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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233204/is-there-a-role-for-vitamin-d-in-supporting-cognitive-function-as-we-age
#1
Niamh Aspell, Brian Lawlor, Maria O'Sullivan
Globally, an estimated 46 million people are currently living with dementia and this figure is projected to increase 3-fold by 2050, highlighting this major public health concern and its substantial associated healthcare costs. With pharmacological treatment yet to reach fruition, the emphasis on evidence-based preventative lifestyle strategies is becoming increasingly important and several modifiable lifestyle factors have been identified that may preserve cognitive health. These include good cardiovascular health, physical activity, low alcohol intake, smoking and a healthy diet, with growing interest in vitamin D...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224583/nutrients-for-neurocognition-in-health-and-disease-measures-methodologies-and-mechanisms
#2
Andrew Scholey
Effective pharmaceutical treatments for age-related cognitive decline have proved elusive. There is, however, compelling evidence that nutritional status and supplementation could play crucial roles in modifying the expression of cognitive change through the lifespan. Subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment can be harbingers of dementia but this is by no means inevitable. Neurocognitive change is influenced by a variety of processes, many of which are involved in other aspects of systemic health, including cardiovascular function...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198210/sustainable-diet-policy-development-implications-of-multi-criteria-and-other-approaches-2008-2017
#3
Tim Lang, Pamela Mason
The objective of the present paper is to draw lessons from policy development on sustainable diets. It considers the emergence of sustainable diets as a policy issue and reviews the environmental challenge to nutrition science as to what a 'good' diet is for contemporary policy. It explores the variations in how sustainable diets have been approached by policy-makers. The paper considers how international United Nations and European Union (EU) policy engagement now centres on the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Change Accord, which require changes across food systems...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198201/vitamin-d-in-adolescence-evidence-based-dietary-requirements-and-implications-for-public-health-policy
#4
Taryn J Smith, Laura Tripkovic, Susan A Lanham-New, Kathryn H Hart
Vitamin D is a unique nutrient. First, it acts as a pro-hormone and secondly, the requirement for vitamin D can be met by both endogenous synthesis from sunlight and by dietary sources. This complicates the determination of dietary requirements for vitamin D, which along with the definition of optimal vitamin D status, have been highly controversial and much debated over recent years. Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, which is concerning given the important role of vitamin D, and calcium, in promoting normal bone mineralisation and attainment of peak bone mass during this rapid growth phase...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182508/ethnic-disparities-in-the-dietary-requirement-for-vitamin-d-during-pregnancy-considerations-for-nutrition-policy-and-research
#5
Karen M O'Callaghan, Mairead E Kiely
Despite the inverse association between skin colour and efficiency of cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, in addition to the widely accepted racial disparity in vitamin D status, populations of ethnic minority are understudied in terms of setting target serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and corresponding dietary requirements for vitamin D. In minority groups, prevention of vitamin D deficiency on a population basis is challenging due to the lack of clarity surrounding the metabolism and transport of vitamin D...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173227/improving-nutrition-to-support-healthy-ageing-what-are-the-opportunities-for-intervention
#6
Sian M Robinson
Alongside declining activity levels, energy needs fall in older age and eating less is expected. However, as total food consumption declines, intakes of many nutrients are also likely to fall; while energy requirements may be met, other nutrient needs may not. Although this highlights the importance of nutrient-dense foods and overall diet quality in older age to ensure nutrient intakes are sufficient, maintaining or increasing diet quality may be difficult at a time when food access and preparation are becoming more challenging, and diets may be more monotonous...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173203/25-oh-d3-enriched-or-fortified-foods-are-more-efficient-at-tackling-inadequate-vitamin-d-status-than-vitamin-d3
#7
Jing Guo, Julie A Lovegrove, D Ian Givens
The ability to synthesise sufficient vitamin D through sunlight in human subjects can be limited. Thus, diet has become an important contributor to vitamin D intake and status; however, there are only a few foods (e.g. egg yolk, oily fish) naturally rich in vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D-enriched foods via supplementing the animals' diet with vitamin D or vitamin D fortification of foods have been proposed as strategies to increase vitamin D intake. Evidence that cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and calcifediol (25(OH)D3) content of eggs, fish and milk increased in response to vitamin D3 supplementation of hens, fish or cows' diets was identified when vitamin D-enrichment studies were reviewed...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166970/the-role-of-low-calorie-sweeteners-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-overweight-and-obesity-evidence-v-conjecture
#8
Peter J Rogers
By virtue of reducing dietary energy density, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) can be expected to decrease overall energy intake and thereby decrease body weight. Such effects will be limited by the amount of sugar replaced by LCS, and the dynamics of appetite and weight control (e.g., acute compensatory eating, and an increase in appetite and decrease in energy expenditure accompanying weight loss). Consistent with these predictions, short-term intervention studies show incomplete compensation for the consumption of LCS v...
November 23, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166954/state-of-the-art-for-food-taxes-to-promote-public-health
#9
J D Jensen, S Smed
The use of taxes to promote healthy nutritional behaviour has gained ground in the past decade. The present paper reviews existing applications of fiscal instruments in nutrition policy and derives some perspectives and recommendations from the experiences gained with these instruments. Many countries in different parts of the world have experiences with the taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages, in some cases in combination with taxes on unhealthy food commodities such as confectionery or high-fat foods. These tax schemes have many similarities, but also differ in their definitions of tax objects and in the applied tax rates...
November 23, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081312/changing-the-food-environment-the-effect-of-trained-volunteers-on-mealtime-care-for-older-people-in-hospital
#10
Helen C Roberts
This review will describe the evidence for changing the hospital environment to improve nutrition of older people, with particular emphasis on the role of additional mealtime assistance. Poor nutrition among older people in hospital is well recognised in many countries and is associated with poor outcomes of hospital care including increased mortality and longer lengths of stay. Factors recognised to contribute to poor dietary intake include acute illness, co-morbidities, cognitive impairment, low mood and medication...
October 30, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065948/circadian-rhythms-nutrition-and-implications-for-longevity-in-urban-environments
#11
O Froy
Presently, about 12% of the population is 65 years or older and by the year 2030 that figure is expected to reach 21%. In order to promote the well-being of the elderly and to reduce the costs associated with health care demands, increased longevity should be accompanied by ageing attenuation. Energy restriction, which limits the amount of energy consumed to 60-70% of the daily intake, and intermittent fasting, which allows the food to be available ad libitum every other day, extend the life span of mammals and prevent or delay the onset of major age-related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and cataracts...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065932/sleep-and-dietary-habits-in-the-urban-environment-the-role-of-chrono-nutrition
#12
Gerda K Pot
The urban environment has changed vastly over past decades, which also has had an impact on our sleep and dietary patterns and possibly health outcomes. Some studies have shown that sleep duration and sleep quality has declined over past decades, especially in children. In parallel, our lifestyle and dietary patterns have also changed including more shift work, more meals outside the home or family setting and more irregular eating patterns, including breakfast skipping and late-night eating. This new area of research in nutritional sciences studying the impact of the timing of eating on health outcomes is called chrono-nutrition, and combines elements from nutritional research with chrono-biology...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039280/very-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acids-and-human-health-fact-fiction-and-the-future
#13
P C Calder
EPA and DHA appear to be the most important n-3 fatty acids, but roles for n-3 docosapentaenoic acid are now also emerging. Intakes of EPA and DHA are usually low, typically below those recommended. Increased intakes result in higher concentrations of EPA and DHA in blood lipids, cells and tissues. Increased content of EPA and DHA modifies the structure of cell membranes and the function of membrane proteins. EPA and DHA modulate the production of lipid mediators and through effects on cell signalling can alter the patterns of gene expression...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037265/does-skeletal-muscle-carnitine-availability-influence-fuel-selection-during-exercise
#14
Francis B Stephens
Fat and carbohydrate are the major fuel sources utilised for oxidative, mitochondrial ATP resynthesis during human skeletal muscle contraction. The relative contribution of these two substrates to ATP resynthesis and total energy expenditure during exercise can vary substantially, and is predominantly determined by fuel availability and exercise intensity and duration. For example, the increased ATP demand that occurs with an increase in exercise intensity is met by increases in both fat and carbohydrate oxidation up to an intensity of approximately 60-70 % of maximal oxygen consumption...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946927/food-and-the-gut-relevance-to-some-of-the-autisms
#15
Paul Whiteley
Complex, diverse and rarely appearing without comorbidity, the autism spectrum disorders continue to be a source of research interest. With core symptoms variably impacting on social communication skills, the traditional focus of many research efforts has centred on the brain and how genetic and environmental processes impact on brain structure, function and/or connectivity to account for various behavioural presentations. Alongside emerging ideas on autistic traits being present in various clinical states, the autisms, and the overrepresentation of several comorbid conditions impacting on quality of life, other research avenues have opened up...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942754/can-we-improve-the-nutritional-quality-of-meat
#16
Nigel D Scollan, Eleri M Price, Sarah A Morgan, Sharon A Huws, Kevin J Shingfield
The nutritional value of meat is an increasingly important factor influencing consumer preferences for poultry, red meat and processed meat products. Intramuscular fat content and composition, in addition to high quality protein, trace minerals and vitamins are important determinants of nutritional value. Fat content of meat at retail has decreased substantially over the past 40 years through advances in animal genetics, nutrition and management and changes in processing techniques. Evidence of the association between diet and the incidence of human non-communicable diseases has driven an interest in developing production systems for lowering total SFA and trans fatty acid (TFA) content and enrichment of n-3 PUFA concentrations in meat and meat products...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942749/improving-nutrition-sensitivity-of-social-protection-programmes-in-ghana
#17
Amos K Laar, Richmond N O Aryeetey, Mary Mpereh, Francis B Zotor
Social protection (SP) has been demonstrated as an effective tool against poverty and severe hunger. In Ghana, SP interventions have been employed to address vulnerability to poverty since 1965. Nevertheless, its potential for enhancing nutrition has hardly been explored. To harness the cross-sectoral benefits of scaling up nutrition-sensitive actions in Ghana, the national development planning commission requested an assessment of nutrition linkages across existing SP policies and programmes. The present paper presents gaps and opportunities for improving nutrition-sensitivity of existing SP programming in Ghana...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942740/the-role-of-whey-protein-in-postprandial-glycaemic-control
#18
Emma J Stevenson, Dean M Allerton
Epidemiological studies demonstrate that poor glycaemic control is an independent risk factor for CVD. Postprandial glycaemia has been demonstrated as a better predictor of glycated Hb, the gold standard of glycaemic control, when compared with fasting blood glucose. There is a need for more refined strategies to tightly control postprandial glycaemia, particularly in those with type 2 diabetes, and nutritional strategies around meal consumption may be effective in enhancing subsequent glycaemic control. Whey protein administration around meal times has been demonstrated to reduce postprandial glycaemia, mediated through various mechanisms including an enhancement of insulin secretion...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137687/combining-traditional-dietary-assessment-methods-with-novel-metabolomics-techniques-present-efforts-by-the-food-biomarker-alliance
#19
Elske M Brouwer-Brolsma, Lorraine Brennan, Christian A Drevon, Henk van Kranen, Claudine Manach, Lars Ove Dragsted, Helen M Roche, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Stephan J L Bakker, Jildau Bouwman, Francesco Capozzi, Sarah De Saeger, Thomas E Gundersen, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Sabine E Kulling, Rikard Landberg, Jakob Linseisen, Fulvio Mattivi, Ronald P Mensink, Cristina Scaccini, Thomas Skurk, Inge Tetens, Guy Vergeres, David S Wishart, Augustin Scalbert, Edith J M Feskens
FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently validated. This review provides an overview of food intake biomarker research and highlights present research efforts of the Joint Programming Initiative 'A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life' (JPI-HDHL) Food Biomarkers Alliance (FoodBAll)...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137686/the-food-multimix-concept-harnessing-and-promoting-local-composite-complementary-diets
#20
F B Zotor, P Amuna
Over the past two decades, increasing efforts have been made to find suitable nutritional products for managing particularly moderate forms of malnutrition following acute phase treatment, including the adoption of ready-to-use therapeutic foods. The challenge in meeting nutrient needs of normal growing young children and other vulnerable population groups with scant food supply has led us to explore the use of local, traditional and culturally adaptable food-based complementary foods employing the food multimix (FMM) concept...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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