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Selwyn Arlington Headley, Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano, Giovana Wingeter Di Santis, Lucas Alécio Gomes, Rafaela Macagnan, Daniela Farias da Nóbrega, Katherine Moura Leite, Brígida Kussumoto de Alcântara, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Mario Augusto Ono
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease of humans from Latin America that is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, with most cases of PCM in domestic animals being associated with P. brasiliensis. This study presents the clinical, cytological, mycological, serological, and molecular findings associated with P. brasiliensis in a dog from Southern Brazil. Fine needle biopsies were collected from the skin and several lymph nodes of a 5-year-old female Labrador dog that had enlargement of most superficial lymph nodes...
October 18, 2016: Mycopathologia
Atefeh Abdollahi Gohar, Hamid Badali, Tahereh Shokohi, Mojtaba Nabili, Nasrin Amirrajab, Maryam Moazeni
Clinical management of fungal diseases is compromised by the emergence of antifungal drug resistance in fungi, which leads to elimination of available drug classes as treatment options. An understanding of antifungal resistance at molecular level is, therefore, essential for the development of strategies to combat the resistance. This study presents the assessment of molecular mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in clinical Candida glabrata isolates originated from Iran. Taking seven distinct fluconazole-resistant C...
October 15, 2016: Mycopathologia
Fabio Seiti Yamada Yoshikawa, Lucas Gonçalves Ferreira, Fernando Gonçalves de Almeida, Sandro Rogerio de Almeida
Diversity in the macrophage models currently employed in immunology studies may lead to opposed results and interpretations. In this study, we aimed to analyze the suitability of J774 macrophage-like cells as a model for the interaction between the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and macrophages. J774 cells were competent in fungal phagocytosis, but succumbed to hyphal growth. Nevertheless, they could also secrete IL-1β in response to the dermatophyte. On the opposite direction, inflammatory, thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages did not succumb to fungal growth and showed no significant IL-1β production...
October 14, 2016: Mycopathologia
Coralie L'Ollivier, Stéphane Ranque
MALDI-TOF MS has become increasingly popular for microorganism identification in the routine laboratory. Compared with conventional morphology-based techniques, MALDI-TOF is relatively inexpensive (per-unit identification), involves a rapid result turnaround time and yields more accurate results without the need for highly qualified staff. However, this technology has been technically difficult to implement for filamentous fungi identification. Identification of dermatophytes, a type of filamentous fungi, remains particularly challenging, partly due to the lack of clear species definition for some taxa or within some species complexes...
October 12, 2016: Mycopathologia
Ludivine Cambier, Marie-Pierre Heinen, Bernard Mignon
Dermatophytoses are common superficial fungal infections affecting both humans and animals. They are provoked by filamentous fungi called dermatophytes specialized in the degradation of keratinized structures, which allows them to induce skin, hair and nail infections. Despite their high incidence, little investigation has been performed for the understanding of these infections compared to fungal opportunistic infections and most of the studies were based on in vitro experiments. The development of animal models for dermatophyte research is required to evaluate new treatments against dermatophytoses or to increase knowledge about fungal pathogenicity factors or host immune response mechanisms...
October 11, 2016: Mycopathologia
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Thiago Henrique Roza
The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a deregulated inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. It is manifested when there is an abrupt change in host immunity from an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state to a pro-inflammatory state as a result of rapid depletion or removal of factors that promote immune suppression or inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to discuss and re-interpret the possibility of association of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) with IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS) in a case from Brazil published by Silva-Vergara ML...
October 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
Marc Pihet, Yohann Le Govic
Dermatophytoses include a wide variety of diseases involving glabrous skin, nails and hair. These superficial infections are a common cause of consultation in dermatology. In many cases, their diagnosis is not clinically obvious, and mycological analysis therefore is required. Direct microscopic examination of the samples using clearing agents provides a quick response to the clinician and is usually combined with cultures on specific media, which must be used to overcome the growth of contaminating moulds that may hamper the recovery of dermatophytes...
October 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
Banu Metin, Joseph Heitman
Sexual reproduction is a rich source of genetic variation and commonly observed among fungi. Basically two different modes of sexual reproduction are observed in fungi, namely heterothallism where two compatible mating types are required to undergo mating and homothallism in which the organism is self-fertile. The genomic region governing the process of sexual reproduction and sex determination is called the mating type (MAT) locus. In filamentous ascomycetes including dermatophytes, the MAT locus harbors two different transcription factor genes in two different mating types...
September 30, 2016: Mycopathologia
Soraya Eugenia Morales-López, Constanza G Taverna, María Eugenia Bosco-Borgeat, Ivana Maldonado, Walter Vivot, Wanda Szusz, Guillermo Garcia-Effron, Susana B Córdoba
The presence of the cryptic species belonging to the Candida glabrata complex has not been studied in Argentina. We analyzed a collection of 117 clinical isolates of C. glabrata complex belonging to a National Culture Collection of Instituto Nacional de Microbiología "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" from Argentina (40 isolates from blood samples, 18 from other normally sterile sites, 20 from vagina, 14 from urine, 7 from oral cavity, 3 from catheter, 1 from a stool sample and 14 isolates whose clinical origin was not recorded)...
September 28, 2016: Mycopathologia
Fang Zheng, Hui Zha, Dandan Yang, Jun Deng, Zhiquan Zhang
The relationship among (1,3)-β-D-glucans (BG), galactomannan (GM), and the risk of developing invasive fungal infections (IFI) has been observed in adult ICU and in children with hematological malignancies. Only scant data evaluated the value of BG/GM assays for diagnosis of IFI in patients with nonhematological diseases in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). In this study, we assessed the diagnostic value of these markers for IFI in PICU. The records of 230 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Out of 117 patients (7 proven, 23 probable, and 87 cases without evidence of IFI) performed GM and BG assays...
September 23, 2016: Mycopathologia
Fábio Seiti Yamada Yoshikawa, Sandro Rogério De Almeida
Innate immunity is the host first line of defense against pathogens. However, only in recent years, we are beginning to better understand the ways it operates. A key player is this branch of the immune response that are the phagocytes, as macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils. These cells act as sentinels, employing specialized receptors in the sensing of invaders and host injury, and readily responding to them by production of inflammatory mediators. They afford protection not only by ingesting and destroying pathogens, but also by providing a suitable biochemical environment that shapes the adaptive response...
September 22, 2016: Mycopathologia
Yongxuan Hu, Yanqing Hu, Yan Lu, Shiyun Huang, Kangxing Liu, Xue Han, Zuhao Mao, Zhong Wu, Xianyi Zhou
Candida albicans is the most common pathogen that causes balanoposthitis. It often causes recurrence of symptoms probably due to its antifungal resistance. A significant number of balanitis Candida albicans isolates are resistant to azole and terbinafine antifungal agents in vitro. However, balanoposthitis caused by fluconazole- and terbinafine-resistant Candida albicans has rarely been reported. Here, we describe a case of a recurrent penile infection caused by fluconazole- and terbinafine-resistant Candida albicans, as well as the treatments administered to this patient...
September 22, 2016: Mycopathologia
C J Secombe, G D Lester, M B Krockenberger
Cryptococcus is the most common fungal respiratory pathogen in Australian horses, manifesting primarily as pulmonary granulomas. Disease severity at presentation is dependent on the athletic use of the horse. The diagnosis and estimation of disease severity are centred around clinical findings, cytological evaluation of respiratory tract secretions, diagnostic imaging, and antigen titre testing. Both the lateral flow assay and the latex cryptococcal antigen titre are used, and important similarities and differences between species are discussed...
September 21, 2016: Mycopathologia
Maria Rosaria Iovene, Francesca Bombace, Roberta Maresca, Anna Sapone, Patrizia Iardino, Annarita Picardi, Rosa Marotta, Chiara Schiraldi, Dario Siniscalco, Nicola Serra, Laura de Magistris, Carmela Bravaccio
High frequency of gastrointestinal yeast presence in ASD subjects was shown through a simple cultural approach (Candida spp. in 57.5 % of ASDs and no controls); the identification of aggressive form (pseudo-hyphae presenting) of Candida spp. at light microscope means that adhesion to intestinal mucosa is facilitated. Dysbiosis appears sustained by lowered Lactobacillus spp. and decreased number of Clostridium spp. Absence of C. difficilis and its toxins in both ASDs and controls is also shown. Low-mild gut inflammation and augmented intestinal permeability were demonstrated together with the presence of GI symptoms...
September 21, 2016: Mycopathologia
Hyun Jung Gu, Young Jin Kim, Hee Joo Lee, Sung Hwa Dong, Sung Wan Kim, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki
Human Lasiodiplodia theobromae infection has not been reported frequently. We report the first case of invasive L. theobromae nasal and neck infection. A 66-year-old male visited our hospital with anemia and general weakness. He showed pancytopenia, and his bone marrow examination revealed markedly decreased hematopoietic cells. The patient was presumed to have iatrogenic aplastic anemia due to mushroom toxicity. He began treatment for multiple organ infections with broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents...
September 20, 2016: Mycopathologia
Marie-Pierre Hayette, Rosalie Sacheli
Dermatophytes are causing superficial mycosis in animals and humans. Depending on the geophilic, zoophilic or anthropophilic origin of the fungus but also on the immunological status of the patient, symptomatology can widely differ. Nevertheless, each species is currently associated with typical clinical manifestations, even if atypical localizations and/or clinical pictures are sometimes also reported. Diagnostic tools applied to species identification have been changing since the last two decades with the more frequent use of molecular methods currently considered nowadays as reference methods for species identification...
September 17, 2016: Mycopathologia
Jagdish Chander, Nidhi Singla, Reetu Kundu, Uma Handa, Anuradha Chowdhary
Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by a heterogeneous group of mycelial dematiaceous (phaeoid) fungi, which produce melanin pigment. This condition is often confused with chromoblastomycosis. Rhytidhysteron is a dematiaceous fungus, which has been recently found to be causing human infections. Till date only three cases of infection with Rhytidhysteron rufulum have been reported in the literature. All three cases have been from North India. Hereby, we present another two cases where Rhytidhysteron was isolated. Both the patients belonged to Chandigarh (India) and presented with subcutaneous lesions...
September 15, 2016: Mycopathologia
Tobias Lahmer, Jürgen Held, Sebastian Rasch, Christopher Schnappauf, Analena Beitz, Roland M Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. METHODS: Examination of 1,3-β-D-glucan (BDG) for IFD and as outcome parameter in immunocompromised critically ill patients with septic shock. RESULTS: Thirty-two (69 %) out of 46 included patients had BDG beyond the cutoff of >80 pg/ml (mean 320 pg/ml). Twelve (37 %) had findings of Aspergillus spp. in BAL (mean BDG 413 pg/ml)...
September 12, 2016: Mycopathologia
Anália do Carmo, Esmeralda Costa, Marco Marques, Maria João Quadrado, Rui Tomé
We report a case of a keratitis associated with a Fusarium penzigii-a Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC)-in a 81-year-old woman after a corneal trauma with a tree branch. At patient admittance, slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed an exuberant chemosis, an inferior corneal ulcer with an associated inflammatory infiltrate, a central corneal abscess, bullous keratopathy and posterior synechiae. Corneal scrapes were obtained for identification of bacteria and fungi, and the patient started antibiotic treatment on empirical basis...
September 8, 2016: Mycopathologia
R J Hay
Tinea capitis remains a common childhood infection in many parts of the world. Yet knowledge of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and the development of effective immunity have shown striking advances, and new methods of diagnosis ranging from dermoscopy to molecular laboratory tests have been developed even though they have not been assimilated into routine practice in many centres. Treatment is effective although it needs to be given for at least 1 month. What is missing, however, is a systematic approach to control through case ascertainment and therapy...
September 6, 2016: Mycopathologia
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