the alkaloids occupy the most dangerous end of the phytochemical spectrum (indeed they function as feeding deterrents and poisons to other organisms within the plant itself), they are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In addition, these cholinesterase inhibiting alkaloids target only one system in a disorder, which is typified by multifactorial deficits...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420455/nutrient-profiling-for-product-reformulation-public-health-impact-and-benefits-for-the-consumer
#18
Undine Lehmann, Véronique Rheiner Charles, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Gabriel Masset, Jörg Spieldenner
The food industry holds great potential for driving consumers to adopt healthy food choices as (re)formulation of foods can improve the nutritional quality of these foods. Reformulation has been identified as a cost-effective intervention in addressing non-communicable diseases as it does not require significant alterations of consumer behaviour and dietary habits. Nutrient profiling (NP), the science of categorizing foods based on their nutrient composition, has emerged as an essential tool and is implemented through many different profiling systems to guide reformulation and other nutrition policies...
April 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347378/vitamin-d-deficiency-as-a-public-health-issue-using-vitamin-d2-or-vitamin-d3-in-future-fortification-strategies
#19
Louise R Wilson, Laura Tripkovic, Kathryn H Hart, Susan A Lanham-New
The role of vitamin D in supporting the growth and maintenance of the skeleton is robust; with recent research also suggesting a beneficial link between vitamin D and other non-skeletal health outcomes, including immune function, cardiovascular health and cancer. Despite this, vitamin D deficiency remains a global public health issue, with a renewed focus in the UK following the publication of Public Health England's new Dietary Vitamin D Requirements. Natural sources of vitamin D (dietary and UVB exposure) are limited, and thus mechanisms are needed to allow individuals to achieve the new dietary recommendations...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347373/using-stable-isotope-techniques-in-nutrition-assessments-and-tracking-of-global-targets-post-2015
#20
Victor O Owino, Christine Slater, Cornelia U Loechl
Stable isotopes are non-radioactive, safe and are applied for various purposes in human health assessment in trace amounts that minimally disturb normal physiology. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports the use of stable isotope techniques to design and evaluate interventions addressing malnutrition in all its forms with focus on infant and young child feeding; maternal and adolescent nutrition; diet quality; prevention and control of non-communicable diseases; healthy ageing and gut function. These techniques can be used to objectively measure: (1) amount of human milk consumed and whether an infant is exclusively breastfed; (2) body composition in the context of re-feeding programmes for moderate and severe acute malnutrition and as an indicator of the risk for obesity; (3) bioavailability and bioconversion of pro-vitamin A and vitamin A body stores following vitamin A intervention programmes; (4) absorption and retention of iron, zinc and protein; (5) total energy expenditure for validation of physical activity measurement and dietary assessment tools and (6) diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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