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Medical Hypotheses

Efstratios Georgakarakos, George S Georgiadis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Francesca G Magnani, Anna Sedda
Since its beginning, research about cognitive representation of our bodies has debated over multiple representations models. Furthermore, recent years have seen a rise in the study of body representation disorders and related impairments. However, why human beings manifest so many deficits is still a mystery. Considering human evolution, frontal brain regions are well known for their changes in dimensions and connections. Less known is that parietal and temporal lobes encountered similar changes. These areas, especially in the right hemisphere, are crucial for body representation...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Andreas Kousios
Complement Factor H-Related protein 5 Nephropathy (CFHR5N) is an endemic hereditary renal disease in the island of Cyprus. Although only very recently recognized, it has provided insight into previously unknown genetic aspects of complement-mediated renal diseases and in fact it has contributed to the introduction of the new disease classification, 'C3 Glomerulopathy'. Herein, based on evidence from epidemiological, genetic, clinical and basic research studies, the hypothesis that CFHR5N could be protective from rickettsial infections is proposed...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
José Carlos Pereira, Márcia Pradella Hallinan, Rosana Cardoso Alves
Seasonal affective disorder is defined as recurrent episodes of major depression, mania, or hypomania with seasonal onset and remission. In this class of mood disturbances, a unipolar major depressive disorder known as winter depression is common in populations living in northern latitudes far from the equator. Winter depression repeatedly occurs in the autumn or winter and remits in the spring or summer, and its etiopathogenesis is currently unknown. However, one can surmise that excessive melatonin production during the reduced duration of daily sunlight in the autumn and winter plays a role in its pathophysiology...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
A N Howard, D I Thurnham
In 1995 we reported that mean plasma lutein concentrations in salaried men and women from Toulouse in Southern France were double those in subjects recruited from general practitioner lists in Belfast, Northern Ireland. At the time incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Southern France was among the lowest in Europe and was much higher in Northern Ireland. Plasma lutein is a biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake and evidence suggests that high concentrations are generally associated with better cardiometabolic health...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Rohan Chawla, Koushik Tripathy, Shreyas Temkar, Vinod Kumar
Recently, peeling of internal limiting membrane (ILM) has become one of the most common and effective surgical procedures for macular disorders. The authors discuss the adverse effects of such procedures and explore the possible functions of the membrane. We also suggest a barrier function of this membrane in addition to its possible other physiological roles. Thus, apart from the well-known inner and outer retinal barriers, ILM might be the third and innermost retinal barrier. The possible evidences supporting this hypothesis are presented...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Witold Tarkowski, Joanna Moneta-Wielgoś, Daniel Młocicki
Numerous reports point to Demodex mites as the aetiology of certain eye and skin conditions, hence it is highly probable that infestation with these mites may also play a role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of pterygium. Therefore here we present a hypothesis: whether the presence of Demodex mites in eyelash hair follicles significantly correlates with the presence of pterygia, which could point to a potential role of these mites in the development of such lesions. We present preliminary data for supporting this hypothesis...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Mohammed Abul Kashem, Aven Lee, David V Pow, Omar Šerý, Vladimir J Balcar
It has been known that a preconception paternal alcoholism impacts adversely on the offspring but the mechanism of the effect is uncertain. Several findings suggest that there are signalling systems in testis that are analogous to those known to be altered by alcoholism in brain. We propose that chronic alcohol affects these systems in a manner similar to that in brain. Specifically, we hypothesise that excessive alcohol may disturb glutamatergic-like signalling in testis by increasing expression of the glutamate transporter GLAST (EAAT1)...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Stefan Lang
The structure and function of the brain can be described by complex network models, and the topological properties of these models can be quantified by graph theoretical analysis. This has given insight into brain regions, known as hubs, which are critical for integrative functioning and information transfer, both fundamental aspects of cognition. In this manuscript a hypothesis is put forward for the concept of cognitive eloquence in neurosurgery; that is regions (cortical, subcortical and white matter) of the brain which may not necessarily have readily identifiable neurological function, but if injured may result in disproportionate cognitive morbidity...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Xinquan Yang, Yang Yu, Daxin Wang, Shucun Qin
It is well known that phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is involved in the lipid metabolism and development of atherosclerosis (AS). Abundant PLTP is considered to be expressed on the foam cells derived from monocyte/macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting that high level of active PLTP may promote the formation of foam cells. However, the exact role of PLTP on the process of macrophage derived foam cell formation remains unclear. The accumulation of free cholesterol (FC) in the cytoplasm may lead to the prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs) and the imbalance of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Man Tang, Yanchao Zhou, Yiqi Li, Juntong Zou, Beicheng Yang, Li Cai, Xuelan Zhang, Qiuyun Liu
A hypothesis is postulated that high content of hydrogen donors and acceptors, and basic amino acids cause the intracellular trapping of the H(+) and Cl(-) ions, which increases cancer risks as local formation of HCl is mutagenic to DNA. Other cations such as Ca(2+), and weak acids such as short-chain organic acids may attenuate the intracellular gathering of the H(+) and Cl(-), two of the most abundant ions in the cells. Current data on increased cancer risks in diabetic and obese patients are consistent with the assumption that hydrogen bonding propensity on glucose, triglycerides and other molecules is among the causative factors...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Alok Rathi, Shweta Rathi
Laryngomalacia literally means weak larynx. It is the most common cause of noisy breathing in infants and children constituting around 70% of cases. Its aetiology is not clear and various theories are proposed. Treatment remains following the child with regular weight monitoring in view of expected spontaneous resolution. However we cannot predict which child will resolve spontaneously and which child may need surgical intervention. We propose a new theory based on relative imbalance of demand supply of air, suggesting the increase in demand causing turbulent airflow, increasing suction pressure and causing collapse of laryngeal structures...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Marcin Ufnal, Kinga Pham
Recent studies suggest that blood-borne metabolites of gut microbiota, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are involved in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases and may serve as markers of cardiovascular risk. To enter the bloodstream the microbiota-derived molecules need to pass the gut-blood barrier (GBB). The GBB plays an important role in maintaining organism homeostasis. It is a complex multi-layer system which determines the absorption of nutrients, water and many other substances. The integrity and permeability of the GBB may be impaired in numerous diseases including gastrointestinal, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Peter G Stroot
Blood oxidative stress (BLOS) is the presence of white blood cells and platelets that are generating high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A mathematical model links the level of BLOS or BLOS# and plasma sulfide concentration. An increase in the BLOS# reduces the plasma sulfide concentration. The reported maximum plasma sulfide concentration for defined health conditions were used to calculate the minimum BLOS#. Elevated BLOS generates high plasma concentration of ROS, which triggers multiple responses in the body that protect the host...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Alexander Franz, Michael Behringer, Kazunori Nosaka, Bettina Alexandra Buhren, Holger Schrumpf, Constantin Mayer, Christoph Zilkens, Moritz Schumann
Eccentric exercise training is effective for increasing muscle mass and strength, and improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profiles. However, potential muscle damage symptoms such as prolonged loss of muscle function and delayed onset of muscle soreness may restrict the use of eccentric exercise, especially in clinical populations. Therefore, strategies to reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) are necessary, and an extensive number of scientific studies have tried to identify potential intervention modalities to perform eccentric exercises without adverse effects...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Federica Bressi, Manuele Casale, Rocco Papalia, Antonio Moffa, Alberto Di Martino, Sandra Miccinilli, Fabrizio Salvinelli, Vincenzo Denaro, Silvia Sterzi
Subjective tinnitus and cervical spine disorders (CSD) are among the most common complaints encountered by physicians. Although the relationship between tinnitus and CSD has attracted great interest during the past several years, the pathogenesis of tinnitus induced by CSD remains unclear. Conceivably, CSD could trigger a somatosensory pathway-induced disinhibition of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) activity in the auditory pathway; furthermore, CSD can cause inner ear blood impairment induced by vertebral arteries hemodynamic alterations and trigeminal irritation...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Gururaj Arakeri, George Boraks, Abdulsalam S Aljabab, Shekar Gowda Patil, M A W Merkx, Peter A Brennan
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a devastating disease commonly seen in the Asian subcontinent that results in significant functional morbidity for patients and has a high potential for malignant transformation. Over the last three decades, different diagnostic methods have been described to quantify and grade OSMF severity. Some methods have been used with perceived favorable outcomes although recurrence and malignant transformation remains a problem in many cases, and OSMF presents a major therapeutic challenge...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Margo S Clarke, Alexandre Plouznikoff, Jean Deschenes
In ophthalmology, inflammatory diseases target different highly specific regions within the small confine of the orbit. Some entities even prefer a particular location or depth within the same tissue (ex. anterior, intermediate or posterior uveitides, chorioretinitides with unique topographic presentations). Though the location of a lesion strongly influences and helps us in our differential diagnosis, we still don't understand why specific anatomic sites are susceptible to a disease while other areas are spared...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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