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Kyle T Gabriel, Leila Kartforosh, Sidney A Crow, Christopher T Cornelison
Fungal pathogens are a growing worldwide concern. Declines in a number of economically and agriculturally important plant and animal species pose a significant threat to both biodiversity and food security. Although many effective antifungal agents have been identified, their toxicity often precludes their use with food products or sensitive animal species. This has prompted the exploration of natural products as effective treatment compounds. In the present study, several essential oils were tested for their capacity to limit the growth of the fungal pathogens Ascosphaera apis and Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agents of chalkbrood disease among honey bee larvae and white-nose syndrome among bats, respectively...
October 10, 2018: Mycopathologia
Shigehiro Hagiwara, Takashi Tamura, Kazuo Satoh, Hitoshi Kamewada, Masayasu Nakano, Seiichi Shinden, Hideyo Yamaguchi, Koichi Makimura
Aspergillus species are the most common pathogenic fungi involved in otomycosis, an infection of the outer ear canal. In this study, we examined the incidence of Aspergillus infections and the antifungal susceptibilities of 30 Aspergillus species isolates from patients with otomycosis who visited Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital between August 2013 and July 2016. Based on the morphological test results, the strains were identified as Aspergillus niger sensu lato (20 strains), A. terreus sensu lato (7 strains), and A...
October 5, 2018: Mycopathologia
Özge Güngör, Benedita Sampaio-Maia, Antonio Amorim, Ricardo Araujo, Zayre Erturan
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is the species section Fumigati most frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Recent studies suggest that mutations in the Cyp51 gene, particularly TR34 /L98H, are responsible for azole resistance. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The focus of this study was on section Fumigati isolates isolated from the respiratory tract samples of CF patients. More specifically, the goal was to detect A. fumigatus isolates, test their antifungal susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, and finally determine the presence of TR34 /L98H and other mutations in the isolates Cyp51A gene...
September 6, 2018: Mycopathologia
Yusuke Tanaka, Takahito Toyotome, Hisashi Inokuma, Ken-Ichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi, Noriyuki Horiuchi
Here, we report a case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis due to a Lichtheimia ramosa infection in a calf. A histopathological examination revealed that a fungus had invaded the brain through the olfactory nerves. Lichtheimia ramosa was detected by polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of the affected tissue. This is the first case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis to involve cattle. Also, this is the first such case to involve fungal invasion into the central nervous system through the cranial nerve itself, rather than through perineural tissue...
August 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Salma Alajmi, Rafik Mahmoud Koratum, Ziauddin Khan, Suhail Ahmad, Ahlam Jeragh, Hany Ibrahim, Leena Joseph, Soumya Varghese
A case of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) caused by Exserohilum rostratum, proven by culture and histopathology of the biopsy material, is described. The identity of the isolate was confirmed by sequencing of ITS region of rDNA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic E. rostratum sinusitis from Kuwait and Arabian Peninsula. Ten previously described cases of AFS have been reviewed. The report highlights the emerging importance of E. rostratum as a human pathogen in this region and role of molecular methods in its accurate identification...
August 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Floredana-Laura Şular, Edit Szekely, Violeta Corina Cristea, Minodora Dobreanu
The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of candidemia, the trend of species distribution and the antifungal susceptibility patterns of all invasive strains of Candida spp. isolated over a 6-year period in an Eastern European University hospital. A total number of 156 isolates were reidentified by MALDI-TOF and tested for susceptibility by SensititreTM YeastOne™. Isolates were assigned as non-susceptible or belonging to the wild type according to the new CLSI (2017, 2018) break points and epidemiological cut-off values...
August 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Shreya Singh, Harsimran Kaur, Meenu Singh, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Aspergillus terreus may colonize the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Whether this merits antifungal treatment is still unclear due to heterogeneous reports regarding its pathogenic potential. Although allergic manifestations are documented, invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by A. terreus has not been described. We present here one case of probable IA caused by A. terreus, highlighting its role as an emerging agent of IA in CF patients. Voriconazole was effective, and the patient was healthy after 12 weeks of treatment...
August 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Chiara Oltolini, Marco Ripa, Andrea Andolina, Elena Brioschi, Marta Cilla, Giovanna Petrella, Vanesa Gregorc, Barbara Castiglioni, Chiara Tassan Din, Paolo Scarpellini
The widespread use of T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death (PD)-1 and PD ligand-1 (PDL1)-targeted agents in cancer patients as immunotherapy has raised some issues on their safety profile. Regarding infectious complications, it has emerged that these compounds do not intrinsically increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections, which mainly correlate with the co-administration of systemic immunosuppressive therapy (high-dose corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factors inhibitors) to cure immune-related adverse events (colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis and pancreatitis), well-known complications of these targeted drugs...
August 13, 2018: Mycopathologia
Ioannis D Gkegkes, Ioannis Kotrogiannis, Filitsa Konstantara, Athina Karetsou, Sofia Tsiplakou, Eleftherios Fotiou, Sotiria Stamopoulou, Christos Papazacharias, Ioannis A Paraskevopoulos
BACKGROUND: Saksenaea vasiformis is one of the numerous fungi of the Order Mucorales. Rapid progression and invasion of neighboring tissues are the most characteristic features of S. vasiformis mucormycosis. AIM: The objective of this review is the management of this type of infections. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 62-year old woman, without a history of immunocompromisation, developed a localized cutaneous infection at her right thigh...
July 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Mansi Shah, Jeremy Nel, Abdulrahman Almansouri, David Van Duin, David A Gerber
Hepatic mucormycosis is a disease caused by a ubiquitous fungus which is especially important in patients with hematologic malignancies. We present a case of an adult patient with acute myeloid leukemia who developed the infection after undergoing chemotherapy. His successful management was an integrated approach of a minimally invasive surgical resection with anti-fungal therapy. We describe the management of this patient and a review of the literature.
July 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
Yoo Ra Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Eun Ju Lee, Jang Wook Sohn, Min Ja Kim, Young Kyung Yoon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of echinocandins in the treatment of Candida prosthetic joint infection (PJI) based on published literature and on patients we examined. A structured literature review of multiple databases was conducted to identify patients who received echinocandins for Candida PJIs. Additionally, we describe here the first cases of PJIs due to C. parapsilosis, successfully treated with prolonged anidulafungin therapy. Out of 17 patients, 12 were female and the mean age at diagnosis was 66...
July 26, 2018: Mycopathologia
Anna Pomorska, Anna Malecka, Radoslaw Jaworski, Julia Radon-Proskura, Rasmus Krøger Hare, Henrik Vedel Nielsen, Lee O'Brian Andersen, Henrik Elvang Jensen, Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Ninela Irga-Jaworska
Invasive mucormycosis in immunocompromised children is a life-threatening fungal infection. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis during induction therapy. Microscopic examination of surgically removed lung tissue revealed wide, pauci-septate hyphae suggesting a Mucorales infection. This diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically and by PCR analysis followed by a final identification of Cunninghamella sp. The patient was treated successfully with surgical debridement and antifungal combination therapy with amphotericin B, caspofungin and isavuconazole...
July 23, 2018: Mycopathologia
Godai Shumoto, Keiichi Ueda, Sayaka Yamaguchi, Takashi Kaneshima, Toshihiro Konno, Yoshie Terashima, Atsushi Yamamoto, Luciene A Nagashima, Eiko N Itano, Ayako Sano
Paracoccidioidomycosis ceti is a cutaneous disease of cetaceans caused by uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis or Paracoccidioides spp. Serological cross-reactions between paracoccidioidomycosis ceti and paracoccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis and coccidioidomycosis have been reported before. The present study aimed to detect immunohistochemical cross-reaction between antibodies to Paracoccidioides sp. and Histoplasma capsulatum, and vice versa. Thirty murine sera, obtained from experimental infections of 6 isolates of H...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Fang Wang, Peiying Feng, Yimin Lin, Xiaohong Chen, Dandan Xu, Zhuo Wang, Jiande Han
We present a case of cutaneous protothecosis caused by Prototheca wickerhamii infection. The patient was a 72-year-old man with hypoalbuminemia. He responded well to fluconazole treatment. We reviewed this case along with 17 other cases of cutaneous protothecosis reported from mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Of the 18 cases, 7 each occurred in mainland China and Taiwan, and 4 occurred in Hong Kong. Thirteen cases were caused by P. wickerhamii (72.2%), and three were caused by P. zopfii (16.7%); in two cases, the species was not identified (11...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Irene Álvarez-Mosquera, Silvia Hernáez, Juan Sánchez, Maria Dolores Suárez, Ramón Cisterna
Superficial mycoses are the most frequently diagnosed affections of the stratum corneum of the skin, nails and hair. It is generally caused by the presence of yeasts and dermatophytes. Onychomycosis is the most common infection with an incidence of 80-90% in Europe generally produced by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of this study is to compare the traditional diagnostic techniques of superficial mycoses with a homemade and wide-spectrum fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique that amplifies a specific region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) directly from samples of scales, nails and hair...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Alena Gabrielová, Karel Mencl, Martin Suchánek, Radim Klimeš, Vít Hubka, Miroslav Kolařík
Pythium oligandrum (Oomycota) is known for its strong mycoparasitism against more than 50 fungal and oomycete species. However, the ability of this oomycete to suppress and kill the causal agents of dermatophytoses is yet to be studied. We provide a complex study of the interactions between P. oligandrum and dermatophytes representing all species dominating in the developed countries. We assessed its biocidal potential by performing growth tests, on both solid and liquid cultivation media and by conducting a pilot clinical study...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Hong Yang, Qing Cai, Zhiqin Gao, Guixia Lv, Yongnian Shen, Weida Liu, Lianjuan Yang
We report a case of subcutaneous infection caused by Exophiala oligosperma. Erythematous ulcerated plaque with exudate was major clinical features. Histopathological examination showed yeast-like cells and fungal hyphae. Mycological and molecular identification revealed E. oligosperma as etiologic agent. Local debridement and oral itraconazole were effective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. oligosperma in mainland China. This report highlights the potential role of E...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Clenivaldo Alves Caixeta, Marina Lara de Carli, Noé Vital Ribeiro Júnior, Felipe Fornias Sperandio, Suely Nonogaki, Denismar Alves Nogueira, Alessandro Antônio Costa Pereira, João Adolfo Costa Hanemann
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a neglected tropical fungal infection with great predilection for adult men, indicating the participation of female hormone estrogen in preventing paracoccidioidomycosis development in women. Estrogen has an immunologic effect leading to polarization toward the Th2 immune response, which favors the disease evolution. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate estrogen and progesterone receptors in oral paracoccidioidomycosis lesions and to verify any association with tissue fungi counting in women and men...
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Larissa de Oliveira Souza Beltrão, Mayara Pangracio, Cacilda da Silva Souza
We discuss the sarcoid-like clinical presentation, a rare type of infiltrative paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) that is almost exclusively cutaneous, involves the face and histologically has a tuberculoid granulomatous pattern with few fungi. It is often misdiagnosed. In endemic regions of Brazil, PCM is more common among men from rural areas, while women of a reproductive age appear to be protected. We report the sarcoid-like PCM in a female urban dweller and highlight the main findings of a literature review.
October 2018: Mycopathologia
Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Sung-Yeon Cho, Dong-Gun Lee, Chulmin Park, Hye-Sun Chun, Yeon-Joon Park
Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem, especially in immunocompromised patients. It has been reported worldwide, including in Asia, but has not yet been reported in Korea. Here, we report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) caused by azole-resistant A. fumigatus that developed in a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient during posaconazole prophylaxis for immunosuppressive therapy of graft-versus-host diseases. We identified TR34/L98H/S297T/F495L mutation in the CYP51A gene of A...
August 2018: Mycopathologia
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