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Mycopathologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702855/n-chlorotaurine-a-promising-future-candidate-for-topical-therapy-of-fungal-infections
#1
Markus Nagl, Roland Arnitz, Michaela Lackner
N-Chlorotaurine (NCT) is a mild long-lived oxidant that can be applied to sensitive body regions as an endogenous antiseptic. Enhancement of its microbicidal activity in the presence of proteinaceous material because of transchlorination, a postantibiotic/postantifungal effect and antitoxic activity renders it interesting for treatment of fungal infections, too. This is confirmed by first case applications in skin and mucous membranes of different body sites. Recent findings of good tolerability of inhaled NCT suggest further investigations of this substance for treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases, where microorganisms play a role, particularly multi-resistant ones...
July 12, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702854/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-pulmonary-diseases-associated-with-aspergillosis-is-there-a-connection
#2
Maria N Gamaletsou, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: We studied the relationship between GORD and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), or Aspergillus bronchitis. BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is well known to initiate or exacerbate pulmonary inflammatory conditions, inducing bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. METHODS: We reviewed four patients referred with elevated Aspergillus serology markers and marked pulmonary symptoms for ABPA, CPA, and Aspergillus bronchitis, and discussed the underlying pathophysiological relationship with GORD...
July 12, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699056/killing-activity-of-micafungin-against-candida-albicans-c-dubliniensis-and-candida-africana-in-the-presence-of-human-serum
#3
Renátó Kovács, Qasem Saleh, Aliz Bozó, Zoltán Tóth, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Tamás Kardos, Gábor Kardos, István Takacs, László Majoros
We compared killing activity of micafungin in time-kill experiments in RPMI-1640 with and without 50% serum against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana reference strains and clinical isolates. Killing rates (k values) were determined for each strain and concentration. In RPMI-1640 MIC ranges were 0.015-0.03, 0.015-0.03 and 0.015 mg/L against C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. africana, respectively. In 50% serum MIC values for the three species increased 16- to 64-fold. In RPMI-1640 micafungin was fungicidal against two of three C...
July 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688008/pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-cystic-fibrosis-in-brittany-france
#4
Gilles Nevez, Florence Robert-Gangneux, Laurence Pougnet, Michèle Virmaux, Chantal Belleguic, Eric Deneuville, Gilles Rault, Sylviane Chevrier, Sophie Ramel, Jean Le Bihan, Thibaud Guillaud-Saumur, Enrique Calderon, Yohann Le Govic, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Solène Le Gal
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a transmissible fungus with a high pulmonary tropism. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been estimated in Germany at 7.4%, in Spain at 21.5% and in Brazil at 38.2%. Data on the prevalence of P. jirovecii in CF patients in France remain scarce, particularly in Brittany, where the prevalence of CF is high (from 1/1600 to 1/4500). Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of colonization of the airways by P. jirovecii in Brittany in CF patients monitored at the "Centre de Ressources et de Compétences de la Mucoviscidose (CRCM)" of Rennes compared to that previously observed at the CRCM of Roscoff-Brest...
July 7, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685375/higher-in-vitro-proliferation-rate-of-rhizopus-oryzae-in-blood-of-diabetic-individuals-in-chronic-glycaemic-control-compared-with-non-diabetic-individuals
#5
Grace Salazar-Tamayo, Luis E López-Jácome, Jesús Resendiz-Sanchez, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Patricia Rodriguez-Zulueta, Dora E Corzo-León
Metabolic control improves outcomes associated with mucormycosis. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro proliferation of Rhizopus oryzae in blood of individuals with and without diabetes at different glycaemic levels. Ninety-five individuals were included. Blood samples from each participant were incubated with sporangiospores of R. oryzae. The germination, filamentation and growth of R. oryzae were compared at different time points. Four groups were defined, one without (group A, n = 30) and three with diabetes: group B (HbA1c ≤7%, N = 24), group C (HbA1c 7...
July 6, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681317/restraining-pathogenicity-in-candida-albicans-by-taxifolin-as-an-inhibitor-of-ras1-pka-pathway
#6
Sonali Mishra, Sangeeta Singh, Krishna Misra
Candida albicans is one of the most virulent and opportunistic fungal strains. In the present scenario, majority metabolic imbalances and unsuccessful treatments of some severe diseases including cancer, diabetes, HIV, psoriasis are because of invasive Candida emergence. Being a beneficial integral part of human biome, its elimination is not possible. The major pathogenicity characteristics in Candida involve hyphal growth, biofilm formation, HSP90 down regulation and genetic modifications. Ras1-pka pathway initiated by HSP90 down regulation is important for hyphal growth and has been focused in the present study...
July 5, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681316/donor-derived-candida-stellimalicola-in-a-clinical-specimen-preservation-fluid-contamination-during-pancreas-procurement
#7
Damien Dupont, Antoine Huguenin, Elodie Tisserand, Véronique Reiter, Emmanuel Morelon, Lionel Badet, Isabelle Villena, Martine Wallon, Dominique Toubas
We report here a case of possible donor-derived Candida stellimalicola infection after pancreas transplantation. Candida stellimalicola, an environmental non-filamentous yeast, was isolated from both the peritoneal fluid of the graft donor and the preservation fluid of the transplanted pancreas. Interestingly, this strain exhibited high minimum inhibitory concentrations to azoles. These results justified the use of echinocandins as therapy instead of fluconazole. This switch permitted a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C...
July 5, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667348/cryptococcosis-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-renal-dialysis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-pooled-cases
#8
Nan Hong, Min Chen, Wenjie Fang, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Teun Boekhout, Jianping Xu, Lei Zhang, Jia Liu, Weihua Pan, Wanqing Liao
Cryptococcosis is a lethal fungal infection mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species. Currently, our understanding of cryptococcosis episodes in HIV-negative patients during renal dialysis remains scarce and fragmented. Here, we performed an analysis of pooled cases to systemically summarize the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis among HIV-negative patients with renal dialysis. Using pooled data from our hospital and studies identified in four medical databases, 18 cases were identified and analyzed...
June 30, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667347/clinical-analysis-of-diabetic-combined-pulmonary-mucormycosis
#9
Yu-Hong Li, Peng Sun, Jian-Chao Guo
OBJECTIVE: To improve the understanding of diabetic combined pulmonary mucormycosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The clinical data of twelve patients diagnosed as diabetic combined pulmonary mucormycosis were analyzed by the clinical manifestations, imaging features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. Patients from January 1999 to June 2015 in our hospital had poor blood glucose control and varying degrees of diabetic chronic complications with an on average of diabetes 8...
June 30, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660465/is-marine-dispersion-of-the-lethargic-crab-disease-possible-assessing-the-tolerance-of-exophiala-cancerae-to-a-broad-combination-of-salinities-temperatures-and-exposure-times
#10
Raphael Orélis-Ribeiro, Vânia A Vicente, Antonio Ostrensky, Marcelo A Chammas, Walter A Boeger
Since 1997, an emergent fungal disease named lethargic crab disease (LCD) has decimated stocks of the edible mangrove land crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) along the Brazilian coast, threatening the mangrove ecosystem and causing socioeconomic impacts. Evidence from a variety of sources suggests that the black yeast Exophiala cancerae (Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales) has been responsible for such epizootic events. Based on the spatiotemporal patterns of the LCD outbreaks, the well-established surface ocean currents, and the range of ecological traits of Exophiala spp...
June 28, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660464/respiratory-tract-infection-caused-by-fonsecaea-monophora-after-kidney-transplantation
#11
Isabella Barbosa Cleinman, Sarah Santos Gonçalves, Marcio Nucci, Danielle Carvalho Quintella, Márcia Halpern, Tiyomi Akiti, Glória Barreiros, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Guilherme Santoro-Lopes
Fonsecaea spp. are melanized fungi which cause most cases of chromoblastomycosis. The taxonomy of this genus has been revised, now encompassing four species, with different pathogenic potential: F. pedrosoi, F. nubica, F. pugnacius, and F. monophora. The latter two species present wider clinical spectrum and have been associated with cases of visceral infection, most often affecting the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of proven case of F. monophora respiratory tract infection. A Brazilian 57-year-old-female patient underwent kidney transplantation on January 12, 2013...
June 28, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656554/fluconazole-non-susceptible-cryptococcus-neoformans-relapsing-refractory-cryptococcosis-and-long-term-use-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-an-aids-patient
#12
Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana, Letícia Aparecida Schiave, Alda Soares Dos Santos Quaglio, Cristiane Masetto de Gaitani, Roberto Martinez
The treatment of cryptococcosis is hampered by inefficacy or intolerance to the recommended antifungal agents. A patient diagnosed with AIDS had multiple relapses of cryptococcal infection, which became refractory to antifungal agents during the course of therapy. During the follow-up, the patient developed renal toxicity due to amphotericin B use and non-susceptibility of isolated Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole was detected. Thereafter, antifungal treatment was performed exclusively with liposomal amphotericin B, reaching a cumulative dose of 19,180 mg over 46 months...
June 27, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656553/molecular-identification-of-cutaneous-alternariosis-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#13
REVIEW
W Schuermans, K Hoet, L Stessens, J Meeuwissen, A Vandepitte, A Van Mieghem, K Vandebroek, E Oris, G Coppens
Cutaneous alternariosis is a rare condition, caused by an uncommon opportunistic pathogen. The most frequently affected individuals are immunosuppressed patients, e.g., organ transplant patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Clinical manifestations range from local skin lesions to disseminated disease. We present a case report of cutaneous alternariosis in a renal transplant recipient, confirmed by histological examination and molecular means. In addition, a review of the literature was performed.
June 27, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653258/azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-matter-of-concern
#14
A Hamprecht, F Morio, O Bader, P Le Pape, J Steinmann, E Dannaoui
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent filamentous fungus isolated from respiratory specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Triazoles are the most widely used antifungals in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and invasive aspergillosis (IA) in CF patients. Treatment success could be severely compromised by the occurrence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus (ARAf), which is increasingly reported worldwide from both clinical samples and the environment. In previous studies, ARAf has been detected in up to 8% of CF patients...
June 26, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647921/proteome-profile-of-aspergillus-terreus-conidia-at-germinating-stage-identification-of-probable-virulent-factors-and-enzymes-from-mycotoxin-pathways
#15
Raman Thakur, Jata Shankar
Aspergillus terreus is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. The main risk group of individuals for this organism is leukopenic patients, individuals having cancers, bone marrow transplant persons and those who have immunological disorders. The lack of early diagnostic marker for A. terreus and intrinsic resistance to Amphotericin B, further limits the successful therapy of A. terreus-associated infections. The germination of inhaled conidia is the key step to establish successful invasion in host tissues or organs...
June 24, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646277/standardization-and-prevalence-of-the-booster-phenomenon-evaluation-using-a-two-step-skin-test-with-43%C3%A2-kda-glycoprotein-in-individuals-from-an-endemic-region-of-paracoccidioidomycosis
#16
Ana Paula C Marques, Sandra Maria V L Oliveira, Grazielli R Rezende, Dayane A Melo, Sonia M Fernandes-Fitts, Elenir Rose J C Pontes, Maria da Glória Bonecini-Almeida, Zoilo P Camargo, Rinaldo P Mendes, Anamaria M M Paniago
BACKGROUND: We estimated the occurrence rate of the booster phenomenon by using an intradermal test with 43 kDa glycoprotein in an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis in the central-west region of Brazil. METHODS: Individuals who had a negative result on a survey performed by using an intradermal test with 43 kDa glycoprotein in an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis underwent a second intradermal test after 10-15 days to determine the presence or absence of the booster phenomenon...
June 23, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646276/rhizopus-arrhizus-invasive-infection-due-to-self-inflicted-scratch-injuries-in-a-diabetic-patient-with-non-ketotic-acidosis
#17
Luis Buzón Martín, Miguel Ángel Morán Rodríguez, Nicole Mercier, Maria Ortega Lafont, Eva Ojeda Fernández, Ana Ruiz de la Parte, Miguel Estefanía
Mucormycosis is a rare infection caused by members included in the subphylum Mucoromycotina. Characterized by the histopathological hallmark of angioinvasion, these infections affect most often patients with certain underlying conditions carrying immunosuppression (haematological neoplasias, diabetic ketoacidosis and other forms of acidosis, and iron overload) or immunocompetent patients with traumatic mucocutaneous barriers breakdown and direct inoculation of the mould. A case is presented in which a rare underlying condition (non-ketotic acidosis) and a rare cause of cutaneous injuries collide...
June 23, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639066/enzymatic-mechanisms-involved-in-evasion-of-fungi-to-the-oxidative-stress-focus-on-scedosporium-apiospermum
#18
C Staerck, P Vandeputte, A Gastebois, A Calenda, S Giraud, N Papon, J P Bouchara, M J J Fleury
The airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are frequently colonized by various filamentous fungi, mainly Aspergillus fumigatus and Scedosporium species. To establish within the respiratory tract and cause an infection, these opportunistic fungi express pathogenic factors allowing adherence to the host tissues, uptake of extracellular iron, or evasion to the host immune response. During the colonization process, inhaled conidia and the subsequent hyphae are exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) released by phagocytic cells, which cause in the fungal cells an oxidative stress and a nitrosative stress, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639065/nosocomial-rhinocerebral-mucormycosis-two-cases-with-a-temporal-relationship
#19
Justo Sánchez-Gil, Emilio Guirao-Arrabal, Ginés David Parra-García, María Del Pilar Luzón-García, Maria Fe Bautista-Marín, Matías Barayobre-Barayobre, Andrés Fontalba-Navas
Mucormycosis is an unusual fungal infection that usually affects immunosuppressed patients. Small outbreaks of mucormycosis have been previously reported. We present two clinical cases of fatal rhinocerebral mucormycosis with a close temporal relationship between them and a possible nosocomial transmission: case 1 was a 75-year-old male with diabetes and COPD, treated with antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids, who developed rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Case 2 was an 88-year-old woman who was treated with systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids and developed the same infection after insertion of a nasogastric tube...
June 21, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623532/rhizopus-homothallicus-causing-invasive-infections-series-of-three-cases-from-a-single-centre-in-north-india
#20
Prathyusha Kokkayil, Mragnayani Pandey, Reshu Agarwal, Pratibha Kale, Gagandeep Singh, Immaculata Xess
Mucormycoses are opportunistic fungal infections with a high mortality rate. Rhizopus oryzae is the most common agent implicated in human infections. Although R. homothallicus has been previously reported to be a cause of pulmonary mucormycosis, it is the first time that we are reporting as a causative agent of rhino-orbital and cutaneous mucormycosis.
June 16, 2017: Mycopathologia
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