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Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402763/tannosomes-in-the-pericarp-cells-of-maloideae-rosaceae
#1
T Kh Kumachova, A S Voronkov, Yu V Orlova, V K Zhirov
Data on the presence of structural units termed tannosomes in the pericarp cells of Maloideae has been obtained for the first time. Tannosomes merge in the vacuoles to form "tannoglobules."
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402762/%C3%AE-fetoprotein-influence-on-the-conversion-of-na%C3%A3-ve-t-helpers-into-memory-t-cell-effector-subpopulations
#2
S A Zamorina, V P Timganova, M S Bochkova, P V Khramtsov, K A Fomicheva, M B Rayev, V A Chereshnev
The effect of native α-fetoprotein (AFP) on the conversion of naïve T-helpers into central memory T-cells (TCM) and effector subpopulations of the preterminally differentiated (TEM) and terminally differentiated (TEMRA) memory T-cells was studied. AFP was found to prevent the conversion of naïve T-helpers into effector subpopulations of memory T cells (TEM and TEMRA) while reducing the total production of IL-4 and IFN-γ by the studied cell populations. The data reveal a new role of AFP in the immune tolerance formation during pregnancy...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402761/new-data-on-dinosaurs-of-the-crimean-peninsula
#3
A V Lopatin, A O Averianov, V R Alifanov
Reexamination of the holotype of Riabininohadros weberae from the Upper Cretaceous (upper Maastrichtian) of the Crimean Peninsula (Besh-Kosh) allowed determination of previously unknown elements of the femur, astragalus, and calcaneus. This taxon shows a set of primitive characters observed in iguanodontids and basal ornithischians and is referred to as Styracosterna indet. The second dinosaur specimen from Crimea (Aleshino) is a fragmentary skeleton, including cervical and dorsal vertebrae. It possibly belongs to advanced iguanodontids or primitive hadrosauroids...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402760/evaluation-of-the-applicability-of-the-comparatory-method-for-species-diagnosis-of-unionidae-bivalvia-by-genetic-analysis
#4
V V Bogatov, T V Neretina, A S Anisimova, A Abdrakhmanov
Five genetically distant groups of mussels possessing high intragroup homogeneity were identified among 65 specimens of 14 East European Unionidae "comparatory species" by genetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial markers. By shell morphology other than the shape of the convex contour of the shell, the identified groups correspond to five "taxonomic species" according to Zhadin's classification. The use of the comparatory method for Unionidae species identification is unjustified.
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402759/the-natural-abundance-of-heavy-nitrogen-isotope-15n-in-plants-increases-near-a-large-copper-smelter
#5
O E Chashchina, A A Chibilev, D V Veselkin, N B Kuyantseva, A G Mumber
The ratio of stable isotopes of nitrogen (15 N and 14 N) has been assessed in leaves of the forest plants from different functional groups (with ectomycorrhiza, ericoid, and arbuscular mycorrhiza; in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis) under the conditions of strong transformation of ecosystems by the Karabashsky Copper-Smelting Plant effluents in the Southern Urals. The abundance of 15 N in the plants generally increases in polluted habitats. The abundance of the heavy isotope 15 N increases significantly with pollution in ericaceous dwarf shrubs (by 3...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402758/the-results-of-sable-martes-zibellina-reintroduction-demonstrate-the-founder-effect
#6
V G Monakhov
The relative abundance of intrapopulation groups with different parameters of skull size, coat color, and expression of an epigenetic cranial trait was compared in autochthonous, reintroduced, and donor populations of sable. Recovery of the species resources and broad variability of the phenotypic trait complex in the newly fomned populations were observed. A large proportion of the animals had the phenotype that included large size, dark coat color, and pronounced expression of a specific phene trait (foramen in the condylar fossa) and was not characteristic of the neighboring autochthonous populations...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402757/a-mass-burial-of-fossil-lions-carnivora-felidae-panthera-leo-ex-gr-fossilis-spelaea-from-eurasia
#7
D O Gimranov, V G Kotov, M M Rumyantsev, V I Silaev, A G Yakovlev, T I Yakovleva, N V Zelenkov, M V Sotnikova, M M Devyashin, N A Plasteeva, N E Zaretskaya, I M Nurmukhametov, N G Smirnov, P A Kosintsev
The vertebrate fauna from the cave deposits in Imanai Cave in the Southern Urals (53°02' N, 56°26'E) has been studied. It contains 715 bones that belonged to at least 11 individuals of fossil lion (Panthera (Leo) ex gr. fossilis-spelaea). It has been established that this is one of the largest Eurasian burial sites of fossil lions. The bones were accumulated due to the natural death of animals inside the cave. The age and sex estimations have shown that at least six adult males and five adult females died there...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402756/dynamics-of-estradiol-level-during-metamorphosis-in-the-daubed-shanny-leptoclinus-maculatus-fries-1838-from-spitsbergen-island
#8
N N Nemova, N L Rendakov, S N Pekkoeva, K M Nikerova, S A Murzina
The estradiol content of muscles during metamorphosis in the daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus) from different fjords of Spitsbergen Island, Svalbard, have been studied using mass spectrometry. The level of estradiol at the L4 larval stage of development is significantly lower than at the L2 stage. Values of this parameter in adults are significantly higher than in post-larvae (stage L5). Variations in the estradiol level during metamorphosis can be associated with the growth stimulation and regulation of the process...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402755/activity-of-the-enzymes-of-the-energy-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-the-organs-of-the-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus-from-different-biotopes-of-the-white-sea
#9
M V Churova, N S Shulgina, N N Nemova
The activity of the key enzymes of the energy and carbohydrate metabolism (cytochrome c oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) have been studied in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus spawning in different biotopes of the White Sea (Sel'dyanaya Bay, Sukhaya Salma Strait, and Kolyushkovaya Lagoon). It was found that individuals of stickleback from different spawning grounds differed mainly in the level of anaerobic metabolism and in the degree of utilization of carbohydrates during glycolysis...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402754/morphological-and-taxonomic-interpretation-of-orestovia-and-schuguria-enigmatic-devonian-plants-from-russia
#10
A V Gomankov
A detailed study of the external and internal surfaces of the cuticle of Orestovia and Schuguria using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser microscopy has shown that the structures formerly interpreted as stomata or reproductive organs are most likely to be gland cells producing mucilage. Each structure represents a single large cell with a complex aperture on the external wall. In addition, a reproductive organ similar to multilocular sporangia known in brown algae of the order Ectocarpales has been found in attachment to a compression fossil of Orestovia...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402753/differences-in-the-postural-responses-to-approaching-and-receding-sound-images-in-subjects-with-different-perceptual-styles
#11
I G Andreeva, A P Gvozdeva, E V Bobrova, Yu P Gerasimenko
A hypothesis on the universal character of perceptual style for analyzing the surrounding space during sensory interactions has been tested. The indices of postural responses to moving and stationary auditory images in the groups of field-dependent and field-independent subjects, i.e., those who perceive spatial information about the object considering or ignoring the background, respectively, have been investigated. The differences in the sway parameters in both groups were revealed only in the case of moving auditory images...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402752/morphological-study-of-myelinated-fibers-of-the-sciatic-nerve-in-mice-after-space-flight-and-readaptation-to-the-conditions-of-earth-gravity
#12
P N Rezvyakov, G F Shaimardanova, A N Lisukov, M S Kuznetsov, R R Islamov, E E Nikolskiy
We revealed a decrease in the thickness of the myelin sheath and myelin delamination in the tibial nerve of C57BL/6N mice after a 30-day flight aboard the biosatellite Bion-M1. The processes of myelin degeneration continued for seven days after return of the animals to Earth and adaptation to the conditions of natural gravity. Our data add to hypothesis on the role of neurogenic component in pathogenesis of hypogravity motor syndrome.
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402751/evolutionary-changes-in-the-content-of-dehydrogenase-system-metabolites-as-a-mechanism-of-adaptation-to-cold-in-higher-vertebrates
#13
O N Kolosova, B M Kershengolts, N G Solomonov
It has been found that the optimal body balance control under the conditions of the adaptation to cold is mostly determined by the ratio of the blood concentrations of endogenous ethanol and acetaldehyde related to the activities of liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase in the order of increasing level of adaptation: higher vertebrates unadapted to cold, including human → small animals adapted to cold → large animals adapted to cold native to the North → hibernators, regardless of the species specificity and the environment...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402750/working-memory-for-low-level-visual-features-sensory-mechanisms-for-detecting-the-mismatch-between-the-current-orientations-and-those-stored-in-memory
#14
E S Mikhailova, N Yu Gerasimenko, P A Prokudin
The amplitudes of the P100 and N150 early components of evoked potentials in the visual cortex have been analyzed on 33 volunteers with normal vision during matching between the current orientation and that stored in memory. An increase in the P100 response in the occipital and parietal cortical areas was identified as an informative indicator of mismatch between the current and stored-in-memory orientations. This effect was not found for more complex stimuli, namely, spatial patterns. The N150 component demonstrated a similar effect, but in contrast to P100 it was not stimulus specific...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402749/rearrangement-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-neural-activity-in-both-hemispheres-during-learning
#15
A A Orlov, E V Filatova, S V Afanasyev
Neuronal activity of both right and left hemispheres of the rat prefrontal brain cortex was recorded in the two-ring maze during animal learning to operate in response to signals. At the beginning of learning, pairwise comparison of neural activity that accompanied correct and incorrect choice of the right and left sides showed significant differences in the left hemisphere and the lack of differences in the right one. With increasing percentage of correct choices during a session of learning, the differences in neuronal responses appeared in the right hemispheres and were reduced in the left one...
September 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171471/a-finding-of-the-red-squirrel-rodentia-sciuridae-sciurus-vulgaris-linnaeus-1758-and-forest-dormouse-rodentia-gliridae-dryomys-nitedula-linnaeus-1778-in-the-pleistocene-of-the-southern-urals
#16
T V Fadeeva, P A Kosintsev, D O Gimranov, A G Yakovlev, V V Gasilin, N A Plasteeva, N G Smirnov
The study deals with a new sample of the mammalian fossils from the Pleistocene deposits of the Ignatievskaya Cave in Southern Urals (54°53' N, 57°46' E). Among the rodent fossils, the teeth of red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) and forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula) have been identified. The enamel differentiation quotient (SDQ) of the water vole teeth matches the Arvicola terrestris species from locations of the end of Middle and Late Pleistocene (oxygen isotope stages, OIS 6 and OIS 5-2, respectively). The high SDQ value for the water vole and the presence of the squirrel and dormouse in the fauna allow dating the finding near the end of the Middle Pleistocene and beginning of the Late Pleistocene (OIS 6 and OIS 5e, respectively)...
July 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171470/comparative-analysis-of-the-amino-acid-spectrum-of-blood-plasma-in-chiroptera-vespertilio-murinus-l-1758-and-myotis-dasycneme-b-1825-in-the-fauna-of-the-ural-mountains
#17
V A Mishchenko, L A Kovalchuk, V N Bolshakov, L V Chernaya
The article presents the results of a new comparative analysis of free amino acids in the blood plasma of representatives of insectivorous Chiroptera (Mammalia: Vespertilionidae) in the fauna of the Ural Mountains: the pond bat (Myotis dasycneme Boie, 1825) and the parti-colored bat (Vespertilio murinus Linnaeus, 1758). This is the first study to show the species variability of free amino acids in resident and migratory species of bats from different ecosystems of the Ural Region.
July 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171469/papillomatous-skin-netting-of-cetaceans-cetacea-delphinapterus-leucas-balaena-mysticetus-and-eschrichtius-robustus-and-sirens-sirenia-trichechus-manatus-and-dugong-dugon
#18
O F Chernova, A B Kiladze, O V Shpak
The structure of the papillomatous junction between epidermis and dermis (papillomatous netting, PN) in the skin of cetaceans (white whales, bowhead, and gray whales) and sirens (American manatee, dugong) was studied and compared using histophysiological and morphogeometric methods. The relative extent of PN development proved to be similar in members of both orders, but significant differences were found in PN configuration, the volume of "free area of grille", the degree of skin vertical compression, and skin density, which influence buoyancy...
July 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171468/comparative-analysis-of-the-concentrations-of-ions-na-k-ca-2-and-cl-%C3%A2-in-the-blood-of-the-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-from-different-rivers
#19
E D Pavlov, D S Pavlov
The contents of ions in the blood have been compared in three ecological groups of brown trout (parr, mature, and resident) living in rives of the basins of Lake Onega and Lake Ladoga. Brown trout from the Alats-oya (the Ladoga basin, remote from two other rivers belonging to the Onega Lake) is characterized by the lowest concentrations of the Na+ , Ca2+ , and Cl- ions in blood. The probable effect of the ion level in blood of brown trout on selection of life strategy is discussed.
July 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171467/electric-organ-discharges-of-cyphomyrus-petherici-mormyridae-osteoglossiformes-from-the-white-nile-basin
#20
V D Baron, A A Orlov, A S Golubtsov
The waveform and some characteristics of the electric organ discharges have been studied in 11 individuals of Cyphomyrus petherici, the only representative of the genus in the Nilotic fauna. The discharge is characterized by three to five phases with a prevalence of the second phase in terms of the relative amplitude and a wide variability of the total duration of discharge (from 212 to 558 μs). The comparison of the discharges of the species under study with those in the congeneric species and representatives of the genus Pollimyrus (which previously encompassed C...
July 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
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