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Medical Hypotheses

Peter Wostyn, Peter Paul De Deyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Maddalena Napolitano, Cataldo Patruno
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor expressed in all skin cells type. It responds to exogenous and endogenous chemicals by inducing/repressing the expression of several genes with toxic or protective effects in a wide range of species and tissues. In healthy skin, AhR signalling contributes to keratinocytes differentiation, skin barrier function, skin pigmentation, and mediates oxidative stress. In the last years, some studies have shown that AhR seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of some skin diseases, even if the currently available data are contradictory...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Seong Chin
Since Róbert Bárány proposed his hypothesis on vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), dizziness associated with vertigo has been interpreted as being vestibular in origin. However, there have been many contradictory findings showing modulations of VOR, which have caused confusion as to VOR's role and accuracy. Further, there seems to be an influence of VOR when the anatomical inner ear structures are congenitally absent. Many people report vertiginous symptoms when they are exposed to visually challenging situations...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Alejandro I Lorenzo-Pouso, Mario Pérez-Sayáns, Abel García, Javier Carballo
Vitamin D is an important nutrient for bone health and skeleton growth. Few foods are natural sources of this secosteroid; this is the reason why the consumption of vitamin D as a dietary supplement is becoming common in developed countries. For many years vitamin D has been considered crucial in the treatment and prevention of the Global Burden of Disease and in a reduction in mortality among elder people. Many health care providers prescribe these supplements in the management of osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases; specifically in the primary prevention of fractures...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Oliver Szasz, Gyula Vincze, Gyula Peter Szigeti, Zoltan Benyo, Andras Szasz
Angiogenesis is one of the main supporting factors of tumor-progression. It is a complex set of interactions together with hypoxia and inflammation, regulating tumor growth. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of angiogenesis with an allometric approach applied to angiogenesis and the regulating factors. The results show that allometry has the potential to describe this aspect, including the sigmoid-like transport function. There are particular conditions under which the complex control maximizes the relative tumor mass...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Jahahreeh Finley
Learning and memory are generally considered the behavioral correlates of long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity associated with a persistent and long-lasting increase in synaptic strength. Repetitive stimulation of excitatory synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region leads to release and binding of glutamate to the glutamate receptors AMPAR and NMDAR located on pyramidal neurons. Activation of AMPARs facilitates Na+ influx, postsynaptic depolarization, NMDAR-mediated Ca2+ influx, and activation of several intracellular mechanisms that characterize LTP, including increased AMPAR synthesis, ROS production, and ER Ca2+ release...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Barbara Scolnick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Katlynn M Mathis, Kathleen M Sturgeon, Renate M Winkels, Joachim Wiskemann, Nancy I Williams, Kathryn Schmitz
Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) is the temporary or permanent loss of menses experienced by premenopausal women undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer. Two possible mechanisms through which chemotherapy induces CIA have been identified: systemic endothelial dysfunction, resulting in decreased blood flow to the ovaries, and increased oxidative stress within the ovaries, both of which are proposed to lead to apoptosis of follicles. Endothelial dysfunction in ovarian arteries in women undergoing or who have undergone chemotherapy treatment is characterized by prothrombotic changes and thickening of the vascular wall...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Bela Büki, Heinz Jünger, Yunxia Wang Lundberg
In the last 4 years the authors observed a trend that correcting vitamin D deficiency in newly diagnosed cases of Meniere's disease decreased the necessity of the ablative therapy with intratympanic gentamicin. According to their hypothesis, vitamin D supplementation may indeed have a beneficial effect in Meniere's disease if the symptoms are caused by a local postviral autoimmune reaction. Vitamin D has a strong immunomodulatory role, one of which is the regulation of the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Simona Portaro, Antonino Naro, Vincenzo Cimino, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Harun Seyhan, Jan-Phillip Stromps, Erhan Demir, Paul C Fuchs, Jürgen Kopp
Dupuytren's disease, a benign fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar fascia, represents an ideal model to study tissue fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream Smad signaling system is well established as a keyplayer during fibrogenesis. Vitamin D has been extensively studied as an anti-fibrotic agent in malignant chronic diseases. A number of studies have shown that myofibroblasts are main target cells of 1,25(OH)2 D3 inhibitory action. The myofibroblast in the palmar aponeurosis of patients in different stages of Dupuytren's disease was found by electron microscopy to contain a large number of mitochondria...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Susana Cifre, Mónica Gozalbo, Vicente Ortiz, José M Soriano, J Francisco Merino, María Trelis
Blastocystis spp. is a common intestinal protozoan that affects humans and animals. The role of this parasite as a pathogen is still controversial and it is suspected to be linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain associated with altered intestinal habits. A broad search in electronic databases, libraries, portals of journals, etc. for reports on the association between the parasite and IBS without language restriction was performed...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Samuel Milham, Dave Stetzer
The epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has a number of facets that do not fit with sunlight and ultraviolet light as the primary etiologic agents. Indoor workers have higher incidence and mortality rates of CMM than outdoor workers; CMM occurs in body locations never exposed to sunlight; CMM incidence is increasing in spite of use of UV blocking agents and small changes in solar radiation. Installation of two new fluorescent lights in the milking parlor holding area of a Minnesota dairy farm in 2015 caused an immediate drop in milk production...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
M Shah, P O O Julu, J A Monro, J Coutinho, C Ijeh, B K Puri
Systemic arterial hypertension, a well-known cause of morbidity, is associated with dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Neuromuscular taping (also known as kinesio taping, medical taping and Vendje neuromuscular) allows movement and muscle activity to treat pain, muscle disorders and lymphoedema, in which its mode of action may involve muscular stimulation leading to increased local blood circulation or stimulating dermatological, muscular and fascial structures with a form of passive massage. We hypothesised that neuromuscular taping may reduce blood pressure in systemic arterial hypertension...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Ioannis Ilias, Maria Alexiou, George Mastorakos
There may exist an association between thyroid dysfunction/autoimmunity and parity. Autoimmune thyroiditis shows some degree of telomere shortening. Parity was recently found to be associated with telomere shortening. We hypothesize that among the factors affecting the tentative association between parity and thyroid dysfunction/autoimmunity shortened telomeres' may also be implicated. This could also be another facet of the processes leading to autoimmune thyroiditis.
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Friederike Traunmüller
The present article proposes the hypothesis that when multipotent vascular stem cells are exposed to excessive insulin in a rhythmic pattern of sharply rising and falling concentrations, their differentiation is misdirected toward adipogenic and osteogenic cell lineages. This results in plaque-like accumulation of adipocytes with fat and cholesterol deposition from adipocyte debris, and osteogenic (progenitor) cells with a calcified matrix in advanced lesions. The ingrowth of capillaries and infiltration with macrophages, which upon uptake of lipids turn into foam cells, are unspecific pro-resolving reactions...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Helmut Niederhofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Harshita Mishra, Pawan Kumar Mishra, Adam Ekielski, Zeenat Iqbal, Manu Jaggi, Sushama Talegaonkar
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers which has very low response rate and survival rate. Melanoma cells are known to be inherently resistant to the chemotherapy which results in poor outcomes and even failure of the therapy. For this reason, a better understanding of underlying mechanism of melanoma pathogenesis and resistance is required, so that more efficient and novel therapeutic strategies can be developed. Survivin is a protein which is overexpressed in melanoma cells and is known to impart resistance to them against apoptosis...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Muhammad Faraz Anwar, Shamshad Zarina, Syed Ali, Syed Hani Abidi
Helicase enzyme is responsible for the unwinding of complementary nucleic acid strands, which is one of the preliminary steps in DNA replication. They are crucial for replication of an organism, including viruses. HCV and HIV are two clinically significant pathogens, responsible for millions of infections and deaths worldwide. Due to similar transmission routes, these viruses can establish co-infection in an individual. Individually, these infections are difficult to treat, however, in case of co-infection, the treatment becomes more difficult...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
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