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Medical Hypotheses

I Hardy, S Rousseau
Cesarean sections are a common surgical procedure at risk of complications including adhesions and chronic pelvic pain. This case series presents 10 cases of patients presenting with chronic pelvic pain following a cesarean section which were found upon surgical exploration to have developed adhesions between the abdominal wall and the uterus. When they first consulted, patients were evaluated clinically with a questionnaire and physical exam, and with ultrasonography to evaluate pelvic anatomy when necessary...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Natalia Loskutova, Amber S Watts, Jeffrey M Burns
BACKGROUND: Animal studies provide strong evidence that the CNS directly regulates bone remodeling through the actions of the hypothalamus via two distinct pathways, the neural (mediated by leptin) arm and neurohumoral (mediated by neurohormones and growth factors) arm. The impact of AD on central regulatory mechanisms of bone mass is not known. OBJECTIVES: To test a model that assesses the relationship between hypothalamic atrophy and bone loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and potential mediation through neural (leptin) and neurohumoral (insulin-like growth factor -1, IGF-1) mechanisms...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Michihiro Osumi, Masahiko Sumitani, Yuko Otake, Shu Morioka
Goal-directed movements of a limb are optimized by sensorimotor integration, a process that merges both sensory and motor representations. In a previous study, we revealed that abnormal sensory representation can impair reach-to-grasp movements in patients with spinothalamocortical pathway lesions. This abnormal motor control was significantly recovered when referencing correct somatosensory information with the intact hand. Furthermore, motor control of the intact hand was impaired when referencing abnormal somatosensory information with the affected hand...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Andrew J Szabo
The prevalence of adult and childhood obesity are increasing. Most of the human newborn's body fat accumulates in the last half of intrauterine life. Fat in the fetus was thought to be mostly synthesized from glucose, but now it is commonly accepted that the bulk of it is the product of placental transfer of maternal fatty acids. Transported fatty acids originate in maternal plasma "free" fatty acids, fatty acids hydrolyzed from maternal plasma triglycerides, and the poly-unsaturated fatty acid component of maternal phospholipids...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
K Valachová, I Juránek, P Rapta, I Valent, L Šoltés
Ascorbate administered intravenously gives a high plasma concentration of this drug. Clinical trials with pancreatic carcinoma patients revealed their prolonged survival if treated with intravenous ascorbate. On the other hand, high plasma ascorbate concentration leads to severe side effects, such as nephrotoxicity. In the present paper, we advocate to lower intravenous ascorbate dosage along with monothiol N-acetylcysteine pretreatment due to anticipation of the same therapeutic effect but less or none of side effects...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Hossein Hassani, Mahdi Kalantari, Zara Ghodsi
bicoid is a maternally transcribed gene which plays a pivotal role during the early developmental stage of Drosophila melanogaster by acting as an essential input to the segmentation network. Therefore, fundamental insights into gene cross-regulations of segmentation network expect to be unveiled by presenting an accurate mathematical model for bicoid gene expression profile. In this paper, an extended version of Birnbaum-Saunders with four parameters is introduced and evaluated to describe the spatial gradient of this gene...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Myrtill Simkó, Mats-Olof Mattsson
The biological effects of low frequency magnetic fields (LF MF) at high flux densities are well known and the underlying mechanism is established. In contrast, health associated effects at lower flux densities, which can be found in the human environment, are controversial, and no accepted interaction mechanism has been presented. Here we present a hypothesis regarding the biological aspect of interaction between LF MF and cells. We suggest that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein STIM1, which functions as a sensor for several cellular conditions (low Ca2+ levels, temperature increase, increased levels of oxygen radicals, hypoxia), is a candidate LF MF sensor...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Philippe de Medina
Despite intensive research, no satisfactory therapeutic options have been found for aging and age-related diseases. The British scientist Leslie Orgel stated that evolution is cleverer than we are. This assumption seems correct considering that some species are naturally able to resist the age-related diseases that remain unsolved by our modern medicine. Indeed, bowhead whales can live for more than two hundred years and are suspected to possess efficient antitumor mechanisms. Naked mole-rats are exceptionally long-lived compared to similar-sized mammals and are protected from senescence and age-related diseases...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Verinder Sharma
First-onset or recurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common after childbirth. Postpartum OCD can occur alone or in combination with other psychiatric disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders. Putative etiological mechanisms involve consideration of genetic factors, alterations in the serotonin system secondary to changes in levels of gonadal hormones, rise in oxytocin, hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis hyperactivity, and neuroinflammation. Sleep deprivation arising from a host of diverse factors is common after delivery in women with postpartum OCD...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Peter Wostyn, Debby Van Dam, Peter Paul De Deyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Mika Yrjö Suominen
The generally accepted theory of the etiopathology of rheumatoid arthritis has not led to a breakthrough so far, and the root cause of RA is still unknown. Surgical experience does not support the idea that the damage in the joint is caused by synovitis. Synovial tissue does not spread on the surface of the cartilage and thus destroy it, and neither is the erosion caused by the synovial tissue. Macroscopically and microscopically synovitis in RA is no different to synovitis in arthrosis. Perhaps the etiopathogenesis should once more be reconsidered...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Atsushi Kurata
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is markedly more common in women than men, and its occurrence and risk for poorer prognosis are associated with pregnancy. Further, it is known that there is a high frequency of co-occurrence of DTC and breast cancer. Although the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these phenomena are not entirely clear, 2 hypotheses are proposed here. First, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the placenta may be involved, since hCG has a similar function to stimulate the thyroid as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the latter of which is known to play a role in causing DTC and may promote breast cancer through the secretion of thyroid hormones (THs)...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
D Murphy, E Sinha-Royle, K Bellis, C Harrington, D Hutchinson
Nodular rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have raised rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels, and are more likely to smoke than RA patients without nodules. Subcutaneous and pulmonary rheumatoid nodules (granulomas) frequently co-exist. Pulmonary rheumatoid nodules develop prior to RA development and have the immunological machinery to generate RF and ACPAs. Pulmonary granulomas have been observed in animal models exposed to cadmium (Cd) inhalation. Cigarette smoke increases pulmonary Cd exposure...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Gary Steinman
Autism continues to be a significant cause of psychosocial pathology in affected children and adults. Until recently, the predominant research thrust to uncover the cause of this condition has been the search for a major nuclear mutation. Although a small percentage of cases do demonstrate such a DNA fault, recent effort has come to emphasize problems in the biochemistry of its sufferers. In particular, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF) has become the center of concern in many laboratories. A deficiency in this growth factor, leading to insufficient neuron myelination and defective synapse function, appears to result in brain dysconnectivity during the first year of postpartum life, and cause social malfunction in childhood years and beyond...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Robert Liptak, Barbora Gromova, Martin Maronek, Roman Gardlik
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a disbalance in the composition of intestinal microbiota. It is not clear whether such dysbiosis is a cause or a consequence of a disease state. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor to a patient or diseased animal is a valuable tool for targeted modification of microbiome leading to therapeutic response. Positive effect has been shown in therapy of a number of gastrointestinal as well as non-gastrointestinal diseases. In addition, FMT has been successfully used to transfer the diseased phenotype form a donor with the disease to a healthy recipient...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Uri Gabbay, Doron Carmi, Einat Birk, David Dagan, Anat Shatz, Debora Kidron
BACKGROUND: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) mechanisms of death remains obscured. SIDS' Triple Risk Model assumed coexistence of individual subtle vulnerability, critical developmental period and stressors. Prone sleeping is a major risk factor but provide no clues regarding the mechanism of death. The leading assumed mechanisms of death are either an acute respiratory crisis or arrhythmias but neither one is supported with evidence, hence both are eventually speculations. Postmortem findings do exist but are inconclusive to identify the mechanism of death...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Ratnakar Arumugam, Endu Sekhar Srinadhu, Balanehru Subramanian, Satyanarayana Nallani
Necrosis in heart muscles can permanently hinder the natural healthy rhythm of heart pumping mechanism. The damaged muscular tissues are replaced by scar tissues and burdens the healthy muscles resulting in further attenuated functioning of heart. Since, human heart muscles cannot regenerate naturally or it has been thought so, pharmacological procedures such as using a heart assist device are followed to restore the lost function of heart. Stem cell engineering and cardiac patches offers promising prospects with their cutting edge research reports...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Semyon V Kupriyanov, Anton I Sinitskii
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with an unclear etiology. The disease is characterized by infiltration of synovial tissue with immune cells, among which there are dendritic cells that play multifaceted roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here we shall assume that plasmacytoid dendritic cells are able to change their phenotype under the influence of various stimuli, thereby modulating the course of the disease, contributing to both the development of exacerbations and the induction of remissions depending on the phenotype they have acquired...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Naichun Ji, Wenpeng Zhao, Huiming Qian, Xinyu Yan, Rong Zong, Yuelin Zhang, Kejing Lao
Aerobic exercise can delay aging and extend lifespan, but its specific mechanism still remains unclear. One popular theory is that with age and the cell division times increasing, DNA damage will inevitably accumulate, leading to dysfunction and failure of various tissues and organs, which will eventually lead to aging. Thus, repairing damaged DNA is a key strategy to extend lifespan. Excision repair cross-complementary gene 1 (ERCC1) is a DNA repair enzyme that recognizes, excises and repairs damaged DNA. Defects or reduced activity of the enzyme can lead to DNA damage accumulation...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Gary Steinman
The innovative method described involves antepartum testing to determine if the fetus has the potential of later developing autism. A technique is detailed which allows examining the maternal blood for SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) known to be associated with IGF1/IRS1 cellular pathway malfunction potentially leading to brain dysconnectivity in neonates. Results can then be corroborated with umbilical cord sampling at birth by the Autism Index test. [The discussion presented here is the follow-up to the recent prior report: Steinman, G...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
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