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Journal of Chemical Ecology

Jean-Christophe Billeter, Mariana F Wolfner
Chemicals released into the environment by food, predators and conspecifics play critical roles in Drosophila reproduction. Females and males live in an environment full of smells, whose molecules communicate to them the availability of food, potential mates, competitors or predators. Volatile chemicals derived from fruit, yeast growing on the fruit, and flies already present on the fruit attract Drosophila, concentrating flies at food sites, where they will also mate. Species-specific cuticular hydrocarbons displayed on female Drosophila as they mature are sensed by males and act as pheromones to stimulate mating by conspecific males and inhibit heterospecific mating...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Anne E Winters, Andrew M White, Ariyanti S Dewi, I Wayan Mudianta, Nerida G Wilson, Louise C Forster, Mary J Garson, Karen L Cheney
Many plants and animals store toxic or unpalatable compounds in tissues that are easily encountered by predators during attack. Defensive compounds can be produced de novo, or obtained from dietary sources and stored directly without selection or modification, or can be selectively sequestered or biotransformed. Storage strategies should be optimized to produce effective defence mechanisms but also prevent autotoxicity of the host. Nudibranch molluscs utilize a diverse range of chemical defences, and we investigated the accumulation and distribution of defensive secondary metabolites in body tissues of 19 species of Chromodorididae nudibranchs...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Katri Nissinen, Virpi Virjamo, Lauri Mehtätalo, Anu Lavola, Anu Valtonen, Line Nybakken, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
In boreal woody plants, concentrations of defensive phenolic compounds are expected to be at a high level during the juvenile phase and decrease in maturity, although there is variation between plant species. Females of dioecious species, like most of the Salicaceae, are expected to invest their resources in defense and reproduction, while males are expected to be more growth-oriented. We studied age- and sex-dependent changes in leaf and stem phenolics, and in height and diameter growth in a dioecious Salix myrsinifolia plants over a seven-year time period...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Felix Feistel, Christian Paetz, Riya C Menezes, Daniel Veit, Bernd Schneider
Salicortin is a phenolic glucoside produced in Salicaceae as a chemical defense against herbivory. The specialist lepidopteran herbivorous larvae of Cerura vinula are able to overcome this defense. We examined the main frass constituents of C. vinula fed on Populus nigra leaves, and identified 11 quinic acid derivatives with benzoate and/or salicylate substitution. We asked whether the compounds are a result of salicortin breakdown and sought answers by carrying out feeding experiments with highly13 C-enriched salicortin...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Bjorn Bohman, Amir Karton, Gavin R Flematti, Adrian Scaffidi, Rod Peakall
Sexually deceptive orchids attract specific pollinators by mimicking insect sex pheromones. Normally this mimicry is very specific and identical compounds have been identified from orchids and matching females of the pollinators. In this study, we conduct a detailed structure-activity investigation on isomers of the semiochemicals involved in the sexual attraction of the male pollinator of the spider orchid Caladenia plicata. This orchid employs an unusual blend of two biosynthetically unrelated compounds, (S)-β-citronellol and 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, to lure its Zeleboria sp...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Nathan J Butterworth, Phillip G Byrne, Paul A Keller, James F Wallman
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an important role as contact pheromones in insects, particularly in flies. However, for many fly taxa our understanding of the importance of CHCs in sexual communication is limited. Within the family Calliphoridae (blowflies), sex-specific differences in CHCs have been reported for several species, but there is no evidence that CHCs facilitate sexual behavior. In order to elucidate the function of CHCs in Calliphoridae, studies combining behavioral and chemical analyses are required...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Christine Lembke, Daniel Stettin, Franziska Speck, Nico Ueberschaar, Sam De Decker, Wim Vyverman, Georg Pohnert
Recently the first pheromone of a marine diatom was identified to be the diketopiperazine (S,S)-diproline. This compound facilitates attraction between mating partners in the benthic diatom Seminavis robusta. Interestingly, sexualized S. robusta cells are attracted to both the natural pheromone (S,S)-diproline as well as to its enantiomer (R,R)-diproline. Usually stereospecificity is a prerequisite for successful substrate-receptor interactions, and especially pheromone perception is often highly enantioselective...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Tovo Mbolatiana Andrianjafy, Lala Harivelo Ravaomanarivo, Voahangy Vestalys Ramanandraibe, Maonja Finaritra Rakotondramanga, Patrick Mavingui, Marc Lemaire
In recent years, a significant increase in mosquito-borne diseases has been recorded worldwide. Faced with the limitations of existing methods for controlling the vector mosquito population, the development of attractants to bait traps and repellents to limit host-vector contacts could be promising and environmentally-friendly control strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxycoumarins and their alkyls derivatives against Aedes albopictus, the main vector of several arboviruses...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Daniele Merli, Barbara Mannucci, Federico Bassetti, Federica Corana, Marco Falchetto, Anna R Malacrida, Giuliano Gasperi, Francesca Scolari
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata is a polyphagous pest of fruits and crops with a worldwide distribution. Its ability to use different larval hosts may have multiple effects, including impacts on adult reproductive biology. The male sex pheromone, which plays a key role in attracting both other males to lekking arenas and females for mating, is a mixture of chemical compounds including esters, acids, alkanes and terpenes known to differ between laboratory strains and wild-type populations...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Marilene Fancelli, Miguel Borges, Raul A Laumann, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett, Maria C Blassioli-Moraes
Diaphorina citri is a vector of the bacterial causative agent of Huanglongbing (HLB = Citrus greening), a severe disease affecting citrus crops. As there is no known control for HLB, manipulating insect behaviour through deployment of semiochemicals offers a promising opportunity for protecting citrus crops. The behavioural responses of D. citri to plant volatiles, and the identity of these plant volatiles were investigated. Volatiles were collected from host plants Murraya paniculata, Citrus sinensis, C...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Stefanie DeFilippi, Emma Groulx, Merna Megalla, Rowida Mohamed, Tyler J Avis
Bacillus subtilis has shown success in antagonizing plant pathogens where strains of the bacterium produce antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) in response to microbial competitors in their ecological niche. To gain insight into the inhibitory role of these CLPs, B. subtilis strain B9-5 was co-cultured with three pathogenic fungi. Inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination was assessed and CLPs produced by B. subtilis B9-5 were quantified over the entire period of microbial interaction. B. subtilis B9-5 significantly inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination of Fusarium sambucinum and Verticillium dahliae, but not Rhizopus stolonifer...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
A M Twidle, D Barker, A G Seal, B Fedrizzi, D M Suckling
Volatiles emitted from unpollinated in situ flowers were collected from two male cultivars, 'M33', 'M91', and one female cultivar 'Zesy002' (Gold3) of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis). The samples were found to contain 48 compounds across the three cultivars with terpenes and straight chain alkenes dominating the headspace. Electrophysiological responses of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) to the headspace of the kiwifruit flowers were recorded. Honey bees consistently responded to 11 floral volatiles from Gold3 pistillate flowers while bumble bees consistently responded to only five compounds from the pistillate flowers...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Maxime R Hervé, Florence Nicolè, Kim-Anh Lê Cao
Chemical ecology has strong links with metabolomics, the large-scale study of all metabolites detectable in a biological sample. Consequently, chemical ecologists are often challenged by the statistical analyses of such large datasets. This holds especially true when the purpose is to integrate multiple datasets to obtain a holistic view and a better understanding of a biological system under study. The present article provides a comprehensive resource to analyze such complex datasets using multivariate methods...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jacqueline M Serrano, R Maxwell Collignon, Yunfan Zou, Jocelyn G Millar
To date, all known or suspected pheromones of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) have been identified solely from species native to Europe and Asia; reports of identifications from North American species dating from the 1970s have since proven to be incorrect. While conducting bioassays of pheromones of a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), we serendipitously discovered that males of Cardiophorus tenebrosus L. and Cardiophorus edwardsi Horn were specifically attracted to the cerambycid pheromone fuscumol acetate, (E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-yl acetate, suggesting that this compound might also be a sex pheromone for the two Cardiophorus species...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Tobias Otte, Monika Hilker, Sven Geiselhardt
The insect integument is covered by cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) which provide protection against environmental stresses, but are also used for communication. Here we review current knowledge on environmental and insect-internal factors which shape phenotypic plasticity of solitary living insects, especially herbivorous ones. We address the dynamics of changes which may occur within minutes, but may also last weeks, depending on the species and conditions. Two different modes of changes are suggested, i.e...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Weliton D Silva, Jocelyn G Millar, Lawrence M Hanks, Camila M Costa, Mariana O G Leite, Mateus Tonelli, José Maurício S Bento
During field screening trials conducted in Brazil in 2015, adults of both sexes of the cerambycid beetles Cotyclytus curvatus (Germar) and Megacyllene acuta (Germar) (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Clytini) were significantly attracted to racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and racemic 2-methylbutan-1-ol, chemicals which previously have been identified as male-produced aggregation-sex pheromones of a number of cerambycid species endemic to other continents. Subsequent analyses of samples of beetle-produced volatiles revealed that males of C...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Kyle J Hovey, Emily M Seiter, Erin E Johnson, Ralph A Saporito
Most amphibians produce their own defensive chemicals; however, poison frogs sequester their alkaloid-based defenses from dietary arthropods. Alkaloids function as a defense against predators, and certain types appear to inhibit microbial growth. Alkaloid defenses vary considerably among populations of poison frogs, reflecting geographic differences in availability of dietary arthropods. Consequently, environmentally driven differences in frog defenses may have significant implications regarding their protection against pathogens...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Eirini Anastasaki, Fryni Drizou, Panagiotis G Milonas
In response to attack by herbivorous insects, plants produce semiochemicals for intra- and interspecific communication. The perception of these semiochemicals by conspecifics of the herbivore defines their choice for oviposition and feeding. We aimed to investigate the role of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) by Tuta absoluta larvae on the oviposition choice of conspecific females on tomato plants. We performed two- choice and non-choice bioassays with plants damaged by larvae feeding and intact control plants...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Joelle K Lemmen-Lechelt, Tyler J Wist, Maya L Evenden
Volatile chemicals produced by plants mediate host location, mate-finding and oviposition behavior in insects. State-dependent response to plant cues allows for timing of foraging, mating and oviposition on ephemeral host plants or plant parts. Caloptilia fraxinella is a herbivorous specialist on the foliage of ash trees (Fraxinus). Adults are long-lived and undergo a nine-month reproductive diapause over the fall and winter. Mating and oviposition occur in the spring when volatile chemicals released by ash leaves mediate host location...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Elizabeth M Hill, Lynne A Robinson, Ali Abdul-Sada, Adam J Vanbergen, Angela Hodge, Sue E Hartley
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonisation of plant roots is one of the most ancient and widespread interactions in ecology, yet the systemic consequences for plant secondary chemistry remain unclear. We performed the first metabolomic investigation into the impact of AMF colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis on the chemical defences, spanning above- and below-ground tissues, in its host-plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). We used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to profile, and where possible identify, compounds induced by AMF colonisation in both roots and shoots...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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