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Chiara Oltolini, Marco Ripa, Andrea Andolina, Elena Brioschi, Marta Cilla, Giovanna Petrella, Vanesa Gregorc, Barbara Castiglioni, Chiara Tassan Din, Paolo Scarpellini
The widespread use of T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death (PD)-1 and PD ligand-1 (PDL1)-targeted agents in cancer patients as immunotherapy has raised some issues on their safety profile. Regarding infectious complications, it has emerged that these compounds do not intrinsically increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections, which mainly correlate with the co-administration of systemic immunosuppressive therapy (high-dose corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factors inhibitors) to cure immune-related adverse events (colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis and pancreatitis), well-known complications of these targeted drugs...
August 13, 2018: Mycopathologia
Irene Álvarez-Mosquera, Silvia Hernáez, Juan Sánchez, Maria Dolores Suárez, Ramón Cisterna
Superficial mycoses are the most frequently diagnosed affections of the stratum corneum of the skin, nails and hair. It is generally caused by the presence of yeasts and dermatophytes. Onychomycosis is the most common infection with an incidence of 80-90% in Europe generally produced by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of this study is to compare the traditional diagnostic techniques of superficial mycoses with a homemade and wide-spectrum fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique that amplifies a specific region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) directly from samples of scales, nails and hair...
August 9, 2018: Mycopathologia
Ioannis D Gkegkes, Ioannis Kotrogiannis, Filitsa Konstantara, Athina Karetsou, Sofia Tsiplakou, Eleftherios Fotiou, Sotiria Stamopoulou, Christos Papazacharias, Ioannis A Paraskevopoulos
BACKGROUND: Saksenaea vasiformis is one of the numerous fungi of the Order Mucorales. Rapid progression and invasion of neighboring tissues are the most characteristic features of S. vasiformis mucormycosis. AIM: The objective of this review is the management of this type of infections. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 62-year old woman, without a history of immunocompromisation, developed a localized cutaneous infection at her right thigh...
July 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Mansi Shah, Jeremy Nel, Abdulrahman Almansouri, David Van Duin, David A Gerber
Hepatic mucormycosis is a disease caused by a ubiquitous fungus which is especially important in patients with hematologic malignancies. We present a case of an adult patient with acute myeloid leukemia who developed the infection after undergoing chemotherapy. His successful management was an integrated approach of a minimally invasive surgical resection with anti-fungal therapy. We describe the management of this patient and a review of the literature.
July 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Yoo Ra Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Eun Ju Lee, Jang Wook Sohn, Min Ja Kim, Young Kyung Yoon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of echinocandins in the treatment of Candida prosthetic joint infection (PJI) based on published literature and on patients we examined. A structured literature review of multiple databases was conducted to identify patients who received echinocandins for Candida PJIs. Additionally, we describe here the first cases of PJIs due to C. parapsilosis, successfully treated with prolonged anidulafungin therapy. Out of 17 patients, 12 were female and the mean age at diagnosis was 66...
July 26, 2018: Mycopathologia
Anna Pomorska, Anna Malecka, Radoslaw Jaworski, Julia Radon-Proskura, Rasmus Krøger Hare, Henrik Vedel Nielsen, Lee O'Brian Andersen, Henrik Elvang Jensen, Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Ninela Irga-Jaworska
Invasive mucormycosis in immunocompromised children is a life-threatening fungal infection. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis during induction therapy. Microscopic examination of surgically removed lung tissue revealed wide, pauci-septate hyphae suggesting a Mucorales infection. This diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically and by PCR analysis followed by a final identification of Cunninghamella sp. The patient was treated successfully with surgical debridement and antifungal combination therapy with amphotericin B, caspofungin and isavuconazole...
July 23, 2018: Mycopathologia
Sourour Neji, Ines Hadrich, Amine Ilahi, Houaida Trabelsi, Hedi Chelly, Nadia Mahfoudh, Fatma Cheikhrouhou, Hayet Sellami, Fattouma Makni, Ali Ayadi
BACKGROUND: The Candida parapsilosis complex species has emerged as an important cause of human disease. The molecular identification of C. parapsilosis isolates at the species level can be helpful for epidemiological studies and then for the establishment of appropriate therapies and prophylactic measures. METHODS: The present study was undertaken to analyze 13 short tandem repeat (STR) markers (7 minisatellites and 6 microsatellites) in a global set of 182 C. parapsilosis complex isolates from different origins including invasive and superficial clinical sites...
July 11, 2018: Mycopathologia
Tao Zhang, Ping Ren, Magdia De Jesus, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Sudha Chaturvedi
Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) is the etiologic agent of bat White-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the unprecedented reduction in the hibernating bat populations across eastern North America. The Pd pathogenesis appears to be a complex adaptation of fungus in its abiotic (caves and mines) and biotic (bats) environments. There is a general lack of experimental tools for the study of Pd biology. We described the successful expression of codon-optimized synthetic green fluorescent protein sGFP in Pd...
July 9, 2018: Mycopathologia
Tran-Anh Le, Khac-Luc Nguyen, My-Hang Pham, Thuat-Thang Vi, Ngoc-Anh Do
BACKGROUND: Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by different melanized fungi. The disease occurs worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions but not reported in Vietnam. A 47-year-old women was admitted to hospital 103, Hanoi, Vietnam, with a 10-year lasting lesion on backside of her right shank. Diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was made after discovery of a muriform cell in histopathological examination. A black, slow-growth fungus was isolated and identified as Fonsecaea pedrosoi after molecular analysis...
July 4, 2018: Mycopathologia
Alena Gabrielová, Karel Mencl, Martin Suchánek, Radim Klimeš, Vít Hubka, Miroslav Kolařík
Pythium oligandrum (Oomycota) is known for its strong mycoparasitism against more than 50 fungal and oomycete species. However, the ability of this oomycete to suppress and kill the causal agents of dermatophytoses is yet to be studied. We provide a complex study of the interactions between P. oligandrum and dermatophytes representing all species dominating in the developed countries. We assessed its biocidal potential by performing growth tests, on both solid and liquid cultivation media and by conducting a pilot clinical study...
July 2, 2018: Mycopathologia
Beth K Thielen, Aaron M T Barnes, Arick P Sabin, Becky Huebner, Susan Nelson, Elizabeth Wesenberg, Glen T Hansen
The Mucorales fungi-formerly classified as the zygomycetes-are environmentally ubiquitous fungi, but generally rare causes of clinical infections. In the immunocompromised host, however, they can cause invasive, rapidly spreading infections that confer a high risk of morbidity and mortality, often despite surgical and antifungal therapy. Patients with extensive burn injuries are particularly susceptible to skin and soft-tissue infections with these organisms. Here, we present a case of Lichtheimia infection in a patient with extensive full-thickness burns that required significant and repeated surgical debridement successfully treated with isavuconazole and adjunctive topical amphotericin B washes...
July 2, 2018: Mycopathologia
P Pini, C Venturelli, M Girardis, F Forghieri, E Blasi
We analyze the prognostic potential of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan (BG) levels in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with invasive fungal infections, on a population undergoing 253 episodes (177 with positive and 76 with negative outcome). Using linear regression analysis, we assessed the prognostic potential of kinetically evaluated BG levels and we found an overall sensitivity and specificity of 68 and 82%, respectively. Moreover, using an interpretative algorithm based on two distinct cutoff values, we were able to predict the outcome in 84% of the studied population with a diagnostic accuracy of 82%...
July 2, 2018: Mycopathologia
Yönter Meray, Duygu Gençalp, Mümtaz Güran
Dandruff is a common scalp condition causing both a discomfort and an undesired social image. Various studies dating from early 1900s have investigated the condition, but understanding of underlying mechanisms and etiology of the condition is still in its infancy. Formation of dandruff is a common but complex event which has been associated with numerous causal factors. Physiological conditions such as pH, water content, or sebum secretion are some of the host-related factors. An imbalance between these factors can disturb the physiological equilibrium of the scalp that can lead to dandruff formation...
June 26, 2018: Mycopathologia
Hong Yang, Qing Cai, Zhiqin Gao, Guixia Lv, Yongnian Shen, Weida Liu, Lianjuan Yang
We report a case of subcutaneous infection caused by Exophiala oligosperma. Erythematous ulcerated plaque with exudate was major clinical features. Histopathological examination showed yeast-like cells and fungal hyphae. Mycological and molecular identification revealed E. oligosperma as etiologic agent. Local debridement and oral itraconazole were effective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. oligosperma in mainland China. This report highlights the potential role of E...
June 26, 2018: Mycopathologia
Anamaria Rodriguez, Shweta Anjan, Octavio V Martinez, Lazaros J Lekakis, Amer Beitinjaneh, Jose F Camargo, Connie F C Gibas, Carmita J Sanders, Nathan P Wiederhold, Lilian M Abbo
Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a known plant pathogen in tropical and subtropical areas. Few cases have been reported in humans (usually keratitis and endophthalmitis) with only two cases of fungal sinusitis in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients published to date. We report a case of invasive sinusitis secondary to L. theobromae in an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipient successfully treated with surgical debridement and triazole antifungals with a review of available literature.
June 22, 2018: Mycopathologia
Hazal Boral, Anne van Diepeningen, Elif Erdem, Meltem Yağmur, G Sybren de Hoog, Macit Ilkit, Jacques F Meis, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi
Owing to a lack of appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for mycotic keratitis, approximately one million cases of preventable corneal blindness are reported each year. The number of keratitis cases due to infection with Fusarium is increasing significantly worldwide, many of which are not treated adequately and in a timely manner due to frequent misdiagnosis. In the current report, we describe three cases of keratitis caused by Fusarium solani sensu stricto (FSSC5) from Turkey and The Netherlands, following ocular trauma...
June 21, 2018: Mycopathologia
Grasielle Pereira Jannuzzi, José Roberto Fogaça de Almeida, Suelen Silvana Dos Santos, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Karen Spadari Ferreira
The Notch signaling pathway participates in several cellular functional aspects. This signaling has an important role in targeting both DC maturation and DC-mediated T cell responses. Thus, it is essential to investigate the influence of this signaling pathway in the role played by DCs in the pathogenesis of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. This disease is a granulomatous and systemic mycosis that mainly affects lung tissue and can spread to any other organ and system. In this study, we demonstrated that bone marrow-derived DCs infected with yeasts from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain 18 performed efficiently their maturation after the activation of Notch signaling, with an increase in CD80, CD86, CCR7, and CD40 expression and the release of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α...
June 18, 2018: Mycopathologia
Romana Klasinc, Martin Riesenhuber, Andreas Bacher, Birgit Willinger
This report describes a case of invasive Exophiala dermatitidis infection after double lung transplantation in a 76-year-old man. After thoracotomy, the patient's wound showed dehiscence with purulent secretion. The black yeast was isolated from cultures taken from the wound, and species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-S2) region. The results of the susceptibility testing showed voriconazole as the most active drug. Despite adaptation of the antifungal therapy the clinical condition worsened, and the patient died...
June 11, 2018: Mycopathologia
Caroline S Silveira, Deborah Cesar, M Kelly Keating, Marlene DeLeon-Carnes, Aníbal G Armién, Martín Luhers, Franklin Riet-Correa, Federico Giannitti
Protothecosis is a rare disease caused by environmental algae of the genus Prototheca. These are saprophytic, non-photosynthetic, aerobic, colorless algae that belong to the Chlorellaceae family. Seven different species have been described. Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 and P. wickerhamii are most commonly involved in pathogenic infections in humans and animals. The objective of this work is to describe, for the first time, a case of protothecosis caused by P. zopfii genotype 1 in a dog. The dog, a 4-year-old mix bred male, was presented to a veterinary clinic in Montevideo, Uruguay, with multiple skin nodules, one of which was excised by surgical biopsy...
June 6, 2018: Mycopathologia
Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Sung-Yeon Cho, Dong-Gun Lee, Chulmin Park, Hye-Sun Chun, Yeon-Joon Park
Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem, especially in immunocompromised patients. It has been reported worldwide, including in Asia, but has not yet been reported in Korea. Here, we report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) caused by azole-resistant A. fumigatus that developed in a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient during posaconazole prophylaxis for immunosuppressive therapy of graft-versus-host diseases. We identified TR34/L98H/S297T/F495L mutation in the CYP51A gene of A...
June 1, 2018: Mycopathologia
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