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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

Seeromanie Harding, Christelle Elia, Peiyuan Huang, Chelsea Atherton, Kyla Covey, Gemma O'Donnell, Elizabeth Cole, Manal Almughamisi, Ursula M Read, Alexandru Dregan, Trevor George, Ingrid Wolfe, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Maria Maynard, Louise M Goff, Majella O'Keeffe
Childhood obesity is a common concern across global cities and threatens sustainable urban development. Initiatives to improve nutrition and encourage physical exercise are promising but are yet to exert significant influence on prevention. Childhood obesity in London is associated with distinct ethnic and socio-economic patterns. Ethnic inequalities in health-related behaviour endure, underpinned by inequalities in employment, housing, access to welfare services, and discrimination. Addressing these growing concerns requires a clearer understanding of the socio-cultural, environmental and economic contexts of urban living that promote obesity...
September 27, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Julie Miller Jones
The NOVA food categorisation recommends 'avoiding processed foods (PF), especially ultra-processed foods (UPF)' and selecting minimally PF to address obesity and chronic disease. However, NOVA categories are drawn using non-traditional views of food processing with additional criteria including a number of ingredients, added sugars, and additives. Comparison of NOVA's definition and categorisation of PF with codified and published ones shows limited congruence with respect to either definition or food placement into categories...
September 25, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Donald C McMillan, Donogh Maguire, Dinesh Talwar
Micronutrients such as trace elements and vitamins are important as enzyme cofactors in the metabolism of all cells in the body and therefore key to determining nutritional status. The present systematic review examined the evidence of the impact of the systemic inflammatory response on plasma micronutrient status in acute (surgical) and chronic tissue injury. A literature review using targeted subject headings was carried out. Plasma C-reactive protein was used to classify minor (80 mg/l) inflammation. The literature search produced 2344 publications and plasma vitamin D, zinc and carotenoids were most commonly studied and plasma vitamins K, B2 and B6 were least studied...
September 17, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Margaret P Rayman
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are examples of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), the commonest autoimmune condition. Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the enzyme that catalyses thyroid-hormone production and antibodies to the receptor for the thyroid-stimulating hormone, are characteristic of HT and GD, respectively. It is presently accepted that genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, including nutritional factors and immune disorders contribute to the development of AITD...
September 13, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Eimear Dolan, Craig Sale
Bone health is determined by the rate of accrual in early life, followed by the rate of age-associated bone loss. Dietary protein intake might have a role in bone health across both of these phases via pleiotropic mechanistic pathways. Herein we summarise the pathways through which protein may exert either a positive or negative influence on bone. In the introduction, we describe the acid-ash hypothesis, which states that a high-protein intake may lead to an acidic residue that must be neutralised through the leaching of calcium and other minerals from the bone, subsequently leading to demineralisation and bone weakening...
August 10, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Susan J Fairweather-Tait, Agnès de Sesmaisons
This review aims to describe approaches used to estimate bioavailability when deriving dietary reference values (DRV) for iron and zinc using the factorial approach. Various values have been applied by different expert bodies to convert absorbed iron or zinc into dietary intakes, and these are summarised in this review. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) derived zinc requirements from a trivariate saturation response model describing the relationship between zinc absorption and dietary zinc and phytate...
July 27, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Julie Lanigan
Childhood obesity is a serious challenge for public health. The problem begins early with most excess childhood weight gained before starting school. In 2016, the WHO estimated that 41 million children under 5 were overweight or obese. Once established, obesity is difficult to reverse, likely to persist into adult life and is associated with increased risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Preventing obesity is therefore of high importance. However, its development is multi-factorial and prevention is a complex challenge...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Marion M Hetherington, Pam Blundell-Birtill, Samantha J Caton, Joanne E Cecil, Charlotte E Evans, Barbara J Rolls, Tang Tang
Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what might be done to counter the effects of an environment promoting large portions, especially in children. Explanations for the PSE are many and diverse, ranging from consumer error in estimating portion size to simple heuristics such as cleaning the plate or eating in accordance with consumption norms...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Randy J Nelson, Souhad Chbeir
Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
M Bouga, M E J Lean, E Combet
Iodine deficiency (ID) in women of childbearing age remains a global public health concern, mainly through its impact on fetal and infant neurodevelopment. While iodine status is improving globally, ID is still prevalent in pregnancy, when requirements increase. More than 120 countries have implemented salt iodisation and food fortification, strategies that have been partially successful. Supplementation during pregnancy is recommended in some countries and supported by the WHO when mandatory salt iodisation is not present...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Rachel Loopstra
Household food insecurity is a serious public health concern in high-income countries. Canada and the USA regularly monitor household food insecurity, while in other countries, such as the UK, it has been the rapid rise of food bank usage that has drawn increased attention to this longstanding, but largely overlooked, problem. This review evaluates evidence on interventions intended to reduce household food insecurity in high-income countries. Research on social protection interventions suggests both cash transfers and food subsidies (e...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Amelia A Lake
The burden of obesity contributes to increasing health inequality, and placing healthcare systems under huge strain. The modern society could broadly be described to support unhealthful eating patterns and sedentary behaviour; also described as obesogenic. Obesity prevention and treatment has focused on educational and behavioural interventions, with limited overall success. A sustainable approach is to address the environments that promote less healthy eating and high energy intake as well as sedentary behaviour...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Judith L Buttriss
The past half-century has been characterised by major technological developments and massive societal change, which have profoundly changed how food is produced, processed, sold and consumed. These days we are faced with a huge choice of pre-packaged foods when we shop in modern supermarkets and we can buy seasonal food all year round, in and out of season. For decades now, the need to guide choice has been recognised, and retailers and many manufacturers have provided increasing amounts of on-pack information and signposting, and more recently UK retailers have led the way in championing front-of-pack information provision, to supplement the standard back-of-pack nutrient composition table...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Anne Marie Beck
With the focus of care shifting from the hospital to the community, supportive nutritional care to old people is to become an important issue to address in the community, since undernutrition has serious consequences, both for the quality of life and for the health care costs. Several modifiable nutritional risk factors relate to undernutrition. Unfortunately, the problem with (risk of) undernutrition is aggravated due to a lack of alertness among e.g. health care staff, leading to insufficient attention for systemic screening and nutritional care...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Emma Smith, Peter Scarborough, Mike Rayner, Adam D M Briggs
The global burden of obesity leads to significant morbidity and has major economic implications. In April 2018, Britain will join a growing number of countries attempting to tackle this using fiscal measures when the UK Soft Drinks Industry Levy is introduced. We review recent evidence from natural experiments of the impact of health-related food and drink taxes on consumer behaviour, and discuss the possible consequences of these approaches on purchases and health. We highlight some of the potential indirect consequences and the importance of robust prospective evaluation...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
The circadian disruption in shift-workers is suggested to be a risk factor to develop overweight and metabolic dysfunction. The conflicting time signals given by shifted activity, shifted food intake and exposure to light at night occurring in the shift-worker are proposed to be the cause for the loss of internal synchrony and the consequent adverse effects on body weight and metabolism. Because food elicited signals have proven to be potent entraining signals for peripheral oscillations, here we review the findings from experimental models of shift-work and verify whether they provide evidence about the causal association between shifted feeding schedules, circadian disruption and altered metabolism...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Tim Lang, Pamela Mason
The objective of the present paper is to draw lessons from policy development on sustainable diets. It considers the emergence of sustainable diets as a policy issue and reviews the environmental challenge to nutrition science as to what a 'good' diet is for contemporary policy. It explores the variations in how sustainable diets have been approached by policy-makers. The paper considers how international United Nations and European Union (EU) policy engagement now centres on the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Change Accord, which require changes across food systems...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Taryn J Smith, Laura Tripkovic, Susan A Lanham-New, Kathryn H Hart
Vitamin D is a unique nutrient. First, it acts as a pro-hormone and secondly, the requirement for vitamin D can be met by both endogenous synthesis from sunlight and by dietary sources. This complicates the determination of dietary requirements for vitamin D, which along with the definition of optimal vitamin D status, have been highly controversial and much debated over recent years. Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, which is concerning given the important role of vitamin D, and calcium, in promoting normal bone mineralisation and attainment of peak bone mass during this rapid growth phase...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Sian M Robinson
Alongside declining activity levels, energy needs fall in older age and eating less is expected. However, as total food consumption declines, intakes of many nutrients are also likely to fall; while energy requirements may be met, other nutrient needs may not. Although this highlights the importance of nutrient-dense foods and overall diet quality in older age to ensure nutrient intakes are sufficient, maintaining or increasing diet quality may be difficult at a time when food access and preparation are becoming more challenging, and diets may be more monotonous...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Jing Guo, Julie A Lovegrove, D Ian Givens
The ability to synthesise sufficient vitamin D through sunlight in human subjects can be limited. Thus, diet has become an important contributor to vitamin D intake and status; however, there are only a few foods (e.g. egg yolk, oily fish) naturally rich in vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D-enriched foods via supplementing the animals' diet with vitamin D or vitamin D fortification of foods have been proposed as strategies to increase vitamin D intake. Evidence that cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and calcifediol (25(OH)D3) content of eggs, fish and milk increased in response to vitamin D3 supplementation of hens, fish or cows' diets was identified when vitamin D-enrichment studies were reviewed...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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