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Medical Hypotheses

Peter Wostyn, Peter Paul De Deyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Roberto Gaeta, Fausto Fama'
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Eric E Brown, Philip Gerretsen, Bruce Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Lithium is a medication used to treat bipolar disorder and may also prevent cognitive decline and suicide. Lithium is also found naturally, in levels well below clinical doses, in drinking water worldwide, and levels have been inversely associated with rates of psychiatric disorders. Lead (Pb) is another element in the environment but is a toxin of public health concern. Negative effects of chronic lead exposure and possible benefits of environmental lithium exposure appear complementary...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Tetsuya Akaishi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which characteristically shows repeated relapses and remissions irregularly in the central nervous system. At present, the pathological mechanism of MS is unknown and we do not have any theories or mathematical models to explain its disseminated patterns in time and space. In this paper, we present a new theoretical model from a viewpoint of complex system with chaos model to reproduce and explain the non-linear clinical and pathological manifestations in MS...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
G N Dediu, C C Diaconu, S Dumitrache Rujinski, M A Iancu, L A Balaceanu, I Dina, M Bogdan
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is defined by recurrent episodes of significant reduction or absence of the oro-nasal airflow during sleep, in the presence of thorax and abdominal movements and snoring. The pathophysiological consequences of intermittent hypoxia determined by OSAS are represented by systemic inflammation, the release of free oxygen radicals and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Cardiac arrhythmias are a frequent comorbidity in patients with OSAS...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Athanasios Chalkias, Ioannis Mamais, Theodoros Xanthos
Microcirculation is a network of perfused capillaries that connects macrocirculation with the cells. Although research has provided insight into microcirculatory blood flow, our knowledge remains limited. In this article, we propose a new role of microcirculation in physiological and shock states. In healthy individuals, microcirculation maintains cellular homeostasis via preconditioning. When blood volume decreases, the ensuing microcirculatory changes result in heterogeneity of perfusion and tissue oxygenation...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Alok K Mishra, Shivraj M Yabaji, Rikesh K Dubey
Isoprinosine (Inos) or immunovir is a synthetic purine derivative with immune-modulatory and antiviral properties. The drug shows apparent in vivo enhancement of host immune responses by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and rapid proliferation of T-cell subsets. Strikingly, the cytokines induced by Inos also play crucial roles in providing immune resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Inos has been licensed for several antiviral diseases; however, its efficacy against Mtb has not been tested yet...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Viktor Persic, Ana Lanca Bastiancic, Ivan Rosovic, Damir Raljevic, Dijana Travica Samsa, Luka Bastiancic, Rajko Miskulin, Marko Boban, Gordana Laskarin
Classical risk factors for endothelial dysfunction (ED), such as age, gender, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and smoking history are utilised for the Framingham score and Systemic Coronary Risk Estimation (SCORE) for evaluation of the 10-year cardiovascular risk in routine practice. Nonetheless, pro-inflammatory mediators are deeply involved in the initiation and the progression of ED and coronary artery disease (CAD), and act additionally or independently of metabolic factors before clinical manifestations of the disease appear...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Marvin Miller, L David Mirkin
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to review the histopathology in the original articles by authors Kleinman and Marks that described the specificity of the classical metaphyseal lesion for child abuse and to determine if there were any oversights in the authors' analysis. METHODS: We reviewed the histopathology of the original studies that equated the classical metaphyseal lesion with child abuse. We compared this with the histopathology of metaphyseal fractures caused by known accidental, severe trauma in children and reviewed the histopathology of artifacts that can sometimes be produced in bone histology preparations...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Jai Ranjan, John Antony Jude Prakash
Scrub typhus is a mite borne infectious disease which has re-emerged in India in the 3rd millennium after years of quiescence. In this review, the authors hypothesize the various factors responsible for resurgence of this disease. The main drivers that could have contributed to the upsurge in scrub typhus cases in past two decades are changes in land use land cover (LULC) and urbanisation which are; as a result of the population explosion, causing a strain on sanitation and also increased diversion of forest land for agricultural use...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Yufeng Wang, Liwei Wang, Chang-Ao Xue
In recent years, biometric technologies, such as iris, facial, and finger vein recognition, have reached consumers and are being increasingly applied. However, it remains unknown whether these highly specific biometric technologies are as safe as declared by their manufacturers. As three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction based on medical imaging and 3D printing are being developed, these biometric technologies may face severe challenges.
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Tan Aik Kah
Oral anticoagulants are widely used in the treatment and prevention of both venous and arterial thromboembolism. They are classified into vitamin K anticoagulants (VKAs) and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). The main advantage of NOACs over VKAs is the absence of the need for continuous monitoring. However, there are concerns about their effectiveness and safety in certain clinical situations. In this manuscript, I discussed the possibility of using optical coherence tomography angiography [OCTA] in the monitoring of the activity of NOACs...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Suresh Singh Yadav, Rohini Ravindran Nair, Pramod Kumar Yadava
Gene expression is crucial and tightly regulated to steer the development, differentiation, proliferation and even apoptosis of a cell. Each cell and tissue type shows a unique repertoire of transcription factors. Tissue micro-environmental regulation of epigenetic signature of a gene has been documented in many cases. Epigenetic factors play a significant role in the regulation of gene expression. KLF4 is a well-known transcription factor regulating the expression of several genes including hTERT. KLF4 functions both as a tumor suppressor and oncogene depending on cell type...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Kazunori Nakase, Kenkichi Kita, Naoyuki Katayama
Cell surface interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, CD25) expression is currently recognized to be a strong predictor for poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, it is still unknown that the reason why CD25 positive AML patients have a dismal clinical outcome. CD25 positive AML cells are generally unresponsive to IL-2, but strongly respond to IL-3. The levels of IL-3Rα on these AML cells are very high and directly proportional to the CD25 levels. T-lymphocytes produce IL-3 in response to stimuli including IL-2-mediated activation...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Hassan Tirandaz, Mohammad-Bagher Ebrahim-Habibi, Borhan Moradveisi, Saeid Raoofi, Amir Salehi-Najafabadi, Ebrahim Mohammadi
Inability to have a satisfactory sexual intercourse is a serious problem affecting many people. Despite enormous efforts for developing effective treatments for pathologic conditions associated with sexual malfunction, still a lot of patients do not respond well to such treatments. Microbiota has been shown to affect obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stress/anxiety and sex hormonal disturbances. Nevertheless, no research has concentrated on the link between microbiota and human sexuality or sexual dysfunction...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Deepak Kumar, Sakshi Behal, Rajasri Bhattacharyya, Dibyajyoti Banerjee
The association between hypoalbuminemia and coronary artery disease is known from some time. However, the reason as to how such phenomenon is correlated remains unknown. We have observed from published scientific literature that HSA has the potential to control cholesterol biosynthesis due to its pseudoesterase activity. In-silico observations have supported our view since acetyl coA, the precursor molecule of cholesterol biosynthesis is shown to bind with Tyr 411 of HSA. Incidentally, Tyr411 is a critical moiety for pseudoesterase activity of albumin...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Minos Stavridakis, Yiannis Brokos, Ivo Krejci
The prognosis of endodontically treated teeth has traditionally been associated with the presence of the so-called ferrule effect that is generally related with the presence of a minimum of 1-2 mm of sound tooth structure at the cervical area of parallel axial walls that totally encircle the tooth. Even though all of these factors are well desired, one should question if their absence should condemn a tooth and compel extraction as the only logical treatment plan option. For this reason an hypothesis is being formed that associates the aforementioned factors not with the presence of the so-called ferrule effect, but rather with the resistance form of the preparation that is being provided by the sound tooth structure at the cervical area of the tooth...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Oksana Polesskaya, Evgeniya Kananykhina, Astrid M Roy-Engel, Olga Nazarenko, Irina Kulemzina, Ancha Baranova, Yegor Vassetsky, Max Myakishev-Rempel
Non-coding RNAs have emerged as essential contributors to neuroinflammation. The Alu element is the most abundant potential source of non-coding RNA in the human genome represented by over 1.1 million copies totaling ∼10% of the genome's mass. Accumulation of "Alu RNA" was observed in the brains of individuals with dementia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease - a degenerative brain disorder. "Alu RNAs" activate inflammatory pathways and apoptosis in the non-neural cells. In particular, the "Alu RNA" cytotoxicity is suggested as a mechanism in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a compartment damaged in the process of age-related macular degeneration...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Kainat Khan, Shikha Tewari, Namrata Punit Awasthi, Surendra Prasad Mishra, Gaurav Raj Agarwal, Madhup Rastogi, Nuzhat Husain
INTRODUCTION: γH2AX assay has been used for DNA damage assessment at higher doses of radiation exposure. Its expression has not been studied in cases with diagnostic low dose radiation exposure. Concerns have been raised about the after-effects of radiation in diagnostic procedures like Computed Tomography (CT) scan, Angiography etc especially when such scans are repeated within short span of time. The purpose of the present study was to assess immediate DNA damage after exposure to low level of ionizing radiation by the flow cytometric method of gamma-H2AX...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Laurent Beaugerie, Ebbe Langholz, Nynne Nyboe-Andersen, Bénédicte Pigneur, Harry Sokol
It is increasingly admitted that Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two entities of inflammatory bowel disease, are initiated and reactivated by environmental factors in genetically susceptible hosts, and result from aberrant immune response to specific intestinal microbes, in the context of altered composition of intestinal microbiota, called dysbiosis. We hypothesize that the role of the gut microbiota in Crohn's disease pathogenesis is linked to early-life abnormal crosstalk with the host immune system under construction...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
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