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Journal of Chemical Ecology

Mikael A Molander, Jimmy Helgesson, Inis B Winde, Jocelyn G Millar, Mattias C Larsson
The number of longhorn beetles with confirmed aggregation-sex pheromones has increased rapidly in recent years. However, the species that have been studied most intensively are pests, whereas much less is known about the pheromones of longhorn beetles that are rare or threatened. We studied the cerambycid beetle Plagionotus detritus ssp. detritus with the goal of confirming the presence and composition of an aggregation-sex pheromone. This species has suffered widespread population decline due to habitat loss in Western Europe, and it is now considered threatened and near extinction in several countries...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Elana Varner, Regine Gries, Stephen Takács, Stephanie Fan, Gerhard Gries
Recently, it was reported (i) that the sex pheromone blend of male house mice, Mus musculus, comprises not only volatile components (3,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin; 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole) but also a component of low volatility (the sex steroid testosterone), and (ii) that the sex steroids progesterone and estradiol are sex pheromone components of female house mice. Here we tested the hypothesis that the sex attractant pheromone blend of female mice, analogous to that of male mice, also comprises volatile pheromone components...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jordan D Nobler, Meghan J Camp, Miranda M Crowell, Lisa A Shipley, Carolyn Dadabay, Janet L Rachlow, Lauren James, Jennifer S Forbey
Herbivores that forage on chemically defended plants consume complex mixtures of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). However, the mechanisms by which herbivores tolerate mixtures of PSMs are relatively poorly understood. As such, it remains difficult to predict how PSMs, singly or as complex mixtures, influence diet selection by herbivores. Although relative rates of detoxification of PSMs have been used to explain tolerance of PSMs by dietary specialist herbivores, few studies have used the rate of detoxification of individual PSMs to understand dietary preferences of individual herbivores for individual versus mixtures of PSMs...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Daniel S Bush, Joel P Siegel, May R Berenbaum
The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) and the fungus Aspergillus flavus constitute a facultative mutualism and pest complex in tree nut and fruit orchards in California. The possibility exists that the broad detoxification capabilities of A. flavus benefit its insect associate by metabolizing toxicants, including hostplant phytochemicals and pesticides. We examined this hypothesis by conducting laboratory bioassays to assess growth rates and survivorship of pyrethroid-resistant (R347) and susceptible (CPQ) larval strains on potato dextrose agar diet containing almond meal with and without two furanocoumarins, xanthotoxin and bergapten, found in several hostplants, and with and without two insecticides, bifenthrin and spinetoram, used in almond and pistachio orchards...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Carla Menegatti, Weilan Gomes Da Paixão Melo, Daniel Blascke Carrão, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes De Oliveira, Fabio Santos Do Nascimento, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Mônica Tallarico Pupo
Social insects are frequently observed in symbiotic association with bacteria that produce antimicrobial natural products as a defense mechanism. There is a lack of studies on the microbiota associated with stingless bees and their antimicrobial compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the isolation of Paenibacillus polymyxa ALLI-03-01 from the larval food of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. The bacterial strain was cultured under different conditions and produced (L)-(-)-3-phenyllactic acid and fusaricidins, which were active against entomopathogenic fungi and Paenibacillus larvae...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Artur Campos D Maia, Christopher Grimm, Mario Schubert, Florian Etl, Eduardo Gomes Gonçalves, Daniela Maria Do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Stefan Schulz, Stefan Dötterl
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The description of subheadings of Figs. 4c and d have to be interchanged.
October 18, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Weliton D Silva, José Maurício S Bento, Lawrence M Hanks, Jocelyn G Millar
We describe the identification, synthesis, and field bioassays of a novel aggregation-sex pheromone produced by males of Susuacanga octoguttata (Germar), a South American cerambycid beetle. Analyses of extracts of headspace volatiles produced by adult beetles revealed a sex-specific compound emitted by males which was identified as (Z)-7-hexadecene by microchemical and spectroscopic analyses. The synthesized pheromone was attractive to beetles of both sexes in field trials. This unsaturated hydrocarbon motif is unprecedented among cerambycid pheromones identified to date...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Geneviève Chiapusio, Vincent E J Jassey, Floriant Bellvert, Gilles Comte, Leslie A Weston, Frederic Delarue, Alexandre Buttler, Marie Laure Toussaint, Philippe Binet
Sphagnum mosses mediate long-term carbon accumulation in peatlands. Given their functional role as keystone species, it is important to consider their responses to ecological gradients and environmental changes through the production of phenolics. We compared the extent to which Sphagnum phenolic production was dependent on species, microhabitats and season, and how surrounding dwarf shrubs responded to Sphagnum phenolics. We evaluated the phenolic profiles of aqueous extracts of Sphagnum fallax and Sphagnum magellanicum over a 6-month period in two microhabitats (wet lawns versus dry hummocks) in a French peatland...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Zhou Chen, Feng Liu, Nannan Liu
The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of many human diseases such as yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika. As insecticide resistance has been widely reported, chemical repellents have been adopted as alternative options for mosquito and mosquito-borne disease control. This study characterized the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in different types of antennal olfactory sensilla in Ae. aegypti to 48 chemicals that exhibited repellent activity in various insect species. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed from ORNs in response to these chemicals and differential tuning properties were also observed among ORNs...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Xianqin Wei, Klaas Vrieling, Patrick P J Mulder, Peter G L Klinkhamer
In this study we investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application on pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) concentration and composition of two closely related Jacobaea species. In addition, we examined whether MeJA application affected herbivory of the polyphagous leaf feeding herbivore Spodoptera exigua. A range of concentrations of MeJA was added to the medium of Jacobaea vulgaris and J. aquatica tissue culture plants grown under axenic conditions. PA concentrations were measured in roots and shoots using LC-MS/MS...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jean-Luc Boevé, Raoul Rozenberg, Fernando Mc Kay, Gregory S Wheeler
Determination of the safety of agents prior to release is one of the most important research goals in biological control. In addition to concerns for the safety of non-target plants, determination of the potential toxic properties of new agents needs to be assessed. Numerous phytophagous insects are defended by chemicals against the attack of natural enemies. Some of these defensive compounds could pose an environmental risk if an agent is released. Here, larval populations of two pergid sawflies, Heteroperreyia hubrichi and H...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jason Lancaster, Bryan Lehner, Ashot Khrimian, Andrew Muchlinski, Katrin Luck, Tobias G Köllner, Donald C Weber, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal, Dorothea Tholl
Insects use a wide range of structurally diverse pheromones for intra-specific communication. Compounds in the class of terpenes are emitted as sex, aggregation, alarm, or trail pheromones. Despite the common occurrence of terpene pheromones in different insect lineages, their origin from dietary host plant precursors or de novo biosynthetic pathways often remains unknown. Several stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) release bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes for aggregation and mating. Here we provide evidence for de novo biosynthesis of the sex pheromone trans-/cis-(Z)-α-bisabolene epoxide of the Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Michael Eisenring, Gaetan Glauser, Michael Meissle, Jörg Romeis
Phytochemical defense responses of plants are often herbivore-specific and can be affected by a herbivore's feeding mode. However, comprehensive studies documenting the impact of multiple herbivores from different feeding guilds on induced phytochemical responses in distal leaves and its consequences for plant-mediated herbivore interactions are limited and findings are inconsistent. We investigated how herbivory by leaf-chewing caterpillars, cell-content feeding spider mites and phloem-feeding aphids and whiteflies affect secondary metabolomes and phytohormone levels in youngest, non-damaged cotton leaves (distal leaves)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Lindsay D Waldrop, Yanyan He, Shilpa Khatri
A major transition in the history of the Pancrustacea was the invasion of several lineages of these animals onto land. We investigated the functional performance of odor-capture organs, antennae with olfactory sensilla arrays, through the use of a computational model of advection and diffusion of odorants to olfactory sensilla while varying three parameters thought to be important to odor capture (Reynolds number, gap-width-to-sensillum-diameter ratio, and angle of the sensilla array with respect to oncoming flow)...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Adam M Rork, Tanya Renner
Ground beetles (Carabidae) are recognized for their diverse, chemically-mediated defensive behaviors. Produced using a pair of pygidial glands, over 250 chemical constituents have been characterized across the family thus far, many of which are considered allomones. Over the past century, our knowledge of Carabidae exocrine chemistry has increased substantially, yet the role of these defensive compounds in mediating behavior other than repelling predators is largely unknown. It is also unclear whether non-defensive compounds produced by ground beetles mediate conspecific and heterospecific interactions, such as sex-aggregation pheromones or kairomones, respectively...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Artur Campos D Maia, Christopher Grimm, Mario Schubert, Florian Etl, Eduardo Gomes Gonçalves, Daniela Maria Do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Stefan Schulz, Stefan Dötterl
Nocturnal flowering plants often release strong scents to attract their pollinators. Among night active flower visitors are cyclocephaline scarab beetles, which have been demonstrated to respond to uncommon volatile organic compounds released in high amounts by their host plants. In Araceae, the molecular structure of several such compounds is yet to be unveiled. We investigated headspace floral scent samples of Philodendron squamiferum, Thaumatophyllum mello-baretoanum, and Xanthosoma hylaeae by a variety of approaches, leading to the identification of novel compounds...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Xiaojie Liu, Klaas Vrieling, Peter G L Klinkhamer
Plants produce an extremely diverse array of metabolites that mediate many aspects of plant-environment interactions. In the context of plant-herbivore interactions, it is as yet poorly understood how natural backgrounds shape the bioactivity of individual metabolites. We tested the effects of a methanol extract of Jacobaea plants and five fractions derived from this extract, on survival of western flower thrips (WFT). When added to an artificial diet, the five fractions all resulted in a higher WFT survival rate than the methanol extract...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Caroline Müller, Monique Schulz, Eleonora Pagnotta, Luisa Ugolini, Ting Yang, Annemarie Matthes, Luca Lazzeri, Niels Agerbirk
We investigated the influences of two structurally similar glucosinolates, phenethylglucosinolate (gluconasturtiin, NAS) and its (S)-2-hydroxyl derivative glucobarbarin (BAR), as well as their hydrolysis products on larvae of the generalist Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Previous results suggested a higher defensive activity of BAR than NAS based on resistance toward M. brassicae larvae of natural plant genotypes of Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. (Brassicaceae) dominated by BAR. In the present study, the hypothesis of a higher defensive activity of BAR than NAS was tested by comparing two Barbarea species similarly dominated either by BAR or by NAS and by testing effects of isolated BAR and NAS on larval survival and feeding preferences...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Susanne Dobler, Verena Zintgraf, Wolf Haberer, Andrea Paul
Several species of the flea beetles genus Longitarsus sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from their host plants. Previous data demonstrated that PAs may be transferred from root-feeding larvae into the adult beetles. Here we compared the patterns and concentrations found in larvae and pupae of L. anchusae and L. echii with those of the roots of their respective hosts, Symphytum officinale and Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae). PA patterns and concentrations in the roots were complex and variable, whereas those in the larvae and pupae were simpler and more constant...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
L Solís-Montero, S Cáceres-García, D Alavez-Rosas, J F García-Crisóstomo, M Vega-Polanco, J Grajales-Conesa, L Cruz-López
Floral scents attract pollinators to plant rewards; in nectarless flowers, pollen grains are the only reward. Thus, pollen not only fertilizes ovules, but also feeds pollinators. This dilemma is resolved by specialization of anthers (i.e., heteranthery): feeding anthers that feed pollinators and pollinating anthers for fertilization. We hypothesized that the chemical composition of floral volatiles differs between the two types of anther and influences pollination preference for feeding anthers. We used Solanum rostratum as a study model because its heterantherous flowers produce a floral scent that suggests a close association with their pollinators...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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