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Journal—Forensic Science Society

R D Blackledge, M Vincenti
A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) liquid is used as a lubricant by many condom manufacturers. Because the use of condoms in sex crimes is likely to increase, a protocol was developed that could extract PDMS and the spermicide nonoxynol-9 from evidence items and separately identify them by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, at least some discrimination was provided by microscopically identifying insoluble lubricants such as corn starch, lycopodium, silica, and talc which are added to some brands...
October 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
U Katkici, M S Ozkök, M Orsal
Defence wounds may be of value in differentiating between homicide, suicide and accidental death. A study of 3183 forensic autopsies in Istanbul between 1988 and 1989 showed that 195 deaths (6.1%) were due to stab wounds, and that defence wounds were found in 38.5% of the victims. Defence wounds were seen on 35.2% of males, and 54.5% of females; 39.7% of defence wounds were classified as 'active' and 60.3% as 'passive'; 40.5% were seen on the right hand and forearm, and 59.5% on the left side. There was no connection in this study between the occurrence of defence wounds and the consumption of alcohol by the victim before the stabbing...
October 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
H W Ma, J Cheng, B Caddy
A simple and efficient method for extracting human genomic DNA from microsamples of blood has been developed. This method used sodium perchlorate, chloroform, polymerised silica gel and a dumbbell-shape tube, instead of proteinase K and phenol. The entire process took less than two hours, and high molecular weight DNA, in high yield and purity, was obtained from a few microlitres of human blood. DNA prepared in this way can be easily digested with restriction endonucleases and has been employed for DNA profiling and the polymerase chain reaction...
October 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
J Hiss, T Kahana
The uprising of the Palestinian population (Intifada) against the Israeli occupation of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, which erupted in December 1987, has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of Israeli citizens and Palestinian residents. The data on dead victims, as reported by two civil rights organizations of opposite political orientation and by the official military authority, are analyzed and compared with the information obtained from post-mortem examinations of some 65% of the victims carried out over the period 1987 to 1992...
October 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
J F Brookfield
In DNA profiling sometimes a match is declared between the DNA profile from a suspect and that from a scene-of-crime DNA sample. DNA evidence has frequently been presented in the form of a likelihood ratio, the ratio of the probabilities of the data set under the two hypotheses of a single and two sources for the matching DNA profiles. The calculation of the probability of a match is usually performed using a product rule with information from an appropriate database. This approach has been criticized for failing to allow for genetic relatedness, such that the suspect could be a close relative of the source of the scene-of-crime DNA profile...
July 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
A Steentoft, K Worm
A survey of 76 cases of fatal intoxication with Ketogan which occurred in Eastern Denmark over the period 1985-1991 showed that the cause of death was Ketogan alone in 27 cases, in combination with alcohol in 23 cases, and in combination with other drugs in 26 cases. The average age, percentage of females, drug addicts and alcohol abusers and the manner of death were also recorded. There was a significant difference between the median values of the blood concentrations of ketobemidone where the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was zero and where it was greater than 1 mg/g, and also between the median values of the blood concentrations from fatal intoxications and those from living persons...
July 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
P Lamb, L G Tucker
The interpretation of human hair comparisons is highly subjective and examiners tend to be cautious when evaluating positive evidence, partly because of a lack of background information relating to the interpretation of the results obtained. The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' experience of examining a large number (118) of samples of Afro-Caribbean hair. The strategy employed provided a rapid response, and only 11 (9.3%) individuals could not be excluded on the basis of hair comparison. It was concluded that not only are comparisons of Afro-Caribbean hairs possible but a significant proportion of individuals can be excluded by such tests...
July 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
D V Canter, A Gregory
The spatial offence behaviour of 45 British serial rapists was examined in order to generate a predictive model, of use to criminal investigators. Two alternative hypotheses were explored. One predicted that rapists would commute into an area to carry out their offence. The second predicted that they would "maraud" out from a fixed location. Of the 45 offenders, 39 fitted the "maurader" hypothesis. However, the area covered by this model was an average of nearly 180 square miles. A second complementary theory, developed from facets of offenders' backgrounds, was therefore used to refine the predictions of distance travelled to and between offences...
July 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
B A Richardson
The hypothesis that poisoning by phosphines, arsines and stibines might be the primary cause of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) was investigated. Most mattress materials contain phosphorus or antimony compounds as fire retardant additives. Mattress materials in areas affected by the warmth and perspiration of the sleeping infant were found to be naturally infected by the fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis which is thought to be capable of generating phosphines, arsines and stibines from materials containing phosphorus, arsenic or antimony compounds...
July 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
P Kintz, A Tracqui, P Mangin
Toxicological analyses on a putrefied cadaver are sometimes difficult to achieve, because of the absence of blood and/or urine. Drugs present in a decomposing corpse may be identified through analysis of maggots feeding off it. In this study, morphine and codeine were simultaneously identified and assayed in blood and bile of a putrefied cadaver and in the fly larvae of Calliphoridae found on the corpse.
April 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
S M Keating, D F Higgs
Results are presented of amylase tests performed on more than 400 casework swabs using Phadebas tablets. Amylase levels indicative of saliva were obtained from 25% of the penile swabs tested, 32% of the vaginal swabs and 50% of the breast swabs. The longest time interval between the offence and sampling when such levels were detected was 16 hours for penile swabs, 55 hours for vaginal swabs and 30 hours for breast swabs.
April 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
T F Spear, S A Binkley
The evaluation of a commercially available, faecal occult blood test to determine the species of origin of unknown stains is described. This test was simple to perform, requires a minimum amount of equipment and produced results that were easy to interpret. The HemeSelect test was found to be at least two orders of magnitude more sensitive than a precipitin test and would be the test of choice for small or aged stains.
January 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
A Zamir, A Marbach
Several modifications have been made to a system of simultaneous phenotyping of EAP, EsD, PGM and ADA in bloodstains by isoelectric focusing, which improved the results of the system. An increase in the thickness of the gel improved the resolution of the isozymes' bands, especially PGM and EAP, and diminished the effect of overloading. By increasing the width of the gel it was possible to increase the number of samples applied to the gel. By coating one of the glass plates, used in the preparation of the gels, with a hydrophobic solution, separation of the plate from the gel was greatly facilitated...
January 1994: Journal—Forensic Science Society
I W Evett, J S Buckleton, A Raymond, H Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1993: Journal—Forensic Science Society
T J Rothwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1993: Journal—Forensic Science Society
B S Weir, W G Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1993: Journal—Forensic Science Society
G Gettinby, M Peterson, N Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1993: Journal—Forensic Science Society
A J Jeffreys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1993: Journal—Forensic Science Society
M Samples, M Shenouda, L de Castro
Haemoglobin alleles were identified by isoelectric focusing using ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gels, containing pH 3.0-10.0 ampholytes. The run parameters were chosen to co-ordinate with other isoelectric focusing methods currently used by the authors' laboratory. The method devised separated the A, F, S, and C alleles.
July 1993: Journal—Forensic Science Society
R V Winchester
Blood samples containing approximately 2% and 4% sodium fluoride have been stored at 4 degrees C for up to 5 months and 4 weeks respectively. ABO typing by absorption-elution was successful on stains made from almost all of the samples. PGM subtyping by isoelectric focusing was successful on most samples, with clearer results from whole blood than from stains. Failure to type appears to be slightly more common at the higher preservative level and yields no result rather than an erroneous one. Apparent phenotypic changes in the 1+ and 1- bands have been seen after 5 months storage...
July 1993: Journal—Forensic Science Society
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