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Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Bjørn Barstad, Hanne Quarsten, Dag Tveitnes, Sølvi Noraas, Ingvild S Ask, Maryam Saeed, Franziskus Bosse, Grete Vigemyr, Ilka Huber, Knut Øymar
The current diagnostic marker of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) antibody index (AI) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), has insufficient sensitivity in the early phase of LNB. We aimed to elucidate the diagnostic value of Bb PCR in CSF from children with symptoms suggestive of LNB and explore Bb genotypes associated with LNB in children. Children were prospectively included into predefined groups with high or low likelihood of LNB based on diagnostic guidelines (LNB symptoms, CSF pleocytosis and Bb antibodies), or detection of other causative agents...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Ruxin Li, Di Xiao, Jing Yang, Suju Sun, Samuel Kaplan, Zhirong Li, Yanan Niu, Cuixin Qiang, Yu Zhai, Xiaoming Wang, Xingzhen Zhao, Baoxin Zhao, Martin Welker, David H Pincus, Dazhi Jin, Mini Kamboj, Guanghui Zheng, Guojun Zhang, Jianzhong Zhang, Yi-Wei Tang, Jianhong Zhao
Clostridium difficile multilocus sequence type 37 (ST37), which mainly corresponds to ribotype 017, has been a dominant genotype circulating in China. In this study, we report the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to analyze and characterize 204 C. difficile clinical isolates including 49 ST37 and 155 non-ST37 isolates collected in China and other countries. Distribution of two major protein peaks ( m/z 3242 and 3286) was significantly different between ST37 and non-ST37 prototype strains and clinical isolates...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
G Descours, H Hannetel, J V Reynaud, A G Ranc, L Beraud, C Kolenda, C Campese, G Lina, C Ginevra, S Jarraud
The isolation of Legionella from respiratory samples is the gold standard for Legionnaires' disease (LD) diagnosis and enables epidemiological studies and outbreak investigations. The purpose of this work was to adapt and evaluate the performance of an amoebic coculture procedure (the amoebae plate test, APT) to the recovery of Legionella strains from respiratory samples, in comparison with axenic culture and a liquid-based amoebic coculture (LAC). Axenic culture, LAC, and APT were prospectively performed on 133 respiratory samples from patients with LD...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Bin Chang, Masatomo Morita, Ken-Ichi Lee, Makoto Ohnishi
Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharyngeal mucus in healthy individuals and can cause otitis media, pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we analyzed the S. pneumoniae strains that caused 19 pneumonia episodes in long-term inpatients with severe underlying disease in a hospital during a period of 14 months (from January 2014 to February 2015). Serotyping and whole genome sequencing analyses revealed that 18 of the 19 pneumonia cases were caused by S. pneumoniae strains belonging to 3 genetically distinct groups: clonal complex (CC) 9999, sequence type (ST) 282, and ST166...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Maria Delmans Flores-Chavez, Vittorio Sambri, Volkmar Schottstedt, Fernando Aparicio Higuera-Escalante, Dieter Roessler, Monica Chaves, Tina Laengin, Alfredo Martinez, Bernhard Fleischer
Serology is the preferred method to confirm Chagas disease diagnosis and to screen blood donors. A battery of assays is often required due to the limited accuracy of single assays. The Elecsys® Chagas assay is a newly developed, double-antigen sandwich assay for use on the Elecsys® and cobas® e immunoassay analyzers, intended to identify individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, for diagnosis and screening. The performance of the Elecsys® Chagas assay was evaluated in comparison with other widely used T...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Anna Brischetto, Ian Gassiep, David Whiley, Robert Norton
There has been a resurgence of syphilis diagnoses in Australia. We investigated whether our Treponema pallidum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test provides any additional diagnostic information over syphilis serology (chemi-luminescence immunoassay (CMIA), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and rapid reagin (RPR) flocculation test). A retrospective audit was conducted of all T. pallidum PCR requests that came through our laboratory from January 2010 to June 2017; data collected included age, gender, site of swab, T...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Satoshi Kakiuchi, Motoi Suzuki, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel, Akitsugu Furumoto, Hiroyuki Ito, Kei Matsuki, Yoshiko Tsuchihashi, Norichika Asoh, Michio Yasunami, Koya Ariyoshi, Konosuke Morimoto
The lack of reliable diagnostic tests for detecting vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia (VTPP) remains a challenging issue in pneumococcal vaccine studies. This study assessed the performances of high-throughput nanofluidic PCR-based pneumococcal serotyping and quantification assay methods using sputum samples (nanofluidic Sp-qPCR) to diagnose the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate VTPP compared with that of the serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (UAD) assay using urine samples. Adult pneumonia patients from Japan were enrolled in this study between September 2012 and August 2014...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Diego R Falci, Alessandro C Pasqualotto, Marcio Nucci, Alexandre A Monteiro, Analy Sales de Azevedo Melo, Maria Daniela Bergamasco, Arnaldo L Colombo
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients.….
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Lone Heimann Larsen, Vesal Khalid, Yijuan Xu, Trine Rolighed Thomsen, Henrik C Schønheyder
Prosthetic joint failure is mainly caused by infection, aseptic failure (AF), and mechanical problems. Infection detection has been improved with modified culture methods and molecular diagnostics. However, comparisons between modified and conventional microbiology methods are difficult, due to variations in specimen sampling. In this prospective, multidisciplinary study of hip or knee prosthetic failures, we assessed the contributions of different specimen types, extended culture incubations, and 16S rRNA sequencing for diagnosing prosthetic joint infections (PJI)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
David A Barr, Andrew D Kerkhoff, Charlotte Schutz, Amy M Ward, Gerry R Davies, Robert J Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes
We assessed the additional diagnostic yield for M. tuberculosis blood stream infection (MTB BSI) from doing more than one TB blood culture in HIV-infected inpatients. In a retrospective analysis of two cohorts based in Cape Town, South Africa, 72/99 (73%) patients with MTB BSI were identified by the first of two blood cultures during the same admission, with 27/99 (27%, 95%CI 18 to 36%) negative on first culture but positive on second. In a prospective evaluation of up to 6 blood cultures over 24 hours, 9 out of 14 patients with MTB BSI (65%) grew M...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Randall W Renshaw, Jennifer Griffing, Jaime Weisman, Lisa M Crofton, Melissa A Laverack, Robert P Poston, Gerald E Duhamel, Edward J Dubovi
Four out of eleven affected dogs died despite aggressive treatment during a 2015 focal outbreak of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis following a stay in a pet housing facility. Routine diagnostic investigations failed to identify a specific cause. Virus isolation from fresh necropsy tissues yielded a calicivirus with sequence homology to a vesivirus within the group colloquially known as the 2117 strains that were originally identified as contaminants in CHO cell bioreactors. In situ hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR assays of tissues from the four deceased dogs confirmed the presence of canine vesivirus (CaVV) nucleic acids that localized to endothelial cells of arterial and capillary blood vessels...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Ahmad Saleh, Stephan Göttig, Axel Hamprecht
SYNOPSIS For rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), immunochromatographic lateral flow tests (ICT) have recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the new multiplex ICT RESIST-3 O.K.N®. and to investigate if it can be performed directly from susceptibility testing plates. Additionally the impact of the inoculum and carbapenem disks on sensitivity and specificity was evaluated. The new ICT was challenged using 63 CRE isolates, including 51 carbapenemase producers...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Cornelius J Clancy, M Hong Nguyen
Cultures are negative in ∼50% of invasive candidiasis. Data are emerging for the performance of non-culture tests like mannan/anti-mannan, Candida albicans germ tube antibody, 1,3-β-D-glucan, polymerase chain reaction, and the T2Candida panel in diagnosing both candidemia and deep-seated candidiasis. In most settings, positive predictive values of non-culture test are low, and negative predictive values are high. For tests to be useful, clinicians must understand the pre-test likelihood of invasive candidiasis and test performance for the most common disease manifestation in a given patient...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Andrew S McPherson, Om P Dhungyel, Richard J Whittington
Virulent footrot is an economically significant disease in most sheep-rearing countries. The disease can be controlled with vaccine targeting the fimbriae of virulent strains of the essential causative agent, Dichelobacter nodosus However, the bacterium is immunologically heterogeneous, and ten distinct fimbrial serogroups have been identified. Ideally, in each outbreak the infecting strains must be cultured and serogrouped so that the appropriate serogroup-specific mono- or bi-valent vaccine can be administered, because multivalent vaccines lack efficacy due to antigenic competition...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Noah Hull, Jonathan Miller, David Berry, William Laegreid, Ashley Smith, Callie Klinghagen, Brant Schumaker
We compared the performance of various DNA extraction kits for their ability to recover Brucella abortus Strain 19 inoculated into Brucella -free bovine tissues. Tissues were homogenized in a FastPrep™ bead homogenizer and extracted in triplicate using one of five kits (Qiagen DNeasy, GE Illustra™, Omega Bio-tek E.Z.N.A.®, Quanta Extracta™, and IBI Science DNA Tissue Kit). Whole blood was also taken from animals prior to chemical euthanasia, aliquoted, then fractioned into buffy coat, red blood cells, and plasma...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Meredith A Hackel, Joseph P Iaconis, James A Karlowsky, Daniel F Sahm
Ceftaroline fosamil was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2010 and by the European Medicines Agency in 2012. As of April 2017, only one commercial antimicrobial susceptibility testing device offered a gram-negative panel that included ceftaroline. This circumstance is unfortunate as many clinical microbiology laboratories rely solely on commercial devices to generate in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for common bacterial pathogens. In lieu of device-based testing of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae , laboratories wishing to test ceftaroline must opt for either disk diffusion testing or use a gradient strip, however, both alternatives interrupt laboratory workflow and require additional labor and expense...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Emilie Bessède, Julien Asselineau, Paul Perez, Guillaume Valdenaire, Olivier Richer, Philippe Lehours, Francis Mégraud
The detection of campylobacters in stools is performed essentially by culture, but this technique has a low sensitivity. New detection methods are now available. Among them, immunochromatography tests (ICTs) are very attractive in that they offer a result within 15 minutes. However, previous studies suggest that these tests have a relatively low specificity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of these tests.During the study period, all patients who consulted the emergency units and had a stool culture were included...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jin Shao, Zhe Wan, Ruoyu Li, Jin Yu
This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales. A total of 111 isolates covering 6 genera preserved at the Research Center for Medical Mycology of Peking University were selected for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. We emphasized the study of 23 strains of Mucor irregularis predominantly isolated from patients in China. We first used the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library v1...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Rachael M Liesman, Angela P Strasburg, Angela K Heitman, Elitza S Theel, Robin Patel, Matthew J Binnicker
Rapid and accurate laboratory tests are important for the timely diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system infections. The FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT) is an FDA-cleared, multiplex molecular panel that allows for the detection of 14 pathogens (bacterial [n=6], viral [n=7], and fungal [n=1]) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics of the FilmArray ME panel using clinical, residual CSF samples (n=291) that tested positive by a routine method(s) (e...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Louise Roer, Thor Bech Johannesen, Frank Hansen, Marc Stegger, Veronika Tchesnokova, Evgeni Sokurenko, Natasha Garibay, Rosa Allesøe, Martin C F Thomsen, Ole Lund, Henrik Hasman, Anette M Hammerum
Escherichia coli can cause a variety of extra-intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infection, meningitis, peritonitis and septicemia.….
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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