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Journal of Chemical Ecology

Jocelyn G Millar, Thomas C Baker, Junwei J Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Dong H Cha, Alejandro E Mieles, Paola F Lahuatte, Andrea Cahuana, Marie Piedad Lincango, Charlotte E Causton, Sabine Tebbich, Arno Cimadom, Stephen A Teale
We investigated the role of olfactory cues from actively fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in attraction of adult Philornis downsi and identified two synergistically attractive yeast volatiles. Larvae of this invasive fly parasitize the hatchlings of passerines and threaten the Galapagos avifauna. Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and field trapping experiments were used to identify volatile compounds from a yeast-sugar solution...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
T C Baker, A J Myrick, K C Park
High-emission-rate "mega-dispensers" have come into increasing use for sex pheromone mating disruption of moth pests over the past two decades. These commercially available dispensers successfully suppress mating and reduce crop damage when they are deployed at very low to moderate densities, ranging from 1 to 5/ha to 100-1000/ha, depending on the dispenser types and their corresponding pheromone emission rates. Whereas traditionally the emission rates for successful commercial mating disruption formulations have been measured in terms of amounts (usually milligram) emitted by the disruptant application per acre or hectare per day, we suggest that emission rates should be measured on a per-dispenser per-minute basis...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Carrie A Deans, Spencer T Behmer, Justin Fiene, Gregory A Sword
Plant soluble protein and digestible carbohydrate content significantly affect insect herbivore fitness, but studies reporting plant protein and carbohydrate content are rare. Instead, the elements nitrogen and carbon often are used as surrogates for plant protein and digestible carbohydrate content, respectively. However, this is problematic for two reasons. First, carbon is found in all organic molecules, which precludes strong correlations with ecologically important dietary macronutrients (e.g., digestible carbohydrates, the primary energy source for most insect herbivores)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Martine Huberty, Katja Tielbörger, Jeffrey A Harvey, Caroline Müller, Mirka Macel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Herbivores emit plant-associated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after feeding on plants. These plant-associated VOCs can be used by parasitoids to locate their hosts. It is hypothesized that certain compounds play key roles in the attractiveness of host-associated odor blends. The larval parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its herbivore host, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major pest of cotton plant were used as model species to identify key compounds mediating attraction of parasitoids to hosts...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jake A Pruett, J Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Stephanie M Campos, Helena A Soini, Milos V Novotny, Cuauhcihuatl Vital-García, Emília P Martins, Diana K Hews
Animals rely on multimodal signals to obtain information from conspecifics through alternative sensory systems, and the evolutionary loss of a signal in one modality may lead to compensation through increased use of signals in an alternative modality. We investigated associations between chemical signaling and evolutionary loss of abdominal color patches in males of four species (two plain-bellied and two colorful-bellied) of Sceloporus lizards. We conducted field trials to compare behavioral responses of male lizards to swabs with femoral gland (FG) secretions from conspecific males and control swabs (clean paper)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Cintia A Oi, Jocelyn G Millar, Jelle S van Zweden, Tom Wenseleers
Social insects are known for their reproductive division of labor between queens and workers, whereby queens lay the majority of the colony's eggs, and workers engage mostly in non-reproductive tasks. Queens produce pheromones that signal their presence and fertility to workers, which in turn generally remain sterile. Recently, it has been discovered that specific queen-characteristic cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) function as queen pheromones across multiple lineages of social insects. In the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, several long-chain linear alkanes and 3-methylalkanes were shown to act as queen signals...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Shin-Ya Mukae, Toshiki Ohashi, Yuika Matsumoto, Shinji Ohta, Hisashi Ômura
The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Swayamjit Ray, Saumik Basu, Loren J Rivera-Vega, Flor E Acevedo, Joe Louis, Gary W Felton, Dawn S Luthe
Plant defenses to insect herbivores have been studied in response to several insect behaviors on plants such as feeding, crawling, and oviposition. However, we have only scratched the surface about how insect feces induce plant defenses. In this study, we measured frass-induced plant defenses in maize, rice, cabbage, and tomato by chewing herbivores such as European corn borer (ECB), fall armyworm (FAW), cabbage looper (CL), and tomato fruit worm (TFW). We observed that caterpillar frass induced plant defenses are specific to each host-herbivore system, and they may induce herbivore or pathogen defense responses in the host plant depending on the composition of the frass deposited on the plant, the plant organ where it is deposited, and the species of insect...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Alberto Prado, Gabriel Rubio-Mendez, Laura Yañez-Espinosa, Jacqueline C Bede
Plants have multiple strategies, including phytochemicals that protect their vulnerable tissues against pathogens and herbivores. Dioon edule, like all cycads, possess unique azoxy-type compounds, azoxyglycosides (AZGs) as a chemical defense; however, the ontogenetic variability of these compounds in this long-lived cycad is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of plant age, sex, genotype and individual heterozygosity on AZG levels in mature leaves of wild D. edule populations from eastern Mexico. Individuals were divided into three ontogenetic stages: seedlings, juveniles and adults...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Dineshkumar Kandasamy, Jonathan Gershenzon, Almuth Hammerbacher
Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Marc Weissburg, R X Poulin, J Kubanek
Prey responses to predator cues are graded in intensity in accordance with the degree of threat presented by the predator. In systems in which prey gather information on predators by using chemicals, prey often respond more to the odor of predators that have consumed conspecifics, as opposed to heterospecifics. We investigated the response of a prey species, the mud crab, Panopeus herbstii, to urine of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, fed mud crabs or oysters. Behavioral analysis was combined with metabolomics to characterize bioactive deterrents in the urine of predators fed different diets...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Blake E Wilson, Julien M Beuzelin, Jeremy D Allison, Thomas E Reagan
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the United States. Traps baited with the synthetic female sex pheromone of E. loftini are used for monitoring and management of this invasive pest. However, the active space, or radius of attraction, of these traps is not known. Two field experiments examined the effect of intertrap distance on trap captures with hexagonal arrays of traps deployed in rice stubble habitat in Texas (2011) and Louisiana (2013)...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Josep Bau, Ring T Cardé
When pheromone traps are used for detection of an invasive pest and then delimitation of its distribution, an unresolved issue is the interpretation of failure to capture any target insects. Is a population present but not detected, a so-called false negative? Using the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) as an exemplar, we modeled the probability of males being captured in traps deployed at densities typical for surveillance (1 per 2.6 km(2) or 1 per mi(2)) and delimitation (up to 49 per 2.6 km(2)). The simulations used a dynamic wind model generating a turbulent plume structure and varying wind direction, and a behavior model based on the documented maneuvers of gypsy moths during plume acquisition and along-plume navigation...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Anna Jirošová, David Sillam-Dussès, Pavlína Kyjaková, Blanka Kalinová, Klára Dolejšová, Andrej Jančařík, Pavel Majer, Paulo Fellipe Cristaldo, Robert Hanus
Termite nests often are referred to as the most elaborate constructions of animals. However, some termite species do not build a nest at all and instead found colonies inside the nests of other termites. Since these so-called inquilines do not need to be in direct contact with the host population, the two colonies usually live in separate parts of the nest. Adaptations of both the inquiline and its host are likely to occur to maintain the spatial exclusion and reduce the costs of potential conflicts. Among them, mutual avoidance, based on chemical cues, is expected...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jonathan T Clark, Anandasankar Ray
Insects have developed highly sophisticated and sensitive olfactory systems to find animal or plant hosts for feeding. Some insects vector pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of millions of people and destroy billions of dollars of food products every year. There is great interest, therefore, in understanding how the insect olfactory system can be manipulated to reduce their contact with hosts. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of insect olfactory detection mechanisms, which may serve as a foundation for designing insect control programs based on manipulation of their behaviors by using odorants...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Mattias C Larsson
As global biodiversity declines, biodiversity and conservation have become ever more important research topics. Research in chemical ecology for conservation purposes has not adapted to address this need. During the last 10-15 years, only a few insect pheromones have been developed for biodiversity and conservation studies, including the identification and application of pheromones specifically for population monitoring. These investigations, supplemented with our knowledge from decades of studying pest insects, demonstrate that monitoring with pheromones and other semiochemicals can be applied widely for conservation of rare and threatened insects...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Marijke Lenaerts, Lamis Abid, Caroline Paulussen, Tim Goelen, Felix Wäckers, Hans Jacquemyn, Bart Lievens
To meet their carbohydrate requirements, adult parasitoids exploit a broad range of sugar resources, including floral and extrafloral nectar and honeydew. Although honeydew might be the predominant sugar source, especially in agricultural systems, it often is nutritionally inferior to sugar sources like nectar. Given its broad availability, it may be expected that sugar-feeding insects have evolved specialized adaptations to deal with this typically inferior sugar source. This would apply especially to organisms that have a close association with honeydew producers...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Aya Yanagawa, Tomoya Imai, Toshiharu Akino, Yoshihiro Toh, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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