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Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861883/nervous-system-and-musculature-of-the-parasitic-turbellarian-notentera-ivanovi-plathelminthes-fecampiida
#1
O I Raikova, E A Kotikova, T A Frolova
The article reports the first description of the architecture of the musculature and cholinergic nervous system of the parasitic turbellarian Notentera ivanovi from the White Sea using histochemistry and confocal scanning laser microscopy. It has been demonstrated that the body wall is composed of layers of circular and longitudinal muscles between which there are diagonal muscles described here for the first time. The nervous system is of the regular closely spaced orthogon type with pronounced radiality. In order to make it clear whether the orthogon of this type is a phylogenetic characteristic of this group of worms or its shape is associated with the flat rounded body, the study of other representatives of the Fecampiida group is required...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861882/sucrose-enriched-diet-during-maturation-increases-ethanol-preference-in-rats
#2
M V Dorofeikova, A Yu Egorov, E V Filatova, A A Orlov
In the present study we used a diet enriched with 10% sucrose, which was consumed by adolescent animals of the experimental group for one month. We found that consumption of sweet food during sexual maturation affected alcohol preference, anxiety, and locomotor and exploratory activity in the adult rats. Our data show that easily available tasty food during adolescence probably impairs the reward system and serves as a trigger of future alcohol preference.
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861881/inactivation-of-proteolytic-enzymes-by-cestodes
#3
G I Izvekova, M M Kuklina, T V Frolova
Inhibitor activity of cestodes from intestines of different hosts (sea birds, salt-water fish, and freshwater fish) was investigated. Alcataenia larina, Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides, Tetrabothrius erostris, T. minor, Wardium cirrosa, Bothriocephalus scorpii, Eubothrium rugosum, and Triaenophorus nodulosus were able to inhibit the activity of the commercial trypsin and activity of proteinase homogenates of the intestinal mucosa of the hosts. It was suggested that the inhibitor produced by the cestodes is specific for trypsin and protects them from the digestive enzymes of the host...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861880/unconsidered-sporadic-sources-of-carbon-dioxide-emission-from-soils-in-taiga-forests
#4
D V Karelin, D G Zamolodchikov, A S Isaev
Long-term monitoring in the Russian taiga zone has shown that all known extreme destructive effects resulting in the weakening and death of tree stands (windfalls, pest attacks, drought events, etc.) can be sporadic, but significant sources of CO2 soil emission. Among them are (i) a recently found effect of the multiyear CO2 emission from soil at the bottom of deadwood of spruce trees that died due to climate warming and subsequent pest outbreaks, (ii) increased soil CO2 emissions due to to the fall of tree trunks during massive windfalls, and (iii) pulse CO2 emission as a result of the so-called Birch effect after drought events in the taiga zone...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861879/comparative-analysis-of-the-nervous-system-structure-of-polymorphic-zooids-in-marine-bryozoans
#5
K M Serova, A E Vishnyakov, O V Zaitseva, O N Kotenko, A N Ostrovsky
The nervous system structure was compared for the first time in avicularia and vibracula in seven species of the cheilostome bryozoans from six families by immunohistochemical methods and confocal scanning microscopy. Regardless of significant differences in heterozooid shape, size, and position in a colony, their muscular and nervous systems have a common structure, which suggests their parallel evolution.
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861878/regulation-of-the-peritoneal-macrophage-functional-activity-by-the-mp-5-and-mp-6-myelopeptides-under-stress
#6
S V Gein, T V Gavrilova, O N Gein, L S Nikitina, M V Chereshneva, V A Chereshnev, E A Kirilina
In mice, two-hour immobilization stress inhibited zymosan-induced production by macrophages of the oxygen radicals and cytokine IL-1β. After myelopeptides MP-5 and MP-6 were administered into mice, the stress-induced inhibition of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-1β was abrogated. MP-5 peptide stimulated spontaneous ROS production by macrophages and reduced IL-10 production under stress. Thus, under in vivo conditions and under stress, the effect of MP-5 and MP-6 myelopeptides modulates the peritoneal macrophage activity...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861877/new-data-on-the-effect-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-growth-of-the-aquatic-plant-elodea-canadensis-in-the-laboratory
#7
A Ya Bolsunovsky, D V Dementyev, E A Trofimova, T A Zotina
Toxicological experiments with radioactive bottom sediments and extrinsic γ-irradiation have demonstrated that the growth of common elodea roots is suppressed by irradiation at doses several times lower than the established threshold dose. The effect of γ-irradiation on the growth of elodea stems has not been observed at any dose used. The data obtained show that elodea could be recommended for use as an indicator of biological effects of radiation in the range of low radiation doses.
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861876/isolation-of-primary-osteoblast-cell-lines-from-adult-rat-and-rat-embryos-and-their-use-as-models-for-in-vitro-biocompatibility-tests-of-nanostructured-titanium-based-implants
#8
Y Y Khrunyk, I V Vyalykh, A V Korelin, S V Belikov, M S Karabanalov, S B Rakitin, R V Kamalov, A A Popov
Methods for obtaining osteoblast cultures from the calvaria of adult Wistar rats and 12-day-old embryos of these rats have been adapted for studying the biocompatibility and ossointegration of titanium-based implants. The osteoblast morphology and their differentiation into osteocytes on a titanium matrix with specially treated surface have been studied. It has been confirmed that two cultures of diploid rat cells obtained in the study can serve as efficient models for preclinical in vitro testing of nanostructured titanium implants for biocompatibility and osseointegration...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861875/age-related-adaptive-responses-of-mitochondria-of-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-to-the-everyday-blue-led-lighting
#9
N B Serezhnikova, L S Pogodina, T V Lipina, N N Trofimova, T S Gurieva, P P Zak
The effect of everyday blue light (λ = 440-460 nm) on mitochondria of the retinal pigment epithelium of different age groups of Japanese quail was studied using electron microscopy, morphometric methods, and biochemical analysis. We have found a significant increase in the number of mitochondria, including those modified, mainly in young birds. In addition, cell metabolic activity increased in response to blue lighting. These changes are assumed to reflect an adaptive response of mitochondria aimed at neutralizing the phototoxic effect of blue light caused by accumulation of lipofuscin granules...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861874/cytokine-production-by-the-tumor-from-patients-with-breast-cancer-in-different-age-groups
#10
T A Kunts, E S Mikhaylova, I O Marinkin, N A Varaksin, A I Autenshlyus, V V Lyakhovich
Dependence of cytokine pattern in the tumor supernatant obtained after cultivation of biopsy samples-on the patients' age was evaluated among patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. An increase in VEGF and IL-6 production in a group of younger patients was observed. An increase only in interferon γ concentration was revealed in the supernatants of the tumor after addition of polyclonal activators to the culture medium. This result indicates likely secretion of interferon γ in younger patients...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861873/role-of-the-pregnancy-specific-glycoprotein-in-regulation-of-the-cytokine-and-chemokine-profiles-of-intact-mononuclear-cells
#11
M B Rayev, L S Litvinova, K A Yurova, N A Dunets, O G Khaziakhmatova, V P Timganova, M S Bochkova, P V Khramtsov, S A Zamorina
The effect of human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) on the cytokine and chemokine production in vitro by intact mononuclear cells was studied by the method of flow fluorimetry. PSG inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α and chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CCL2/MCP-1; at the same time, PSG stimulated IL-12(p70) production. Simultaneously with increasing the VEGF level, PSG inhibited production of IL-9, IL-13, G-CSF, and GM-CSF. The PSG effect discovered can be interpreted as a contribution into the immune tolerance formation during pregnancy...
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861872/intermale-aggression-in-mice-selected-for-the-cognitive-trait
#12
O V Perepelkina, A Yu Tarassova, N M Surina, I G Lilp, V A Golibrodo, I I Poletaeva
The data are presented on intermale aggression in mice which were selected for high scores of cognitive trait (the ability for extrapolation of movement direction) in comparison to the data of control mice performance. The changes in aggression level in the course of selection are presumably connected with anxiety level which also changed during selection generations.
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702733/isotope-and-microelement-systematics-of-gallionella-sp-containing-bacterial-mats-from-the-northwest-of-the-east-european-platform
#13
S B Felitsyn, N A Alfimova
Microelement composition of Gallionella sp.-containing bacterial mats from the environs of St. Petersburg and isotope composition of organic carbon, strontium, and neodymium from these mats have been determined. Isotope and microelement systematics of iron oxides of bacterial origin characterize the geochemistry of aquafacies that contain ferrobacteria. Certain pre-Cambrian ferruginous quartzites have a similar composition; therefore, one may assume that bacterial oxidation of iron under continental conditions had occurred upon the formation of ironstone during the Precambrian...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702732/distribution-of-populations-of-ringed-seal-phoca-hispida-and-bearded-seal-erignathus-barbatus-in-shallow-and-average-deep-areas-of-the-southwestern-part-of-the-kara-sea-in-summer-2015
#14
Yu I Goryaev, N G Chelintsev, A V Ezhov, P R Makarevich, D G Ishkulov
In August-September 2015 in the southwest part of the Kara Sea, visual censuses of ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and bearded seal (Erignatus barbatus) from research vessels were carried out in the water area of 49 814 km(2). For the first time, for calculation of abundance and density on ice-free area the SEAL-CALCULATION (TYULEN-RASCHET) software was used with application of separate extrapolation method by the selected sectors. Calculation for the whole census polygon yielded abundance of ringed seal of 4163 ± 16...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702731/chronic-cold-stress-modulates-the-function-of-peritoneal-macrophages-in-vivo
#15
S V Gein, I L Sharav'eva
On day 7 of chronic cold stress, concentration of corticosterone in plasma was established to increase, zymosan-induced production of reactive oxygen species was activated, and IL-10 synthesis by macrophages was enhanced regardless of the opiate receptor blockade. Increase in the concentration of corticosterone was independent of the blockade of opioid receptors, whereas the zymosan-induced increase in the production of oxygen radicals and activation of the spontaneous production of IL-10 was blocked in mice by naloxone...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702730/compressive-nonlinearity-of-human-hearing-in-sound-spectra-discrimination
#16
O N Milekhina, D I Nechaev, A Ya Supin
In the psychophysical experiments reported here, cochlear compression function was derived by comparing on-frequency and off-frequency masking. The signal was rippled spectrum noise. The ripple density discrimination threshold was measured in the ripple phase reversion test. An increase in masker intensity led to a decrease in a resolvable ripple density threshold. The on-frequency masker level at threshold increased proportionally to the signal intensity. The off-frequency masker level at threshold also increased proportionally to the signal at signal intensity levels below 50 dB, whereas at signal levels above 60 dB SPL, the ratio of the masker level at threshold gradient to signal level gradient was 1 : 5 dB/dB, revealing cochlear compression...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702729/improvement-of-the-night-sleep-quality-by-electrocutaneous-subthreshold-stimulation-synchronized-with-the-slow-wave-sleep
#17
Yu V Gulyaev, A S Bugaev, P A Indursky, V M Shakhnarovich, V V Dementienko
Changes in sleep characteristics were studied under the non-wake-up stimulation with current pulses of less than 1 μA on average, applied to the palmar surface skin receptors during Δ-sleep. A significant increase in duration of the first and second cycles of deep sleep has been found, as well as a shorter latent period before the Δ-sleep onset and a longer time of the rapid sleep (REM phase). The sleep structure improvement was accompanied by the reduced reactive anxiety and depression and an increase in subjective physical efficiency...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702728/cd8-t-cell-expansion-in-hiv-hcv-coinfection-is-associated-with-systemic-inflammation
#18
E V Saidakova, K V Shmagel, L B Korolevskaya, N G Shmagel, V A Chereshnev
High prevalence of non-AIDS-defining illnesses in treated HIV-infected patients is associated with increased peripheral CD8(+) T cell counts. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is an additional risk factor for the development of non-AIDS events. We found that, in HIV/HCV coinfection, the increased proportion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes is due to the effector memory and terminal effector T cells gain. Moreover, in these patients, the accumulation of highly differentiated forms of CD8(+) T lymphocytes was associated with increased concentrations of inflammatory indices...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702727/electric-discharges-and-electrogenesis-peculiarity-in-two-african-upside-down-catfishes-synodontis-caudovittatus-and-s-eupterus-mochokidae-siluriformes
#19
A A Orlov, V D Baron, A S Golubtsov
The paper reports spontaneous generation of weak electric discharges with an amplitude of 0.4-1.0 mV and a frequency of 3-9 min(-1) by solitary Synodontis caudovittatus fish. When fish individuals were tested in pairs, their aggressive-defense interactions were associated with an increase in the amplitude of the discharges (up to 30-45 mV) compared to the discharges of individual fish, while the duration of the pulses increased up to 20-25 ms due to the prolongation of the second phase. In S. eupterus, electric activity was recorded only in the course of aggression-defense interactions, while spontaneous generation of discharges was not observed at all...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702726/distinct-features-of-intraspecific-and-intrapopulation-variability-of-the-skull-size-in-the-red-fox
#20
A M Gos'kov, V N Bol'shakov, N S Korytin
The range of chronographic variability of the average size of the skull in the red fox (data collected by the authors) from a compact area in the Middle Urals has been assessed for a 30-year period, and the results obtained have been compared with the published data on the geographical variability within the vast species range. The range of changes of the average dimensions of the skull over time spanned almost the entire range of geographical variability. Therefore, the problem of search for factors that determine the morphological diversity arises...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
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