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Journal of Chemical Ecology

Amy M Trowbridge, M Deane Bowers, Russell K Monson
Changes in the chemical composition of plant defense compounds during herbivory can impact herbivore resource allocation patterns and thereby herbivore survival, growth, and immune response against endoparasitoid infection. Few studies have investigated folivore responses to changes in plant chemistry that occur under outbreak conditions in mature conifer systems. Using data from an earlier observational field study, we carried out laboratory bioassays to test how variation in monoterpenes in piñon pine trees (Pinus edulis, Pinaceae) during an outbreak affects growth, consumption, and immune response of a specialist herbivore, the Southwestern tiger moth (Lophocampa ingens, Arctiidae)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Lina Lundborg, Göran Nordlander, Niklas Björklund, Henrik Nordenhem, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson
In large parts of Europe, insecticide-free measures for protecting conifer plants are desired to suppress damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.). Treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a chemical elicitor already used in crop production, may enhance expression of chemical defenses in seedlings in conifer regenerations. However, in a previous experiment, MeJA treatment resulted in substantially better field protection for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) than for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Valentino Giacomuzzi, Luca Cappellin, Iuliia Khomenko, Franco Biasioli, Stefan Schütz, Marco Tasin, Alan L Knight, Sergio Angeli
This study investigated the volatile emission from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., cv. Golden Delicious) foliage that was either intact, mechanically-damaged, or exposed to larval feeding by Pandemis heparana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Volatiles were collected by closed-loop-stripping-analysis and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three time periods: after 1 h and again 24 and 48 h later. Volatiles for all treatments also were monitored continuously over a 72-h period by the use of proton transfer reaction - time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Peng Han, Nicolas Desneux, Thomas Michel, Jacques Le Bot, Aurelie Seassau, Eric Wajnberg, Edwige Amiens-Desneux, Anne-Violette Lavoir
Variation in resource input to plants triggers bottom-up effects on plant-insect herbivore interactions. However, variation in plant intrinsic traits in response to resource availability may modify the bottom-up effects. Furthermore, the consequences also may depend on the feeding strategy of insect herbivores belonging to different feeding guilds. We evaluated the performance of two insect herbivores from distinct feeding guilds, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta and the phloem feeder Bemisia tabaci. We offered the insects two tomato cultivars growing under optimal nitrogen input vs...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Linnea R Meier, Yunfan Zou, Jocelyn G Millar, Judith A Mongold-Diers, Lawrence M Hanks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Christiane Stahr, Karsten Seidelmann
Living in high-density groups of animals has advantages and disadvantages for mating. The advantage of facilitated mate finding is compromised by difficulties in protecting a suitable partner from competitors. Thus, males regularly are faced with increased competition for sperm, and females with harassment by males at high population densities. To cope with these problems, mating tactics and mate choice mechanisms have to be adjusted. An adaptation to gregarious condition observed in locusts includes the use of male-emitted pheromones...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Monique J Rivera, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Hans T Alborn, Albrecht M Koppenhöfer
Recent work has shown the potential for enhanced efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) through their attraction to herbivore induced plant volatiles. However, there has been little investigation into the utilization of these attractants in systems other than in those in which they were identified. We compared (E)-β-caryophyllene and pregeijerene in the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) agroecosystem in their ability to enhance the attraction of EPN to and efficacy against the system's herbivore, oriental beetle (Anomala orientalis)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Nurmi Pangesti, Michael Reichelt, Judith E van de Mortel, Eleni Kapsomenou, Jonathan Gershenzon, Joop J A van Loon, Marcel Dicke, Ana Pineda
Beneficial soil microbes can promote plant growth and induce systemic resistance (ISR) in aboveground tissues against pathogens and herbivorous insects. Despite the increasing interest in microbial-ISR against herbivores, the underlying molecular and chemical mechanisms of this phenomenon remain elusive. Using Arabidopsis thaliana and the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r (formerly known as P. fluorescens WCS417r), we here evaluate the role of the JA-regulated MYC2-branch and the JA/ET-regulated ORA59-branch in modulating rhizobacteria-ISR to Mamestra brassicae by combining gene transcriptional, phytochemical, and herbivore performance assays...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Rhian M Guillem, Falko P Drijfhout, Stephen J Martin
Recognition is a fundamental process on which all subsequent behaviors are based at every organizational level, from the gene up to the super-organism. At the whole organism level, visual recognition is the best understood. However, chemical communication is far more widespread than visual communication, but despite its importance is much less understood. Ants provide an excellent model system for chemical ecology studies as it is well established that compounds known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are used as recognition cues in ants...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jessica L Kerr, Dave Kelly, Martin K-F Bader, Eckehard G Brockerhoff
Plant-feeding insects use visual and olfactory cues (shape, color, plant volatiles) for host location, but the relative importance of different cues and interactions with non-host-plant volatiles in ecosystems of varying plant biodiversity is unclear for most species. We studied invasive bark beetles and wood borers associated with pine trees to characterize interactions among color, host and non-host volatiles, by employing traps that mimic tree trunks. Cross-vane flight intercept traps (black, green, red, white, yellow, clear) and black funnel traps were used with and without attractants (α-pinene + ethanol), repellents (non-host green leaf volatiles, 'GLV'), and attractant/repellent combinations in four pine forests in New Zealand...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Ryu Nakata, Yuki Kimura, Kenta Aoki, Naoko Yoshinaga, Masayoshi Teraishi, Yutaka Okumoto, Alisa Huffaker, Eric A Schmelz, Naoki Mori
Isoflavonoids are a characteristic family of natural products in legumes known to mediate a range of plant-biotic interactions. For example, in soybean (Glycine max: Fabaceae) multiple isoflavones are induced and accumulate in leaves following attack by Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. To quantitatively examine patterns of activated de novo biosynthesis, soybean (Var. Enrei) leaves were treated with a combination of plant defense elicitors present in S. litura gut content extracts and L-α-[(13)C9, (15)N]phenylalanine as a traceable isoflavonoid precursor...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jean Luc Rolland, Didier Stien, Sophie Sanchez-Ferandin, Raphaël Lami
The interactions between bacteria and phytoplankton regulate many important biogeochemical reactions in the marine environment, including those in the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. At the microscopic level, it is now well established that important consortia of bacteria colonize the phycosphere, the immediate environment of phytoplankton cells. In this microscale environment, abundant bacterial cells are organized in a structured biofilm, and exchange information through the diffusion of small molecules called semiochemicals...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Emmanuel O Ogah, Lesley E Smart, Christine M Woodcock, John C Caulfield, Michael A Birkett, John A Pickett, Francis E Nwilene, Toby J Bruce
African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné, is a major pest of rice in Africa. Depsite its economic importance, its chemical ecology is not well understood. Here, we assessed behavioral and electrophysiological responses of O. oryzivora to host plant volatiles. In olfactometer bioassays, mated female O. oryzivora were attracted to volatiles emitted from intact rice plants but were repelled by volatiles collected from plants infested by conspecifics. In a choice test, there was a preference for volatiles from uninfested plants over those from infested plants...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Viktoria V Tomczak, Rabea Schweiger, Caroline Müller
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formed between plants and AM fungi (AMF) can alter host plant quality and thus influence plant-herbivore interactions. While AM is known to affect the development of generalist chewing-biting herbivores, AM-mediated impacts on insect behavior have been neglected until now. In this study, the effects of Rhizophagus irregularis, a generalist AMF, on phenotypic and leaf metabolic traits of Plantago major plants were investigated. Further, the influence of AM-mediated host plant modifications on the development and on seven behavioral traits of larvae of the generalist Mamestra brassicae were recorded...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jocelyn G Millar, Thomas C Baker, Junwei J Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
T C Baker, A J Myrick, K C Park
High-emission-rate "mega-dispensers" have come into increasing use for sex pheromone mating disruption of moth pests over the past two decades. These commercially available dispensers successfully suppress mating and reduce crop damage when they are deployed at very low to moderate densities, ranging from 1 to 5/ha to 100-1000/ha, depending on the dispenser types and their corresponding pheromone emission rates. Whereas traditionally the emission rates for successful commercial mating disruption formulations have been measured in terms of amounts (usually milligram) emitted by the disruptant application per acre or hectare per day, we suggest that emission rates should be measured on a per-dispenser per-minute basis...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Martine Huberty, Katja Tielbörger, Jeffrey A Harvey, Caroline Müller, Mirka Macel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Marc Weissburg, R X Poulin, J Kubanek
Prey responses to predator cues are graded in intensity in accordance with the degree of threat presented by the predator. In systems in which prey gather information on predators by using chemicals, prey often respond more to the odor of predators that have consumed conspecifics, as opposed to heterospecifics. We investigated the response of a prey species, the mud crab, Panopeus herbstii, to urine of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, fed mud crabs or oysters. Behavioral analysis was combined with metabolomics to characterize bioactive deterrents in the urine of predators fed different diets...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Blake E Wilson, Julien M Beuzelin, Jeremy D Allison, Thomas E Reagan
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the United States. Traps baited with the synthetic female sex pheromone of E. loftini are used for monitoring and management of this invasive pest. However, the active space, or radius of attraction, of these traps is not known. Two field experiments examined the effect of intertrap distance on trap captures with hexagonal arrays of traps deployed in rice stubble habitat in Texas (2011) and Louisiana (2013)...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Josep Bau, Ring T Cardé
When pheromone traps are used for detection of an invasive pest and then delimitation of its distribution, an unresolved issue is the interpretation of failure to capture any target insects. Is a population present but not detected, a so-called false negative? Using the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) as an exemplar, we modeled the probability of males being captured in traps deployed at densities typical for surveillance (1 per 2.6 km(2) or 1 per mi(2)) and delimitation (up to 49 per 2.6 km(2)). The simulations used a dynamic wind model generating a turbulent plume structure and varying wind direction, and a behavior model based on the documented maneuvers of gypsy moths during plume acquisition and along-plume navigation...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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