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Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386716/andrewes-s-christmas-fairy-tale-atypical-thinking-about-cancer-aetiology-in-1935
#1
Neeraja Sankaran, Ton van Helvoort
This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas...
June 20, 2016: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386715/-dirty-work-but-someone-has-to-do-it-howard-p-robertson-and-the-refereeing-practices-of-physical-review-in-the-1930s
#2
Roberto Lalli
In the 1930s the mathematical physicist Howard P. Robertson was the main referee of the journal Physical Review for papers concerning general relativity and related subjects. The rich correspondence between Robertson and the editors of the journal enables a historical investigation of the refereeing process of Physical Review at the time that it was becoming one of the most influential physics periodicals in the world. By focusing on this case study, the paper investigates two complementary aspects of the evolution of the refereeing process: first, the historical evolution of the refereeing practices in connection with broader contextual changes, and second, the attempts to define the activity of the referee, including the epistemic virtues required and the journal's functions according to the participants' categories...
June 20, 2016: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386714/a-yankee-at-oxford-john-william-draper-at-the-british-association-for-the-advancement-of-science-at-oxford-30-june-1860
#3
James C Ungureanu
This paper contributes to the revisionist historiography on the legendary encounter between Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Henry Huxley at the 1860 meeting in Oxford of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. It discusses the contents of a series of letters written by John William Draper and his family reflecting on his experience at that meeting. The letters have recently been rediscovered and have been neither published nor examined at full length. After a preliminary discussion on the historiography of the Oxford debate, the paper discloses the contents of the letters and then assesses them in the light of other contemporary accounts...
June 20, 2016: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386713/an-autopsic-art-drawings-of-dr-granville-s-mummy-in-the-royal-society-archives
#4
Christina Riggs
In 1821 Augustus Bozzi Granville FRS unwrapped and dissected an ancient Egyptian mummy, presenting the results of his examination to the Royal Society in 1825. He commissioned artist Henry Perry to draw the process in stages; these drawings were subsequently engraved by James Basire for publication in Philosophical Transactions. This article presents the original drawings for the first time, allowing comparison with their engravings. Taken together with Granville's accounts of the unwrapping of the mummy, the drawings demonstrate the significant role of illustration and other visual practices in anatomical argumentation in the early nineteenth century, as well as the prestige that commissioned illustrations lent to the performance and dissemination of scientific expertise...
June 20, 2016: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386712/editorial
#5
EDITORIAL
Ben Marsden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2016: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017681/the-logic-of-scientific-unity-medawar-the-royal-society-and-the-rothschild-controversy-1971-72
#6
Neil Calver, Miles Parker
In 1971 Lord (Victor) Rothschild published his report for the government, The organisation and management of government R&D, and Sir Peter Medawar launched a campaign for the election of Sir Karl Popper to Fellowship of the Royal Society. We explore these two developments in the contexts of the then current views of the role and purpose of science, and their underpinning philosophy. Although the political battle was won by Rothschild, resulting in major changes to the funding and management of applied R&D, we argue that, despite this, Medawar's campaign for Popper provided an embattled science community with a philosophical basis for defending pure research and the unity of basic and applied science...
March 20, 2016: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017680/crafting-the-microworld-how-robert-hooke-constructed-knowledge-about-small-things
#7
Ian Lawson
This paper investigates the way in which Robert Hooke constructed his microscopical observations. His Micrographia is justifiably famous for its detailed engravings, which communicated Hooke's observations of tiny nature to his readers, but less attention has been paid to how he went about making the observations themselves. In this paper I explore the relationship between the materiality of his instrument and the epistemic images he produced. Behind the pictures lies an array of hidden materials, and the craft knowledge it took to manipulate them...
March 20, 2016: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665489/r-a-fisher-lancelot-hogben-and-the-competition-for-the-chair-of-social-biology-at-the-london-school-of-economics-in-1930-correcting-the-legend
#8
James Tabery, Sahotra Sarkar
From 1930 to 1937 Lancelot Hogben FRS occupied the Chair of Social Biology at the London School of Economics and Political Science. According to standard histories of this appointment, he and R. A. Fisher FRS both applied for the position, but Hogben was selected over Fisher. The episode has received attention in large part because of the later prominence of the two figures involved. The surviving archival records, however, tell a remarkably different story. Neither Fisher nor Hogben was ever an official candidate for the chair...
December 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665488/seventeenth-century-experimenta-magisterial-formulae-and-the-animal-alkahest-new-documents-found-in-royal-society-archives
#9
Ana Maria Alfonso-Goldfarb, Márcia Helena Mendes Ferraz, Piyo M Rattansi
In this paper we present three newly rediscovered documents from the Royal Society archives that, together with the four described in our previous publications, constitute a set on a cognate theme. The documents were written by, or addressed to, members of the early Royal Society, and their subject is several magisterial formulae, including J. B. van Helmont's alkahest and Ludus. In addition to the interest in those formulae as medicines for various grave illnesses, our analysis showed that some seventeenth-century scholars sought to explain operations of the animal body by invoking similar but natural substances, while attempting to assimilate the latest anatomical discoveries into a novel framework...
December 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665487/mineral-waters-across-the-channel-matter-theory-and-natural-history-from-samuel-duclos-s-minerallogenesis-to-martin-lister-s-chymical-magnetism-ca-1666-86
#10
Anna Marie Roos, Victor D Boantza
Our essay analyses a little-known book, Observations sur les eaux minerales des plusieurs provinces de France (1675), which is a study of French mineral waters, commissioned by and conducted at the French Royal Academy of Science (est. 1666). Its author, Samuel Cottereau Duclos (1598-1685), was a senior founding figure of the Academy, its chief chymist and one of its most influential members. We examine Observations with a focus on the changing attitudes towards chymical knowledge and practice in the French Academy and the Royal Society of London in the period 1666-84...
December 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495581/credibility-peer-review-and-nature-1945-1990
#11
Melinda Baldwin
This paper examines the refereeing procedures at the scientific weekly Nature during and after World War II. In 1939 former editorial assistants L. J. F. Brimble and A. J. V. Gale assumed a joint editorship of Nature. The Brimble-Gale era is now most famous for the editors' unsystematic approach to external refereeing. Although Brimble and Gale did sometimes consult external referees, papers submitted or recommended by scientists whom the pair trusted were often not sent out for further review. Their successor, John Maddox, would also print papers he admired without external refereeing...
September 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495580/conservative-attitudes-to-old-established-organs-oliver-lodge-and-philosophical-magazine
#12
Imogen Clarke, James Mussell
In 1921 Oliver Lodge defended Philosophical Magazine against charges of mismanagement from the National Union of Scientific Workers. They alleged that its editors performed little editorial work, the bulk being done by the publishers, Taylor & Francis. Lodge reassured Nature's readers that the journal did consult its editors, and suggested 'a conservative attitude towards old-established organs is wise; and that it is possible to over-organise things into lifelessness.' The paper explores Lodge's response by considering the editorial arrangements at Philosophical Magazine...
September 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495579/publishing-south-african-scholarship-in-the-global-academic-community
#13
Elizabeth Le Roux
South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role...
September 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495578/journals-learned-societies-and-money-philosophical-transactions-ca-1750-1900
#14
Aileen Fyfe
This paper investigates the finances of the Royal Society and its Philosophical Transactions, showing that in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries journal publishing was a drain on funds rather than a source of income. Even without any expectation of profit, the costs of producing Transactions nevertheless had to be covered, and the way in which this was done reflected the changing financial situation of the Society. An examination of the Society's financial accounts and minute books reveals the tensions between the Society's desire to promote the widespread communication of natural knowledge, and the ever-increasing cost of doing so, particularly by the late nineteenth century...
September 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495577/the-profits-and-perils-of-publicity-allgemeine-literatur-zeitung-the-thurn-und-taxis-post-and-the-periodical-trade-at-the-end-of-the-eighteenth-century
#15
Thomas Broman
Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents...
September 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495576/fit-for-print-developing-an-institutional-model-of-scientific-periodical-publishing-in-england-1665-ca-1714
#16
N Moxham
This paper explores the contested afterlife of Philosophical Transactions following the death of its founder, Henry Oldenburg. It investigates the complex interrelation between the institution and the periodical at a time when the latter was supposedly independent, and outlines the competing proposals for institutional publishing in science contemplated in the Royal Society, linking some publications that were actually attempted to those proposals and to the Society's attempts to revitalize its experimental programme between 1677 and 1687...
September 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495575/350-years-of-scientific-periodicals
#17
EDITORIAL
Aileen Fyfe, Julie McDougall-Waters, Noah Moxham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665302/address-of-the-president-sir-paul-nurse-given-at-the-anniversary-meeting-on-1-december-2014
#18
Paul Nurse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665301/freud-jung-and-boas-the-psychoanalytic-engagement-with-anthropology-revisited
#19
Robert Kenny
Sigmund Freud's and C. G. Jung's turn to evolutionist anthropological material after 1909 is usually seen as a logical progression of their long-term interest in such material. It is also seen that they used this material ignorant of the significant challenges to the evolutionist paradigm underpinning such material, in particular the challenges led by Franz Boas. This paper argues otherwise: that both psychologists' turnings to such material was a new development, that neither had shown great interest in such material before 1909, and that their turnings to such material, far from being taken in ignorance of the challenges to evolutionist anthropology, were engagements with those challenges, because the evolutionist paradigm lay at the base of psychoanalysis...
June 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665300/henry-h-cheek-and-transformism-new-light-on-charles-darwin-s-edinburgh-background
#20
Bill Jenkins
Evidence for the transformist ideas espoused by Henry H. Cheek (1807-33), a contemporary of Charles Darwin's at the University of Edinburgh, sheds new light on the intellectual environment of Edinburgh in the late 1820s and early 1830s. Cheek was the author of several papers dealing with the transmutation of species influenced by the theories of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844), Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) and the Comte de Buffon (1707-88). Some of these were read to student societies, others appeared in the Edinburgh Journal of Natural and Geographical Science, which Cheek edited between 1829 and 1831...
June 20, 2015: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London
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