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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

Clare A Corish, Laura A Bardon
Older adults are at risk of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). PEM detrimentally impacts on health, cognitive and physical functioning and quality of life. Given these negative health outcomes in the context of an ageing global population, the Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life Joint Programming Initiative Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) sought to create a knowledge hub on malnutrition in older adults. This review summarises the findings related to the screening and determinants of malnutrition. Based on a scoring system that incorporated validity, parameters used and practicability, recommendations on setting-specific screening tools for use with older adults were made...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
M I Goran, J F Plows, E E Ventura
Consumption of sugar and alternative low- or no-energy sweeteners has increased in recent decades. However, it is still uncertain how consumption of sugar and alternative sweeteners during pregnancy affects pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring health. This review aims to collate the available evidence surrounding the consequences of sugar and alternative sweetener consumption during pregnancy, a so-called secondhand sugar effect. We found evidence that sugar consumption during pregnancy may contribute to increased gestational weight gain and the development of pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and preterm birth...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Leanne Hodson
When we consume dietary fat, a series of complex metabolic processes ensures that fatty acids are absorbed, transported around the body and used/stored appropriately. The liver is a central metabolic organ within the human body and has a major role in regulating fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Studying hepatic metabolism in human subjects is challenging; the use of stable isotope tracers and measurement of particles or molecules secreted by the liver such as VLDL-TAG and 3-hydroxybutyrate offers the best insight into postprandial hepatic fatty acid metabolism in human subjects...
November 20, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Marco Travaglio, Francis J P Ebling
Animal models are valuable for the study of complex behaviours and physiology such as the control of appetite because genetic, pharmacological and surgical approaches allow the investigation of underlying mechanisms. However, the majority of such studies are carried out in just two species, laboratory mice and rats. These conventional laboratory species have been intensely selected for high growth rate and fecundity, and have a high metabolic rate and short lifespan. These aspects limit their translational relevance for human appetite control...
November 20, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Caroline M Taylor, Pauline M Emmett
Picky eating is a common behaviour in early childhood. There is neither a universally accepted definition of picky eating, nor is there agreement on the best tool to identify it. Causes of picky eating include early feeding difficulties, late introduction of lumpy foods at weaning, pressure to eat and early choosiness, especially if the mother is worried by this; protective factors include the provision of fresh foods and eating the same meal as the child. The consequences for the child's diet include poor dietary variety and a possible distortion of nutrient intakes, with low intakes of iron and zinc (associated with low intakes of meat, and fruit and vegetables) being of particular concern...
November 5, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
William D Rees
Nutritional science has traditionally used the reductionist approach to understand the roles of individual nutrients in growth and development. The macronutrient dense but micronutrient poor diets consumed by many in the Western world may not result in an overt deficiency; however, there may be situations where multiple mild deficiencies combine with excess energy to alter cellular metabolism. These interactions are especially important in pregnancy as changes in early development modify the risk of developing non-communicable diseases later in life...
October 31, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Rebecca Pradeilles, Kaleab Baye, Michelle Holdsworth
Multiple forms of malnutrition co-exist (the double burden) in low- and middle-income countries, but most interventions and policies target only one form. Identifying shared drivers of the double burden of malnutrition is a first step towards establishing effective interventions that simultaneously address the double burden of malnutrition (known as double-duty actions). We identified shared drivers for the double burden of malnutrition, to assess which double-duty actions are likely to have the greatest reach in preventing all forms of malnutrition, in the context of the sustainable development goals...
October 31, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Marleen A H Lentjes
In the past, vitamins and minerals were used to cure deficiency diseases. Supplements nowadays are used with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases of which the origins are complex. Dietary supplement use has increased in the UK over recent decades, contributing to the nutrient intake in the population, but not necessarily the proportion of the population that is sub-optimally nourished; therefore, not reducing the proportion below the estimated average requirement and potentially increasing the number at risk of an intake above the safety limits...
October 30, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Keith N Frayn
The present paper results from my receiving the Nutrition Society's first Blaxter Award, and describes briefly my academic history. My interest in human fat metabolism began in the Medical Research Council's Trauma Unit, studying metabolic changes in critically ill patients and their responses to nutrition. On moving to Oxford in 1986, I began to study pathways for depositing fat in adipose tissue. This involved the development of new methodologies, in particular, a technique for measurement of arterio-venous differences of metabolite concentrations across human adipose tissue beds, primarily the subcutaneous anterior abdominal depot...
October 29, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Javier T Gonzalez, James A Betts
The present paper reviews the physiological responses of human liver carbohydrate metabolism to physical activity and ingestion of dietary sugars. The liver represents a central link in human carbohydrate metabolism and a mechanistic crux point for the effects of dietary sugars on athletic performance and metabolic health. As a corollary, knowledge regarding physiological responses to sugar ingestion has potential application to either improve endurance performance in athletes, or target metabolic diseases in people who are overweight, obese and/or sedentary...
October 23, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Gareth A Wallis, Javier T Gonzalez
The objective of this review paper is to evaluate the impact of undertaking aerobic exercise in the overnight-fasted v. fed-state, in the context of optimising the health benefits of regular physical activity. Conducting a single bout of aerobic exercise in the overnight-fasted v. fed-state can differentially modulate the aspects of metabolism and energy balance behaviours. This includes, but is not limited to, increased utilisation of fat as a fuel source, improved plasma lipid profiles, enhanced activation of molecular signalling pathways related to fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and reductions in energy intake over the course of a day...
October 18, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Anupam Rej, Imran Aziz, David Surendran Sanders
Humankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the past 10 000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Therefore, it could be considered that wheat (gluten) is a novel introduction to humankind's diet! Prior to 1939, the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus, it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the Society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat...
October 16, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Seeromanie Harding, Christelle Elia, Peiyuan Huang, Chelsea Atherton, Kyla Covey, Gemma O'Donnell, Elizabeth Cole, Manal Almughamisi, Ursula M Read, Alexandru Dregan, Trevor George, Ingrid Wolfe, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Maria Maynard, Louise M Goff, Majella O'Keeffe
Childhood obesity is a common concern across global cities and threatens sustainable urban development. Initiatives to improve nutrition and encourage physical exercise are promising but are yet to exert significant influence on prevention. Childhood obesity in London is associated with distinct ethnic and socio-economic patterns. Ethnic inequalities in health-related behaviour endure, underpinned by inequalities in employment, housing, access to welfare services, and discrimination. Addressing these growing concerns requires a clearer understanding of the socio-cultural, environmental and economic contexts of urban living that promote obesity...
September 27, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Julie Miller Jones
The NOVA food categorisation recommends 'avoiding processed foods (PF), especially ultra-processed foods (UPF)' and selecting minimally PF to address obesity and chronic disease. However, NOVA categories are drawn using non-traditional views of food processing with additional criteria including a number of ingredients, added sugars, and additives. Comparison of NOVA's definition and categorisation of PF with codified and published ones shows limited congruence with respect to either definition or food placement into categories...
September 25, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Elizabeth Cespedes Feliciano, Wendy Y Chen
Although obesity has now been widely accepted to be an important risk factor for cancer survival, the associations between BMI and cancer mortality have not been consistently linear. Although morbid obesity has clearly been associated with worse survival, some studies have suggested a U-shaped association with no adverse association with overweight or lower levels of obesity. This 'obesity paradox' may be due to the fact that BMI likely incompletely captures key measures of body composition, including distribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue...
November 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Nele Steenackers, Bart Van der Schueren, Ann Mertens, Matthias Lannoo, Tara Grauwet, Patrick Augustijns, Christophe Matthys
The growing prevalence of obesity explains the rising interest in bariatric surgery. Compared with non-surgical treatment options, bariatric surgery results in greater and sustained improvements in weight loss, obesity associated complications, all-cause mortality and quality of life. These encouraging metabolic and weight effects come with a downside, namely the risk of nutritional deficiencies. Particularly striking is the risk to develop iron deficiency. Postoperatively, the prevalence of iron deficiency varies between 18 and 53 % after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and between 1 and 54 % after sleeve gastrectomy...
November 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Donald C McMillan, Donogh Maguire, Dinesh Talwar
Micronutrients such as trace elements and vitamins are important as enzyme cofactors in the metabolism of all cells in the body and therefore key to determining nutritional status. The present systematic review examined the evidence of the impact of the systemic inflammatory response on plasma micronutrient status in acute (surgical) and chronic tissue injury. A literature review using targeted subject headings was carried out. Plasma C-reactive protein was used to classify minor (80 mg/l) inflammation. The literature search produced 2344 publications and plasma vitamin D, zinc and carotenoids were most commonly studied and plasma vitamins K, B2 and B6 were least studied...
September 17, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Margaret P Rayman
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are examples of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), the commonest autoimmune condition. Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the enzyme that catalyses thyroid-hormone production and antibodies to the receptor for the thyroid-stimulating hormone, are characteristic of HT and GD, respectively. It is presently accepted that genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, including nutritional factors and immune disorders contribute to the development of AITD...
September 13, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Eimear Dolan, Craig Sale
Bone health is determined by the rate of accrual in early life, followed by the rate of age-associated bone loss. Dietary protein intake might have a role in bone health across both of these phases via pleiotropic mechanistic pathways. Herein we summarise the pathways through which protein may exert either a positive or negative influence on bone. In the introduction, we describe the acid-ash hypothesis, which states that a high-protein intake may lead to an acidic residue that must be neutralised through the leaching of calcium and other minerals from the bone, subsequently leading to demineralisation and bone weakening...
August 10, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Julie Lanigan
Childhood obesity is a serious challenge for public health. The problem begins early with most excess childhood weight gained before starting school. In 2016, the WHO estimated that 41 million children under 5 were overweight or obese. Once established, obesity is difficult to reverse, likely to persist into adult life and is associated with increased risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Preventing obesity is therefore of high importance. However, its development is multi-factorial and prevention is a complex challenge...
August 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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