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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860965/early-breast-cancer-why-does-obesity-affect-prognosis
#1
A Heetun, R I Cutress, E R Copson
High BMI is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women but poorer outcomes in all age groups. The underlying mechanism is likely to be multi-factorial. Patients with a high BMI may present later due to body habitus. Some studies have also indicated an increased incidence of biologically adverse features, including a higher frequency of oestrogen receptor (ER negative) tumours, in obese patients. Obese patients have a higher frequency of surgical complications, potentially delaying systemic therapies, and reports suggest that chemotherapy and endocrine therapy are less effective in patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m2...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860952/clinical-implications-of-low-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-early-stage-breast-and-colorectal-cancer
#2
Elizabeth Cespedes Feliciano, Wendy Y Chen
Although obesity has now been widely accepted to be an important risk factor for cancer survival, the associations between BMI and cancer mortality have not been consistently linear. Although morbid obesity has clearly been associated with worse survival, some studies have suggested a U-shaped association with no adverse association with overweight or lower levels of obesity. This 'obesity paradox' may be due to the fact that BMI likely incompletely captures key measures of body composition, including distribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808786/prevention-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-early-life
#3
Julie Lanigan
Childhood obesity is a serious challenge for public health. The problem begins early with most excess childhood weight gained before starting school. In 2016, the WHO estimated that 41 million children under 5 were overweight or obese. Once established, obesity is difficult to reverse, likely to persist into adult life and is associated with increased risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Preventing obesity is therefore of high importance. However, its development is multi-factorial and prevention is a complex challenge...
May 29, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792243/understanding-the-science-of-portion-control-and-the-art-of-downsizing
#4
Marion M Hetherington, Pam Blundell-Birtill, Samantha J Caton, Joanne E Cecil, Charlotte E Evans, Barbara J Rolls, Tang Tang
Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what might be done to counter the effects of an environment promoting large portions, especially in children. Explanations for the PSE are many and diverse, ranging from consumer error in estimating portion size to simple heuristics such as cleaning the plate or eating in accordance with consumption norms...
May 24, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747703/dark-matters-effects-of-light-at-night-on-metabolism
#5
Randy J Nelson, Souhad Chbeir
Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations...
May 11, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708096/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-ageing-and-cancer
#6
A E Morgan, T J Davies, M T Mc Auley
The aim of the present review paper is to survey the literature related to DNA methylation, and its association with cancer and ageing. The review will outline the key factors, including diet, which modulate DNA methylation. Our rationale for conducting this review is that ageing and diseases, including cancer, are often accompanied by aberrant DNA methylation, a key epigenetic process, which is crucial to the regulation of gene expression. Significantly, it has been observed that with age and certain disease states, DNA methylation status can become disrupted...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708079/barriers-to-cancer-nutrition-therapy-excess-catabolism-of-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-induced-by-tumour-products-and-chemotherapy
#7
Dalton L Schiessel, Vickie E Baracos
Cancer-associated malnutrition is driven by reduced dietary intake and by underlying metabolic changes (such as inflammation, anabolic resistance, proteolysis, lipolysis and futile cycling) induced by the tumour and activated immune cells. Cytotoxic and targeted chemotherapies also elicit proteolysis and lipolysis at the tissue level. In this review, we summarise specific mediators and chemotherapy effects that provoke excess proteolysis in muscle and excess lipolysis in adipose tissue. A nutritionally relevant question is whether and to what degree these catabolic changes can be reversed by nutritional therapy...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708078/generating-the-evidence-for-risk-reduction-a-contribution-to-the-future-of-food-based-dietary-guidelines
#8
Lukas Schwingshackl, Sabrina Schlesinger, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Georg Hoffmann, Angela Bechthold, Carolina Schwedhelm, Khalid Iqbal, Sven Knüppel, Heiner Boeing
A major advantage of analyses on the food group level is that the results are better interpretable compared with nutrients or complex dietary patterns. Such results are also easier to transfer into recommendations on primary prevention of non-communicable diseases. As a consequence, food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) are now the preferred approach to guide the population regarding their dietary habits. However, such guidelines should be based on a high grade of evidence as requested in many other areas of public health practice...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704906/contemporary-challenges-to-iodine-status-and-nutrition-the-role-of-foods-dietary-recommendations-fortification-and-supplementation
#9
M Bouga, M E J Lean, E Combet
Iodine deficiency (ID) in women of childbearing age remains a global public health concern, mainly through its impact on fetal and infant neurodevelopment. While iodine status is improving globally, ID is still prevalent in pregnancy, when requirements increase. More than 120 countries have implemented salt iodisation and food fortification, strategies that have been partially successful. Supplementation during pregnancy is recommended in some countries and supported by the WHO when mandatory salt iodisation is not present...
April 29, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661256/main-effects-of-human-saliva-on-flavour-perception-and-the-potential-contribution-to-food-consumption
#10
Carolina Muñoz-González, Gilles Feron, Francis Canon
Whole saliva is a mixture composed by the secretions of the major and minor salivary glands and the crevicular fluid, bacteria, cells and food debris. Its properties (flow and composition) are highly intra- and inter-individually dependent and reflect the health status of individuals. Saliva plays a key role in the eating process and on the perception of flavour. Flavour corresponds to the combined effect of taste sensations, aromatics and chemical feeling factors evoked by food in the oral cavity. It is a key determinant of food consumption and intake...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619914/iron-deficiency-after-bariatric-surgery-what-is-the-real-problem
#11
Nele Steenackers, Bart Van der Schueren, Ann Mertens, Matthias Lannoo, Tara Grauwet, Patrick Augustijns, Christophe Matthys
The growing prevalence of obesity explains the rising interest in bariatric surgery. Compared with non-surgical treatment options, bariatric surgery results in greater and sustained improvements in weight loss, obesity associated complications, all-cause mortality and quality of life. These encouraging metabolic and weight effects come with a downside, namely the risk of nutritional deficiencies. Particularly striking is the risk to develop iron deficiency. Postoperatively, the prevalence of iron deficiency varies between 18 and 53 % after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and between 1 and 54 % after sleeve gastrectomy...
April 5, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607792/nutritional-strategies-to-prevent-gastrointestinal-toxicity-during-pelvic-radiotherapy
#12
Linda J Wedlake
Radiotherapy-induced damage to non-cancerous gastrointestinal mucosa has effects on secretory and absorptive functions and can interfere with normal gastrointestinal physiology. Nutrient absorption and digestion may be compromised. Dietary manipulation is an attractive option with sound rationale for intervention. The aim of this review was to synthesise published evidence for the use of elemental formulae, low or modified fat diets, fibre, lactose restriction and probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics to protect the bowel from gastrointestinal side effects during long-course, radical pelvic radiotherapy...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745362/does-dietary-nitrate-say-no-to-cardiovascular-ageing-current-evidence-and-implications-for-research
#13
Mario Siervo, Filippo Scialò, Oliver M Shannon, Blossom C M Stephan, Ammar W Ashor
CVD are characterised by a multi-factorial pathogenesis. Key pathogenetic steps in the development of CVD are the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction and formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a primary event in the initiation of the atherosclerotic cascade. NO is a free radical with multiple physiological functions including the regulation of vascular resistance, coagulation, immunity and oxidative metabolism. The synthesis of NO proceeds via two distinct pathways identified as enzymatic and non-enzymatic...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745361/a-window-beneath-the-skin-how-computed-tomography-assessment-of-body-composition-can-assist-in-the-identification-of-hidden-wasting-conditions-in-oncology-that-profoundly-impact-outcomes
#14
L E Daly, C M Prado, A M Ryan
Advancements in image-based technologies and body composition research over the past decade has led to increased understanding of the importance of muscle abnormalities, such as low muscle mass (sarcopenia), and more recently low muscle attenuation (MA), as important prognostic indicators of unfavourable outcomes in patients with cancer. Muscle abnormalities can be highly prevalent in patients with cancer (ranging between 10 and 90 %), depending on the cohort under investigation and diagnostic criteria used...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745360/interventions-to-accelerate-change-towards-a-healthier-diet
#15
Susan A Jebb
Poor diets are a significant contributor to non-communicable diseases and obesity. Despite years of health promotion, change in dietary habits is slow and there is growing recognition of the need to provide greater support to individuals and to complement individual efforts with changes in the food environment to shift the default towards healthier diets. The present paper summarises opportunities for intervention at the individual and population level. It discusses the role of voluntary or mandatory approaches to drive change in the food industry and the need for improved methods to monitor and evaluate progress...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580316/interventions-to-address-household-food-insecurity-in-high-income-countries
#16
Rachel Loopstra
Household food insecurity is a serious public health concern in high-income countries. Canada and the USA regularly monitor household food insecurity, while in other countries, such as the UK, it has been the rapid rise of food bank usage that has drawn increased attention to this longstanding, but largely overlooked, problem. This review evaluates evidence on interventions intended to reduce household food insecurity in high-income countries. Research on social protection interventions suggests both cash transfers and food subsidies (e...
March 27, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493482/neighbourhood-food-environments-food-choice-foodscapes-and-planning-for-health
#17
Amelia A Lake
The burden of obesity contributes to increasing health inequality, and placing healthcare systems under huge strain. The modern society could broadly be described to support unhealthful eating patterns and sedentary behaviour; also described as obesogenic. Obesity prevention and treatment has focused on educational and behavioural interventions, with limited overall success. A sustainable approach is to address the environments that promote less healthy eating and high energy intake as well as sedentary behaviour...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478430/weight-physical-activity-and-breast-cancer-survival
#18
Anne McTiernan
Weight, weight change and physical activity may affect prognosis among women who are diagnosed with breast cancer. Observational studies show associations between overweight/obesity and weight gain with several measures of reduced prognosis in women with breast cancer, and some suggestions of lower survival in women who are underweight or who experience unexplained weight loss after diagnosis. Observational studies have also shown an association between higher levels of physical activity and reduced breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, although a dose-response relationship has not been established...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433590/the-role-of-nutritional-labelling-and-signposting-from-a-european-perspective
#19
Judith L Buttriss
The past half-century has been characterised by major technological developments and massive societal change, which have profoundly changed how food is produced, processed, sold and consumed. These days we are faced with a huge choice of pre-packaged foods when we shop in modern supermarkets and we can buy seasonal food all year round, in and out of season. For decades now, the need to guide choice has been recognised, and retailers and many manufacturers have provided increasing amounts of on-pack information and signposting, and more recently UK retailers have led the way in championing front-of-pack information provision, to supplement the standard back-of-pack nutrient composition table...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415776/nutritional-interventions-among-old-people-receiving-support-at-home
#20
Anne Marie Beck
With the focus of care shifting from the hospital to the community, supportive nutritional care to old people is to become an important issue to address in the community, since undernutrition has serious consequences, both for the quality of life and for the health care costs. Several modifiable nutritional risk factors relate to undernutrition. Unfortunately, the problem with (risk of) undernutrition is aggravated due to a lack of alertness among e.g. health care staff, leading to insufficient attention for systemic screening and nutritional care...
February 8, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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