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Journal of Chemical Ecology

Cayla E Austin, Raymond E March, Naomi L Stock, Dennis L Murray
In aquatic environments, chemical cues are believed to be associated with prey response to predation risk, yet few basic cue compositions are known despite the pronounced ecological and evolutionary significance of such cues. Previous work indicated that negatively-charged ions of m/z 501 are possibly a kairomone that induces anti-predator responses in amphibian tadpoles. However, work described here confirms that this specific ion species m/z 501.2886 is produced by injured tadpoles, exhibits increased spectral intensity with higher tadpole biomass, and is not produced by starved predators...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Andrew J Myrick, Thomas C Baker
Gas-chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) is a technique used in the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as pheromones and plant host odors, which are physiologically relevant to insects. Although pheromones often elicit large EAD responses, other behaviorally relevant odors may elicit responses that are difficult to discern from noise. Lock-in amplification has long been used to reduce noise in a wide range of applications. Its utility when incorporated with GC-EAD was demonstrated previosuly by chopping (or pulsing) effluent-laden air that flowed over an insect antenna...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Marla Roth, Altaf Hussain, Jonathan A Cale, Nadir Erbilgin
Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests have experienced severe mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North America for the last several years. Although the mechanisms by which beetles kill host trees are unclear, they are likely linked to pine defense monoterpenes that are synthesized from carbohydrate reserves. However, how carbohydrates and monoterpenes interact in response to MPB colonization is unknown. Understanding this relationship could help to elucidate how pines succumb to bark beetle attack...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Paulo H G Zarbin, Jan Bergmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Cheka Kehelpannala, N Savitri Kumar, Lalith Jayasinghe, Hiroshi Araya, Yoshinori Fujimoto
The tea shot-hole borer beetle (TSHB, Euwallacea fornicatus) causes serious damage in plantations of tea, Camellia sinensis var. assamica, in Sri Lanka and South India. TSHB is found in symbiotic association with the ambrosia fungus, Monacrosporium ambrosium (syn. Fusarium ambrosium), in galleries located within stems of tea bushes. M. ambrosium is known to be the sole food source of TSHB. Six naphthoquinones produced during spore germination in a laboratory culture broth of M. ambrosium were isolated and identified as dihydroanhydrojavanicin, anhydrojavanicin, javanicin, 5,8-dihydroxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxopropyl)naphthalene-1,4-dione, anhydrofusarubin and solaniol...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Marina Cyrino Leal Coutinho, Valéria Laneuville Teixeira, Cinthya Simone Gomes Santos
Despite the many publications concerning the isolation of substances and the many reviews of marine natural products, some groups of organisms remain poorly studied, including "Polychaeta". In response, this review covers articles published through December 2016 that address marine natural products produced from polychaetes, with a focus on antipredatory strategies, competitors, fouling, and pathogens. A total of 121 compounds were isolated from 1934 to 2016, which includes halogenated aromatics, proteins, amino acids and Lumazine derivatives most notably-with a defensive function were found in the literature, most frequently in the families Sabellidae, Terebellidae, Glyceridae, and Nereididae...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Pratibha Yadav, Sathish Desireddy, Srinivasan Kasinathan, Jean-Marie Bessière, Renee M Borges
In the fig-fig wasp nursery pollination system, parasitic wasps, such as gallers and parasitoids that oviposit from the exterior into the fig syconium (globular, enclosed inflorescence) are expected to use a variety of chemical cues for successful location of their hidden hosts. Behavioral assays were performed with freshly eclosed naive galler wasps. Syconia with different oviposition histories, i.e. with or without prior oviposition, were presented to wasps in no-choice assays and the time taken to the first oviposition attempt was recorded...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Nicolas Brasero, Thomas Lecocq, Baptiste Martinet, Irena Valterová, Klára Urbanová, Roland de Jonghe, Pierre Rasmont
Sex-specific chemical secretions have been widely used as diagnostic characters in chemotaxonomy. The taxonomically confused group of bumblebees has reaped the benefit of this approach through the analyses of cephalic labial gland secretions (CLGS). Most of currently available CLGS descriptions concern species from the West-Palearctic region but few from the New World. Here, the CLGS of four East-Palearctic species Bombus deuteronymus, B. filchnerae, B. humilis, and B. exil (subgenus Thoracobombus) are analysed...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Gabriel Villar, Megan D Wolfson, Abraham Hefetz, Christina M Grozinger
Pheromones play a critical role in shaping societies of social insects, including honey bees, Apis mellifera. While diverse functions have been ascribed to queen- and worker-produced compounds, few studies have explored the identity and function of male-produced (drone) compounds. However, several lines of evidence suggest that drones engage in a variety of social interactions inside and outside of the colony. Here we elucidate the chemical composition of extracts of the drone mandibular gland, and test the hypothesis that compounds produced in these glands, or a synthetic blend consisting of the six main compounds, mediate drone social interactions in and out of the colony...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Karen J Marsh, Jessica Ward, Ian R Wallis, William J Foley
Ecologists have long been interested in how the nutritional composition of leaves changes as they age, and whether this affects herbivore feeding preferences. As a consequence, the literature abounds with reports that younger leaves contain higher concentrations of nitrogen and plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) than do older leaves. Most of these studies, however, base their conclusions on average values that often mean little to herbivores. We examined this issue in the well-studied marsupial-eucalypt system, using Eucalyptus melliodora and captive common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) offered branches from individual trees containing both young and mature leaves...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Li-Peng Fan, Fang Ouyang, Jian-Wei Su, Feng Ge
Within a species, individual animals adopt various defensive strategies to resist natural enemies, but the defensive strategies that are adopted in response to variations in predation risk are poorly understood. Here, we assessed consecutive foraging processes on cohorts of two biotypes (green and red) of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, by the predatory lady beetle Propylea japonica, to investigate the adaptive mechanism underlying the defensive strategy. We observed the behavioral responses of individuals (continue feeding or escape, i...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Diego B Silva, Vanda H P Bueno, Joop J A Van Loon, Maria Fernanda G V Peñaflor, José Maurício S Bento, Joop C Van Lenteren
Plants emit volatile compounds in response to insect herbivory, which may play multiple roles as defensive compounds and mediators of interactions with other plants, microorganisms and animals. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) may act as indirect plant defenses by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivore. We report here the first evidence of the attraction of three Neotropical mirid predators (Macrolophus basicornis, Engytatus varians and Campyloneuropsis infumatus) toward plants emitting volatiles induced upon feeding by two tomato pests, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta and the phloem feeder Bemisia tabaci, in olfactometer bioassays...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Wolf Haberer, Thomas Schmitt, Peter Schreier, Anne-Katrin Eggert, Josef K Müller
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The name of the main component released by Nicrophorus defodiens in Fig. 1a should read "Fuscumyl acetate", not "Fuscumol".
November 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Stephen L Lapointe, Wilson Barros-Parada, Eduardo Fuentes-Contreras, Heidy Herrera, Takeshi Kinsho, Yuki Miyake, Randall P Niedz, Jan Bergmann
Field experiments were carried out to study responses of male moths of the carpenterworm, Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), a pest of tree and fruit crops in Chile, to five compounds previously identified from the pheromone glands of females. Previously, attraction of males to the major component, (7Z,10Z)-7,10-hexadecadienal, was clearly demonstrated while the role of the minor components was uncertain due to the use of an experimental design that left large portions of the design space unexplored...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jocelyn G Millar, Robert F Mitchell, Linnea R Meier, Todd D Johnson, Judith A Mongold-Diers, Lawrence M Hanks
An increasing body of evidence suggests that the volatile pheromones of cerambycid beetles are much more diverse in structure than previously hypothesized. Here, we describe the identification, synthesis, and field testing of (2E,6Z,9Z)-2,6,9-pentadecatrienal as a male-produced aggregation-sex pheromone of the cerambycid Elaphidion mucronatum (Say) (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Elaphidiini). This novel structure is unlike any previously described cerambycid pheromone, and in field bioassays attracted only this species...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Lina Castano-Duque, Kenneth W Loades, John F Tooker, Kathleen M Brown, W Paul Williams, Dawn S Luthe
Insect resistance against root herbivores like the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is not well understood in non-transgenic maize. We studied the responses of two American maize inbreds, Mp708 and Tx601, to WCR infestation using biomechanical, molecular, biochemical analyses, and laser ablation tomography. Previous studies performed on several inbreds indicated that these two maize genotypes differed in resistance to pests including fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and WCR. Our data confirmed that Mp708 shows resistance against WCR, and demonstrates that the resistance mechanism is based in a multi-trait phenotype that includes increased resistance to cutting in nodal roots, stable root growth during insect infestation, constitutive and induced expression of known herbivore-defense genes, including ribosomal inhibitor protein 2 (rip2), terpene synthase 23 (tps23) and maize insect resistance cysteine protease-1 (mir1), as well high constitutive levels of jasmonic acid and production of (E)-β-caryophyllene...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Stephen J Martin, Sue Shemilt, Cândida B da S Lima, Carlos A L de Carvalho
Our understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) in recognition is based largely on temperate ant species and honey bees. The stingless bees remain relatively poorly studied, despite being the largest group of eusocial bees, comprising more than 400 species in some 60 genera. The Meliponini and Apini diverged between 80-130 Myr B.P. so the evolutionary trajectories that shaped the chemical communication systems in ants, honeybees and stingless bees may be very different. The aim of this study was to study if a unique species CHC signal existed in Neotropical stingless bees, as has been shown for many temperate species, and what compounds are involved...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Carola Helletsgruber, Stefan Dötterl, Ulrike Ruprecht, Robert R Junker
Floral scents are key mediators of biotic interactions between flowers and various organisms such as pollinators, antagonistic animals and bacteria. It has been shown that emissions of floral volatiles are influenced by interactions with other organisms at the levels of roots, leaves and flowers. However, it is largely unknown whether and how epiphytic bacteria associated with flowers affect the composition of floral scent. By comparing volatiles of sterile and inoculated plants we found that bacteria may add components, induce or reduce the emission of compounds, and potentially catabolize others...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Emily Mevers, Thomas Chouvenc, Nan-Yao Su, Jon Clardy
Bacteria and fungi in shared environments compete with one another for common substrates, and this competition typically involves microbially-produced small molecules. An investigation of one shared environmental niche, the carton material of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus, identified the participants on one of these molecular exchanges. Molecular characterization of several termite-associated actinobacteria strains identified eleven known antimicrobial metabolites that may aid in protecting the C...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Seong-Bum Park, Jong Youn Kim, Jung Yeon Han, Chang-Ho Ahn, Eung-Jun Park, Yong Eui Choi
Benzoic acids (BAs) are important structural elements in a wide variety of essential compounds and natural products, and play crucial roles in plant fitness. BA is a precursor of diverse benzenoid compounds, including the hormone salicylic acid (SA) and the aglycone moiety of salicin, which is particularly important in the Salicaceae family. The biosynthetic pathways leading to BA formation in plants are largely unknown. Recently, the CoA-dependent β-oxidative BA biosynthesis pathway, which occurs in peroxisomes, has been characterized in petunia...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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