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Zimeng You, Xiaoxiao Yang, Jianbin Yu, Jiangan Zhang, Yuping Ran
Chromoblastomycosis is found worldwide with higher incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. Fonsecaea spp. is one of the major causative agents of this disease. First case of chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea nubica in Northern China is reported in a 75-year-old Chinese male. We firstly summarized molecular identification methods of Fonsecaea spp. and all the strains of F. nubica reported in the literature. Sequencing of internal transcribed spacer alone and/or combined with actin (ACT1), partial cell division cycle (CDC42) and partial beta-tubulin (BT2) were most commonly used to identify species, while lactase (Lac), homogentisate (HmgA) and polyketide synthase (PKS1) were also used in some cases...
December 13, 2018: Mycopathologia
Shih-Jyun Yang, Chau-Yee Ng, Ting-Shu Wu, Po-Yen Huang, Yen-Mu Wu, Pei-Lun Sun
Phaeohyphomycosis is a term used to describe a heterogenous group of cutaneous and systemic mycotic infections caused by melanized fungi. Many fungi have been reported as pathogens of this disease. The disease spectrum ranges from superficial cutaneous infections, deep cutaneous infections, to systemic infections with internal organ involvement. We report two cases of deep cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis on the foot clinically presenting as cellulitis with abscess formation. The pathogens were isolated from the lesion and both were identified as Neoscytalidium dimidiatum by their colony morphology, microscopic features, and sequences of internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA...
December 5, 2018: Mycopathologia
Vishnu Chaturvedi, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Ferry Hagen, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Hamid Badali, Anamelia Lorenzetti Bocca, Jose F Cano-Lira, Cunwei Cao, Sudha Chaturvedi, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Anne D van Diepeningen, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Jesus Guinea, Sybren de Hoog, Macit Ilkit, Rui Kano, Weida Liu, Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Marcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Mario Augusto Ono, Yuping Ran, Stephane Ranque, Celia Maria de Almeida Soares, Takashi Sugita, Philip A Thomas, Anna Vecchiarelli, Nancy L Wengenack, Patrick C Y Woo, Jianping Xu, Rosely M Zancope-Oliveira
Mycopathologia was founded in 1938 to 'diffuse the understanding of fungal diseases in man and animals among mycologists.' This was an important mission considering that pathogenic fungi for humans and animals represent a tiny minority of the estimated 1.5-5 million fungal inhabitants on Earth. These pathogens have diverged from the usual saprotrophic lifestyles of most fungi to colonize and infect humans and animals. Medical and veterinary mycology is the subdiscipline of microbiology that dwells into the mysteries of parasitic, fungal lifestyles...
November 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Alessandro Henrique Damasceno-Escoura, Matheus Lucas de Souza, Felipe de Oliveira Nunes, Thiago César Pardi, Fernanda Castro Gazotto, Danilo Heitor Florentino, Delio José Mora, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcosis by Cryptococcus gattii occurs mainly in immunocompetent hosts, however, during the last decades, a growing number of cases in immunocompromised individuals have been noticed around the world. This report presents epidemiological, clinical and outcome aspects of patients with cryptococcosis caused by this species from a non-endemic area in Brazil. Of 278 Cryptococcus spp. clinical isolates recovered during the same period, 267 (96%) were molecularly identified as Cryptococcus neoformans VNI genotype and 11 (4%) as C...
November 10, 2018: Mycopathologia
Richa Anjleen Tigga, Shukla Das, S N Bhattacharya, Rumpa Saha, Deepika Pandhi, Shyama Datt, Gargi Rai
Dermatophytosis is caused by keratinophilic dermatophytes and affects the superficial skin and its appendages. The nature of infection and response to treatment is influenced by host-pathogen factors like duration and severity of disease, prior drug history and type of causative organism. In our study, the burden of dermatophytosis affecting glabrous skin saw a rise in recalcitrant and reinfection cases with only 1.6% achieving complete cure. Chronicity of dermatophytic infection was reflected in the high serum IgE levels and immediate hypersensitivity reactions...
November 1, 2018: Mycopathologia
Jaroslava Dekkerová-Chupáčová, Elisa Borghi, Giulia Morace, Helena Bujdáková
Galleria mellonella has been described as a cheap and an easy-to-reproduce model for the study of fungal infections. We hypothesized that yeasts with higher virulence potential decrease survival and significantly trigger an immune response in G. mellonella through the regulation of innate immunity-related genes encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as gallerimycin and galiomicin. Candida albicans SC5314 and Candida dubliniensis CBS 7987, selected because of their different virulence potential, were used for a killing assay followed by the determination of gene expression using qPCR...
November 1, 2018: Mycopathologia
Zoltán Tóth, Tamás Kardos, Renátó Kovács, Gábor Kardos, Fruzsina Nagy, Eszter Prépost, Zsolt Barta, István Takacs, László Majoros
Currently echinocandins are recommended in Candida peritonitis and pleuritis. We determined micafungin killing rates (k values) at therapeutic concentrations (0.25-2 mg/L) in RPMI-1640 with and without 10 and 30% serum mimicking in vivo conditions against six Candida species isolated from peritoneal and pleural fluid. In RPMI-1640, micafungin was fungicidal against C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. kefyr within 2.27 ± 10.68, 2.69 ± 10.29 and 3.10 ± 4.41 h, respectively, while was fungistatic against C...
October 31, 2018: Mycopathologia
Kyle T Gabriel, Leila Kartforosh, Sidney A Crow, Christopher T Cornelison
Fungal pathogens are a growing worldwide concern. Declines in a number of economically and agriculturally important plant and animal species pose a significant threat to both biodiversity and food security. Although many effective antifungal agents have been identified, their toxicity often precludes their use with food products or sensitive animal species. This has prompted the exploration of natural products as effective treatment compounds. In the present study, several essential oils were tested for their capacity to limit the growth of the fungal pathogens Ascosphaera apis and Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agents of chalkbrood disease among honey bee larvae and white-nose syndrome among bats, respectively...
October 10, 2018: Mycopathologia
Shigehiro Hagiwara, Takashi Tamura, Kazuo Satoh, Hitoshi Kamewada, Masayasu Nakano, Seiichi Shinden, Hideyo Yamaguchi, Koichi Makimura
Aspergillus species are the most common pathogenic fungi involved in otomycosis, an infection of the outer ear canal. In this study, we examined the incidence of Aspergillus infections and the antifungal susceptibilities of 30 Aspergillus species isolates from patients with otomycosis who visited Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital between August 2013 and July 2016. Based on the morphological test results, the strains were identified as Aspergillus niger sensu lato (20 strains), A. terreus sensu lato (7 strains), and A...
October 5, 2018: Mycopathologia
Godai Shumoto, Keiichi Ueda, Sayaka Yamaguchi, Takashi Kaneshima, Toshihiro Konno, Yoshie Terashima, Atsushi Yamamoto, Luciene A Nagashima, Eiko N Itano, Ayako Sano
Paracoccidioidomycosis ceti is a cutaneous disease of cetaceans caused by uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis or Paracoccidioides spp. Serological cross-reactions between paracoccidioidomycosis ceti and paracoccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis and coccidioidomycosis have been reported before. The present study aimed to detect immunohistochemical cross-reaction between antibodies to Paracoccidioides sp. and Histoplasma capsulatum, and vice versa. Thirty murine sera, obtained from experimental infections of 6 isolates of H...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Fang Wang, Peiying Feng, Yimin Lin, Xiaohong Chen, Dandan Xu, Zhuo Wang, Jiande Han
We present a case of cutaneous protothecosis caused by Prototheca wickerhamii infection. The patient was a 72-year-old man with hypoalbuminemia. He responded well to fluconazole treatment. We reviewed this case along with 17 other cases of cutaneous protothecosis reported from mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Of the 18 cases, 7 each occurred in mainland China and Taiwan, and 4 occurred in Hong Kong. Thirteen cases were caused by P. wickerhamii (72.2%), and three were caused by P. zopfii (16.7%); in two cases, the species was not identified (11...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Irene Álvarez-Mosquera, Silvia Hernáez, Juan Sánchez, Maria Dolores Suárez, Ramón Cisterna
Superficial mycoses are the most frequently diagnosed affections of the stratum corneum of the skin, nails and hair. It is generally caused by the presence of yeasts and dermatophytes. Onychomycosis is the most common infection with an incidence of 80-90% in Europe generally produced by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of this study is to compare the traditional diagnostic techniques of superficial mycoses with a homemade and wide-spectrum fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique that amplifies a specific region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) directly from samples of scales, nails and hair...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Alena Gabrielová, Karel Mencl, Martin Suchánek, Radim Klimeš, Vít Hubka, Miroslav Kolařík
Pythium oligandrum (Oomycota) is known for its strong mycoparasitism against more than 50 fungal and oomycete species. However, the ability of this oomycete to suppress and kill the causal agents of dermatophytoses is yet to be studied. We provide a complex study of the interactions between P. oligandrum and dermatophytes representing all species dominating in the developed countries. We assessed its biocidal potential by performing growth tests, on both solid and liquid cultivation media and by conducting a pilot clinical study...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Hong Yang, Qing Cai, Zhiqin Gao, Guixia Lv, Yongnian Shen, Weida Liu, Lianjuan Yang
We report a case of subcutaneous infection caused by Exophiala oligosperma. Erythematous ulcerated plaque with exudate was major clinical features. Histopathological examination showed yeast-like cells and fungal hyphae. Mycological and molecular identification revealed E. oligosperma as etiologic agent. Local debridement and oral itraconazole were effective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. oligosperma in mainland China. This report highlights the potential role of E...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Clenivaldo Alves Caixeta, Marina Lara de Carli, Noé Vital Ribeiro Júnior, Felipe Fornias Sperandio, Suely Nonogaki, Denismar Alves Nogueira, Alessandro Antônio Costa Pereira, João Adolfo Costa Hanemann
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a neglected tropical fungal infection with great predilection for adult men, indicating the participation of female hormone estrogen in preventing paracoccidioidomycosis development in women. Estrogen has an immunologic effect leading to polarization toward the Th2 immune response, which favors the disease evolution. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate estrogen and progesterone receptors in oral paracoccidioidomycosis lesions and to verify any association with tissue fungi counting in women and men...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Larissa de Oliveira Souza Beltrão, Mayara Pangracio, Cacilda da Silva Souza
We discuss the sarcoid-like clinical presentation, a rare type of infiltrative paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) that is almost exclusively cutaneous, involves the face and histologically has a tuberculoid granulomatous pattern with few fungi. It is often misdiagnosed. In endemic regions of Brazil, PCM is more common among men from rural areas, while women of a reproductive age appear to be protected. We report the sarcoid-like PCM in a female urban dweller and highlight the main findings of a literature review.
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Özge Güngör, Benedita Sampaio-Maia, Antonio Amorim, Ricardo Araujo, Zayre Erturan
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is the species section Fumigati most frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Recent studies suggest that mutations in the Cyp51 gene, particularly TR34 /L98H, are responsible for azole resistance. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The focus of this study was on section Fumigati isolates isolated from the respiratory tract samples of CF patients. More specifically, the goal was to detect A. fumigatus isolates, test their antifungal susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, and finally determine the presence of TR34 /L98H and other mutations in the isolates Cyp51A gene...
September 6, 2018: Mycopathologia
Yusuke Tanaka, Takahito Toyotome, Hisashi Inokuma, Ken-Ichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Noriyuki Horiuchi
Here, we report a case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis due to a Lichtheimia ramosa infection in a calf. A histopathological examination revealed that a fungus had invaded the brain through the olfactory nerves. Lichtheimia ramosa was detected by polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of the affected tissue. This is the first case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis to involve cattle. Also, this is the first such case to involve fungal invasion into the central nervous system through the cranial nerve itself, rather than through perineural tissue...
August 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Salma Alajmi, Rafik Mahmoud Koratum, Ziauddin Khan, Suhail Ahmad, Ahlam Jeragh, Hany Ibrahim, Leena Joseph, Soumya Varghese
A case of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) caused by Exserohilum rostratum, proven by culture and histopathology of the biopsy material, is described. The identity of the isolate was confirmed by sequencing of ITS region of rDNA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic E. rostratum sinusitis from Kuwait and Arabian Peninsula. Ten previously described cases of AFS have been reviewed. The report highlights the emerging importance of E. rostratum as a human pathogen in this region and role of molecular methods in its accurate identification...
August 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Floredana-Laura Şular, Edit Szekely, Violeta Corina Cristea, Minodora Dobreanu
The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of candidemia, the trend of species distribution and the antifungal susceptibility patterns of all invasive strains of Candida spp. isolated over a 6-year period in an Eastern European University hospital. A total number of 156 isolates were reidentified by MALDI-TOF and tested for susceptibility by SensititreTM YeastOne™. Isolates were assigned as non-susceptible or belonging to the wild type according to the new CLSI (2017, 2018) break points and epidemiological cut-off values...
August 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
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