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Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039280/very-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acids-and-human-health-fact-fiction-and-the-future
#1
P C Calder
EPA and DHA appear to be the most important n-3 fatty acids, but roles for n-3 docosapentaenoic acid are now also emerging. Intakes of EPA and DHA are usually low, typically below those recommended. Increased intakes result in higher concentrations of EPA and DHA in blood lipids, cells and tissues. Increased content of EPA and DHA modifies the structure of cell membranes and the function of membrane proteins. EPA and DHA modulate the production of lipid mediators and through effects on cell signalling can alter the patterns of gene expression...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037265/does-skeletal-muscle-carnitine-availability-influence-fuel-selection-during-exercise
#2
Francis B Stephens
Fat and carbohydrate are the major fuel sources utilised for oxidative, mitochondrial ATP resynthesis during human skeletal muscle contraction. The relative contribution of these two substrates to ATP resynthesis and total energy expenditure during exercise can vary substantially, and is predominantly determined by fuel availability and exercise intensity and duration. For example, the increased ATP demand that occurs with an increase in exercise intensity is met by increases in both fat and carbohydrate oxidation up to an intensity of approximately 60-70 % of maximal oxygen consumption...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946927/food-and-the-gut-relevance-to-some-of-the-autisms
#3
Paul Whiteley
Complex, diverse and rarely appearing without comorbidity, the autism spectrum disorders continue to be a source of research interest. With core symptoms variably impacting on social communication skills, the traditional focus of many research efforts has centred on the brain and how genetic and environmental processes impact on brain structure, function and/or connectivity to account for various behavioural presentations. Alongside emerging ideas on autistic traits being present in various clinical states, the autisms, and the overrepresentation of several comorbid conditions impacting on quality of life, other research avenues have opened up...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942754/can-we-improve-the-nutritional-quality-of-meat
#4
Nigel D Scollan, Eleri M Price, Sarah A Morgan, Sharon A Huws, Kevin J Shingfield
The nutritional value of meat is an increasingly important factor influencing consumer preferences for poultry, red meat and processed meat products. Intramuscular fat content and composition, in addition to high quality protein, trace minerals and vitamins are important determinants of nutritional value. Fat content of meat at retail has decreased substantially over the past 40 years through advances in animal genetics, nutrition and management and changes in processing techniques. Evidence of the association between diet and the incidence of human non-communicable diseases has driven an interest in developing production systems for lowering total SFA and trans fatty acid (TFA) content and enrichment of n-3 PUFA concentrations in meat and meat products...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942749/improving-nutrition-sensitivity-of-social-protection-programmes-in-ghana
#5
Amos K Laar, Richmond N O Aryeetey, Mary Mpereh, Francis B Zotor
Social protection (SP) has been demonstrated as an effective tool against poverty and severe hunger. In Ghana, SP interventions have been employed to address vulnerability to poverty since 1965. Nevertheless, its potential for enhancing nutrition has hardly been explored. To harness the cross-sectoral benefits of scaling up nutrition-sensitive actions in Ghana, the national development planning commission requested an assessment of nutrition linkages across existing SP policies and programmes. The present paper presents gaps and opportunities for improving nutrition-sensitivity of existing SP programming in Ghana...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942748/nutritional-psychiatry-the-present-state-of-the-evidence
#6
Wolfgang Marx, Genevieve Moseley, Michael Berk, Felice Jacka
Mental illness, including depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, accounts for a significant proportion of global disability and poses a substantial social, economic and heath burden. Treatment is presently dominated by pharmacotherapy, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy; however, such treatments avert less than half of the disease burden, suggesting that additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat mental disorders. There are now consistent mechanistic, observational and interventional data to suggest diet quality may be a modifiable risk factor for mental illness...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942740/the-role-of-whey-protein-in-postprandial-glycaemic-control
#7
Emma J Stevenson, Dean M Allerton
Epidemiological studies demonstrate that poor glycaemic control is an independent risk factor for CVD. Postprandial glycaemia has been demonstrated as a better predictor of glycated Hb, the gold standard of glycaemic control, when compared with fasting blood glucose. There is a need for more refined strategies to tightly control postprandial glycaemia, particularly in those with type 2 diabetes, and nutritional strategies around meal consumption may be effective in enhancing subsequent glycaemic control. Whey protein administration around meal times has been demonstrated to reduce postprandial glycaemia, mediated through various mechanisms including an enhancement of insulin secretion...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889822/the-relationship-between-obesity-and-cognitive-health-and-decline
#8
Louise Dye, Neil Bernard Boyle, Claire Champ, Clare Lawton
The relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment is important given the globally ageing population in whom cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders will carry grave individual, societal and financial burdens. This review examines the evidence for the link between obesity and cognitive function in terms of both the immediate effects on cognitive performance, and effects on the trajectory of cognitive ageing and likelihood of dementia. In mid-life, there is a strong association between obesity and impaired cognitive function...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854992/the-challenges-of-control-groups-placebos-and-blinding-in-clinical-trials-of-dietary-interventions
#9
Heidi M Staudacher, Peter M Irving, Miranda C E Lomer, Kevin Whelans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847314/characterising-the-muscle-anabolic-potential-of-dairy-meat-and-plant-based-protein-sources-in-older-adults
#10
Stefan H M Gorissen, Oliver C Witard
The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is caused, at least in part, by a reduced muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion. The magnitude and duration of the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to ingested protein is dependent on the quantity and quality of the protein consumed. This review characterises the anabolic properties of animal-derived and plant-based dietary protein sources in older adults. While approximately 60 % of dietary protein consumed worldwide is derived from plant sources, plant-based proteins generally exhibit lower digestibility, lower leucine content and deficiencies in certain essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine, which compromise the availability of a complete amino acid profile required for muscle protein synthesis...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847313/female-hormones-do-they-influence-muscle-and-tendon-protein-metabolism
#11
Mette Hansen
Due to increased longevity, women can expect to live more than one-third of their lives in a post-menopausal state, which is characterised by low circulating levels of oestrogen and progesterone. The aim of this review is to provide insights into current knowledge of the effect of female hormones (or lack of female hormones) on skeletal muscle protein turnover at rest and in response to exercise. This review is primarily based on data from human trials. Many elderly post-menopausal women experience physical disabilities and loss of independence related to sarcopenia, which reduces life quality and is associated with substantial financial costs...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803565/evidence-informed-decision-making-for-nutrition-african-experiences-and-way-forward
#12
Richmond Aryeetey, Michelle Holdsworth, Christine Taljaard, Waliou Amoussa Hounkpatin, Esi Colecraft, Carl Lachat, Eunice Nago, Tesfaye Hailu, Patrick Kolsteren, Roos Verstraeten
Although substantial amount of nutrition research is conducted in Africa, the research agenda is mainly donor-driven. There is a clear need for a revised research agenda in Africa which is both driven by and responding to local priorities. The present paper summarises proceedings of a symposium on how evidence can guide decision makers towards context-appropriate priorities and decisions in nutrition. The paper focuses on lessons learnt from case studies by the Evidence Informed Decision Making in Nutrition and Health Network implemented between 2015 and 2016 in Benin, Ghana and South Africa...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803558/global-comparison-of-national-individual-food-consumption-surveys-as-a-basis-for-health-research-and-integration-in-national-health-surveillance-programmes
#13
Inge Huybrechts, Elom K Aglago, Amy Mullee, Willem De Keyzer, Catherine Leclercq, Pauline Allemand, Agnieszka Balcerzak, Francis B Zotor, Marc J Gunter
Individual food consumption surveys (IFCS) are performed to evaluate compliance with food/nutrient intake requirements or exposure to potential harmful dietary contaminants/components. In this review, we inventoried methods and designs used in national IFCS and discussed the methodologies applied across countries. Literature searches were performed using fixed sets of search terms in different online databases. We identified IFCS in thirty-nine countries from six world continents. National IFCS systems are available in most of the high-income countries, while such surveys are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (e...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756793/contribution-of-scaling-up-nutrition-academic-platforms-to-nutrition-capacity-strengthening-in-africa-local-efforts-continental-prospects-and-challenges
#14
Amos K Laar, Richmond N O Aryeetey, Reginald Annan, Paul A Aryee, Francis K Amagloh, Robert Akparibo, Matilda E Laar, Paul Amuna, Francis B Zotor
Addressing contemporary nutrition problems often requires application of knowledge from multiple disciplines. The scaling up nutrition (SUN) movement harnesses multiple sectors for effective global and in-country planning and implementation. Although the role of knowledge networks (academia and research institutions) is recognised, the how of engaging knowledge networks in the current SUN architecture is only now becoming apparent. For relevant sectors to play their roles effectively, observed capacity gaps, particularly in developing country settings, need to be addressed...
July 31, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857019/smart-health-and-innovation-facilitating-health-related-behaviour-change
#15
J Redfern
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death globally. Smart health technology and innovation is a potential strategy for increasing reach and for facilitating health behaviour change. Despite rapid growth in the availability and affordability of technology there remains a paucity of published and robust research in the area as it relates to health. The objective of the present paper is to review and provide a snapshot of a variety of contemporary examples of smart health strategies with a focus on evidence and research as it relates to prevention with a CVD management lens...
August 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857018/nutrient-profiling-for-front-of-pack-labelling-how-to-align-logical-consumer-choice-with-improvement-of-products
#16
Annet J C Roodenburg
The primary goal of front of pack (FOP) labelling is to help consumers make healthier choices through communication. A secondary goal is to encourage producers to improve the nutritional composition of their products. Evidence has shown that (FOP) labelling can help consumers to make healthier food choices and has been an incentive for producers to improve product composition. As FOP labelling is seen as an important tool to improve food environments for public health purposes, the WHO supports initiatives of governments to implement an FOP labelling system...
August 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508737/the-future-for-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-the-prevention-of-coronary-heart-disease-do-we-need-to-target-non-fish-eaters
#17
W L Hall
Dietary guidelines in many countries include a recommendation to consume oily fish, mainly on the basis of evidence from prospective cohort studies that fish consumption is cardioprotective. However, average intakes are very low in a large proportion of the UK population. Some groups, such as vegans and vegetarians, purposely omit fish (along with meat) from their diet resulting in zero or trace intakes of long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Although the efficacy of dietary fish oil supplementation in the prevention of CVD has been questioned in recent years, the balance of evidence indicates that LC n-3 PUFA exert systemic pleiotropic effects through their influence on gene expression, cell signalling, membrane fluidity and by conversion to specialised proresolving mediators; autacoid lipid mediators that resolve inflammatory events...
August 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347371/use-of-biomarkers-to-assess-fruit-and-vegetable-intake
#18
Jayne V Woodside, John Draper, Amanda Lloyd, Michelle C McKinley
A high intake of fruit and vegetables (FV) has been associated with reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including CVD. The aim of this review is to describe the potential use of biomarkers to assess FV intake. Traditional methods of assessing FV intake have limitations, and this is likely to impact on observed associations with disease outcomes and markers of disease risk. Nutritional biomarkers may offer a more objective and reliable method of assessing dietary FV intake. Some single blood biomarkers, such as plasma vitamin C and serum carotenoids, are well established as indicators of FV intake...
August 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091348/effects-of-intermittent-fasting-on-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#19
Rona Antoni, Kelly L Johnston, Adam L Collins, M Denise Robertson
Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism...
August 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916004/sugars-and-health-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-future-policy
#20
Charlotte Elizabeth Louise Evans
The automation of the process of extracting sugars in the 1900s reduced cost and increased availability of sugars leading to a dramatic rise in consumption, which reached a peak in the 1970s. There are different definitions for sugars not naturally available in foods, and free sugars is the term used by WHO. The epidemiological evidence of the associations between sugars and obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is fairly strong and consistent, particularly for sugar sweetened drinks in adults. The Department of Health in the UK and many other countries have recently updated their recommendations for free sugars as a result of this scientific evidence...
August 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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