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Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508209/estimates-of-underwater-and-aerial-visual-acuity-in-the-european-beaver-castor-fiber-l-based-on-morphological-data
#1
A M Mass, A Ya Supin
The eye optics and topographic distribution of ganglion cells were studied using whole mount preparations from European beaver Castor fiber L. The beaver eye optics provides emmetropia in air and hypermetropia in water. The optometrical measurements predict retinal resolution of the beaver eye around 17' in air and 9' in water. In air, retinal resolution corresponds to the real visual acuity, whereas in water, visual acuity is below the retinal resolution because of the non-precise focusing.
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508208/the-meio-to-macrozoobenthos-ratio-in-a-lake-benthic-community-dynamic-aspect
#2
A A Maximov, N A Berezina, V A Petukhov
Multiyear data (2002-2015) on the biomasses of meio- and macrozoobenthic communities have been studied at different depths of a small lake in northern Karelia. A trend towards anti-phase changes in meio- and macrobenthic biomasses was observed and, as a consequence, the ratio between these components varied significantly in different years. Thus, inter-annual dynamics should be taken into account in analysis of hydrobiological data.
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508207/new-aspects-of-the-seam4d-dependent-control-of-lymphocyte-activation
#3
E M Kuklina, I V Nekrasova
Novel targets for action of the class IV semaphorin Seam4D have been identified in the immune system. The low-affinity CD72 receptor for Seam4D was detected not only on B lymphocytes, but also in a proportion of T cells, whereas the high-affinity semaphorin receptor, plexin B1, originally considered to belong to non-immune cells, proved to be in a great proportion of intact T and B cells. Seam4D is constitutively expressed in B cells, which, along with T cells, can serve as a source of both membrane and soluble semaphorin...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508206/rapid-use-of-resources-as-a-basis-of-the-heracleum-sosnowskyi-invasive-syndrome
#4
D V Veselkin, L A Ivanova, L A Ivanov, M A Mikryukova, V N Bolshakov, A A Betekhtina
The functional properties of the invasive Heracleum sosnowskyi were compared with those of the native Heracleum sibiricum. The leaf and root traits, as well as those of a whole plant and of the mycorrhiza formation, were studied. H. sosnowskyi can fulfill the high-productivity potential only under the optimum availability of resources (especially water), while it is poorly adapted to maintain a high physiological activity under the unfavorable soil conditions. An important component of the H. sosnowskyi invasiveness is an ability to utilize rapidly resources in both the above- and underground areas at the optimum conditions...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508205/the-first-case-of-morphological-differentiation-of-altai-osman-oreoleuciscus-potanini-cyprinidae-actinopterigii-in-a-river
#5
Yu Yu Dgebuadze, A N Mironovskii, B Mendsaikhan, Yu V Slyn'ko
The variability of osteological characters has been investigated in cyprinid fish of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Potanin Altai osman) from the river Zavkhan; this fish species is endemic for water bodies of Central Asia. Multivariate analysis of 13 quantitative parameters of the size of the cerebral and visceral skull and the pectoral girdle and the construction of ontogenetic channels allowed the detection of morphologically distinct forms in the fluvial habitats. The result obtained provides additional proof of the possibility of sympatric diversification of fish in river ecosystems...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508204/rearing-by-foster-wistar-mother-with-high-level-of-maternal-care-counteracts-the-development-of-genetic-absence-epilepsy-and-comorbid-depression-in-wag-rij-rats
#6
K Yu Sarkisova, A V Gabova, M A Kulikov, E A Fedosova, A B Shatskova, A A Morosov
It has been shown for the first time that rearing by a foster Wistar mother with high level of maternal care (MC) counteracts the expression of genetic absence epilepsy (AE) and comorbid depression - reduces the number, duration and index of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) and immobility time in the forced swimming test, as well as exerts substantial effects on morphology and time-frequency dynamics of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. It is supposed that increases in MC early in development might be used to counteract epileptogenesis and comorbid depression in people genetically predisposed to AE...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508203/plasma-corticosterone-concentrations-in-european-robins-during-spring-and-autumn-migration
#7
J A Loshchagina, A L Tsvey, S V Naidenko
To estimate differences in hormonal mechanisms of regulation of spring and autumn migration in European robins Erithacus rubecula, the plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations were compared in birds caught during both migratory seasons. A total of 414 blood samples were analyzed. It was found that the baseline and stress-induced CORT concentrations in free-living robins during spring migration were practically twice as high as during autumn passage. Our results demonstrate that autumn and spring migrations are independent stages of the avian annual cycle...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508202/ozone-concentration-in-the-ground-atmosphere-and-morbidity-during-extreme-heat-in-the-summer-of-2010
#8
S N Kotelnikov, E V Stepanov, V T Ivashkin
Dependence of the population morbidity on the ground-level ozone concentration in the summer of 2010 was studied in a city with low urbanization (Vyatskie Polyany, Kirov oblast) and in Moscow. At a high air temperature and low ozone concentration, the population morbidity was not associated with these parameters in Vyatskie Polyany. When the average daily ground-level ozone concentration exceeded 60 μg/m(3) for 13 successive days, the correlation coefficient between ozone concentration and the number of ambulance calls was statistically significant, r = 0...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508201/heterochronies-in-the-cranial-development-of-asian-tree-frogs-amphibia-anura-rhacophoridae-with-different-life-histories
#9
A B Vassilieva
The development of bony skull was studied in four species of Asian tree frogs (Rhacophoridae) with different life histories: biphasic development with free larval stage and direct development. In biphasic rhacophorids the sequence of the appearance of cranial bones generally followed the generalized pattern of craniogenesis, which was described for most studied anurans. In contrast, direct-developing species displayed some heterochronies in the formation of skull bones, namely, the accelerated formation of the anlagen of jaw and suspensorium bones...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508200/individual-variability-of-human-olfactory-sensitivity-to-volatile-steroids-environmental-and-genetic-factors
#10
V V Voznessenskaya, M A Klyuchnikova
The sensitivity to androstenone and possible factors, determining the sensitivity were investigated for the large sample of inhabitants of central Russia (n = 860). Specific anosmia was detected in 48.8% of subjects. Women were more sensitive to androstenone than men. The proportion of men, but not women perceiving the smell of androstenone as a strong one in the concentration used decreased with age. Smoking, blood group, or ethnicity had no significant effect on the expression of specific anosmia and the perception of androstenone odor intensity...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508199/selective-specificity-of-calcium-binding-proteins-calbindin-and-calretinin-expression-in-the-magnocellular-neurosecretory-hypothalamic-nuclei-of-tortoises-and-turtles
#11
M G Belekhova, N B Kenigfest, E V Chernigovskaya, N P Veselkin
We have studied the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the magnocellular neurosecretory nuclei of nonapeptidergic neurosecretory nuclei of the preoptic-hypothalamic complex in a tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi) and a pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) using immunohistochemistry. We have found that different types of cells in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei predominantly express calbindin and, to a lesser extent, calretinin, but not parvalbumin. The selective calbindin/calretinin control of the neurohormone secretion in these hypothalamic nuclei is an evolutionary conservative feature typical of reptiles and mammals...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508198/role-of-the-low-selective-organic-anion-transport-in-regulation-of-osmotic-balance-of-renal-collecting-duct-principal-cells-under-hypo-osmotic-conditions
#12
G S Baturina, L E Katkova, E I Solenov, L N Ivanova
In the course of adaptation of the rat kidney collecting duct cells to hypo-osmotic medium, the organic anion transporter inhibitor probenecid reduced significantly the regulatory cell volume decrease in response to a hypotonic shock. Both probenecid and hypotonic shock delayed significantly the entry into a cell of the fluorescent dye calcein, which exists as anion at neutral pH. Thus, the organic osmolyte transport plays an important role in the regulatory decrease of the principal cell volume under the hypo-osmotic conditions...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508197/antinociceptive-effect-of-the-agonist-of-5-ht1a-receptors-buspirone-in-the-model-of-abdominal-pain-in-dogs
#13
O A Lyubashina, I I Busygina, S S Panteleev, A D Nozdrachev
We have demonstrated that activation of 5-HT1A receptors with buspirone promotes visceral analgesia in awake dogs. The administration of 0.035 mg/kg (i.m.) of the drug caused depression of viscero-motor (contraction of the abdominal muscles) and pressor (increase in the heart rate) responses to noxious distension of the large intestine. An increase in the dose to 0.07 and 0.14 mg/kg did not enhance the antinociceptive effect of buspirone but triggered basal tachycardia. The obtained results provide evidence of the inhibitory role of 5-HT1A receptors in modulating visceral pain sensitivity and the possibility of an exciting effect of their activation on the cardiovascular system...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508196/genetic-relationship-and-biological-status-of-the-industrially-important-yeast-saccharomyces-eubayanus-sampaio-et-al
#14
G I Naumov
The genomes of the recently discovered yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus and traditional S. cerevisiae are known to be found in the yeast S. pastorianus (syn. S. carlsbergensis), which are essential for brewing. The cryotolerant yeast S. bayanus var. uvarum is of great importance for production of some wines. Based on ascospore viability and meiotic recombination of the control parental markers in hybrids, we have shown that there is no complete interspecies post-zygotic isolation between the yeasts S. eubayanus, S...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429265/alternative-approach-to-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus
#15
L I Valuev, L K Starosel'tseva, I L Valuev, L V Vanchugova, S N Khadzhiev
The influence of insulin preparations (Actrapid and Ransulin) on the glucose and insulin blood level has been studied in patients with diabetes mellitus. It has been shown that comparable changes in the measured parameters are achieved in most patients with oral doses of Ransulin that are two to three times higher than the doses of Actrapid.
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429264/lymphocytes-incubated-in-the-presence-of-il-2-lose-the-capacity-for-chemotaxis-but-acquire-antitumor-activity
#16
E A Romanova, E A Dukhanina, T N Sharapova, L P Sashchenko, N V Gnuchev, D V Yashin
Naïve non-activated lymphocytes are capable of releasing the chemoattractant complex Tag7-Mts1 and can migrate along the gradient of its concentration. After activation of these cells by IL-2, they acquire the abilities to kill tumor cells and to release the cytotoxic Tag7-Hsp70 complex, which is accompanied by a loss of both the Tag7-Mts1-mediated lymphocyte chemotaxis and the ability to release this chemoattractant into the conditioned medium.
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429263/remote-effects-of-short-term-neonatal-hyperthermia-in-krushinsky-molodkina-rats-prone-to-audiogenic-seizures-strain
#17
I B Fedotova, G M Nikolaev, Z A Kostyna, I I Poletaeva
Using the audiogenic seizure prone Krushinsky-Molodkina rat strain, it was demonstrated that short-term (5 min) exposure of 14-day-old pups to an elevated temperature (42°C) resulted in a significant decrease in audiogenic seizure severity at the age of 1 month. Presumably, this effect is determined by the activation of the heat-shock protein system (stress proteins).
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429262/movement-of-a-female-polar-bear-ursus-maritimus-in-the-kara-sea-during-the-summer-sea-ice-break-up
#18
V V Rozhnov, N G Platonov, S V Naidenko, I N Mordvintsev, E A Ivanov
The polar bear movement trajectory in relation to onset date of the sea-ice break-up was studied in the coastal zone of the Taimyr Peninsula, eastern part of the Kara Sea, using as an example a female polar bear tagged by a radio collar with an Argos satellite transmitter. Analysis of the long-term pattern of ice melting and tracking, by means of satellite telemetry, of the female polar bear who followed the ice-edge outgoing in the north-eastern direction (in summer 2012) suggests that direction of the polar bear movement depends precisely on the direction of the sea-ice cover break-up...
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429261/localization-of-the-dopamine-receptors-of-types-1-and-2-on-the-bodies-of-pomc-expressing-neurons-of-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-mice-and-rats
#19
I V Romanova, A L Mikhrina, A O Shpakov
Using immunofluorescent techniques, we have demonstrated the presence of two main types of dopamine receptors, D1 and D2, on the bodies of neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus expressing the precursor of peptides of the melanocortin family proopiomelanocortin in C57Bl/6J mice and Wistar rats. These data show close functional relationship between the dopamine and melanocortin systems of the brain and involvement of dopamine in the control of synthesis and secretion of peptides of the melanocortin family...
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429260/the-dietary-patterns-are-a-modifying-risk-factor-for-breast-cancer-an-ecological-study
#20
L A Radkevich, D A Radkevich
A comparative study of dietary patterns (DPs) with breast cancer (BC) incidence in different countries has been performed. It was established that in the countries with a high incidence of BC (76 per 100 000 people) the levels of consumption of the "nutrients of animal foods," "fruits and beverages," and "alcoholic drinks" are 1.5-2 times higher and that of "cereals and vegetables" is 1.5 times lower than in the countries with a low incidence of BC (35 per 100 000). In Mediterranean countries, where incidence of BC is 51 per 100 000, the levels of consumption of "animal foods" is two times lower than the levels of consumption of "cereals and vegetables...
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
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