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Mycopathologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905002/disseminated-candidiasis-in-a-young-previously-healthy-dog-and-review-of-literature
#1
Nicole Willems, Dirk J Houwers, Yvette M Schlotter, Bart Theelen, Teun Boekhout
BACKGROUND: The reports on disseminated candidiasis in dogs so far describe at least one predisposing factor. This case report, however, highlights candidiasis in a dog without any known predisposition. PATIENT: A 1.5-year-old intact female Hovawart dog was presented with subcutaneous nodules and polyuria/polydipsia. An excisional biopsy revealed a chronic pyogranulomatous and necrotizing inflammation with mycotic structures. The patient became febrile and lethargic, and developed lameness...
November 30, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882525/genotyping-and-persistence-of-candida-albicans-from-pregnant-women-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#2
Cecilia V Tapia, Germán Hermosilla, Paula Fortes, Claudio Alburquenque, Sergio Bucarey, Hugo Salinas, Paula I Rodas, María Cristina Díaz, Fabien Magne
OBJECTIVE: To study Candida albicans genotypes using RAPD and their susceptibility to fluconazole in healthy pregnant women and in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients after topical treatment with clotrimazole. METHODS: Vaginal swabs were collected at t = 0 and t = 1 (1 month later) in pregnant women (control group, n = 33), and before (t = 0), at 1 month (t = 1) and at 2 months (t = 2) after clotrimazole treatment in pregnant women with VVC. RESULTS: Candida albicans was isolated in 30% of healthy pregnant women and 80% of patients with VVC...
November 23, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878642/are-th17-cells-playing-a-role-in-immunity-to-dermatophytosis
#3
Marie-Pierre Heinen, Ludivine Cambier, Laurence Fievez, Bernard Mignon
Despite their superficial localization in the skin, pathogenic dermatophytes can induce a complex but still misunderstood immune response in their hosts. The cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is correlated with both clinical recovery and protection against reinfection, and CD4+ T lymphocytes have been recognized as a crucial component of the immune defense against dermatophytes. Before the discovery of the Th17 pathway, CMI was considered to be only dependent of Th1 cells, and thus most studies on the immunology of dermatophytosis have focused on the Th1 pathway...
November 23, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878528/development-of-a-dot-blot-assay-for-the-detection-of-mould-specific-ige-in-the-belgian-population
#4
Muriel Vincent, Marta Romano, Francis Corazza, Kris Huygen, Olivier Michel, Olivier Denis
BACKGROUND: Data on mould sensitization in the general population are scarce and mostly on Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum. OBJECTIVES: To validate a dot-blot assay for the detection of specific IgE and evaluate the prevalence of mould sensitization in a healthy population. METHODS: The dot-blot assay was validated against the CAP test. Sensitization rate to ten common indoor and outdoor mould species in 344 serum samples was calculated...
November 22, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866319/successful-posaconazole-therapy-of-disseminated-alternariosis-due-to-alternaria-infectoria-in-a-heart-transplant-recipient
#5
Pavlina Lyskova, Milos Kubanek, Vit Hubka, Eva Sticova, Ludek Voska, Dana Kautznerova, Miroslav Kolarik, Petr Hamal, Martina Vasakova
We report a case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria infectoria in a 61-year-old heart transplant recipient with multiple skin lesions and pulmonary infiltrates. The infection spread via the haematogenous route from the primary cutaneous lesions into the lungs. The diagnosis was based on the histopathological examination, direct microscopy, skin lesion cultures and detection of Alternaria DNA in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using molecular methods. The treatment consisted of a combination of surgical excision and systemic antifungal therapy...
November 19, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853914/non-dermatophyte-dermatoses-mimicking-dermatophytoses-in-animals
#6
Didier Pin
Dermatophytoses in animals are fungal diseases of the skin caused by dermatophyte fungi of the genus Microsporum or Trichophyton. Because the infection is generally follicular, the most common clinical sign is one or many circular areas of alopecia with variable erythema, scaling and crusting, and the primary differential diagnoses are follicular infections, such as bacterial folliculitis and demodicosis. Although dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm is the most commonly observed lesion of dermatophytoses in animals, other presentations may be observed according to the host species and the dermatophyte involved: dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm, scaling and crusting in dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor, nodule in case of kerion or mycetoma, matted hairs, seborrheic dermatosis or miliary dermatitis in cats, generalized exfoliative dermatoses in dogs, cats and horses, superficial non-follicular pustules, papules and macules in the Devon Rex cat, pruritic dermatophytoses in dogs, cats and horses, and onychomycosis in dogs, cats and horses...
November 16, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830437/temporal-profile-of-biofilm-formation-gene-expression-and-virulence-analysis-in-candida-albicans-strains
#7
Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Felipe De Camargo Ribeiro, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge
The characterization of Candida albicans strains with different degrees of virulence became very useful to understand the mechanisms of fungal virulence. Then, the objective of this study was to assess and compare the temporal profiles of biofilms formation, gene expression of ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, BCR1, EFG1, TEC1, SAP5, PLB2 and LIP9 and virulence in Galleria mellonella of C. albicans ATCC18804 and a clinical sample isolated from an HIV-positive patient (CA60). Although the CFU/mL counting was higher in biofilms formed in vitro by ATCC strain, the temporal profile of the analysis of the transcripts of the C...
November 9, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826683/aspergillus-flavus-keratitis-experience-of-a-tertiary-eye-clinic-in-turkey
#8
Elif Erdem, Meltem Yagmur, Hazal Boral, Macit Ilkit, Reha Ersoz, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
We investigated the clinical and mycological characteristics of four cases of mycotic keratitis caused by Aspergillus flavus that occurred from July 2014 to May 2015 at Çukurova University Hospital, Adana, Turkey. In a 10-month period, a total of 64 corneal smear/scrapings were examined from patients with suspected mycotic keratitis. Fungal cultures were positive in six of these patients, indicating a 9.4% incidence of mycotic keratitis in this region, including four cases of A. flavus and two cases of Fusarium spp...
November 8, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822731/are-cystic-fibrosis-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-different-intermicrobial-interactions-with-pseudomonas
#9
Hasan Nazik, Richard B Moss, Vyshnavi Karna, Karl V Clemons, Niaz Banaei, Kevin Cohen, Varun Choudhary, David A Stevens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading bacterial and fungal pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF). We have shown that Af biofilms are susceptible to Pseudomonas, particularly CF phenotypes. Those studies were performed with a reference virulent non-CF Aspergillus. Pseudomonas resident in CF airways undergo profound genetic and phenotypic adaptations to the abnormal environment. Studies have also indicated Aspergillus from CF patients have unexpected profiles of antifungal susceptibility...
November 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815659/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-of-neoscytalidium-dimidiatum-clinical-isolates-from-malaysia
#10
Jasper Elvin James, Jacinta Santhanam, Mei Chen Lee, Choon Xian Wong, Parameswari Sabaratnam, Hamidah Yusoff, Mohd Nizam Tzar, Mohd Fuat Abdul Razak
Neoscytalidium dimidiatum is an opportunistic fungus causing cutaneous infections mostly, which are difficult to treat due to antifungal resistance. In Malaysia, N. dimidiatum is associated with skin and nail infections, especially in the elderly. These infections may be mistaken for dermatophyte infections due to similar clinical appearance. In this study, Neoscytalidium isolates from cutaneous specimens, identified using morphological and molecular methods (28 Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and 1 Neoscytalidium sp...
November 4, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807669/primary-cutaneous-mucormycosis-caused-by-rhizopus-oryzae-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
Erika Rodríguez-Lobato, Lourdes Ramírez-Hobak, Jorge E Aquino-Matus, Juan P Ramírez-Hinojosa, Víctor H Lozano-Fernández, Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Rigoberto Hernández-Castro, Roberto Arenas
Mucormycosis is an invasive infection caused by opportunistic fungi. Rhizopus, Lichtheimia, Mucor and Rhizomucor are the most common isolated genera. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis is usually related to traumatic injuries, but immunocompromised cases are associated with underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus and malignancies. The treatment of choice is surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B. We present a 40-year-old male with fever and a painful necrotic lesion on the middle back and history of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus...
November 3, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807668/fournier-gangrene-caused-by-candida-albicans-in-an-infant-after-cardiac-surgery
#12
Radoslaw Jaworski, Ninela Irga-Jaworska, Łukasz Naumiuk, Maciej Chojnicki, Ireneusz Haponiuk
Fournier gangrene is a rare, rapidly progressive, life-threatening condition. We report a 23-day-old boy with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect treated surgically, who developed Fournier gangrene. Emergency surgery was performed with tissue sampling for microbiological examination. Candida albicans was confirmed; caspofungin followed by fluconazole was administered with excellent results.
November 2, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798742/incidence-of-keratinophilic-fungi-from-the-selected-soils-of-kaziranga-national-park-assam-india
#13
Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Shilpa Amit Verekar, Yashwant G Chavan
Seventy-eight soil samples were collected from the various locations in the vicinity of Kaziranga National Park (Assam), India, during April to October 2009 and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting techniques for isolation. Thirty-nine isolates were recovered and identified by recognition of their macro- and micromorphological features. Their identification was also confirmed by the BLAST search of sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region against the NCBI/GenBank data and compared with deposited sequences for identification purpose...
October 31, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787643/tinea-unguium-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-practice
#14
Daniel Asz-Sigall, Antonella Tosti, Roberto Arenas
Onychomycosis is caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or non-dermatophyte molds; when caused by dermatophytes, it is called tinea unguium. The main etiological agents are Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. The most frequent types are distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis. Diagnosis usually requires mycological laboratory confirmation. Dermoscopy can be helpful and also biopsy is an excellent diagnostic method in uncommon cases or when mycological test is negative. Treatment must be chosen according to clinical type, number of affected nails and severity...
October 27, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783317/toward-a-novel-multilocus-phylogenetic-taxonomy-for-the-dermatophytes
#15
G Sybren de Hoog, Karolina Dukik, Michel Monod, Ann Packeu, Dirk Stubbe, Marijke Hendrickx, Christiane Kupsch, J Benjamin Stielow, Joanna Freeke, Markus Göker, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Hossein Mirhendi, Yvonne Gräser
Type and reference strains of members of the onygenalean family Arthrodermataceae have been sequenced for rDNA ITS and partial LSU, the ribosomal 60S protein, and fragments of β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 3. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed a large degree of correspondence, and topologies matched those of earlier published phylogenies demonstrating that the phylogenetic representation of dermatophytes and dermatophyte-like fungi has reached an acceptable level of stability. All trees showed Trichophyton to be polyphyletic...
October 25, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783316/the-changing-face-of-dermatophytic-infections-worldwide
#16
REVIEW
Ping Zhan, Weida Liu
Dermatophytes evolve along with the geography and socioeconomic conditions. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton schoenleinii acted as the major pathogens of superficial fungal diseases 100 years ago, but their frequency decreased dramatically since the middle of the twentieth century and they are limited to some less-developed countries nowadays; meanwhile, frequency of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis increased gradually, and these fungi have become the major species globally...
October 25, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771883/natural-products-an-alternative-to-conventional-therapy-for-dermatophytosis
#17
Graciliana Lopes, Eugénia Pinto, Lígia Salgueiro
The increased incidence of fungal infections, associated with the widespread use of antifungal drugs, has resulted in the development of resistance, making it necessary to discover new therapeutic alternatives. Among fungal infections, dermatophytoses constitute a serious public health problem, affecting 20-25 % of the world population. Medicinal plants represent an endless source of bioactive molecules, and their volatile and non-volatile extracts are clearly recognized for being the historical basis of therapeutic health care...
October 22, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757778/paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-associated-dermatitis-and-lymphadenitis-in-a-dog
#18
Selwyn Arlington Headley, Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano, Giovana Wingeter Di Santis, Lucas Alécio Gomes, Rafaela Macagnan, Daniela Farias da Nóbrega, Katherine Moura Leite, Brígida Kussumoto de Alcântara, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Mario Augusto Ono
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease of humans from Latin America that is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, with most cases of PCM in domestic animals being associated with P. brasiliensis. This study presents the clinical, cytological, mycological, serological, and molecular findings associated with P. brasiliensis in a dog from Southern Brazil. Fine needle biopsies were collected from the skin and several lymph nodes of a 5-year-old female Labrador dog that had enlargement of most superficial lymph nodes...
October 18, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744635/expression-patterns-of-abc-transporter-genes-in-fluconazole-resistant-candida-glabrata
#19
Atefeh Abdollahi Gohar, Hamid Badali, Tahereh Shokohi, Mojtaba Nabili, Nasrin Amirrajab, Maryam Moazeni
Clinical management of fungal diseases is compromised by the emergence of antifungal drug resistance in fungi, which leads to elimination of available drug classes as treatment options. An understanding of antifungal resistance at molecular level is, therefore, essential for the development of strategies to combat the resistance. This study presents the assessment of molecular mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in clinical Candida glabrata isolates originated from Iran. Taking seven distinct fluconazole-resistant C...
October 15, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743115/an-in-vitro-model-for-the-study-of-the-macrophage-response-upon-trichophyton-rubrum-challenge
#20
Fabio Seiti Yamada Yoshikawa, Lucas Gonçalves Ferreira, Fernando Gonçalves de Almeida, Sandro Rogerio de Almeida
Diversity in the macrophage models currently employed in immunology studies may lead to opposed results and interpretations. In this study, we aimed to analyze the suitability of J774 macrophage-like cells as a model for the interaction between the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and macrophages. J774 cells were competent in fungal phagocytosis, but succumbed to hyphal growth. Nevertheless, they could also secrete IL-1β in response to the dermatophyte. On the opposite direction, inflammatory, thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages did not succumb to fungal growth and showed no significant IL-1β production...
October 14, 2016: Mycopathologia
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