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Journal of Clinical Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903603/multicenter-evaluation-of-a-modified-cefoxitin-disk-diffusion-method-and-pbp2a-testing-to-predict-meca-mediated-oxacillin-resistance-in-atypical-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Shelley A Miller, James Karichu, Peggy Kohner, Nicolynn Cole, Janet A Hindler, Robin Patel, Sandra Richter, Romney M Humphries
Phenotypic variants of Staphylococcus aureus display small colony size, reduced pigment, hemolysis and/or coagulase activity are periodically isolated by the clinical laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of these isolates is complicated as many do not grow on routine AST media, including Mueller Hinton agar and cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth. This multi-center study evaluated cefoxitin disk diffusion for 37 isolates (156 readings) of atypical S. aureus with MHA supplemented with 5% sheep's blood (BMHA), using mecA PCR as the reference standard...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903602/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-genetic-composition-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-belarus
#2
Kurt R Wollenberg, Christopher A Desjardins, Aksana Zalutskaya, Vervara Slodovnikova, Andrew J Oler, Mariam Quiñones, Thomas Abeel, Sinead B Chapman, Michael Tartakovsky, Andrei Gabrielian, Sven Hoffner, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Bruce W Birren, Alexander Rosenthal, Alena Skrahina, Ashlee M Earl
The emergence and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a critical global health issue. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903601/performance-evaluation-of-allplex%C3%A2-respiratory-panel-1-2-and-3-for-the-detection-of-respiratory-viruses-and-influenza-a-virus-subtypes
#3
Hee Jae Huh, Ji-Youn Kim, Hyeon Jeong Kwon, Sun Ae Yun, Myoung-Keun Lee, Nam Yong Lee, Jong-Won Kim, Chang-Seok Ki
The Allplex™ Respiratory Panel 1, 2, and 3 (Allplex) is a one-step real-time reverse transcription PCR assay for the detection of respiratory viruses (RVs) and influenza A subtypes based on MuDT™ technology. Performance of the Allplex assay was compared to the AdvanSure™ RV real-time PCR Kit (AdvanSure) and PowerChek™ Pandemic H1N1/H3N2/H5N1 Real-time PCR Kit (PowerChek) using 417 clinical respiratory specimens. Compared to the AdvanSure assay for RV detection by each virus, the ranges of positive percent agreement, negative percent agreement, and kappa value were 82...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903600/improved-accuracy-of-cefepime-susceptibility-testing-for-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-using-an-on-demand-digital-dispensing-method
#4
Kenneth P Smith, Thea Brennan-Krohn, Susan Weir, James E Kirby
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae generally cannot be treated with penicillins and cephalosporins. However, some later generation cephalosporins, including cefepime, are poorly hydrolyzed by specific ESBL enzymes, and certain strains demonstrate in vitro susceptibility to these agents, potentially affording additional treatment opportunities. Moreover, the ability to adjust both dose and dosing interval of β-lactam agents allows treatment of strains with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) formerly classified in the intermediate range...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881617/can-a-multi-drug-resistant-candida-auris-be-reliably-identified-in-clinical-microbiology-laboratories
#5
Masako Mizusawa, Heather Miller, Rachel Green, Richard Lee, Mariann Durante, Rosalie Perkins, Caroline Hewitt, Patricia J Simner, Karen C Carroll, Randall T Hayden, Sean X Zhang
Candida auris, an emerging multi-drug resistant yeast associated with high mortality, has been increasingly reported from outside of the US to cause outbreaks in the hospital settings (1).….
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881616/performance-of-vitek%C3%A2-2-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-with-vitek%C3%A2-2-2009-fda-and-clsi-m100s-26th-edition-breakpoints
#6
April M Bobenchik, Eszter Deak, Janet A Hindler, Carmen L Charlton, Romney M Humphries
Performance of Vitek 2 AST-GN69 and AST-XN06 cards was compared to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution (BMD) for 99 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 26 Acinetobacter baumannii and 11 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia In total 15 antimicrobials were evaluated, 11 for P. aeruginosa, 14 for A. baumannii, and 2 for S. maltophilia. Categorical agreement (CA) was assessed using both Vitek 2 breakpoints and 2016 CLSI M100S 26(th) edition breakpoints. Essential agreement for P...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881615/superiority-of-digital-rt-pcr-over-real-time-rt-pcr-for-quantitation-of-highly-divergent-human-rhinoviruses
#7
Ruth Hall Sedlak, Thuy Nguyen, Isabel Palileo, Keith R Jerome, Jane Kuypers
Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are comprised of 3 species, represented by over 150 genotypes. As an important human respiratory pathogen, molecular detection is an indispensable tool for diagnosis and surveillance. However, the sequence diversity of HRV genotypes poses challenges for the development of robust molecular methods that detect all genotypes with equal efficiency. This study compares the accuracy of reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and reverse transcription-digital PCR (RT-dPCR) for quantification of HRV RNA using genotype-specific primers and probes and a consensus primer/probe set targeting the 5' non-coding region of HRV...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881614/performance-characteristics-of-a-new-consensus-commercial-kit-for-hepatitis-d-virus-rna-viral-load-quantification
#8
Frédéric Le Gal, Samira Dziri, Athenaïs Gerber, Chakib Alloui, Zahia Ben Abdesselam, Dominique Roulot, Ségolène Brichler, Emmanuel Gordien
Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is responsible for fulminant hepatitis and liver failure, and accelerates evolution towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus-infected patients. To date treatment relies upon long-term administration of pegylated alpha-interferon with sustained virological response in 30% of the patients. Very recently, new promising anti HDV therapies have been developed and are already used in clinical trials. HDV-RNA viral load (HDVL) monitoring must be an integral part of the management of the infected-patients...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852676/detection-of-clostridium-difficile-in-feces-of-asymptomatic-patients-admitted-to-the-hospital
#9
Elisabeth M Terveer, Monique J T Crobach, Ingrid M J G Sanders, Margreet C Vos, Cees M Verduin, Ed J Kuijper
Recent evidence shows that patients asymptomatically colonized with Clostridium difficile may contribute to the transmission of C. difficile in healthcare facilities. Additionally, these patients may have a higher risk of developing C. difficile infection. The aim of this study was to compare a commercially available PCR directed to both toxin A as B (artus C. difficile QS-RGQ Kit CE, QIAGEN), an Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay to Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH ELFA, VIDAS, bioMérieux), and an in-house developed PCR to TcdB, with (toxigenic) culture of C...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852675/serotype-distribution-population-structure-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-group-b-streptococcus-strains-recovered-from-colonized-pregnant-women
#10
Sarah Teatero, Patricia Ferrieri, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Allison McGeer, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Using serotyping, multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of selected strains, we studied the population structure of 102 group B Streptococcus isolates prospectively sampled in 2014 from vaginal/rectal swabs of healthy pregnant women in metropolitan Toronto, Canada. We also determined the susceptibilities of all colonizing isolates to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and other antimicrobial agents. Overall, we observed a high rate of tetracycline resistance (89%) among colonizing GBS...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852674/focus-on-mrsa-sa-ssti%C3%A2-assay-failure-in-prosthetic-joint-infections-213-consecutive-patients-later
#11
Marie Titécat, Frédéric Wallet, Olivier Robineau, Michel Valette, Henri Migaud, Eric Senneville, Caroline Loïez
In prosthetic joint infection (PJI) cases (1), rapid detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) is the key to avoid the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials such as vancomycin.….
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852673/progress-in-quantitative-viral-load-testing-variability-and-impact-of-the-who-quantitative-international-standards
#12
R T Hayden, Y Sun, L Tang, G W Procop, D R Hillyard, B A Pinsky, S A Young, A M Caliendo
It has been hoped that recent availability of WHO quantitative standards would improve inter-laboratory agreement for viral load testing; however, insufficient data are available to evaluate whether this has been the case. Results from 554 laboratories participating in proficiency testing surveys for quantitative CMV, EBV, BKV, ADV and HHV6 PCR testing were evaluated to determine result variability overall, and then stratified by assay manufacturer. The impact of calibration to IU/mL (CMV and EBV) on variability was also determined...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852672/a-novel-selective-medium-for-isolation-of-bacteroides-fragilis-from-clinical-specimens
#13
Pak-Leung Ho, Lok-Yan Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Man-Ki Tong, Kin-Hung Chow
A novel Bacteroides fragilis selective (BFS) medium, consisting of a brain-heart infusion agar base supplemented with yeast extract, cysteine hydrochloride, bile salts, Vitamin K, hemin, glucose, esculin, ferric ammonium citrate, bromothymol blue, gentamicin, kanamycin and novobiocin, was evaluated. When BFS agar was tested with a collection of 303 bacteria of different genera, it allowed the growth of B. fragilis as large yellow colonies with blackening of the medium after 48 h of anaerobic incubation while the growth of most other anaerobes, facultative anaerobes and aerobes were inhibited...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852671/highly-multiplexed-proteomic-analysis-of-quantiferon-supernatants-to-identify-biomarkers-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#14
Mary Ann De Groote, Michael Higgins, Thomas Hraha, Kirsten Wall, Michael L Wilson, David G Sterling, Nebojsa Janjic, Randall Reves, Urs A Ochsner, Robert Belknap
The tests for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are limited by poor predictive value for identifying people at highest risk for progression to active TB, and have varying sensitivity and specificity in different populations. The identification of a more robust signature for LTBI is important for TB prevention and elimination. A pilot study was conducted with samples from immigrants to the U.S. that were screened for LTBI by the three commercially approved tests: Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT), and T-SPOT...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852670/rapid-identification-of-measles-virus-vaccine-genotypes-by-real-time-pcr
#15
Felicia Roy, Lillian Mendoza, Joanne Hiebert, Rebecca J McNall, Bettina Bankamp, Sarah Connolly, Amy Lüdde, Nicole Friedrich, Annette Mankertz, Paul A Rota, Alberto Severini
During measles outbreaks, it is important to be able to rapidly distinguish between measles cases and vaccine reactions to avoid unnecessary outbreak response measures such as case isolation and contact investigations. We have developed a real-time RT-PCR method specific for genotype A measles virus (MeVA RT-qPCR), that can identify measles vaccine strains rapidly, with high throughput, and without the need for sequencing to determine the genotype. We have evaluated the method independently in three measles reference laboratories using two platforms, the Roche Lightcycler® 480 and the Applied Biosystems™ (ABI) 7500 Real-Time PCR System...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847380/the-added-cost-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-and-active-antimicrobial-stewardship-is-it-worth-it
#16
Erin McElvania TeKippe
Rapid diagnostic testing reduces the turnaround time for pathogen identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory, but the impact on patient care and hospital costs are a matter of speculation A publication by Patel et al. in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Patel TS, Kaakeh R, Nagel JL, Newton DW, and Stevenson JG, 2016. J Clin Microbiol, vol:pages, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01452-16) investigates the impact of these interventions to determine if implementation is indeed worth it...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847379/emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-pneumococcal-serotype-35b-among-u-s-children
#17
Liset Olarte, Sheldon L Kaplan, William J Barson, José R Romero, Philana Ling Lin, Tina Q Tan, Jill A Hoffman, John S Bradley, Laurence B Givner, Edward O Mason, Kristina G Hultén
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 35B is a nonvaccine serotype associated with high rates of penicillin nonsusceptibility. An increase in the proportion of multidrug-resistant (MDR) 35B isolates has been recently reported. The genetic events contributing to the emergence of MDR serotype 35B are unknown.The sequence type (ST) composition of 78 serotype 35B isolates obtained from pediatric patients with invasive pneumococcal disease from 1994 to 2014, and 48 isolates from pediatric patients with otitis media (noninvasive) from 2011 to 2014 was characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847378/detection-and-differentiation-of-leishmania-spp-in-clinical-specimens-using-a-sybr-green-based-real-time-pcr-assay
#18
Marcos E de Almeida, Ozgur Koru, Francis Steurer, Barbara L Herwaldt, Alexandre J da Silva
Leishmaniasis in humans is caused by Leishmania spp. in the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia Species identification often has clinical relevance. Until recently, our laboratory relied on conventional PCR amplification of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product to differentiate Leishmania spp. Here we describe a novel real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach based on SYBR green technology (LSG-qPCR), which uses genus-specific primers that target the ITS1 region and amplify DNA from at least 10 Leishmania spp...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847377/underestimated-amoebic-appendicitis-among-hiv-1-infected-individuals-in-japan
#19
Taiichiro Kobayashi, Koji Watanabe, Hideaki Yano, Yukinori Murata, Toru Igari, Kumiko Nakada-Tsukui, Kenji Yagita, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Mitsuo Kaku, Kunihisa Tsukada, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
Entamoeba histolytica is not a common causative agent of acute appendicitis. However, amoebic appendicitis could sometimes be severe and life-threatening, mainly due to lack of awareness. Also, its frequency, clinical features and pathogenesis remain unclear. The study subjects were HIV-1-infected individuals who presented with acute appendicitis and later underwent appendectomy at our hospital between 1996 and 2014. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preserved appendix specimens were re-examined by Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and PCR to identify undiagnosed amoebic appendicitis...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847376/relative-prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-elizabethkingia-species-based-on-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing
#20
Mi-Soon Han, Hyunsoo Kim, Yangsoon Lee, Myungsook Kim, Nam Su Ku, Jun Yong Choi, Dongeun Yong, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee, Yunsop Chong
Some of the previously reported clinical isolates of E. meningoseptica could be later named species of Elizabethkingia We determined the accuracy of species identification (with two MALDI-TOF MS and the VITEK 2 GN card), relative prevalence of three Elizabethkingia spp. in clinical specimens, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the species identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Specimens for culture were collected from patients in a university hospital in Korea between 2009 and 2015. All 3 Elizabethkingia spp...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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