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Journal of Chemical Ecology

Dawood Hattas, Peter F Scogings, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
The growth differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) provides a framework that predicts a trade-off between costs of secondary metabolites (SMs) relative to the demand for photosynthate by growth. However, this hypothesis was developed using empirical evidence from plant species in northern boreal and temperate systems, leaving its applicability to species under different abiotic and biotic conditions questionable and generalizations problematic. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the GDBH explains allocation to SMs in the deciduous African savanna woody species C...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Carla C M Arce, Ricardo A R Machado, Natália S Ribas, Paulo F Cristaldo, Lívia M S Ataíde, Ângelo Pallini, Flávia M Carmo, Leandro G Freitas, Eraldo Lima
The outcome of plant-mediated interactions among herbivores from several feeding guilds has been studied intensively. However, our understanding on the effects of nematode root herbivory on leaf miner oviposition behavior and performance remain limited. In this study, we evaluated whether Meloidogyne incognita root herbivory affects Tuta absoluta oviposition preference on Solanum lycopersicum plants and the development of the resulting offspring. To investigate the M. incognita-herbivory induced plant systemic responses that might explain the observed biological effects, we measured photosynthetic rates, leaf trypsin protease inhibitor activities, and analyzed the profile of volatiles emitted by the leaves of root-infested and non-infested plants...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
John M Hash, Jocelyn G Millar, John M Heraty, James F Harwood, Brian V Brown
Toxic defensive secretions produced by millipedes in the orders Julida, Spirobolida, Spirostreptida, and Polydesmida are highly repellent to most vertebrate and invertebrate natural enemies, but a few insects have evolved mechanisms to overcome these defenses. We demonstrate that highly specialized parasitic phorid flies in the species-rich genus Myriophora use volatile millipede defensive compounds as kairomones for host location. Of the two predominant quinone components in the defensive blend of juliform millipedes, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone alone was sufficient to attract adult flies of both sexes; however, a combination of 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone increased attractiveness nearly threefold...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Dong H Cha, Shannon B Olsson, Wee L Yee, Robert B Goughnour, Glen R Hood, Monte Mattsson, Dietmar Schwarz, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn
A mixture of behaviorally active volatiles was identified from the fruit of snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), dimethyl trisulfide (1%), 1-octen-3-ol (40%), myrcene (8%), nonanal (9%), linalool (13%), (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, 6%), decanal (15%), and β-caryophyllene (5%) was identified that gave consistent electroantennogram activity and was behaviorally active in flight tunnel tests...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Kun Dong, Liang Sun, Jing-Tao Liu, Shao-Hua Gu, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Ruo-Nan Yang, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo, Xi-Wu Gao, Yu-Yuan Guo, Yong-Jun Zhang
Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to play key roles in insect sex pheromone recognition; however, there is little in vivo evidence to support this viewpoint in comparison to abundant biochemical data in vitro. In the present study, two noctuid PBP genes HarmPBP1 and HarmPBP2 of the serious agricultural pest, Helicoverpa armigera were selected to be knocked down by RNA interference, and then the changes in electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male mutants to their major sex pheromone component (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) were recorded...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Helene M Loos, Sébastien Doucet, Fanny Védrines, Constanze Sharapa, Robert Soussignan, Karine Durand, Paul Sagot, Andrea Buettner, Benoist Schaal
Conjugated forms of odorants contributing to sweat odor occur not only in human sweat but also in amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk. However, it is unclear whether the released odorants are detected and hedonically discriminated by human newborns. To investigate this issue, we administered highly diluted solutions of (R)/(S)-3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (MSH), (R)/(S)-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (SH), (E)/(Z)-3-methylhex-2-enoic acid (3M2H), and (R)/(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid (HMHA) to 3-d-old infants while their respiratory rate and oro-facial movements were recorded...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Diego B Silva, Berhane T Weldegergis, Joop J A Van Loon, Vanda H P Bueno
Plants release a variety of volatile organic compounds that play multiple roles in the interactions with other plants and animals. Natural enemies of plant-feeding insects use these volatiles as cues to find their prey or host. Here, we report differences between the volatile blends of tomato plants infested with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci or the tomato borer Tuta absoluta. We compared the volatile emission of: (1) clean tomato plants; (2) tomato plants infested with T. absoluta larvae; and (3) tomato plants infested with B...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Makhdora Almuziny, Charlotte Decker, Dong Wang, Patrick Gerard, Nishanth Tharayil
Environmental stress hinders growth of plants and commonly results in the accumulation of carbon-based defense compounds. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N)-containing defense compounds are less predictable under environmental stress. The impact of nutrient deficiency on plant defenses that require the metabolic conversion of a less toxic compound to a more potent toxin is even more poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) deficiency and simulated herbivory on the concentration of metabolites including glucosinolates (GSLs), on the conversion of GSLs to more toxic isothiocyanates (ITCs), and on the activity of myrosinase (MYR) in leaves of Brassica juncea and Brassica nigra...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Shuai Yang, Xiang-Dong Mei, Xiao-Fang Zhang, Yao-Fa Li, Dongmei She, Tao Zhang, Jun Ning
The coffee bean weevil (CBW), Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) is an important pest of stored products such as grains, coffee beans, cassava, and traditional Chinese medicine materials. In China, CBW causes large losses of Daqu, a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter, and, unfortunately, the use of conventional insecticides against CBW is not suitable in Daqu storage. We found CBW to be highly attracted to fermenting yeast cultures, such as Kluyveromyces lactis. Eight volatile compounds, produced by fermenting cultures and not by sterile samples, were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Nadir Erbilgin, Jack D Stein, Robert E Acciavatti, Nancy E Gillette, Sylvia R Mori, Kristi Bischel, Jonathan A Cale, Carline R Carvalho, David L Wood
Woodwasps in Sirex and related genera are well-represented in North American conifer forests, but the chemical ecology of native woodwasps is limited to a few studies demonstrating their attraction to volatile host tree compounds, primarily monoterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene alcohols. Thus, we systematically investigated woodwasp-host chemical interactions in California's Sierra Nevada and West Virginia's Allegheny Mountains. We first tested common conifer monoterpene hydrocarbons and found that (-)-α-pinene, (+)-3-carene, and (-)-β-pinene were the three most attractive compounds...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Katharina Brandt, Stefan Dötterl, Wittko Francke, Manfred Ayasse, Paulo Milet-Pinheiro
The pollen diet provided by adult bees to their offspring varies immensely. While some species collect pollen on several plants irrespective of their phylogenetic relatedness (polyleges), others collect only on plants within a genus or family (oligoleges). Floral scents play a central role in bee-plant interactions. To locate flowers, polyleges are assumed to rely on compounds commonly found as floral scent constituents, whereas oligoleges rely on unusual compounds to recognize host flowers unambiguously. Campanula flowers are visited by both polylectic and oligolectic species, and their scent bouquets consist of common and unusual (e...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Eva M Keppner, Madlen Prang, Katharina C Engel, Manfred Ayasse, Johannes Stökl, Sandra Steiger
Burying beetles have fascinated scientists for centuries due to their elaborate form of biparental care that includes the burial and defense of a vertebrate carcass, as well as the subsequent feeding of the larvae. However, besides extensive research on burying beetles, one fundamental question has yet to be answered: what cues do males use to discriminate between the sexes? Here, we show in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides that cuticular lipids trigger male mating behavior. Previous chemical analyses have revealed sex differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition; however, in the current study, fractionated-guided bioassay showed that cuticular lipids, other than CHCs, elicit copulation...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Barend V Burger, C André de Klerk, Michael Morr, Wilhelmina J G Burger
Here, we report the identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of female Margarodes prieskaensis (Jakubski), and the attractiveness of the synthetic pheromone to males in field trapping tests. Volatile organic compounds were collected from virgin females using a sample enrichment probe (SEP). Analyses by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed the presence of only two constituents. By scaling up the SEP, sufficient of the major constituent was collected for (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses and ancillary NMR techniques...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Robert F Mitchell, Tomislav Curkovic, Judith A Mongold-Diers, Lara Neuteboom, Hans-Martin Galbrecht, Armin Tröger, Jan Bergmann, Wittko Francke, Lawrence M Hanks
We present evidence that cerambycid species that are supposed mimics of vespid wasps also mimic their model's odor by producing spiroacetals, common constituents of vespid alarm pheromones. Adults of the North American cerambycids Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) and Megacyllene robiniae (Forster) are conspicuously patterned yellow and black, and are believed to be mimics of aculeate Hymenoptera, such as species of Vespula and Polistes. Adult males of M. caryae produce an aggregation-sex pheromone, but both sexes produce a pungent odor when handled, which has been assumed to be a defensive response...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Timothy J Anderson, David L Wagner, Bruce R Cooper, Megan E McCarty, Jennifer M Zaspel
Tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae: Arctiini) are notable for their specialized associations with hosts that produce toxic secondary compounds, and are thus an ideal study system for understanding insect-plant interactions and the evolution of antipredatory defense. Likewise, their sister lineage (Arctiinae: Lithosiini) has been documented feeding on algae and lichens, and is known to sequester lichen-derived secondary compounds from the larval to adult stages. Prevalence of lichenivory in this early radiation (ca...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
John J Couture, Timothy D Meehan, Kennedy F Rubert-Nason, Richard L Lindroth
Anthropogenic activities are altering levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3). These changes can alter phytochemistry, and in turn, influence ecosystem processes. We assessed the individual and combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on the phytochemical composition of two tree species common to early successional, northern temperate forests. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon dioxide and ozone Enrichment) facility under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and O3...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Linnea R Meier, Yunfan Zou, Jocelyn G Millar, Judith A Mongold-Diers, Lawrence M Hanks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jessica L Kerr, Dave Kelly, Martin K-F Bader, Eckehard G Brockerhoff
Plant-feeding insects use visual and olfactory cues (shape, color, plant volatiles) for host location, but the relative importance of different cues and interactions with non-host-plant volatiles in ecosystems of varying plant biodiversity is unclear for most species. We studied invasive bark beetles and wood borers associated with pine trees to characterize interactions among color, host and non-host volatiles, by employing traps that mimic tree trunks. Cross-vane flight intercept traps (black, green, red, white, yellow, clear) and black funnel traps were used with and without attractants (α-pinene + ethanol), repellents (non-host green leaf volatiles, 'GLV'), and attractant/repellent combinations in four pine forests in New Zealand...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Emmanuel O Ogah, Lesley E Smart, Christine M Woodcock, John C Caulfield, Michael A Birkett, John A Pickett, Francis E Nwilene, Toby J Bruce
African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné, is a major pest of rice in Africa. Depsite its economic importance, its chemical ecology is not well understood. Here, we assessed behavioral and electrophysiological responses of O. oryzivora to host plant volatiles. In olfactometer bioassays, mated female O. oryzivora were attracted to volatiles emitted from intact rice plants but were repelled by volatiles collected from plants infested by conspecifics. In a choice test, there was a preference for volatiles from uninfested plants over those from infested plants...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Amy M Trowbridge, M Deane Bowers, Russell K Monson
Changes in the chemical composition of plant defense compounds during herbivory can impact herbivore resource allocation patterns and thereby herbivore survival, growth, and immune response against endoparasitoid infection. Few studies have investigated folivore responses to changes in plant chemistry that occur under outbreak conditions in mature conifer systems. Using data from an earlier observational field study, we carried out laboratory bioassays to test how variation in monoterpenes in piñon pine trees (Pinus edulis, Pinaceae) during an outbreak affects growth, consumption, and immune response of a specialist herbivore, the Southwestern tiger moth (Lophocampa ingens, Arctiidae)...
December 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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