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Medical Hypotheses

Lisa B E Shields, Tyler A Gertz, Kenneth C Wilson, Ginger L Figg, Steven T Hester, Joshua T Honaker
The logistic function or logistic growth curve is an "S" shape (sigmoid curve) that has been applied to numerous fields, including geology, physics, biology, mathematics, chemistry, economics, sociology, oncology, and statistics. The S-curve initiates with exponential growth, followed by slowing of growth as saturation occurs, and completion of growth at maturity. The S-curve follows the law of natural growth with a limiting factor, whether it be a competition for resources, investigation and demand for new products, or an economic bubble...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Mehrdad Hamrahian, Mehri Mollaee, Manish Anand, Tibor Fülöp
Nodular glomerulosclerosis is a characteristic histological finding of diabetic nephropathy (DN) with thickened glomerular basement membrane and hyalinized arterioles. Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING), a distinct clinicopathologic entity, is the term used to denote classic DN confirmed by light microscopy, immuno-fluorescence, and electron microscopy but in the absence of diabetes mellitus (DM). ING has been linked to heavy tobacco smoking, chronic hypertension, and obesity. We report the result of a retrospective study identifying seventeen subjects from Thomas Jefferson University (1999-2014) with biopsy-proven nodular glomerulosclerosis but no pre-existing history of DM...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Anmol Pitliya, Sudarshana Datta, Arzu Kalayci, Farima Kahe, Sadaf Sharfaei, Mehrian Jafarizade, Sogand Goudarzi, Gerald Chi
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), defined as non-traumatic, non-iatrogenic dissociation of coronary vessel wall resulting from intimal disruption or intramural hemorrhage, represents an important cause of sudden death and myocardial infarction among young or middle-aged women without conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis. On histopathological examination, SCAD is featured by prominent eosinophilic infiltration of the adventitia or periadventitial layer of coronary artery. It has been estimated that approximately 15-30% of SCAD patients experience recurrent episodes of dissection despite medical therapy...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Tannaz Parsazadegan, Morteza Salimi, Sepideh Ghazvineh, Mohammad Reza Raoufy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Glyn B Steventon, Stephen C Mitchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Antonio Mazzocca, Giovanni Ferraro, Giovanni Misciagna, Stefano Fais
We have previously presented a new Systemic Evolutionary Theory of Cancer (SETOC) based on the failure of proper endosymbiosis in eukaryotic cells. Here, we propose that the progressive uncoupling of two endosymbiotic subsystems (information and energy) inside the cell, as a consequence of long-term injuries, gives rise to alterations (i) in tissue interactions and (ii) in cell organization. In the first case, we argue that the impairment of both the coherent state and the synergy between intercellular communications underpins the onset of tissue dysplasia, that usually evolves towards cancer development...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Gilles R G Monif
Within the more than one hundred disease entities for which autoimmunity causation have been alleged, two subgroups can be identified. The first group is characterized by ability of disruption of the effector arm of the immune response to temporarily reverse the signs and symptoms of disease. The second group is characterized by the presence of antibodies directed against the target organ's cellular or subcellular components. As long as therapeutic palliation of the signs and symptoms of disease can be achieved, attributing causation to autoimmunity has tended to arrest therapeutics focus on attaining cure...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Gerard Ngueta, Ruth Ndjaboue, Romuald Yepsi
Preterm birth (PB) and low birthweight (LBW) remain a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Persistent racial disparities in prevalence rates have been reported, with the highest values observed in Subsaharan Africa and South Asia. In United States, non-Hispanic Black women are more likely to have a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Beyond the speculative debate on factors explaining such racial disparity, the key-question remains about the path from race to birth outcomes. Several hypotheses emerged from the published literature to explain the racial difference in likelihood for PB and LBW...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Saechol Oh, Kyudon Chung, Seunguk Bang, Seo Yeong Kim, Woojin Kwon
The aim of this study is to develop an alternative way to locate the sacral hiatus for blind caudal block from the anthropometrical data measured on 3D pelvic CT. The intersection of the line connecting two sacral cornua and the midline is considered the ideal point (IP) for caudal block. The mean length from the coccyx tip to the IP was measured using 3D pelvic CT images in 30 men and 30 women and was 6.5 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively. For the conventional method group, we used the conventional equilateral triangle method to find the sacral hiatus, which was named conventional method group needling point (CNP)...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Teresa Krakauer
Melioidosis, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a major cause of sepsis and mortality in endemic regions of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. As a facultative intracellular pathogen, B. pseudomallei produces virulence factors to evade innate host response and survive within host cells. Neutrophils and macrophages are phagocytes that play critical roles in host defense against pathogens by their ability to detect and eliminate microbes. Host defense processes against B. pseudomallei including phagocytosis, oxidative burst, autophagy, apoptosis, and proinflammatory cytokine release are all initiated by these two phagocytes in the fight against this bacterium...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Uffe Ravnskov, Michel de Lorgeril, Malcolm Kendrick, David M Diamond
High low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is routinely described as the main cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, numerous observations are in conflict with Bradford Hill's criteria for causality: a) degree of atherosclerosis is not associated with LDL-C; b) on average the life span of people with FH is about the same as for other people; c) LDL-C of people with FH without CVD is almost as high as in FH patients of the same age with CVD; and d) questionable benefit or none at all have been achieved in the controlled, randomized cholesterol-lowering trials that have included FH individuals only...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Rahima Begum, Johny Bajgai, Ailyn Fadriquela, Cheol-Su Kim, Soo-Ki Kim, Kyu-Jae Lee
Since the discovery of molecular hydrogen (H2 ) as a selective scavenger of free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), numerous studies have proved the potential application of H2 in therapeutic and preventative medicine. Moreover, H2 can regulate the intracellular signal as a signal modulator. However, it is still unclear in cell signaling involved in testosterone hormone production. Male fertility depends on the intra-testicular testosterone concentration, which is produced by the Leydig cell in the seminiferous tubules in testes...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Candice Schwartz, Deborah A Katz, Melissa Larson, Nancy Licciardi, Charles Kallick, Timothy M Kuzel
Viral and bacterial infections cause chronic inflammation and produce bacterial metabolites that may lead to carcinogenesis. Ehrlichiosis is an intracellular infection that primarily infects white blood cells. Given that infections can lead to cancer, and that Ehrlichia has tropism for white blood cells, it can be deduced that Ehrlichia may cause hematologic malignancies, such as acute leukemia. A prospective study was performed that tested the blood of ten patients with acute leukemia for prior exposure to Ehrlichia...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Anura P Jayasooriya
In this letter to editor, I hypothesize a potential affinity of retinol saturase (RetSat) enzyme towards a conjugated trienoic fatty acid; alpha-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) and subsequent hindrance of the action on its usual substrate; all trans retinol. Hence, RetSat is speculated to be involved in a rapid unusual conversion of α-ESA to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), giving a less priority to its usual substrate all trans retinol, which would subsequently be converted into "all trans retinoic acid" (atRA)...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Fan Bai, Yingxu Ma, Qiming Liu
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. AF is associated with a higher demand of energy and impaired energy synthesis in cardiomyocytes. The succinate group is far bulkier cause it to have a larger impact on the structure and function of the proteins. So far, the study of the maximum fluence of the healthy heart sample proteome has mapped the cardiac proteomics map and builded a model of the heart proteome at the subcellular level. Compared with the normal sample, the most significantly downregulated proteins in the AF group were enriched for "mitochondrion"...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Li Zheng, Hao Zhang, Youzhou Tang
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with multiple organs involved. Kidney damage is common among SLE patients. In lupus nephritis, extracellular DNA accumulation from necrosis cells and activated cells is perceived as initial step of inflammation. The up-regulated type I IFN is one pivotal cytokine causing downstream inflammation enlargement. Currently, intracellular DNA sensor cGAS signaling has been found to be related to lupus nephritis and the aberrant up-regulation of type I IFN...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Sudarshan Khokhar, Yogita Gupta, Chirakshi Dhull, Abhidnya Surve, Manish Mahabir
Zonular cataracts are childhood cataracts involving one or more zone(s) of lens. They often show 'riders' which are wedge-shaped opacifications of inner cortex of the lens seen to radiate towards the lens equator, though little is known about the exact mechanism behind their development. Cortical riders may be described as 'reverse cuneiform' cataracts on the basis of their evolution pattern being exact opposite to that of senile cuneiform cortical cataracts.
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Qin Xiang Ng, Chusheng Seng, Collin Yih Xian Ho, Wee-Song Yeo
Enoxaparin (clexane) is a low-molecular-weight heparin commonly prescribed for the chemoprophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in postoperative hip or knee replacement or abdominal surgery patients. We herein report a case of persistent postoperative fever in a patient, likely due to enoxaparin use. Prompt resolution of the patient's fever was observed after discontinuation of subcutaneous enoxaparin for chemical thromboprophylaxis. Reliable incidence data are lacking. A comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, as well as grey literature, found only two prior single case reports on enoxaparin-related fever...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Michael Eisenhut
BACKGROUND: Brain injury in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is common but under recognized and affects up to 54% of patients with this complication. It's manifestations include cerebral oedema (CE) and cerebral infarction (CI). The etiology of CE in DKA has up to the present time been uncertain. Practical management had been guided by the assumption that rapid osmotic shifts due to rapid correction of hypovolemia and reduction of plasma glucose could cause a shift of water into the cells...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Ozan Bahcivan, Tania Estape, Jose Gutierrez-Maldonado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
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