Read by QxMD icon Read

Medical Hypotheses

Arnold E Eggers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Andriy Stelmakh, Orest Abrahamovych, Andriy Cherkas
Highly purified calf hemodialysate (HPCH) known as Actovegin® or Solcoseryl® is one of the most controversial drugs currently marketed worldwide. It is not registered as drug in some countries and therefore its medical use there is illegal, while in others it is often among the top 10 of the best-selling medications. It could be also found in the list of the "most useless drugs" and was banned for short time by World Anti-Doping Agency as performance enhancer. However, the degree of its usefulness or uselessness remains unclear and there is not enough convincing data to make reliable conclusions...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Grace M McPhee, Luke A Downey, Anthony Noble, Con Stough
As the elderly population grows the impact of age associated cognitive decline as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia will increase. Ageing is associated with consistent impairments in cognitive processes (e.g., processing speed, memory, executive function and learning) important for work, well-being, life satisfaction and overall participation in society. Recently, there has been increased effort to conduct research examining methods to improve cognitive function in older citizens...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Sergio Crovella, Edione Cristina Dos Reis, Alessandra Pontillo, José Artur Bogo Chies
Dendritic cell (DC)-based immune therapy (IT) against HIV showed variable results. It is known that different factors influence host response to DC-IT. Exosomes derived from DC are regulators of the immune system. In this context, here we hypothesize about the role of the DC-derived exosomes on the DC-IT response. Based on data from RT-PCR array genes expression (focused on the TSG101 gene, an exosome marker) and flow cytometry experiments of a DC-IT against HIV-1 clinical trial, we hypothesize that: During the DC-IT exosomes are used as an additional tool for immune system modulation...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Subendu Sarkar, Seema Chopra, Manoj Kumar Rohit, Dibyajyoti Banerjee, Anuradha Chakraborti
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major cause of cardiac related mortality and morbidity in the developing countries due to poor diagnosis and lack of proper therapeutics. The definite reason of heart valve injury during RHD is poorly understood. Valvular endothelial cells play an important role in pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the regulation of vitamin D (calciferol) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) results in the functional changes in endothelial cells. However, the crosstalk between vitamin D and VEGF in the pathogenesis of RHD is not yet unfurled...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Silmar Teixeira, Francisco Magalhães, Victor Marinho, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro
Studies have shown an association between time perception and the basal ganglia and cortical areas, suggesting a role for these regions in the perception of seconds, minutes, and hours. We present the hypothesis that time estimation training tasks may change the modulatory activity of dopamine in the basal ganglia and the cortical areas related to temporal perception. Through this mechanism, the estimated training time interval can promote a compensatory effect on motor and cognitive performance via a dynamic neural adaptation process...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Terry D Hinds, Samuel O Adeosun, Abdulhadi A Alamodi, David E Stec
Several large population studies have demonstrated a negative correlation between serum bilirubin levels and the development of obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disease. Despite the strong correlative data demonstrating the protective role of bilirubin, the mechanism by which bilirubin can protect against these pathologies remains unknown. Bilirubin has long been known as a powerful antioxidant and also has anti-inflammatory actions, each of which may contribute to the protection afforded by increased levels...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Hitesh Soni
Diabesity is a new term for obesity-dependent diabetes, which is also associated with cardiovascular and other comorbidities with rising epidemic. Traditional treatments (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) of diabetes are associated with weight gain, except metformin. Newer agents such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are causing a modest weight reduction, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are weight neutral...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Stephen W Bickler, Eliel Lizardo, David M Cauvi, Antonio De Maio
Urbanization in Africa is associated with an increased incidence of non-communicable diseases, yet the cause and the mechanism remain poorly understood. Here, we propose a role for G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in the biological changes that occur with urbanization and suggest a critical area of convergence in GPCR signaling might provide a molecular signature for exposure to environmental factors. As a first step in investing this hypothesis, we examined the expression of the G protein α, β and γ subunit, G protein related kinase, and β-arrestin genes in a rural and urban population living in Morocco (NCBI GSE8847)...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Mark F McCarty
In type 1 diabetics, hepatic exposure to insulin is chronically subnormal even in the context of insulin therapy; as a result, expression of glycolytic enzymes is decreased, and that of gluconeogenic enzymes is enhanced, resulting in a physiologically inappropriate elevation of hepatic glucose output. Subnormal expression of glucokinase (GK) is of particular importance in this regard. Possible strategies for correcting this perturbation of hepatic enzyme expression include administration of small molecule allosteric activators of GK, as well as a procedure known as chronic intermittent intravenous insulin therapy (CIIIT); however, side effects accompany the use of GK activators, and CIIIT is time and labor intensive...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
J Jaime Miranda, Alvaro Taype-Rondan, Jose Carlos Tapia, Maria Gabriela Gastanadui-Gonzalez, Ricardo Roman-Carpio
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM2) includes a continuum of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia that causes several chronic long-term complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The hair follicle could reveal signs of early vascular impairment, yet its relationship to early metabolic injuries has been largely ignored. We propose that in earlier stages of the continuum of DM2-related metabolic disorders, a group of susceptible patients who do not yet meet the diagnostic criteria to be considered as persons with DM2 may present chronic vascular impairment and end organ damage, including hair follicle damage, which can be evaluated to identify an early risk marker...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Omar Valero-Monroy, Gabriel Garcia-Cervantes, Luis F Marquez-Corrales, Ana G Leija-Montoya, Jorge Sandoval-Basilio, Gustavo Martinez-Coronilla, Mario A Isiordia-Espinoza, Nicolas Serafin-Higuera
Periodontal disease can be initiated by a shift from a symbiotic to a dysbiotic microbial community. An increase in the recruitment of leukocytes and production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and oxidative stress are generated by this shift. In periodontitis, an exacerbated, poorly specific and effective inflammatory response is mounted. Moreover, failure in the inflammation resolving mechanism leads to establishment of a chronic inflammatory process, resulting in the progressive destruction of bone and soft tissue...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Nikolaos Nikolaidis, Stergios A Polyzos, Olga Giouleme, Panagiotis Katsinelos, Nikolaos Eugenidis, Christos Zeglinas, Kyriaki Anastasiadou, Emmanuel Gavalas, Eyripidis Stefanidis, Charalampos Tzathas, Jannis Kountouras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Catherine E Taylor
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) remains difficult to treat. Last century, thalidomide was used to alleviate NVP, but it caused teratogenesis by interfering with angiogenesis. The gasotransmitters hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide are mutually dependent on each other for their angiogenesis-related functions. Pregnancy-related requirements for increased endogenous H2S could create a temporary excess of sulfite, an H2S catabolite, which is toxic and can induce nausea. Sulfite oxidase, a molybdenum-containing enzyme, catalyzes oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, which can then be excreted or reused by the body...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Varsha Singh
Initial diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is usually based on measuring serum-creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels; however such measurements are still poor in identifying renal injuries at initial stages. These standard matrices are not enough to monitor the outcome and progression of AKI. The prognosis prevents proper treatment and timely delay in providing putative therapeutic agents. The cost effective therapies to get delayed, patient health gets compromised and ultimately requires renal transplant due to end-stage renal disease, which is another major problematic factor due to shortage kidney donors...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Youmei Wu, Jialu Wang, Wei Cai, Xiuhua Shen
Precocious puberty which impacts children physically and psychologically has become one of the health problem over the world. However, the mechanism and preventive measures of precocious puberty is still not clear. Recent studies suggested that leptin may act as the 'permissive factor' to initiate the puberty by regulating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion. Previous evidence from animal and human studies found that tea polyphenols can reduce serum leptin levels in vivo and inhibit the expression of leptin in adipose tissue...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Vjekoslav Tomulić, David Gobić, Davorka Lulić, David Židan, Luka Zaputović
Adhesion molecules play an important role in inflammation, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). These molecules are expressed on the surface of dysfunctional endothelial cells, causing inflammatory cells from the circulation to adhere and migrate through the endothelium. Their expression is upregulated in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The contact between stent struts and endothelium upregulates endothelial cell gene expression, endothelial cell activation and inflammation...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Bruno Lemaitre
Obesity and metabolic syndromes are major threats to health in both developed and developing countries. This opinion article is a holistic attempt to understand the obesity epidemic, by connecting it to the widespread narcissism in society. The narcissism epidemic refers to an increased prevalence of status-striving individualism and a decreased sense of community, observed in Westerns populations and spreading worldwide. Based on social personality and evolutionary psychology approaches, I speculate that this rise of narcissism underlies a steep social hierarchy resulting in increase of social stress...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these inhibitory signals are weakened and supplanted by stimulatory signals that, in turn, stimulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) - a hypothalamic neuropeptide governing reproduction...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"