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Medical Hypotheses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236857/disrupted-integration-of-sensory-stimuli-with-information-about-the-movement-of-the-body-as-a-mechanism-explaining-lsd-induced-experience
#1
Grzegorz R Juszczak
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) is a model psychedelic drug used to study mechanism underlying the effects induced by hallucinogens. However, despite advanced knowledge about molecular mechanism responsible for the effects induced by LSD and other related substances acting at serotonergic 5-HT2a receptors, we still do not understand how these drugs trigger specific sensory experiences. LSD-induced experience is characterised by perception of movement in the environment and by presence of various bodily sensations such as floating in space, merging into surroundings and movement out of the physical body (the out-of-body experience)...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236856/could-mucin-16-and-colony-stimulating-factor-2-receptor-beta-possible-graft-versus-host-disease-biomarkers-medical-hypotheses
#2
Milena Monteiro de Souza, Fabiana Martins de Paula, Ricardo Hsieh, Maria Cristina Martins Almeida Macedo, Marcelo Andreetta Corral, Thaís Borguezan Nunes, Fernanda De Paula, Silvia Vanessa Lourenço
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurs after bone marrow transplantation and is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Reviews demonstrated GVHD patients with involvement of various tissues and organs, such as salivary glands. The diagnosis of acute GVHD has been the biopsies and the histopathologic evaluation of tissue from an involved organ. These procedures are invasive. Saliva proteins as possible biomarker for GVHD could facilitate the management and diagnosis accuracy. For support the proposed hypotheses, in this pilot study we collected whole saliva samples from patients with undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and from healthy subjects...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236855/potential-positive-feedback-loop-of-pineal-cyst-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
LETTER
Rigoberto R T Ramirez, Mikaela I Poling, Joseph F deCourten, Robert L Chamberlain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236854/transfer-of-malignant-traits-as-opposed-to-migration-of-cells-a-novel-concept-to-explain-metastatic-disease
#4
Goffredo Orazio Arena, Vincenzo Arena, Manuel Arena, Mohamed Abdouh
Metastatic disease is believed to develop following dissemination of cells to target organs. Inability of this theory to effectively explain certain phenomena such as patterns of metastatic spread, late metastasis formation, different gene patterns between primary cancer and metastasis have brought forward the need for alternative models. Recent discoveries have strengthened the validity of theories supporting a humoral transfer of malignant traits as opposed to migration of malignant cells to explain metastatic disease in cancer patients...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236853/in-pursuit-of-cancer-metastasis-therapy-by-bacteria-and-its-biofilms-history-or-future
#5
Mohd Adnan, Saif Khan, Eyad Al-Shammari, Mitesh Patel, Mohd Saeed, Sibte Hadi
The 20th century observation of increasing comprehensive load of cancer, advanced cancer prevention strategies, creative hypotheses and control procedures by research communities are being traversed and stimulated in multiple facets. Inference of genetically modified non-pathogenic and natural bacterial species as potential anti-tumor agents is one such original perspective. Live, genetically modified non-pathogenic or attenuated bacterial species are able to form biofilms by multiplying selectively or non-selectively on cancer cells, which will lead to metastasis disruption...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236852/the-promising-anticancer-drug-3-bromopyruvate-is-metabolized-through-glutathione-conjugation-which-affects-chemoresistance-and-clinical-practice-an-evidence-based-view
#6
Salah Mohamed El Sayed, Hussam Baghdadi, Mohammed Zolaly, Hamdi H Almaramhy, Mongi Ayat, Jagadish G Donki
3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a promising effective anticancer drug against many different tumors in children and adults. 3BP exhibited strong anticancer effects in both preclinical and human studies e.g. energy depletion, oxidative stress, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastatic effects, targeting cancer stem cells and antagonizing the Warburg effect. There is no report about 3BP metabolism to guide researchers and oncologists to improve clinical practice and prevent drug resistance. In this article, we provide evidences that 3BP is metabolized through glutathione (GSH) conjugation as a novel report where 3BP was confirmed to be attached to GSH followed by permanent loss of pharmacological effects in a picture similar to cisplatin...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236851/infant-acetylcholine-dopamine-and-melatonin-dysregulation-neonatal-biomarkers-and-causal-factors-for-asd-and-adhd-phenotypes
#7
Kahl Hellmer, Pär Nyström
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and ADHD are common neurodevelopmental disorders that benefit from early intervention but currently suffer from late detection and diagnosis: neurochemical dysregulations are extant already at birth but clinical phenotypes are not distinguishable until preschool age or later. The vast heterogeneity between subjects' phenotypes relates to interaction between multiple unknown factors, making research on factor causality insurmountable. To unlock this situation we pose the hypothesis that atypical pupillary light responses from rods, cones, and the recently discovered ipRGC system reflect early acetylcholine, melatonin, and dopamine dysregulation that are sufficient but not necessary factors for developing ASD and/or ADHD disorders...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236850/intermittent-hypoxia-as-a-means-to-improve-aerobic-capacity-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
R J Leone, S Lalande
Physical inactivity and a low maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) strongly predict morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Patients with T2D have a reduced VO2max when compared with healthy individuals of similar age, weight, and physical activity levels, and this lower aerobic capacity is usually attributed to a reduced oxygen delivery to the working muscles. The oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, as well as increases in cardiac output and blood flow, contribute to the delivery of oxygen to the active muscles during exercise...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236849/should-metformin-be-included-in-fertility-treatment-of-pcos-patients
#9
Jigal Haas, Yaakov Bentov
Metformin, a drug developed for the treatment of patients with type II diabetes, has become commonly prescribed medication for PCOS patients. Initially, metformin was prescribed for patients with impaired glucose tolerance at the pre conception period, however more recently its use was expanded to many of the PCOS patients and for the whole duration of pregnancy. Several studies examining the effects of Metformin during pregnancy reported a lower pregnancy loss, reduced gestational diabetes and no increased risk for birth defects, however, several more recent studies also raised concerns about its safe use...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236848/the-fibrinolytic-system-a-new-target-for-treatment-of-depression-with-psychedelics
#10
R D Idell, G Florova, A A Komissarov, S Shetty, R B S Girard, S Idell
Current understanding of the neurobiology of depression has grown over the past few years beyond the traditional monoamine theory of depression to include chronic stress, inflammation and disrupted synaptic plasticity. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key factor that not only promotes fibrinolysis via the activation of plasminogen, but also contributes to regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis through plasmin-mediated activation of a probrain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to mature BDNF...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236847/is-von-willebrand-disease-linked-to-cholesteatoma-aetiology
#11
 Reis Rego, M Santos, M Coutinho, T Feliciano, C Almeida E Sousa
Cholesteatoma is a common clinical picture seen by otolaryngologists. The disease is characterised by an abnormal grow "of skin in the wrong place". Specifically, in acquired cholesteatoma, the main causative issue is associated with ventilatory deficits within the middle ear and results in chronic infection. Molecular science has associated the presence of specific molecules with its development, and moreover recent research suggests that deregulated angiogenesis is a crucial process in the development of cholesteatoma and its recurrence...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236846/the-prevention-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-bph
#12
W G Roper
Barry Marshall and Robin Warren were the first to show that the chronic diseases (gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis) were caused by an infection (Helicobacter pylori). The chronic disease benign prostatic hyperplasia belongs to the same ilk, except that the infection process is much more subtle and complex. The enzyme Phospholipase D (PLD) which is attached to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli (E. coli) has now been almost completely proven to be the basic cause of BPH. The evidence for this process is now extremely strong and compelling...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236845/sleep-and-cargo-reorganization-a-hypothesis
#13
LETTER
Richard J McCloskey
Several molecules that act in the nervous system to regulate sleep and wake were first identified based on their transport effects in pigmented cells. I compiled a list of such molecules like melatonin, melanin-concentrating hormone, and pigment dispersing factor, etc. Molecules that induce pigment aggregation promote sleep whereas molecules that induce pigment dispersal promote wake. I call these Sleep and PIgment Regulating Factors SPIRFs. SPIRFs regulate organelle trafficking in both pigmentary models and neurons...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236844/altered-metabolic-homeostasis-between-vitamin-d-and-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-preeclampsia
#14
Anindita A Nandi, Nisha S Wadhwani, Sadhana R Joshi
Sub-optimal maternal nutrition may result in pregnancy complications like preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is known to be of placental origin and a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our earlier studies suggest that altered metabolism of folic acid, vitamin B12 and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFAs) in the one carbon cycle increases homocysteine levels in preeclampsia. Recent reports indicate that vitamin D deficiency may also have a role in preeclampsia, although the mechanisms are unclear...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236843/multiple-sclerosis-and-air-pollution-exposure-mechanisms-toward-brain-autoimmunity
#15
Sayed Esmaeil Mousavi, Pouria Heydarpour, Jacques Reis, Masoud Amiri, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
The association between neurodegenerative diseases and environmental exposures, in particular air pollution, has been noticed in the last two decades, but the importance of this environmental factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis has not been considered extensively. However, recent evidence suggests that major mechanisms involved in MS pathogenesis, such as inflammatory factors expression, free radicals overproduction, the blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, neuroinflammation, vitamin D deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction could also occur due to exposure to air pollutants...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236842/conditional-potency-is-a-hallmark-of-viral-protein-derived-toxic-peptides
#16
Man Tang, Xiaoxia Li, Qizhang Li, Yanchao Zhou, Wen Pan, Jiayang Gao, Zi-Wei Ye, Shaoping Weng, Qiuyun Liu, Jianguo He, Zhumei He
Viral infections are major ongoing challenges to mankind. The theory of cytokine storm cannot fully account for the virulence of some highly infectious viruses with high mortality rates. Although numerous viruses are capable of lysing animal and human cells in vivo, viral protein-derived peptides are mostly mild in standard culture conditions in in vitro assays. A hypothesis is postulated that conditional potency of viral protein-derived toxic peptides could at least in part explain cell senescence upon viral infections...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236841/impaired-illness-awareness-and-leftward-visuospatial-inattention-in-schizophrenia-are-attributable-to-a-common-neural-deficit-posterior-parietal-hemispheric-imbalance
#17
Julia Kim, Eric Plitman, Shinichiro Nakajima, Jun Ku Chung, Youssef Alshehri, Yusuke Iwata, Fernando Caravaggio, Bruce G Pollock, Dave Pothier, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Philip Gerretsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236840/primary-trigeminal-neuralgia-and-the-role-of-pars-oralis-of-the-spinal-trigeminal-nucleus
#18
Selcuk Peker, Alperen Sirin
Trigeminal neuralgia is a painful condition that causes great discomfort. Although this disease has been known for more than 1000years, there is still no consensus on its underlying mechanism or treatment. Many hypotheses have been reported to explain the cause and nature of trigeminal neuralgia. These include theories about peripheral mechanisms and central mechanisms. We put forward a new hypothesis that trigeminal neuralgia is associated with the pars oralis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (POSTN). The main basis for this is the close similarity between trigger point distribution and the area of influence of the POSTN...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236839/lack-of-eye-discipline-during-headers-in-high-school-girls-soccer-a-possible-mechanism-for-increased-concussion-rates
#19
Joseph F Clark, Hagar T Elgendy-Peerman, Jon G Divine, Robert E Mangine, Kimberly A Hasselfeld, Jane C Khoury, Angelo J Colosimo
The sport of soccer is the fastest growing and most popular sport worldwide. With this growth and popularity, attention needs to be given to this athletic population. Sports related concussions is a topic that has gained attention both in the media and by governmental organizations, with growing initiatives in diagnosis, prevention and treatment. The act of soccer heading is thought to contribute to increased concussion incidence. Current evidence reveals that within the high school soccer athletic population, female athletes incur a higher concussion rate than males...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236838/corrigendum-to-molecules-in-seminal-plasma-related-to-platelets-in-preeclampsia-med-hypotheses-93-2016-27-29
#20
Iván Antonio García-Montalvo, Gabriel Mayoral Andrade, Laura Perez-Campos Mayoral, Socorro Pina Canseco, Ruth Martinez Cruz, Margarito Martínez-Cruz, Edgar Zenteno, Eduardo Perez-Campos Mayoral, Itandehui Gallegos Velasco, Maria Teresa Hernandez-Huerta, Diana Matias-Perez, Eduardo Pérez-Campos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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