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Medical Hypotheses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571821/rhinitis-and-sleep-disorders-the-trigeminocardiac-reflex-link
#1
Barkha Bindu, Gyaninder Pal Singh, Tumul Chowdhury, Bernhard Schaller
Rhinitis, allergic or non-allergic, is an inflammatory condition of the nose. It is associated with a wide range of sleep disorders that are generally attributed to nasal congestion and presence of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and interleukins. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind these sleep disorders remain unclear. On the other hand, the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) has recently been linked to various sleep disorders like obstructive sleep apnea, sleep bruxism and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep apnea...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571820/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-hpa-axis-and-sympathetic-nervous-system
#2
John R Richards
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, is an enigmatic and challenging clinical disorder. As cannabis legalization, use, and potency has increased worldwide over the past decade, so has the prevalence of CHS. These patients often require acute care and inpatient treatment for refractory emesis, electrolyte derangement, dehydration, acute renal failure, and injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Routinely-prescribed antiemetics are frequently associated with treatment failure in CHS, necessitating use of sedating agents such as benzodiazepines and antipsychotics...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571819/chronic-eczematous-dermatitis-in-patients-with-neurodegenerative-diseases-may-be-an-early-marker-of-bullous-pemphigoid
#3
Ping-Song Chou, Tsai-Ching Chou, Chung-Hsing Chang, Sebastian Yu, Chih-Hung Lee
The number of elderly patients with chronic pruritus has been gradually increasing in aging countries. Bullous pemphigoid, a common autoimmune blister disease in the elderly, is always heralded by pruritic eczematous dermatitis and is often associated with neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesized that chronic eczematous dermatitis in patients with neurodegenerative diseases may be an early marker of bullous pemphigoid. By conducting retrospective chart review, we found neurodegenerative diseases are more prevalent in elderly patients with chronic eczematous dermatitis...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571818/association-between-oxidative-status-and-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
Marianna Gyuraszova, Alexandra Kovalcikova, Roman Gardlik
Studies have shown that the microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role when it comes to the maintenance of its proper functions. Many studies exist that have analyzed the composition of the bacterial community in the different regions of the GIT of humans and model animals. Microbial imbalance leads to several systemic disorders, including cardiovascular and renal disease. The imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidants leads to oxidative stress...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571817/development-of-orbital-adipose-derived-stem-cells-as-a-model-for-studying-the-formation-of-baggy-lower-eyelids
#5
Xi Chen, Guangpeng Liu
In old population, there is often a protrusion of the orbital fat pad underlying the skin in the lower eyelids, giving an aspect of palpable pouches. It is generally thought that orbital fat hyperplasia is the main contributing factor to the formation of baggy lower eyelids, and resection of excessive orbital fat pad is routinely performed during the eyelid cosmetic surgery. In our clinical study, however, it was revealed that the adipocytes in orbital fat tissue from older people became smaller compared to those from the young individuals...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571816/the-role-of-predictive-coding-in-the-pathogenesis-of-delirium
#6
J M FitzGerald
Delirium and dementia represent an emerging global crisis in healthcare. Attempts have been made to identify the pathognomonic feature that would make delirium stand out from dementia but unfortunately the global neural dysfunction of both disorders has made the establishment of a direct measurement difficult. Modern conceptualisations of delirium have been influenced by the assessment tools used to assess, detect, and analyse its complex and transient nature. Recent publication of the DSM-V criteria for delirium has marginally altered the previous DSM-IV criteria with a focus upon inattention with vague terms such as consciousness downplayed...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571815/hypothesis-co-transfer-of-genuine-embryos-and-implantation-promoting-compounds-via-artificial-containers-improve-endometrium-receptivity
#7
Onder Celik, Mustafa Acet, Sudenaz Celik, Levent Sahin, Onder Koc, Nilufer Celik
As with other organs endometrial functions are altered with the advancing age. Age related decrease in reproductive functions leads to decline in the number of oocytes retrieved and the synthesis of endometrial receptivity molecules. Despite the significant improvement in assisted reproductive technologies we do not have so many options to enhance endometrial receptivity. Due to lack of drugs having endometrium receptivity enhancement properties, oocyte donation seems to be the only solution for women with implantation failure...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571814/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-men
#8
LETTER
Philip R Cohen, Razelle Kurzrock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571813/might-tumor-secreted-cathepsin-proteases-leave-specific-molecular-signals-in-skin-hair-and-nails-years-before-a-cancer-becomes-clinically-apparent
#9
Mark R Goldstein, Luca Mascitelli
X-ray fiber diffraction analysis (FDA) of the fibrous macromolecules in hair, nails and skin has been shown to non-invasively diagnose various cancers, at sites remote from the cancer, years before the cancer becomes clinically apparent. The technology is not widely accepted because of reproducibility issues (that can be easily resolved) and lack of an explanation as to how a clinically unapparent tumor can leave molecular "signatures" at remote sites. However, there is evidence that tumor-specific cathepsins (lysosomal proteases) circulate systemically long before a cancer is clinically apparent...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571812/a-hypothesis-for-mechanism-for-brain-oedema-due-to-glycine
#10
Suchita J Mehta, Andrea Roche Recinos, Subodh J Saggi, Man S Oh
Death following the use the glycine distension solution in transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) or hysteroscopic surgery has been attributed to the toxic effect of glycine on the brain through the glycine receptors and hyperammonemia, contending that glycine-associated hyponatremia is isosmotic and therefore would not cause brain oedema. Here we propose a hypothesis that the mechanism of brain oedema and death is actually osmotic brain oedema caused by selective diffusion of glycine into the brain while sodium cannot diffuse out of the brain despite favourable concentration gradient because of the absence of sodium transporter on the cerebral capillaries needed for the exit of sodium from the brain...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571811/can-modifying-content-of-hallucinations-be-a-strategy-to-treat-schizophrenia
#11
LETTER
Santosh K Chaturvedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571810/predictive-role-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-normal-tension-glaucoma
#12
Kursat Atalay, Havva Kaldirim Erdogan, Ahmet Kirgiz, Senay Asik Nacaroglu
As a type of primary open-angle glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a health problem that manifests itself with low intraocular pressure (IOP) levels and preserves its importance for public health care. In population-based screenings, which take the IOP levels of 21mmHg as a cut-off for the diagnosis of glaucoma, the diagnosis is usually delayed, and the treatment is started in an advanced stage by the referred ophthalmologists. NTG is associated with some autoimmune conditions and systemic diseases, such as paraproteinemia, nocturnal hypotension, and migraine...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571809/was-aneurysm-rupture-a-frequent-cause-of-death-in-past-population
#13
LETTER
P Charlier, S Deo, R Bianucci, A Perciaccante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571808/nanoparticle-loaded-biodegradable-light-responsive-in-situ-forming-injectable-implants-for-effective-peptide-delivery-to-the-posterior-segment-of-the-eye
#14
Rohit Bisht, Jagdish K Jaiswal, Ilva D Rupenthal
Diseases affecting the posterior segment the eye, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Conventional dosage forms, such as eye drops, have to surmount several elimination mechanisms and complex barriers to achieve therapeutic concentrations at the target site often resulting in low anterior segment bioavailability (ca. 2-5%) with generally none of the drug reaching posterior segment tissues. Thus, frequent intravitreal injections are currently required to treat retinal conditions which have been associated with poor patient compliance due to pain, risk of infection, hemorrhages, retinal detachment and high treatment related costs...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571807/dilated-cardiomyopathy-induced-disruption-of-basement-membrane-alters-the-lever-systems-acting-on-the-heart
#15
Iman A Mohamed, Nagwa El-Badri, Amr Zaher
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is considered the most common form of non-ischemic heart diseases. DCM, occurs in response to both non-genetic and genetic factors, and has been associated with cytoskeletal protein mutations, impairing the contractile apparatus of cardiac myocytes. However, the pathology underlying the marked left ventricular dilatation remains unclear. Moreover, patients with end-stage DCM show alterations in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and myocardial fibrosis even when the cardiac myocytes are intact...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571806/bioinformatics-approach-to-prioritize-known-drugs-towards-repurposing-for-tuberculosis
#16
Sridharan Brindha, Savariar Vincent, Devadasan Velmurugan, Dhanabalan Ananthakrishnan, Jagadish Chandrabose Sundaramurthi, John Joel Gnanadoss
New drugs are urgently needed to cure tuberculosis (TB) in a short period of time without causing any adverse effects since currently used drugs for the treatment of multi drug-resistant TB cause several adverse effects with poor success rate. Therefore, we aimed to prioritize known drugs towards repurposing for TB by employing bioinformatics approach in the present study. A total of 1554 FDA approved drugs were obtained from DrugBank. Serine/threonine-protein kinase, pknB (Rv0014c) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was selected as the drug target since it involves in several vital functions of the Mtb...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571805/gallium-and-silicon-synergistically-promote-osseointegration-of-dental-implant-in-patients-with-osteoporosis
#17
Jinsong Liu, Zuosu Wu, Hongli He, Kaiyong Cai, Hualin Zhang, Lihua Xu
Over the last few decades, a wide variety of dental implants have been successfully placed in jaw bones to restore tooth function. But major challenges still remain in patients with osteoporosis involving compromised osseointegration, and the therapeutic methods is far from optimism. Gallium can directly inhibit bone osteolysis, prevent bone calcium release and augment bone mass, which makes Ga unique among the potential antiresorptive drugs. Silicon, as an indispensable modulator in bone formation, presents its bone anabolic effects, while reduces, at least doesn't increase, bone resorption...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571804/bacterial-resistance-and-failure-of-clinical-cure-could-be-produced-by-oxidative-stress-in-patients-with-diabetes-or-cardiovascular-diseases-during-fluoroquinolone-therapy
#18
Othoniel H Aragon-Martinez, Flavio Martinez-Morales, Mario A Isiordia-Espinoza, Diana Luque Contreras, Juan R Zapata Morales, Maria L Gonzalez-Rivera
Fluoroquinolone agents are used widely for the treatment of infectious diseases which are a common cause of deaths around the world. The level of oxidative stress in patients taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics has not been considered a factor to reduce the clinical efficacy of this kind of drugs. Patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases present abnormal levels of oxidative stress in the blood stream. In this regards, our hypothesis supposes that patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease suffering a bacterial disease could experience a therapeutic failure and bacterial resistance when treated with fluoroquinolones...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571803/in-brucella-selective-pressure-may-turn-some-genes-on-instead-of-default-off-position
#19
Gamal Wareth, Falk Melzer, Heinrich Neubauer
Brucellosis is a major zoonosis with worldwide prevalence; more than half a million new human cases are expected every year. The genus Brucella (B) encompasses 12 accepted nomo-species and brucellae were described as Gram negative, aerobic, non-motile and non-haemolytic facultative intracellular bacteria. The Brucella genome contains flagella-specific genes and various hemolysins, but no flagella are formed and nor hemolysis is seen. Selective pressure can cause accumulation of mutations that turn those genes on instead of default off position and provoked the motile and hemolytic phenotypes...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571802/a-homologous-stem-cell-therapy-for-obesity-and-its-related-metabolic-disorders
#20
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao
Obesity and overweight have become a leading health problem in the world. But we have not yet had any optimal therapy to prevent this health issue. Accumulating evidence suggests that there is existence of functional brown/brite adipocytes in both infants and adult humans, and the activated brown/brite can burn energy by generating heat. These adipocytes can be differentiated from stem cells and transplantation of pre-activated human thermogenic adipocytes in vitro benefits to glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and reduces body fat in normal or obese immunodeficient mice...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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