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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629483/the-challenges-of-control-groups-placebos-and-blinding-in-clinical-trials-of-dietary-interventions
#1
Heidi M Staudacher, Peter M Irving, Miranda C E Lomer, Kevin Whelans
High-quality placebo-controlled evidence for food, nutrient or dietary advice interventions is vital for verifying the role of diet in optimising health or for the management of disease. This could be argued to be especially important where the benefits of dietary intervention are coupled with potential risks such as compromising nutrient intake, particularly in the case of exclusion diets. The objective of the present paper is to explore the challenges associated with clinical trials in dietary research, review the types of controls used and present the advantages and disadvantages of each, including issues regarding placebos and blinding...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595671/from-the-sain-lim-system-to-the-sens-algorithm-a-review-of-a-french-approach-of-nutrient-profiling
#2
Marion Tharrey, Matthieu Maillot, Véronique Azaïs-Braesco, Nicole Darmon
Nutrient profiling aims to classify or rank foods according to their nutritional composition to assist policies aimed at improving the nutritional quality of foods and diets. The present paper reviews a French approach of nutrient profiling by describing the SAIN,LIM system and its evolution from its early draft to the simplified nutrition labelling system (SENS) algorithm. Considered in 2010 by WHO as the 'French model' of nutrient profiling, SAIN,LIM classifies foods into four classes based on two scores: a nutrient density score (NDS) called SAIN and a score of nutrients to limit called LIM, and one threshold on each score...
June 9, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595659/uses-of-nutrient-profiling-to-address-public-health-needs-from-regulation-to-reformulation
#3
Adam Drewnowski
Nutrient profiling (NP) models rate the nutritional quality of individual foods, based on their nutrient composition. Their goal is to identify nutrient-rich foods, generally defined as those that contain more nutrients than calories and are low in fat, sugar and salt. NP models have provided the scientific basis for evaluating nutrition and health claims and regulating marketing and advertising to children. The food industry has used NP methods to reformulate product portfolios. To help define what we mean by healthy foods, NP models need to be based on published nutrition standards, mandated serving sizes and open-source nutrient composition databases...
June 9, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595658/nutrient-profiling-for-regulatory-purposes
#4
Mike Rayner
In this paper, I first provide definitions of nutrient profiling and of a nutrient profile model. I set out the purposes of nutrient profiling: both general and specific. I give two examples of nutrient profile models that have been developed for regulatory purposes by the Food Standards Agency (FSA) in the UK and the WHO for its European Region - the UK FSA/Ofcom and the WHO-Euro models - and compare the way the models are constructed and function, how they have been developed, the extent to which they have been tested and validated and their use in regulation...
June 9, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514985/new-technology-in-nutrition-research-and-practice
#5
Lorraine Brennan, Breige McNulty
Recent technology advancements are aiding the development of scientific discoveries and changing the methods by which we perform research. In order to gain full benefits for human health, it will be important to embrace these new technologies in nutrition research while also acknowledging their limitations. The present issue covers a range of technological approaches that impact on public health nutrition and molecular nutrition. The critical appraisal of these approaches in the context of nutrition research makes this issue a timely and pertinent addition to the scientific literature...
May 18, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514983/adverse-effects-of-consuming-high-fat-sugar-diets-on-cognition-implications-for-understanding-obesity
#6
Martin R Yeomans
There is increasing evidence for important roles of key cognitive processes, including attention, memory and learning, in the short-term decision making about eating. There is parallel evidence that people who are overweight or obese tend to perform worse on a variety of cognitive tasks. In this review, the evidence for these two ideas is summarised and then the idea that overconsumption of Western-style high-fat (HF)-high-sugar diets may underlie the association between obesity and poorer cognitive performance is explored...
May 18, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508737/the-future-for-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-the-prevention-of-coronary-heart-disease-do-we-need-to-target-non-fish-eaters
#7
W L Hall
Dietary guidelines in many countries include a recommendation to consume oily fish, mainly on the basis of evidence from prospective cohort studies that fish consumption is cardioprotective. However, average intakes are very low in a large proportion of the UK population. Some groups, such as vegans and vegetarians, purposely omit fish (along with meat) from their diet resulting in zero or trace intakes of long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Although the efficacy of dietary fish oil supplementation in the prevention of CVD has been questioned in recent years, the balance of evidence indicates that LC n-3 PUFA exert systemic pleiotropic effects through their influence on gene expression, cell signalling, membrane fluidity and by conversion to specialised proresolving mediators; autacoid lipid mediators that resolve inflammatory events...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488562/exploring-the-health-status-of-older-persons-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
Keiron Audain, Michelle Carr, Derya Dikmen, Francis Zotor, Basma Ellahi
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has traditionally had a low life expectancy due to the onslaught of the HIV epidemic, high levels of chronic diseases, injuries, conflict and undernutrition. Therefore, research into public health concerns of older persons has largely been overlooked. With a growing population, the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment, and the effects of globalisation, SSA is experiencing an increase in the number of people over 50 years of age as well as an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD)...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420455/nutrient-profiling-for-product-reformulation-public-health-impact-and-benefits-for-the-consumer
#9
Undine Lehmann, Véronique Rheiner Charles, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Gabriel Masset, Jörg Spieldenner
The food industry holds great potential for driving consumers to adopt healthy food choices as (re)formulation of foods can improve the nutritional quality of these foods. Reformulation has been identified as a cost-effective intervention in addressing non-communicable diseases as it does not require significant alterations of consumer behaviour and dietary habits. Nutrient profiling (NP), the science of categorizing foods based on their nutrient composition, has emerged as an essential tool and is implemented through many different profiling systems to guide reformulation and other nutrition policies...
April 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347378/vitamin-d-deficiency-as-a-public-health-issue-using-vitamin-d2-or-vitamin-d3-in-future-fortification-strategies
#10
Louise R Wilson, Laura Tripkovic, Kathryn H Hart, Susan A Lanham-New
The role of vitamin D in supporting the growth and maintenance of the skeleton is robust; with recent research also suggesting a beneficial link between vitamin D and other non-skeletal health outcomes, including immune function, cardiovascular health and cancer. Despite this, vitamin D deficiency remains a global public health issue, with a renewed focus in the UK following the publication of Public Health England's new Dietary Vitamin D Requirements. Natural sources of vitamin D (dietary and UVB exposure) are limited, and thus mechanisms are needed to allow individuals to achieve the new dietary recommendations...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347373/using-stable-isotope-techniques-in-nutrition-assessments-and-tracking-of-global-targets-post-2015
#11
Victor O Owino, Christine Slater, Cornelia U Loechl
Stable isotopes are non-radioactive, safe and are applied for various purposes in human health assessment in trace amounts that minimally disturb normal physiology. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports the use of stable isotope techniques to design and evaluate interventions addressing malnutrition in all its forms with focus on infant and young child feeding; maternal and adolescent nutrition; diet quality; prevention and control of non-communicable diseases; healthy ageing and gut function. These techniques can be used to objectively measure: (1) amount of human milk consumed and whether an infant is exclusively breastfed; (2) body composition in the context of re-feeding programmes for moderate and severe acute malnutrition and as an indicator of the risk for obesity; (3) bioavailability and bioconversion of pro-vitamin A and vitamin A body stores following vitamin A intervention programmes; (4) absorption and retention of iron, zinc and protein; (5) total energy expenditure for validation of physical activity measurement and dietary assessment tools and (6) diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347371/use-of-biomarkers-to-assess-fruit-and-vegetable-intake
#12
Jayne V Woodside, John Draper, Amanda Lloyd, Michelle C McKinley
A high intake of fruit and vegetables (FV) has been associated with reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including CVD. The aim of this review is to describe the potential use of biomarkers to assess FV intake. Traditional methods of assessing FV intake have limitations, and this is likely to impact on observed associations with disease outcomes and markers of disease risk. Nutritional biomarkers may offer a more objective and reliable method of assessing dietary FV intake. Some single blood biomarkers, such as plasma vitamin C and serum carotenoids, are well established as indicators of FV intake...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162105/molecular-insights-into-cancer-therapeutic-effects-of-the-dietary-medicinal-phytochemical-withaferin-a
#13
Chandra Sekhar Chirumamilla, Claudina Pérez-Novo, Xaveer Van Ostade, Wim Vanden Berghe
Despite the worldwide research efforts to combat cancer, it remains a leading cause of death. Although various specific kinase inhibitors already have been approved for clinical cancer treatment, occurrence of intrinsic or acquired resistance and intermittent response over longer periods limits long-term success of single kinase-targeted therapies. In this respect, there is a renewed interest in polypharmaceutical natural compounds, which simultaneously target various hyperactivated kinases involved in tumour-inflammation, angiogenesis, cell survival, proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143625/potential-benefits-of-phytochemicals-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Emma L Wightman
Our current therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease are predominantly derived from the alkaloid class of plant phytochemicals. These drugs, such as galantamine and rivastigmine, attenuate the decline in the cholinergic system but, as the alkaloids occupy the most dangerous end of the phytochemical spectrum (indeed they function as feeding deterrents and poisons to other organisms within the plant itself), they are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In addition, these cholinesterase inhibiting alkaloids target only one system in a disorder, which is typified by multifactorial deficits...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285607/lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-and-linear-growth-in-children-under-2-years-a-review
#15
Tonderayi M Matsungo, Herculina S Kruger, Cornelius M Smuts, Mieke Faber
The prevalence of stunting remains high in low- and middle-income countries despite adoption of comprehensive nutrition interventions, particularly in low-income countries. In the present paper, we review current evidence on the acceptability and efficacy of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on preventing stunting in children under 2 years, discuss the factors that affect their efficacy, highlight the implications of the current findings at pragmatic level and identify research priorities...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285606/the-importance-of-dietary-dha-and-ara-in-early-life-a-public-health-perspective
#16
Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
Although the literature on the contribution of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) to fundamental metabolic functions in brain, immune and cardiovascular systems is extensive, there is a lack of consensus on the need for explicit recommendations on dietary intake for both DHA and ARA during the early years of life. This review takes a public health perspective with the objective of ensuring that recommendations protect the most vulnerable children worldwide. Most studies on the effects of DHA and ARA in early life have been undertaken in high-income countries and this is reflected in policy recommendations...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162110/innovative-approaches-to-estimate-individual-usual-dietary-intake-in-large-scale-epidemiological-studies
#17
Johanna Conrad, Ute Nöthlings
Valid estimation of usual dietary intake in epidemiological studies is a topic of present interest. The aim of the present paper is to review recent literature on innovative approaches focussing on: (1) the requirements to assess usual intake and (2) the application in large-scale settings. Recently, a number of technology-based self-administered tools have been developed, including short-term instruments such as web-based 24-h recalls, mobile food records or simple closed-ended questionnaires that assess the food intake of the previous 24 h...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195528/sustainable-diets-within-sustainable-food-systems
#18
Alexandre Meybeck, Vincent Gitz
Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social...
February 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502053/wholesome-nutrition-an-example-for-a-sustainable-diet
#19
Karl von Koerber, Nadine Bader, Claus Leitzmann
'Wholesome Nutrition' is a concept of sustainable nutrition that was developed at the University of Giessen in the 1980s. In this concept, health and the ecologic, economic, social and cultural dimensions of nutrition are equally important. In 1992 at the UN-Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro the definition of 'Sustainable Development' comprised the dimensions environment, economy and society. Additionally to these three 'classical' dimensions of sustainability, we included 'health' as the fourth dimension because nutrition has far reaching effects on human health...
February 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134072/lessons-on-dietary-biomarkers-from-twin-studies
#20
Cristina Menni
Metabolomic and microbiome profiling are promising tools to identify biomarkers of food intake and health status. The individual's genetic makeup plays a significant role on health, metabolism, gut microbes and diet and twin studies provide unique opportunities to untangle gene-environment effects on complex phenotypes. This brief review discusses the value of twin studies in nutrition research with a particular focus on metabolomics and the gut microbiome. Although, the twin model is a powerful tool to segregate the genetic component, to date, very few studies combine the twin design and metabolomics/microbiome in nutritional sciences...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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