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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661256/main-effects-of-human-saliva-on-flavour-perception-and-the-potential-contribution-to-food-consumption
#1
Carolina Muñoz-González, Gilles Feron, Francis Canon
Whole saliva is a mixture composed by the secretions of the major and minor salivary glands and the crevicular fluid, bacteria, cells and food debris. Its properties (flow and composition) are highly intra- and inter-individually dependent and reflect the health status of individuals. Saliva plays a key role in the eating process and on the perception of flavour. Flavour corresponds to the combined effect of taste sensations, aromatics and chemical feeling factors evoked by food in the oral cavity. It is a key determinant of food consumption and intake...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619914/iron-deficiency-after-bariatric-surgery-what-is-the-real-problem
#2
Nele Steenackers, Bart Van der Schueren, Ann Mertens, Matthias Lannoo, Tara Grauwet, Patrick Augustijns, Christophe Matthys
The growing prevalence of obesity explains the rising interest in bariatric surgery. Compared with non-surgical treatment options, bariatric surgery results in greater and sustained improvements in weight loss, obesity associated complications, all-cause mortality and quality of life. These encouraging metabolic and weight effects come with a downside, namely the risk of nutritional deficiencies. Particularly striking is the risk to develop iron deficiency. Postoperatively, the prevalence of iron deficiency varies between 18 and 53 % after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and between 1 and 54 % after sleeve gastrectomy...
April 5, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607792/nutritional-strategies-to-prevent-gastrointestinal-toxicity-during-pelvic-radiotherapy
#3
Linda J Wedlake
Radiotherapy-induced damage to non-cancerous gastrointestinal mucosa has effects on secretory and absorptive functions and can interfere with normal gastrointestinal physiology. Nutrient absorption and digestion may be compromised. Dietary manipulation is an attractive option with sound rationale for intervention. The aim of this review was to synthesise published evidence for the use of elemental formulae, low or modified fat diets, fibre, lactose restriction and probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics to protect the bowel from gastrointestinal side effects during long-course, radical pelvic radiotherapy...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580316/interventions-to-address-household-food-insecurity-in-high-income-countries
#4
Rachel Loopstra
Household food insecurity is a serious public health concern in high-income countries. Canada and the USA regularly monitor household food insecurity, while in other countries, such as the UK, it has been the rapid rise of food bank usage that has drawn increased attention to this longstanding, but largely overlooked, problem. This review evaluates evidence on interventions intended to reduce household food insecurity in high-income countries. Research on social protection interventions suggests both cash transfers and food subsidies (e...
March 27, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493482/neighbourhood-food-environments-food-choice-foodscapes-and-planning-for-health
#5
Amelia A Lake
The burden of obesity contributes to increasing health inequality, and placing healthcare systems under huge strain. The modern society could broadly be described to support unhealthful eating patterns and sedentary behaviour; also described as obesogenic. Obesity prevention and treatment has focused on educational and behavioural interventions, with limited overall success. A sustainable approach is to address the environments that promote less healthy eating and high energy intake as well as sedentary behaviour...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478430/weight-physical-activity-and-breast-cancer-survival
#6
Anne McTiernan
Weight, weight change and physical activity may affect prognosis among women who are diagnosed with breast cancer. Observational studies show associations between overweight/obesity and weight gain with several measures of reduced prognosis in women with breast cancer, and some suggestions of lower survival in women who are underweight or who experience unexplained weight loss after diagnosis. Observational studies have also shown an association between higher levels of physical activity and reduced breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, although a dose-response relationship has not been established...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433590/the-role-of-nutritional-labelling-and-signposting-from-a-european-perspective
#7
Judith L Buttriss
The past half-century has been characterised by major technological developments and massive societal change, which have profoundly changed how food is produced, processed, sold and consumed. These days we are faced with a huge choice of pre-packaged foods when we shop in modern supermarkets and we can buy seasonal food all year round, in and out of season. For decades now, the need to guide choice has been recognised, and retailers and many manufacturers have provided increasing amounts of on-pack information and signposting, and more recently UK retailers have led the way in championing front-of-pack information provision, to supplement the standard back-of-pack nutrient composition table...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415776/nutritional-interventions-among-old-people-receiving-support-at-home
#8
Anne Marie Beck
With the focus of care shifting from the hospital to the community, supportive nutritional care to old people is to become an important issue to address in the community, since undernutrition has serious consequences, both for the quality of life and for the health care costs. Several modifiable nutritional risk factors relate to undernutrition. Unfortunately, the problem with (risk of) undernutrition is aggravated due to a lack of alertness among e.g. health care staff, leading to insufficient attention for systemic screening and nutritional care...
February 8, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241474/optimising-design-and-cost-effective-implementation-of-future-pan-african-dietary-studies-a-review-of-existing-economic-integration-and-nutritional-indicators-for-scenario-based-profiling-and-clustering-of-countries
#9
Elom K Aglago, Edwige Landais, Francis Zotor, Genevieve Nicolas, Marc J Gunter, Paul Amuna, Nadia Slimani
Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others...
February 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224583/nutrients-for-neurocognition-in-health-and-disease-measures-methodologies-and-mechanisms
#10
Andrew Scholey
Effective pharmaceutical treatments for age-related cognitive decline have proved elusive. There is, however, compelling evidence that nutritional status and supplementation could play crucial roles in modifying the expression of cognitive change through the lifespan. Subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment can be harbingers of dementia but this is by no means inevitable. Neurocognitive change is influenced by a variety of processes, many of which are involved in other aspects of systemic health, including cardiovascular function...
February 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847314/characterising-the-muscle-anabolic-potential-of-dairy-meat-and-plant-based-protein-sources-in-older-adults
#11
Stefan H M Gorissen, Oliver C Witard
The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is caused, at least in part, by a reduced muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion. The magnitude and duration of the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to ingested protein is dependent on the quantity and quality of the protein consumed. This review characterises the anabolic properties of animal-derived and plant-based dietary protein sources in older adults. While approximately 60 % of dietary protein consumed worldwide is derived from plant sources, plant-based proteins generally exhibit lower digestibility, lower leucine content and deficiencies in certain essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine, which compromise the availability of a complete amino acid profile required for muscle protein synthesis...
February 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#12
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
February 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368666/tryptophan-supplementation-and-serotonin-function-genetic-variations-in-behavioural-effects
#13
E L Gibson
The neurotransmitter serotonin has a role in affective disorders such as depression and anxiety, as well as sleep, cognitive function and appetite. This review examines the evidence that serotonin-related genotypes may moderate the behavioural effects of supplementation with the serotonin precursor amino acid l-tryptophan (TRP), on which synthesis of serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) depends. However, 95 % of serotonin is synthesised and used in the periphery, and TRP is also metabolised via non-5-HT routes such as the kynurenine pathway...
January 25, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332613/should-we-tax-unhealthy-food-and-drink
#14
Emma Smith, Peter Scarborough, Mike Rayner, Adam D M Briggs
The global burden of obesity leads to significant morbidity and has major economic implications. In April 2018, Britain will join a growing number of countries attempting to tackle this using fiscal measures when the UK Soft Drinks Industry Levy is introduced. We review recent evidence from natural experiments of the impact of health-related food and drink taxes on consumer behaviour, and discuss the possible consequences of these approaches on purchases and health. We highlight some of the potential indirect consequences and the importance of robust prospective evaluation...
January 15, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316987/diet-nutrition-and-the-ageing-brain-current-evidence-and-new-directions
#15
Katie Moore, Catherine F Hughes, Mary Ward, Leane Hoey, Helene McNulty
Globally populations are ageing. By 2050, it is estimated that there will be two billion people aged 60 years or over, of which 131 million are projected to be affected by dementia, while depression is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Preventing or delaying the onset of these disorders should therefore be a public health priority. There is some evidence linking certain dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet, with a reduced risk of dementia and depression...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307314/shift-work-is-time-of-eating-determining-metabolic-health-evidence-from-animal-models
#16
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
The circadian disruption in shift-workers is suggested to be a risk factor to develop overweight and metabolic dysfunction. The conflicting time signals given by shifted activity, shifted food intake and exposure to light at night occurring in the shift-worker are proposed to be the cause for the loss of internal synchrony and the consequent adverse effects on body weight and metabolism. Because food elicited signals have proven to be potent entraining signals for peripheral oscillations, here we review the findings from experimental models of shift-work and verify whether they provide evidence about the causal association between shifted feeding schedules, circadian disruption and altered metabolism...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233204/is-there-a-role-for-vitamin-d-in-supporting-cognitive-function-as-we-age
#17
Niamh Aspell, Brian Lawlor, Maria O'Sullivan
Globally, an estimated 46 million people are currently living with dementia and this figure is projected to increase 3-fold by 2050, highlighting this major public health concern and its substantial associated healthcare costs. With pharmacological treatment yet to reach fruition, the emphasis on evidence-based preventative lifestyle strategies is becoming increasingly important and several modifiable lifestyle factors have been identified that may preserve cognitive health. These include good cardiovascular health, physical activity, low alcohol intake, smoking and a healthy diet, with growing interest in vitamin D...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198210/sustainable-diet-policy-development-implications-of-multi-criteria-and-other-approaches-2008-2017
#18
Tim Lang, Pamela Mason
The objective of the present paper is to draw lessons from policy development on sustainable diets. It considers the emergence of sustainable diets as a policy issue and reviews the environmental challenge to nutrition science as to what a 'good' diet is for contemporary policy. It explores the variations in how sustainable diets have been approached by policy-makers. The paper considers how international United Nations and European Union (EU) policy engagement now centres on the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Change Accord, which require changes across food systems...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198201/vitamin-d-in-adolescence-evidence-based-dietary-requirements-and-implications-for-public-health-policy
#19
Taryn J Smith, Laura Tripkovic, Susan A Lanham-New, Kathryn H Hart
Vitamin D is a unique nutrient. First, it acts as a pro-hormone and secondly, the requirement for vitamin D can be met by both endogenous synthesis from sunlight and by dietary sources. This complicates the determination of dietary requirements for vitamin D, which along with the definition of optimal vitamin D status, have been highly controversial and much debated over recent years. Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, which is concerning given the important role of vitamin D, and calcium, in promoting normal bone mineralisation and attainment of peak bone mass during this rapid growth phase...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182508/ethnic-disparities-in-the-dietary-requirement-for-vitamin-d-during-pregnancy-considerations-for-nutrition-policy-and-research
#20
Karen M O'Callaghan, Mairead E Kiely
Despite the inverse association between skin colour and efficiency of cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, in addition to the widely accepted racial disparity in vitamin D status, populations of ethnic minority are understudied in terms of setting target serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and corresponding dietary requirements for vitamin D. In minority groups, prevention of vitamin D deficiency on a population basis is challenging due to the lack of clarity surrounding the metabolism and transport of vitamin D...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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