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Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299810/finds-of-fragmentary-bird-skeletons-in-the-middle-miocene-of-the-northern-caucasus
#1
N V Zelenkov
The first anatomically assembled skeletal remains of Neogene birds in Russia have been found. The head and a fragment of the vertebral column of a duck (Anatidae) and a hind limb of a perching bird (Passeriformes) from the Middle Miocene of the Krasnodar Region (Tsurevsky Formation) comprise the earliest known Miocene birds from European Russia. The skull of a very small duck (smaller than any extant species of Eurasian ducks) shows a combination of morphological characters characteristic of the extant species of Tadorna and Nettapus, and could belong to a representative of the fossil genus Mioquerquedula...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299809/status-epilepticus-induced-by-pentylenetetrazole-increases-short-term-synaptic-facilitation-in-the-hippocampus-of-juvenile-rats
#2
T Yu Postnikova, A M Trofimova, A V Zaitsev, L G Magazanik
We studied the effect of status epilepticus (SE) on short-term synaptic plasticity. The amplitudes of field potentials in response to extracellular stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals were recorded in hippocampal slices. Subtle modifications were revealed on day 1 after SE, whereas on days 3 and 7 we did not find any differences from the control. These data show that, one day after SE, the probability of a transmitter release in hippocampal synapses decreases that serves as a compensatory mechanism, which prevents seizure activity...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299808/abundance-estimate-of-the-okhotsk-sea-population-of-the-bowhead-whale-balaena-mysticetus-linnaeus-1758
#3
O V Shpak, I G Meschersky, D M Kuznetsova, A N Chichkina, A Yu Paramonov, V V Rozhnov
Abundance of 388 ± 108 whales for the Okhotsk Sea bowhead whale population based on individual genotyping was estimated using the capture-recapture method for the open population model. The data demonstrate that this endangered population shows no signs of recovery.
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299807/early-cretaceous-mammals-from-the-khamryn-us-and-shalan-ikher-localities-in-mongolia
#4
A V Lopatin
New material of Early Cretaceous mammals from Mongolia, including dentary fragments of Gobiconodon borissiaki Trofimov, 1978 and G. hoburensis (Trofimov, 1978) from the well-known dinosaur locality Khamryn-Us (Dornogovi aimag) and a maxilla fragment of G. borissiaki from the new locality Shalan-Ikher (Övörkhangai aimag), is presented. The new data extend the knowledge on the morphology and intraspecific variability of Gobiconodon and the distribution of the Höovör Mammalian Assemblage in Mongolia.
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299806/role-of-%C3%AE-fetoprotein-in-differentiation-of-regulatory-t-lymphocytes
#5
V A Chereshnev, V P Timganova, S A Zamorina, M S Bochkova, P V Khramtsov, M D Kropaneva, M B Raev
The effect of native α-fetoprotein (AFP) on the expression of T-regulatory lymphocyte (Treg) markers by activated CD4+ lymphocytes with different proliferative status was studied. α-Fetoprotein did not affect the ratio of proliferating and non-proliferating activated CD4+ cells. In the study of Treg differentiation, it was found that AFP at concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/mL significantly inhibited the number of nonproliferating CD4+FOXP3+ and CD4+FOXP3+HELIOS+ lymphocytes without affecting the expression of Treg markers by proliferating CD4+ lymphocytes...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299805/changing-of-the-dynamics-modes-in-populations-with-age-and-sex-structure
#6
O L Revutskaya, M P Kulakov, G P Neverova, E Ya Frismana
Using a mathematical model of the number dynamics in a population with age and sex structure, the relationships were studied between the number of newborns and that of mature females and males. In addition, we studied transitions between different modes of population dynamics which were dependent on changes in not only the population parameters, such as reproduction intensity, survival, and self-regulation, but also in mating pair formation. Population dynamics was found to manifest multistability; i.e., the alternative dynamics modes were observed at the same values of the population parameters but under different initial conditions...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299804/two-models-of-the-sound-signal-frequency-dependence-on-the-animal-body-size-as-exemplified-by-the-ground-squirrels-of-eurasia-mammalia-rodentia
#7
A A Nikol'skii
Dependence of the sound-signal frequency on the animal body length was studied in 14 ground squirrel species (genus Spermophilus) of Eurasia. Regression analysis of the total sample yielded a low determination coefficient (R2 = 26%), because the total sample proved to be heterogeneous in terms of signal frequency within the dimension classes of animals. When the total sample was divided into two groups according to signal frequency, two statistically significant models (regression equations) were obtained in which signal frequency depended on the body size at high determination coefficients (R2 = 73 and 94% versus 26% for the total sample)...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299803/initial-data-on-biological-activity-of-taiga-steppe-soils-in-the-lower-reaches-of-the-kolyma-river
#8
M V Schelchkova, S P Davydov, D G Fyodorov-Davydov, A I Davydova, G G Boeskorov, N G Solomonov
Microbiological and enzyme activities of extrazonal taiga-steppe soils in the lower reaches of the Kolyma River have been studied for the first time. Contrary to north-taiga cryometamorphic soils, predominating in the area, microbial cenoses under herb-sedge petrophytic and grass-sagebrush-herb thermophytic steppes are characterized by features typical for arid soils. The saturation of the soil profile with microorganisms is greater, and the development of actinomycetes is more intensive. The enzyme complex is characterized by high activity of dehydrogenases...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299802/hcv-coinfection-of-the-hiv-infected-patients-with-discordant-cd4-t-cell-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy-leads-to-intense-systemic-inflammation
#9
K V Shmagel, L B Korolevskaya, E V Saidakova, N G Shmagel, V A Chereshnev, L Margolis, D Anthony, M Lederman
The level of proinflammatory markers was assessed in HIV-infected patients that were coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and had failed to restore the CD4+ T cell counts (immunological nonresponders, INR) during the antiretroviral therapy (ART). Among four patient groups (HIV+HCV- and HIV+HCV+ subjects with the concordant response to ART; HIV+HCV- and HIV+HCV+ subjects that were INR), the greatest systemic inflammation was in the latter group. The maximum difference was between the subjects HIV+HCV-INR and HIV+HCV+ INR: the blood of coinfected patients contained significantly higher concentrations of the IP-10, sCD163, sTNF-RI, and sTNF-RII and of bacterial lipopolysaccharide...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299801/zooplankton-impact-on-the-organic-matter-flux-of-siberian-arctic-seas
#10
A F Pasternak, A V Drits, M D Kravchishina, M V Flint
Role of zooplankton in the organic matter flux was studied in the Kara and Laptev seas using sediment traps in the course of voyage 63 of the Academician Mstislav Keldysh research vessel in August-October 2015. The values of the total flux and that of organic matter were at least an order of magnitude higher than those obtained before the 2000s. A hypothesis is proposed on an increasing influence of the river runoff on the Kara Sea area under climatic changes. Zooplankton contribution into Corg flux varied broadly, averaging 50%...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299800/different-effects-of-the-immunostimulatory-drug-stimforte-on-infections-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1
#11
D G Maldov, V L Andronova, S S Grigorian, E I Isaeva, P G Deryabin, D V Mishin, A A Balakina, A V Ilyichev, A A Terentyev, G A Galegov
Stimforte, an immune response-stimulating preparation, is active with respect to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1). The effects of Stimforte in animals infected with either HCV or HSV-1 are fundamentally different. In mice with acute herpes virus infection, Stimforte administration leads to a higher activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes, and the amount of interferon (IFN) λ grows. In mice infected with HCV, Stimforte administration results in a significant increase in IFN-β but not IFN-λ in blood and affected organs...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101623/involvement-of-the-p38-mapk-signaling-cascade-in-stress-response-of-raw-264-7-macrophages
#12
E G Novoselova, O V Glushkova, M O Khrenov, S B Parfenyuk, S M Lunin, E V Vinogradova, T V Novoselova, E E Fesenko
The role of the p38 MAPK signaling cascade was studied in stress response of RAW 264.7 macrophages to extremely low-intensity centimeter microwaves. Irradiation stimulated production of a number of cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ and IL-10), as well as induced activation of the signaling cascades NF- κB and p38 MAPK, and enhanced expression of Hsp72 heat shock protein. In the presence of the cascade p38 MAPK inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor XI), the stimulating effects of electromagnetic waves were abrogated either completely (for NF-κB and Hsp72) or partially (for p38 MAPK and cytokines)...
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101622/the-structure-of-cnidosacs-in-nudibranch-mollusc-aeolidia-papillosa-linnaeus-1761-and-presumable-mechanism-of-nematocysts-release
#13
O A Vorobyeva, I A Ekimova, V V Malakhov
The structure of cnidosacs in nudibranch mollusc Aeolidida papillosa (Linnaeus, 1761) before and after the discharging of kleptocnidae has been studied. In the apical zone of the cnidosac, the basal laminae of epidermis and gastrodermis are interrupted, and the muscle layers of the cnidosac and the epidermis are absent. We suggest the formation of a temporary channel during the discharging of the cnidosac. Through this channel, nematocysts move from the cnidosac to the cnidopore, which forms on the top of the ceras...
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101621/recent-decrease-in-carbon-sink-to-russian-forests
#14
D G Zamolodchikov, V I Grabovskii, P P Shulyak, O V Chestnykh
Regional Evaluation of Carbon Budget of Forests (RECBF), was used to study the dynamics of carbon balance in Russian forests in 1988-2015. The carbon sink (excess of absorption over losses) to forests was minimal in 1988. Since the first half of the 1990s, its increase has started. This increase was associated with the reduction of logging volume in connection with socioeconomic reforms. Since 2008, the carbon sink was gradually reduced due to increasing losses in logging operations, forest fires, and decreased carbon absorption...
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101620/the-role-of-circadian-rhythm-and-environmental-factors-in-the-regulation-of-sea-urchin-spawning
#15
P M Zhadan, M A Vaschenko, S D Ryazanov
Simultaneous video recording of the sea urchin spawning behavior and recording of environmental factors enabled us to found synergism of the effects of circadian rhythm and phytoplankton on the spawning activity of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (Agassiz, 1864).
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101619/impairment-of-non-associative-learning-in-a-rat-experimental-model-of-preclinical-stage-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
I N Abdurasulova, I V Ekimova, A V Matsulevich, A R Gazizova, V M Klimenko, Yu F Pastukhov
An experimental model of the preclinical stage of Parkinson's disease was induced by double intranasal administration of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. The results demonstrated signs of cognitive impairments expressed as impaired non-associative learning. This was related to degeneration of one-third of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain and their axons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Impairment of non-associative learning may be an early non-motor marker of Parkinson's disease indicating the start of neurodegenerative processes in the dopaminergic mesocortical system of the brain...
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101618/%C3%AE-adrenergic-stimulation-induces-pro-arrhythmic-activity-in-the-caval-vein-myocardial-tissue
#17
A D Ivanova, V S Kuzmin, L V Rosenshtraukh
Electrical activity of the right superior vena cava (SVC) is considered as a source of the atrial fibrillation. We have shown that bioelectrical properties of the SVC myocardium differ from those of the working atrial myocardium. Electrically evoked action potential duration in SVC is significantly shorter, the resting membrane potential in both stimulated and quiescent SVC preparations is significantly more positive than in atria. Activation of β-adrenoreceptors in SVC myocardium leads to a series of action potentials, and this process depends on protein kinase A...
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861883/nervous-system-and-musculature-of-the-parasitic-turbellarian-notentera-ivanovi-plathelminthes-fecampiida
#18
O I Raikova, E A Kotikova, T A Frolova
The article reports the first description of the architecture of the musculature and cholinergic nervous system of the parasitic turbellarian Notentera ivanovi from the White Sea using histochemistry and confocal scanning laser microscopy. It has been demonstrated that the body wall is composed of layers of circular and longitudinal muscles between which there are diagonal muscles described here for the first time. The nervous system is of the regular closely spaced orthogon type with pronounced radiality. In order to make it clear whether the orthogon of this type is a phylogenetic characteristic of this group of worms or its shape is associated with the flat rounded body, the study of other representatives of the Fecampiida group is required...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861882/sucrose-enriched-diet-during-maturation-increases-ethanol-preference-in-rats
#19
M V Dorofeikova, A Yu Egorov, E V Filatova, A A Orlov
In the present study we used a diet enriched with 10% sucrose, which was consumed by adolescent animals of the experimental group for one month. We found that consumption of sweet food during sexual maturation affected alcohol preference, anxiety, and locomotor and exploratory activity in the adult rats. Our data show that easily available tasty food during adolescence probably impairs the reward system and serves as a trigger of future alcohol preference.
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861881/inactivation-of-proteolytic-enzymes-by-cestodes
#20
G I Izvekova, M M Kuklina, T V Frolova
Inhibitor activity of cestodes from intestines of different hosts (sea birds, salt-water fish, and freshwater fish) was investigated. Alcataenia larina, Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides, Tetrabothrius erostris, T. minor, Wardium cirrosa, Bothriocephalus scorpii, Eubothrium rugosum, and Triaenophorus nodulosus were able to inhibit the activity of the commercial trypsin and activity of proteinase homogenates of the intestinal mucosa of the hosts. It was suggested that the inhibitor produced by the cestodes is specific for trypsin and protects them from the digestive enzymes of the host...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
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