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Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Daniel A Bossard, Bruno Ledergerber, Patrick O Zingg, Christian Gerber, Annelies S Zinkernagel, Reinhard Zbinden, Yvonne Achermann
Diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes bone and joint infection is challenging due to long cultivation time of up to 14 days. We retrospectively studied whether reducing cultivation time to 7 days allows accurate diagnosis without losing sensitivity. We identified patients with at least one positive P. acnes sample between 2005 and 2015 and grouped into 'infection' and 'no infection'. An 'infection' was defined when at least two samples from the same case were positive. Clinical and microbiological data including time to positivity for different cultivation methods were recorded...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Kathleen E Wirth, Melanie Prague, Kara Bennett, Molly Pretorius Holme, Lucy Mupfumi, Philemon Sebogodi, Natasha O Moraka, Corretah Boleo, Comfort N Maphorisa, Boitumelo Seraise, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Rosemary M Musonda, Erik van Widenfelt, Kathleen M Powis, Tendani Gaolathe, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Joseph M Makhema, Max Essex, Shahin Lockman, Vladimir Novitsky
BACKGROUND: Routine monitoring of HIV-1 RNA, or viral load (VL) in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important, but there are multiple impediments to VL testing in resource-constrained settings. An accurate point-of-care (POC) HIV-1 VL test could alleviate many of these challenges. METHODS: We compared the performance of the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 VL against the laboratory-based Abbott m2000sp/m2000rt assay (Abbot assay). ART-naïve individuals participating in the Botswana Combination Prevention Project in 20 communities provided EDTA blood specimens during household surveys...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jeremy T Boone, Davina E Campbell, Amy S Dandro, Li Chen, Joel F Herbein
Fecal samples (n=531) submitted to a regional clinical laboratory during a six month period were tested for the presence of Shiga toxin using both a Vero cell cytotoxicity assay and the SHIGA TOXIN QUIK CHEK™ test, a rapid membrane immunoassay. Testing the samples directly (without culture), 9 positives were identified by the Vero cell assay, all of which were also detected by the SHIGA TOXIN QUIK CHEK™ test (STQC). Correlation between the two assays was 100%. Not all of the identified positive samples were detected when fecal broth cultures were tested...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
A Jayakumar, R M Savic, C K Everett, D Benator, D Alland, C M Heilig, M Weiner, S O Friedrich, N A Martinson, A Kerrigan, C Zamudio, S V Goldberg, W C Whitworth, J L Davis, P Nahid
The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle thresholds (Ct), which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert Ct trajectory and drug exposure during TB treatment to evaluate the potential utility of Xpert Ct for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB consecutively enrolled at ten international clinical trial sites participating in Study 29X, a CDC-sponsored TB Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial activity of rifapentine at daily doses up to 20 mg/kg...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
John P Dekker
Whole genome sequence databases offer new in silico approaches for designing and validating PCR assays in the clinical microbiology laboratory. An article in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (M. J. Jansen van Rensburg, C. Swift, A. J. Cody, C. Jenkins, and M. C. J. Maiden, J Clin Microbiol, volume:page, 2016) demonstrates the use of publicly available genomic sequence data to evaluate a PCR assay for distinguishing Campylobacter species.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Melissa J Jansen van Rensburg, Craig Swift, Alison J Cody, Claire Jenkins, Martin C J Maiden
The application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to problems in clinical microbiology has had a major impact on the field. Clinical laboratories are now using WGS for pathogen identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and epidemiological typing. WGS data also represents a valuable resource for the development and evaluation of molecular diagnostic assays, which continue to play an important role in clinical microbiology. To demonstrate this application of WGS, the current study used publicly available genomic data to evaluate a duplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay that targets mapA and ceuE for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, leading global causes of bacterial gastroenteritis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
O Villard, B Cimon, C L'Ollivier, H Fricker-Hidalgo, N Godineau, S Houze, L Paris, H Pelloux, I Villena, E Candolfi
Toxoplasmosis, a benign infection, is asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic in over 80% of cases, excepting immunocompetent patients suffering from ocular toxoplasmosis, as well as immunocompromised patients with opportunistic or congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis is mainly based on serology testing. We thus compared the performance of the nine most commonly-used commercial automated or semi-automated immunoassays for IgG and IgM T. gondii antibody detection: Advia Centaur®, Architect®, AxSYM®, Elecsys®, Enzygnost®, Liaison®, Platelia®, VIDAS®, and VIDIA® assays...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Sabine Hofmann-Thiel, Nikolay Molodtsov, Uladzimir Antonenka, Harald Hoffmann
Abbott RealTime MTB (RT MTB) is a new automated nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens. In combination with RealTime MTB INH/RIF Resistance (RT MTB INH/RIF), which can be applied to RT MTB positive specimens as add-on assay, the tests also indicate genetic markers of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RT MTB using different types of respiratory and extra-pulmonary specimens and to compare performance characteristics directly with the FluoroType MTB assay...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Rongpong Plongla, Theofano Panagea, David H Pincus, Melissa C Jones, Peter H Gilligan
Environmental glucose non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently isolated from respiratory specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) (1).….
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Zhou Jun, Chen Zhen, Zhang QuiuLi, An YuanQi, Verónica Vocero Casado, Yuan Fan
Currently, conventional enzyme immunoassays which use manual gold, and colloidal tests (GICT) are used as a screening tool to detect Treponema pallidum (syphilis), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV 1/2) in patients undergoing surgery. The present observational, cross-sectional study compared the sensitivity, specificity and workflow characteristics of the conventional algorithm using manual GICT with a newly proposed algorithm that uses automated BIO-FLASH® technology as a screening tool in patients undergoing gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
L Kristopher Siu, Yu-Kuo Tsai, Jung-Chung Lin, Te-Li Chen, Chang-Phone Fung, Feng-Yee Chang
In this study, a novel colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS) containing anti-K. pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide polyclonal antibodies was developed to specifically detect K. pneumoniae serotypes K1 and K2. Capsular polysaccharide K1 and K2 antigens were first used to produce polyclonal anti-K1 or -K2 antibodies. Reference strains with different serotypes, non-typable K. pneumoniae strains, and other bacterial species were then used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these test strips...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Elizabeth Story-Roller, Melvin P Weinstein
Blood cultures (BC) are the standard method for diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSI). However, the average BC contamination rate (CR) in US hospitals is 2.9%, potentially resulting in unnecessary antibiotic use and excessive therapy costs. Several studies have compared various skin antisepsis agents without a clear consensus as to which agent is most effective in reducing contamination. A prospective, randomized crossover study was performed at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RWJUH) directly comparing blood culture contamination rates using chlorhexidine vs...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Fang Hu, Lavanya Rishishwar, Ambily Sivadas, Gabriel J Mitchell, I King Jordan, Timothy F Murphy, Janet R Gilsdorf, Leonard W Mayer, Xin Wang
Haemophilus haemolyticus (H. haemolyticus) has been recently discovered to have the potential to cause invasive disease. It is closely related to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NT H. influenzae). NT H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus are often misidentified because none of the existing tests targeting the known phenotypes of H. haemolyticus are able to specifically identify H. haemolyticus Through comparative genomic analysis of H. haemolyticus and NT H. influenzae, we identified genes unique to H. haemolyticus that can be used as targets for the identification of H...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
C E Scantlebury, G L Pinchbeck, P Loughnane, N Aklilu, T Ashine, A P Stringer, L Gordon, M Marshall, R M Christley, A J McCarthy
Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum (HCF), the causative agent of epizootic lymphangitis (EZL), is endemic in parts of Africa. Diagnosis based on clinical signs and microscopy lacks specificity, and is a barrier to further understanding this neglected disease. Here, a nested PCR method targeting the ITS region of the rRNA operon was validated for application to equine clinical samples. Twenty-nine horses with signs of EZL, from different climatic regions of Ethiopia, were clinically examined. Blood samples and aspirates of pus from cutaneous nodules were taken, along with blood from a further 20 horses with no cutaneous EZL lesions...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jennifer Dien Bard, Samia N Naccache, Jeffrey M Bender
Meningitis and encephalitis are devastating syndromes that can be caused by a diverse group of pathogens.….
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Liulin Luo, Weijia Liu, Bing Li, Mengling Li, Dongdong Huang, Linjie Jing, Huiping Chen, Jinghui Yang, Jun Yue, Fang Wang, Haiqing Chu, Zhemin Zhang
This study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry with the Vitek MS Plus system for identifying Mycobacterium abscessus subspecies in order to facilitate more rapid and appropriate therapy. A total of 175 clinical M. abscessus strains were identified by whole genome sequencing analysis: 139 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 36 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense The research-use-only (RUO) Saramis Knowledge Base database V.4.12 was modified accordingly by adding 40 M...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Laura Pérez-Lago, Miguel Martínez-Lirola, Sergio García, Marta Herranz, Igor Mokrousov, Iñaki Comas, Llúcia Martínez, Emilio Bouza, Darío García de Viedma
Current migratory movements require new strategies for rapid tracking of the transmission of high-risk imported Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) enables us to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and therefore design polymerase-chain-reaction assays (PCRs) to track specific relevant strains. However, fast implementation of these strategies in the hospital setting is difficult because professionals working in diagnostics, molecular epidemiology, and genomics are generally in separate institutions...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Hong Phuoc Duong, Karl Martin Wissing, Nathalie Tram, Georges Mascart, Philippe Lepage, Khalid Ismaili
Automated flow cytometry of urine remains incompletely validated to rule out urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. This cross-sectional analytical study was performed to compare the predictive values of flow cytometry and dipstick as initial diagnostic tests for UTI in febrile children and prospectively included 1106 children (1247 episodes). Urine culture was used as the gold standard test for UTI. The diagnostic performance of screening tests to diagnose UTI were established using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Fabrice Compain, Salah Gallahd, Catherine Eckert, Guillaume Arlet, Astrid Ramahefasolo, Dominique Decré, Marie Lavollay, Isabelle Podglajen
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a major therapeutic challenge in hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide (1).….
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Koné Kaniga, Daniela M Cirillo, Sven Hoffner, Nazir A Ismail, Devinder Kaur, Nacer Lounis, Beverly Metchock, Gaby E Pfyffer, Amour Venter
OBJECTIVES: To establish reference minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) quality control (QC) ranges for drug susceptibility testing of antimycobacterials, including first-line agents, second-line injectables, fluoroquinolones and World Health Organization Category 5 drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, using a 7H9 broth microdilution MIC method. METHODS: A Tier-2 reproducibility study was conducted in eight participating laboratories using Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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