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Mycopathologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022198/gene-disruption-in-scedosporium-aurantiacum-proof-of-concept-with-the-disruption-of-sodc-gene-encoding-a-cytosolic-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase
#1
Victoire Pateau, Bienvenue Razafimandimby, Patrick Vandeputte, Christopher R Thornton, Thomas Guillemette, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Sandrine Giraud
Scedosporium species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a large variety of infections in humans. An increasing occurrence was observed in patients with underlying conditions such as immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. Indeed, the genus Scedosporium ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the respiratory tracts of the CF patients. To date, there is very scarce information on the pathogenic mechanisms, at least in part because of the limited genetic tools available. In the present study, we successfully developed an efficient transformation and targeted gene disruption approach on the species Scedosporium aurantiacum...
October 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994001/comparison-between-etest-and-broth-microdilution-methods-for-testing-itraconazole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-susceptibility-to-antifungal-combinations
#2
Laura Bedin Denardi, Jéssica Tairine Keller, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Vanessa Oliveira, Fernanda Baldissera Piasentin, Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Janio Morais Santurio, Sydney Hartz Alves
The checkerboard broth microdilution assay (BMD) is the most frequently used method for the in vitro evaluation of drug combinations. However, its use to evaluate the effect of antifungal drugs on filamentous fungi is sometimes associated with endpoint-reading difficulties, and different degrees of interaction are assigned to the same drug combination. We evaluated combinations of the azoles, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, with the echinocandins, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, against 15 itraconazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical strains via the checkerboard BMD and Etest assay...
October 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994000/fungal-olecranon-bursitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-by-knoxdaviesia-dimorphospora-sp-nov-case-report-and-review
#3
Marcela Guevara-Suarez, Marta Llaurado, Isabel Pujol, Emilio Mayayo, Adela Martin-Vicente, Josepa Gené
Bursitis is a common medical condition that can occur either with or without infection. We present a case of fungal olecranon bursitis in an immunocompetent individual caused by the new species Knoxdaviesia dimorphospora. It is a dematiaceous filamentous fungus characterized by the production of two different conidia: hyaline and cylindrical, which rise up from phialidic conidiogenous cells located in the upper part of differentiated and unbranched conidiophores, and pale brown and ellipsoidal conidia produced by phialidic conidiogenous cells which are born directly on hyphae...
October 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993976/boric-acid-and-commercial-organoboron-products-as-inhibitors-of-drug-resistant-candida-albicans
#4
Bryan Larsen, Marija Petrovic, Francesco DeSeta
Clinical use of boric acid as a topical antifungal in women who have failed standard antifungal therapy with azole drugs has been used sporadically for decades. Our previous in vitro work showing inhibition of Candida albicans growth was conducted on clinical isolates without antifungal drug susceptibility profiling. Here, we report that boric acid restricts growth of drug-resistant Candida albicans and inhibits hyphal growth and diminishes cell volume. The availability of over-the-counter organoboron compounds intended for use as oral nutritional supplements led us to determine if these also were inhibitory toward resistant Candida and show here that they also possess antifungal activity...
October 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929280/ecology-of-scedosporium-species-present-knowledge-and-future-research
#5
A Rougeron, S Giraud, A Alastruey-Izquierdo, J Cano-Lira, J Rainer, A Mouhajir, S Le Gal, G Nevez, W Meyer, J P Bouchara
The genus Scedosporium, which comprises at least five clinically relevant species, i.e. Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium boydii, Scedosporium aurantiacum, Scedosporium dehoogii and Scedosporium minutisporum, ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This colonization of the airways is thought to contribute to the inflammatory reaction leading to a progressive deterioration of the lung function. Additionally, these colonizing fungi may lead to severe disseminated infections in case of lung transplantation...
September 19, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900882/acute-paracoccidioidomycosis-in-a-40-year-old-man-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Lucas Ferreira Rocha, Danielle de Araújo Torres
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis that represents an important public health problem in Latin America due to its life-threatening character. It is considered occupational disease of agricultural workers. In this report, we present a rare and serious case of the acute form of the disease in a 40-year-old man with no history of contact with the rural environment. Diagnosis was made through cervical lymph node biopsy, and treatment was performed with antifungal drugs, which produced effective results...
September 12, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894998/new-species-spiromastigoides-albida-from-a-lung-biopsy
#7
Alberto M Stchigel, Deanna A Sutton, José F Cano-Lira, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
The new species Spiromastigoides albida (Onygenales, Eurotiomycetes, Ascomycota), from a lung biopsy in USA, is proposed and described based on morphological data and the analysis of rRNA, and fragments of actin and ß-tubulin gene sequences. This species is characterized by white colonies and a malbranchea-like asexual morph with profusely branching curved conidiophores forming sporodochia-like structures. Moreover, new combinations for Gymnoascus alatosporus, and for some new species recently described under the generic name Spiromastix, are provided...
September 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864936/a-case-of-cutaneous-mycosis-caused-by-scedosporium-dehoogii-on-an-immunocompromised-patient
#8
Yuichi Sakata, Fumiaki Taga, Tsuyoshi Ushigami, Kiminobu Takeda, Kazushi Anzawa, Akiko Nishibu, Takashi Mochizuki
This report describes a 77-year-old man with cutaneous mycosis caused by Scedosporium dehoogii while taking oral betamethasone and tacrolimus for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. At examination in our clinic, the patient had multiple cystic lesions and nodules with slight tenderness, varying in size up to 4 cm, on his left knee and shin. He had not noticed any traumatic injury at the site of the lesions. Fungal cultures of samples taken from the abscesses, scales, and crusts of the lesions yielded white, later grayish brown, fluffy surfaced colonies...
September 1, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864921/invasive-pulmonary-fungal-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Carsten Schwarz, Claudia Brandt, Paul Whitaker, Sivagurunathan Sutharsan, Heino Skopnik, Silvia Gartner, Christina Smazny, Jobst F Röhmel
Invasive pulmonary mycosis is after allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) a frequent and severe complication of CF lung disease. Among CF caregivers, there is an insecurity when and how to treat infections of the lung parenchyma caused by different fungi in patients with CF. This case series provides a multicenter experience on diagnostic, manifestation, and treatment of non-ABPA cases of pulmonary. Non-ABPA cases of pulmonary mycoses in patients with CF have been collected from the CF Centers in Berlin, Essen, Worms, Frankfurt (Germany), Leeds (UK), and Barcelona (Spain)...
September 1, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840426/human-infections-with-microsporum-gypseum-complex-nannizzia-gypsea-in-slovenia
#10
Mateja Dolenc-Voljč, Jurij Gasparič
Microsporum gypseum complex is a group of geophillic dermatophytes with a worldwide distribution and is a rare cause of dermatomycoses in humans. The infection most commonly presents as tinea corporis, with some geographical and occupational variations. We studied M. gypseum complex infections in patients examined in the Mycological Laboratory of the Department of Dermatovenereology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, during the period 2000-2015. Diagnosis was confirmed by mycological examination. Skin scales were examined by direct microscopy and cultivated on Sabouraud glucose agar...
August 24, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836110/effects-of-photodynamic-therapy-on-the-growth-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-scedosporium-and-lomentospora-spp
#11
Qiaoyun Lu, Yi Sun, Dingdan Tian, Shoubao Xiang, Lujuan Gao
Scedosporium and Lomentospora species are the second most frequent colonizing, allergenic, or invasive fungal pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis, and are responsible for infections varying from cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue infections caused by traumatic inoculation to severe systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients. The clinical relevance of fungal airway colonization for individual patients harboring Scedosporium and Lomentospora species is still an underestimated issue. The high resistance of Scedosporium and Lomentospora species to antifungal drugs has highlighted the need for alternative treatment modalities, and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy may be one such alternative...
August 23, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831770/distribution-of-species-of-dermatophyte-among-patients-at-a-dermatology-centre-of-nghean-province-vietnam-2015-2016
#12
Ngoc-Anh Do, Thai-Dung Nguyen, Khac-Luc Nguyen, Tran-Anh Le
INTRODUCTION: Vietnam is a tropical country so fungal diseases including dermatophytosis may be prevalent, but epidemiological profiles of agents responsible for the infection have rarely been reported. OBJECTIVE: To find out the distribution of dermatophytes among patients living in a central province of Vietnam. METHODS: We examined dermatophyte infections in patients with lesions suspected of dermatophytosis referred to the Nghean provincial leprosy and dermatology centre from August 2015 to August 2016...
August 22, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823093/candida-albicans-staphylococcus-aureus-dual-species-biofilm-as-a-target-for-the-combination-of-essential-oils-and-fluconazole-or-mupirocin
#13
Aleksandra Budzyńska, Sylwia Różalska, Beata Sadowska, Barbara Różalska
The effectiveness of essential oils (EOs), fluconazole (FLU) and mupirocin (MUP) used alone or in combination against mono-species and mixed Candida albicans/Staphylococcus aureus biofilms was examined. An experimentally established dual-species biofilm model, verified by fluorescence microscopy and viable cell counting, was used. Selected commercial EOs were tested: geranium, citronella and clove oils, which have been chemically characterized and found to differ in the content of the main components (qualitative and quantitative)...
August 19, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819878/aspergillus-bronchitis-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Claudia Brandt, Jobst Roehmel, Volker Rickerts, Volker Melichar, Nadja Niemann, Carsten Schwarz
Aspergillus fumigatus frequently colonizes the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and may cause various severe infections, such as bronchitis. Serological data, sputum dependent markers and longitudinal data of treated cases of Aspergillus bronchitis were evaluated for further description of this infection. This study, which comprises three substudies, aimed to analyze epidemiological data of Aspergillus in CF and the entity of Aspergillus bronchitis. In a first step, data of the German Cystic Fibrosis Registry were used to evaluate the frequency of Aspergillus colonization in patients with CF (n = 2599)...
August 17, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801727/inflammation-induced-by-candida-parapsilosis-in-thp-1-cells-and-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmcs
#15
Zhimin Duan, Xu Chen, Leilei Du, Caixia Liu, Rong Zeng, Qing Chen, Min Li
Candida parapsilosis is one of the most prevalent Candida species; however, the inflammation response induced by C. parapsilosis and related mechanism received few studies. In this study, we analyzed the pro-inflammatory cytokine responses evoked by C. parapsilosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and THP-1 cells, determined the signal pathways related to the inflammation response and investigated the expression of dectin-1 modified with C. parapsilosis. Exposure of PBMCs and THP-1 cells to C...
August 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795317/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-inhibit-the-growth-and-reproduction-of-chaetomium-globosum-and-other-fungi-associated-with-water-damaged-buildings
#16
Kelsey Dalmont, Charles L Biles, Heather Konsure, Sujita Dahal, Tyler Rowsey, Matthew Broge, Shubhra Poudyal, Tara Gurung, Sabina Shrestha, Caleb L Biles, Terry Cluck, Alisha Howard
Indoor mold due to water damage causes serious human respiratory disorders, and the remediation to homes, schools, and businesses is a major expense. Prevention of mold infestation of building materials would reduce health problems and building remediation costs. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit yeasts and a limited number of filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to determine the possible inhibitory activity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on germination, fungal growth, and reproduction of Chaetomium globosum and other important filamentous fungi that occur in water-damaged buildings...
August 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795298/pharmacokinetics-of-azole-antifungals-in-cystic-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Ryan M Rivosecchi, Palash Samanta, Moses Demehin, M Hong Nguyen
Defects in mucociliary clearance predispose cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to airway colonization and infection by various fungi, especially Aspergillus fumigatus. Although the clinical significance of airway fungal colonization is not clear, several studies have suggested its association with worsening lung function and increased risk of CF exacerbations. Antifungal triazole agents have been used in CF patients with airway fungal colonization or infections with varying results. Limited pharmacokinetic studies to date have demonstrated high inter-subject variability of triazole levels among CF patients...
August 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785939/small-colony-variants-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-display-heterogeneity-in-inhibiting-aspergillus-fumigatus-biofilm
#18
Rajesh Anand, Richard B Moss, Gabriele Sass, Niaz Banaei, Karl V Clemons, Marife Martinez, David A Stevens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are major microbes in cystic fibrosis (CF). We reported non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates more inhibitory to A. fumigatus than mucoid ones. Another CF P. aeruginosa phenotype, small colony variants (SCVs), is an unknown factor in intermicrobial competition with A. fumigatus. Clinical SCV isolates and reference CF non-mucoid isolate (Pa10, producing normal-sized colonies) were compared. Live cells of P. aeruginosa or filtrates from P. aeruginosa planktonic or biofilm cultures were co-incubated with A...
August 7, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770417/fungal-pathogens-in-cf-airways-leave-or-treat
#19
A Singh, A Ralhan, C Schwarz, D Hartl, A Hector
Chronic airway infection plays an essential role in the progress of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. In the past decades, mainly bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been the focus of researchers and clinicians. However, fungi are frequently detected in CF airways and there is an increasing body of evidence that fungal pathogens might play a role in CF lung disease. Several studies have shown an association of fungi, particularly Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, with the course of lung disease in CF patients...
August 2, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766039/fungal-and-bacterial-diversity-of-airway-microbiota-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-concordance-between-conventional-methods-and-ultra-deep-sequencing-and-their-practical-use-in-the-clinical-laboratory
#20
Françoise Botterel, Cécile Angebault, Odile Cabaret, Franziska A Stressmann, Jean-Marc Costa, Frédéric Wallet, Benoit Wallaert, Kenneth Bruce, Laurence Delhaes
Given the complexity of the airway microbiota in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, it seems crucial to compile the most exhaustive and exact list of the microbial communities inhabiting CF airways. The aim of the present study was to compare the bacterial and fungal diversity of sputa from adult CF patients during non-exacerbation period by culture-based and molecular methods, and ultra-deep-sequencing (UDS). Sputum samples from four CF patients were cultured and analysed by DNA extractions followed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis through resolution of bacterial ribosomal gene (rDNA) fragments, and cloning plus sequencing of part of fungal rRNA genes...
August 1, 2017: Mycopathologia
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