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Journal of Clinical Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651396/vaccination-of-icelandic-children-with-the-10-valent-pneumococcal-vaccine-leads-to-a-significant-herd-effect-among-adults-in-iceland
#1
Sigríður J Quirk, Gunnsteinn Haraldsson, Martha Á Hjálmarsdóttir, Andries J van Tonder, Birgir Hrafnkelsson, Stephen D Bentley, Ásgeir Haraldsson, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Angela B Brueggemann, Karl G Kristinsson
The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) into childhood vaccination programs has reduced carriage of vaccine serotypes and pneumococcal disease. The 10-valent PCV was introduced in Iceland in 2011. The aim of this study was to determine PCV impact on the prevalence of serotypes, genetic lineages and antimicrobial-resistant pneumococci isolated from the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of adults.Pneumococci isolated during 2009-2017 at the Landspitali University Hospital, were included (n=797)...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651395/diagnosing-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-hematology-patients-a-retrospective-multicenter-evaluation-of-a-novel-lateral-flow-device
#2
Toine Mercier, Alexander Schauwvlieghe, Elizabeth de Kort, Albert Dunbar, Marijke Reynders, Ellen Guldentops, Bart Rijnders, Paul E Verweij, Katrien Lagrou, Johan Maertens
BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a potentially lethal infection in patients with hematological diseases or following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Early diagnosis is essential as delayed treatment results in increased mortality. Recently, a lateral flow device (LFD) for the diagnosis of IPA was CE-marked and commercialized by OLM Diagnostics. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) collected from adult hematology patients from 4 centers in the Netherlands and Belgium...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651394/a-core-genome-multilocus-sequence-typing-cgmlst-scheme-for-enterococcus-faecalis
#3
Bernd Neumann, Karola Prior, Jennifer K Bender, Dag Harmsen, Ingo Klare, Stephan Fuchs, Astrid Bethe, Daniela Zühlke, André Göhler, Stefan Schwarz, Kirsten Schaffer, Katharina Riedel, Lothar H Wieler, Guido Werner
Among enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis occurs ubiquitously, with the highest incidence of human and animal infections. The high genetic plasticity of E. faecalis complicates both molecular investigations and phylogenetic analyses. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) enables unraveling of epidemiological linkages and putative transmission events between humans, animals, and food. Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) aims to combine the discriminatory power of classical multilocus sequence typing (MLST) with the extensive genetic data obtained by WGS...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651393/impact-of-gastrointestinal-panel-implementation-on-healthcare-utilization-and-outcomes
#4
Jordan E Axelrad, Daniel E Freedberg, Susan Whittier, William Greendyke, Benjamin Lebwohl, Daniel A Green
Introduction : Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based multiplex gastrointestinal (GI) pathogen panels have started to replace stool culture and ova and parasite exam as a rapid and accurate means of diagnosing acute gastroenteritis. However, there are limited data on the impact of panel testing on patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the management and healthcare utilization of patients following GI panel compared to conventional stool testing. Methods : We performed a retrospective comparative analysis of 9,402 patients who underwent testing with the FilmArray® GI panel from March 2015 through May 2017 and 5,986 patients who underwent conventional stool testing from December 2012 through February 2015...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651392/impact-of-rapid-molecular-detection-of-respiratory-viruses-on-clinical-outcomes-and-patient-management
#5
Jane Kuypers
To determine if rapid molecular testing for respiratory viruses in patients with respiratory illnesses can provide advantages to patients and hospitals, rigorous investigations on the impacts of using these assays are required. Well-conducted studies are needed to inform decisions about implementation of new rapid assays to replace standard molecular testing or to initiate testing in laboratories that are currently not doing molecular tests for respiratory viruses due to the complex nature of standard panels...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651391/evaluation-of-the-accelerate-pheno%C3%A2-system-for-identification-of-acinetobacter-clinical-isolates-and-minocycline-susceptibility-testing
#6
Sarah L Bowler, Justin Towne, Romney M Humphries, Yohei Doi
Pheno™ is a rapid phenotypic bacterial identification and susceptibility testing system which is approved for use with positive blood cultures. Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen for which limited treatment options include minocycline in the case of multidrug resistance. Here, we studied the performance of A. baumannii identification and minocycline susceptibility testing by Pheno™ using 101 contemporary Acinetobacter spp. clinical isolates. Overall, the sensitivity for A. baumannii and A...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651390/an-automated-immunoblot-method-for-detection-of-igg-antibodies-to-hepatitis-c-virus-a-potential-supplemental-antibody-confirmatory-assay
#7
Maja Kodani, Miranda Martin, Vivianne Landgraf de Castro, Jan Drobeniuc, Saleem Kamili
An estimated 41,200 people were newly infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 2016 in the United States. Screening tests for antibodies to HCV may generate up to 32% false positivity in low-risk populations. Current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) screening recommendations do not require confirmatory testing of a screening anti-HCV positive test, however confirmation is valuable for surveillance in the absence of HCV RNA testing. Recombinant Immunoblot Assay (RIBA) was used as a confirmatory assay for anti-HCV reactive samples but was discontinued in 2013...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651389/evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-cobas%C3%A2-ct-ng-test-for-use-on-the-cobas%C3%A2-6800-8800-systems-for-the-detection-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-ct-and-neisseria-gonorrhoea-e-ng-in-male-and-female-urogenital-samples
#8
Barbara Van Der Pol, Kenneth Fife, Stephanie N Taylor, Melinda B Nye, Steven E Chavoustie, David L Eisenberg, LaShonda Crane, Gregory Hirsch, Rodney Arcenas, Elizabeth M Marlowe
The clinical performance of the cobas® CT/NG assay on the cobas 6800/8800 Systems (cobas) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoea e (NG) was established in a multisite, prospective collection study using male and female urogenital specimens; supportive data from archived specimens were also included. Results with cobas were compared with a patient infected status derived from a combination of US Food and Drug Administration-approved nucleic acid amplification tests to determine the sensitivity and specificity in each sample type...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651388/a-real-time-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-elizabethkingia-species-and-differentiating-between-e-anophelis-and-e-meningoseptica
#9
EDITORIAL
Aubree J Kelly, Sandor E Karpathy, Christopher A Gulvik, Melissa L Ivey, Anne M Whitney, Melissa E Bell, Ainsley C Nicholson, Ben H Humrighouse, John R McQuiston
Nosocomial infections of Elizabethkingia species can have fatal outcomes if not identified and treated properly. The current diagnostic tools available require culture and isolation, which can extend the reporting time and delay treatment. Using comparative genomics, we developed an efficient multiplex real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of all known species of Elizabethkingia , as well as differentiating the two most commonly reported species Elizabethkingia anophelis and Elizabethkingia meningoseptica ...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30651387/improved-performance-of-a-rapid-immunochromatographic-assay-for-the-detection-of-pbp2a-in-non-staphylococcus-aureus-staphylococcal-species
#10
Matthew C Canver, Mark D Gonzalez, Bradley A Ford, Amanda R Arnold, Sara D Lawhon, C A Burnham, Stephen G Jenkins, Eileen M Burd, Lars F Westblade
Non- S. aureus staphylococcal species (non-SASS) are important pathogens in both animal and human populations. The development of β-lactam resistance in non-SASS through acquisition and expression of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) represents a significant clinical and public health threat. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of two versions of a PBP2a immunochromatographic assay with non-SASS. Our data show that the revised version of the assay, PBP2a SA Culture Colony Test, has superior diagnostic sensitivity compared to the previous version of the assay, PBP2a Culture Colony Test, 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626663/blood-smears-have-poor-sensitivity-for-confirming-borrelia-miyamotoi-disease
#11
Sam R Telford, Heidi K Goethert, Philip J Molloy, Victor Berardi
Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is a newly recognized borreliosis that is co-transmitted by ticks wherever Lyme disease is zoonotic. Unlike Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme disease, B. miyamotoi is closely related to relapsing fever spirochetes such as B. hermsi Some authors have suggested that the disease caused by B. miyamotoi should be considered a hard-tick transmitted relapsing fever, and thus the main mode of confirming a diagnosis for that infection, microscopy to analyze a blood smear, may have clinical utility...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626662/detection-and-differentiation-of-two-koala-gammaherpesviruses-using-high-resolution-melt-hrm-analysis-reveals-differences-in-viral-prevalence-and-clinical-associations-in-a-large-study-of-free-ranging-koalas
#12
P K Vaz, A R Legione, C A Hartley, J M Devlin
The iconic koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) is host to two divergent gammaherpesviruses, phascolarctid gammaherpesviruses 1 and 2 (PhaHV-1, and -2), but the clinical significance of the individual viruses is unknown and current diagnostic methods are unsuitable for differentiating between the viruses in large-scale studies. To address this, we modified a pan-herpesvirus nested-PCR to incorporate high resolution melt analysis. We applied this assay in a molecular epidemiological study of 810 koalas from disparate populations across Victoria, Australia, including isolated island populations...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626661/utility-of-serum-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-galactomannan-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#13
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Hansraj Choudhary, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Mandeep Garg, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Ritesh Agarwal
Background and aim : The value of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) galactomannan (GM) in diagnosing chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) remains unclear. Herein, we study the diagnostic efficacy of GM in the diagnosis of CPA. Methods : We included consecutive treatment-naïve subjects with CPA. For calculating the specificity of serum GM, we enrolled diseased controls (minimally symptomatic subjects previously treated for pulmonary tuberculosis, not meeting the criteria for CPA). To calculate the specificity of BALF-GM, subjects with pulmonary disorders other than CPA who underwent bronchoscopy were included...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626660/performance-of-antigen-concentration-thresholds-for-attributing-fever-to-malaria-among-outpatients-in-angola
#14
Mateusz M Plucinski, Eric Rogier, Rafael Dimbu, Filomeno Fortes, Eric S Halsey, Michael Aidoo, Tom Smith
The density of malaria parasites is a key determinant in whether or not an infected individual develops fever. While the pyrogenic threshold for malaria parasite density has been well-studied, there is no analogous data on the level of antigen associated with fever during infection. Samples from 797 afebrile and 457 febrile outpatients from two provinces in Angola with known concentrations of histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2), aldolase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigens were analyzed by Bayesian latent-class modeling to attribute malaria etiology to the fevers and to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of different antigen thresholds for detecting malaria fevers...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626659/a-simpler-and-more-sensitive-single-copy-hiv-1-rna-assay-to-quantify-persistent-hiv-1-viremia-in-individuals-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Melissa A Tosiano, Jana L Jacobs, Kathleen A Shutt, Joshua C Cyktor, John W Mellors
A real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay with single-copy sensitivity targeting the integrase region of HIV-1 (integrase single copy assay version 1.0 [iSCA v1.0]) has been widely used to quantify plasma viremia in individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). iSCA v1.0 requires the use of an ultracentrifuge and only about half of the nucleic acid extracted from plasma is assayed for HIV-1 RNA. We sought to simplify sample processing using microcentrifugation and improve assay sensitivity by testing more than 75% of the total extracted nucleic acid for HIV-1 RNA (integrase SCA version 2...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30602445/clinical-impact-of-rapid-point-of-care-polymerase-chain-reaction-influenza-testing-in-an-urgent-care-setting-a-single-center-study
#16
Robert C Benirschke, Erin McElvania, Richard Thomson, Karen Kaul, Sanchita Das
Seasonal influenza virus causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. Point-of-care (POC) testing using rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), immunoassays that detect viral antigens, are often used for diagnosis by physician offices and urgent care centers. These tests are rapid but lack sensitivity, which is estimated to be 50-70%. Testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly sensitive and specific, but historically these assays have been performed in centralized clinical laboratories necessitating specimen transport and increasing the time to result...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30602444/laboratory-diagnosis-of-neonatal-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#17
REVIEW
William J Muller, Xiaotian Zheng
Herpes simplex virus is a common and often benign infection in humans, and although it less commonly affects newborns, infection in this age group can be devastating. Newborns often present with non-specific clinical findings, making timely and accurate diagnosis of infection critical. A wide variety of tests are available for detecting HSV infection, but only a subset is useful and validated in the newborn population. The current review summarizes available diagnostic testing for neonatal disease, including discussing limitations, unmet needs, and emerging data on molecular testing methods...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30602443/levels-of-mycoplasma-genitalium-antimicrobial-resistance-differ-by-both-region-and-gender-in-the-state-of-queensland-australia-implications-for-treatment-guidelines
#18
E L Sweeney, E Trembizki, C Bletchly, C S Bradshaw, A Menon, F Francis, J Langton-Lockton, G R Nimmo, D M Whiley
Mycoplasma genitalium is frequently associated with urogenital and rectal infections, with the number of cases of macrolide resistant and quinolone resistant M. genitalium continuing to increase. In this study, we examined the levels of antibiotic resistance to these two common antibiotic treatments in geographically distinct locations in Queensland, Australia. Samples were screened for macrolide resistance-associated mutations using a commercially available kit (ResistancePlus™ MG; SpeeDx) and quinolone resistance-associated mutations were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30602442/an-update-on-mycobacterial-taxonomy-2016-2017
#19
REVIEW
Nicole Parrish
This mini-review provides an update on recent taxonomic changes for the genus Mycobacterium with an emphasis on newly identified species isolated from humans or associated with human disease.
January 2, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30602441/-enterococcus-faecium-and-ampicillin-susceptibility-determination-overestimation-of-resistance-with-disk-diffusion-method-using-ampicillin-2-%C3%A2%C2%B5g
#20
LETTER
V Joste, E Gydé, L Toullec, C Courboulès, Talb Yasmina, E Riverain-Gillet, B Pangon, M Amara
We would like to focus your attention on ampicillin susceptibility testing for Enterococcus faecium ( E. faecium ) infections.….
January 2, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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