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Journal of Chemical Ecology

Caroline Müller, Monique Schulz, Eleonora Pagnotta, Luisa Ugolini, Ting Yang, Annemarie Matthes, Luca Lazzeri, Niels Agerbirk
We investigated the influences of two structurally similar glucosinolates, phenethylglucosinolate (gluconasturtiin, NAS) and its (S)-2-hydroxyl derivative glucobarbarin (BAR), as well as their hydrolysis products on larvae of the generalist Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Previous results suggested a higher defensive activity of BAR than NAS based on resistance toward M. brassicae larvae of natural plant genotypes of Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. (Brassicaceae) dominated by BAR. In the present study, the hypothesis of a higher defensive activity of BAR than NAS was tested by comparing two Barbarea species similarly dominated either by BAR or by NAS and by testing effects of isolated BAR and NAS on larval survival and feeding preferences...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
L Solís-Montero, S Cáceres-García, D Alavez-Rosas, J F García-Crisóstomo, M Vega-Polanco, J Grajales-Conesa, L Cruz-López
Floral scents attract pollinators to plant rewards; in nectarless flowers, pollen grains are the only reward. Thus, pollen not only fertilizes ovules, but also feeds pollinators. This dilemma is resolved by specialization of anthers (i.e., heteranthery): feeding anthers that feed pollinators and pollinating anthers for fertilization. We hypothesized that the chemical composition of floral volatiles differs between the two types of anther and influences pollination preference for feeding anthers. We used Solanum rostratum as a study model because its heterantherous flowers produce a floral scent that suggests a close association with their pollinators...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Majid Ghaninia, Shelley L Berger, Danny Reinberg, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray, Jürgen Liebig
In comparison to the large amount of study on the communication abilities of females in ant societies and their associated chemical ecology and sensory physiology, such study of male ants has been largely ignored; accordingly, little is known about their olfactory sensory capabilities. To address this, we explored peripheral odor sensitivities in male Harpegnathos saltator by measuring the electrophysiological activity of olfactory sensory neurons within antennal trichoid and coeloconic sensilla using an extracellular recording technique...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Lauren E Bradley, Caitlin A Kelly, M Deane Bowers
The checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas anicia (Nymphalidae), specializes on plants containing iridoid glycosides and has the ability to sequester these compounds from its host plants. This study investigated larval preference, performance, and sequestration of iridoid glycosides in a population of E. anicia at Crescent Meadows, Colorado, USA. Although previous studies showed that other populations in Colorado use the host plant, Castilleja integra (Orobanchaceae), we found no evidence for E. anicia ovipositing or feeding on C...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Susanne Dobler, Verena Zintgraf, Wolf Haberer, Andrea Paul
Several species of the flea beetles genus Longitarsus sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from their host plants. Previous data demonstrated that PAs may be transferred from root-feeding larvae into the adult beetles. Here we compared the patterns and concentrations found in larvae and pupae of L. anchusae and L. echii with those of the roots of their respective hosts, Symphytum officinale and Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae). PA patterns and concentrations in the roots were complex and variable, whereas those in the larvae and pupae were simpler and more constant...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Mikael A Molander, Mattias C Larsson
The longhorn beetle Phymatodes (Poecilium) pusillus ssp. pusillus is a rare, elusive species that is included on Red Lists of threatened species. Previously, 1-hexanol and 1-butanol were reported as putative components of the aggregation-sex pheromone of this species, but behavioral assays to confirm this have not been performed. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive examination of P. p. pusillus to verify the presence of a pheromone. Adult beetles were reared from colonized wood and used for headspace sampling...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Wen-Hao Tan, Leiling Tao, Kevin M Hoang, Mark D Hunter, Jacobus C de Roode
Many plants express induced defenses against herbivores through increasing the production of toxic secondary chemicals following damage. Phytochemical induction can directly or indirectly affect other organisms within the community. In tri-trophic systems, increased concentrations of plant toxins could be detrimental to plants if herbivores can sequester these toxins as protective chemicals for themselves. Thus, through trophic interactions, induction can lead to either positive or negative effects on plant fitness...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Olivia L Cope, Richard L Lindroth
Induction of plant chemical defenses in response to insect feeding may be localized to the site of damage or expressed systemically, mediated by signal transduction throughout the plant. Such systemic induction processes have been widely investigated in plants with single stems, but rarely in clonal plants comprised of multiple ramets with vascular connections. For a clonal tree species such as trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), integration of induced defense within clones could be adaptive, as clones are spatially extensive and susceptible to outbreak herbivores...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Thomas Wichard, Christine Beemelmanns
There is worldwide growing interest in the occurrence and diversity of metabolites used as chemical mediators in cross-kingdom interactions within aquatic systems. Bacteria produce metabolites to protect and influence the growth and life cycle of their eukaryotic hosts. In turn, the host provides a nutrient-enriched environment for the bacteria. Here, we discuss the role of waterborne chemical mediators that are responsible for such interactions in aquatic multi-partner systems, including algae or invertebrates and their associated bacteria...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Gladys Bichang'a, Jean-Luc Da Lage, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Michel Zivy, Thierry Balliau, Kevin Sambai, Bruno Le Ru, Laure Kaiser, Gerald Juma, Esther Njoki Mwangi Maina, Paul-André Calatayud
Foraging parasitoids use chemical signals in host recognition and selection processes. Although, the volatiles play a relevant role in the localization by parasitoids of their hosts feeding on plants, the host identification process for acceptance occurs mainly during contact between the parasitoid and its host where host products related to feeding activities, fecal pellets and oral secretions, play a crucial role. The purpose of this study was to identify the nature of the contact kairomone(s) that mediate the acceptance for oviposition of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), which was released in Kenya in 1993 to control the invasive crambid Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Michael Wink
This mini-review summarizes over 40 years of research on quinolizidine (QAs) and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Emphasis is on the chemical ecology of both groups of alkaloids, which serve as general defense compounds against herbivores for the plants producing them. For QAs and PAs, a number of insects (aphids, moths, beetles) have acquired tolerance. These specialists store the alkaloids and use them as defense chemicals against predators. In some PA sequestering moths, the adaptation is even more intricate and advanced...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Danielle M Adams, Yue Li, Gerald S Wilkinson
Chemical signals are ubiquitous, but often overlooked as potentially important for conveying information relevant for sexual selection. The male greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus, possesses a sexually dimorphic gland on the chest that produces an odoriferous secretion. Here, we investigate the potential for this glandular secretion to act as a sexually selected olfactory signal by examining gland activity in and out of the mating season and determining if variation in its chemical composition reflects variation in male mating status or attributes of the individual...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Thomas Stegemann, Lars H Kruse, Moritz Brütt, Dietrich Ober
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a typical class of plant secondary metabolites that are constitutively produced as part of the plant's chemical defense. While roots are a well-established site of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, comfrey plants (Symphytum officinale; Boraginaceae) have been shown to additionally activate alkaloid production in specialized leaves and accumulate PAs in flowers during a short developmental stage in inflorescence development. To gain a better understanding of the accumulation and role of PAs in comfrey flowers and fruits, we have dissected and analyzed their tissues for PA content and patterns...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Christine C Chiu, Christopher I Keeling, Joerg Bohlmann
The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) is a forest insect pest endemic to western North America. During dispersal and host colonization, MPB identify suitable host trees by olfaction of monoterpene volatiles, contend with host terpene defenses, and communicate with conspecifics using terpenoid and other pheromones. Cytochromes P450 (P450s) have been proposed to function in MPB olfaction, terpene detoxification, and pheromone biosynthesis. Here, we identified P450s that were abundant in the antennae transcriptome...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Sang Woon Shin, Jun Hyoung Jeon, Chan-Seok Yun, Seon Ah Jeong, Ji-Ae Kim, Doo-Sang Park, Yunhee Shin, Hyun-Woo Oh
Because juvenile hormone (JH) controls insect development and its analogs are used as insecticides, juvenile hormone disruptors (JHDs) represent potential sources from which novel pesticides can be developed. Many plant species harbor JHD activity, which has previously been attributed plant secondary metabolites (i.e., diterpenes) that disrupt insect development by interfering with the JH-mediated heterodimer formation of insect juvenile receptor complexes. The results of the present study indicate that plant JHD activity is also concentrated in certain plant groups and families and that plant metabolites have insect group-specific activity...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
C Marneweck, A Jürgens, A M Shrader
Many mammals enhance their olfactory signals visually by depositing them in conspicuous locations such as well-travelled paths. It is also possible to enhance the odour itself through behaviours aimed at modifying odour emission rates. White rhinos defecate in communal middens. While defecating, territorial males kick sharply with their back feet which disperses their dung. Despite being a ubiquitous trait of territorial male white rhinos, the reason behind this behaviour is unclear. We hypothesised that the purpose of dung kicking was for olfactory signal amplification (OSA) in terms of an increased emission of volatile compounds (i...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Etya Amsalem, Abraham Hefetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Le Van Vang, Qi Yan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Nghia, Chau Nguyen Quoc Khanh, Tetsu Ando
Leucinodes orbonalis is one of the most damaging insect pests affecting eggplant in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. While (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (E11-16:OAc) and its alcohol, (E)-11-hexadecenol (E11-16:OH), have been identified as major and minor sex pheromone components, respectively, few males were attracted to a blend of these compounds in Vietnamese fields. In order to utilize synthetic pheromone of L. orbonalis as a tool for sustainable pest management programs, we reexamined the pheromone of this species in order to search for other minor components...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Holly A Coombes, Paula Stockley, Jane L Hurst
Chemical communication plays many key roles in mammalian reproduction, although attention has focused particularly on male scent signalling. Here, we review evidence that female chemical signals also play important roles in sexual attraction, in mediating reproductive competition and cooperation between females, and in maternal care, all central to female reproductive success. Female odours function not only to advertise sexual receptivity and location, they can also have important physiological priming effects on male development and sperm production...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Onno W Calf, Heidrun Huber, Janny L Peters, Alexander Weinhold, Yvonne Poeschl, Nicole M van Dam
Solanum dulcamara (Bittersweet nightshade) shows significant intraspecific variation in glycoalkaloid (GA) composition and concentration. We previously showed that constitutive differences in overall GA levels are correlated with feeding preference of the grey field slug (GFS; Deroceras reticulatum). One particularly preferred accession, ZD11, contained low GA levels, but high levels of previously unknown structurally related uronic acid conjugated compounds (UACs). Here we test whether different slug species as well as insect herbivores show similar feeding preferences among six S...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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