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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438921/null-expectations-for-disease-dynamics-in-shrinking-habitat-dilution-or-amplification
#1
Christina L Faust, Andrew P Dobson, Nicole Gottdenker, Laura S P Bloomfield, Hamish I McCallum, Thomas R Gillespie, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Raina K Plowright
As biodiversity declines with anthropogenic land-use change, it is increasingly important to understand how changing biodiversity affects infectious disease risk. The dilution effect hypothesis, which points to decreases in biodiversity as critical to an increase in infection risk, has received considerable attention due to the allure of a win-win scenario for conservation and human well-being. Yet some empirical data suggest that the dilution effect is not a generalizable phenomenon. We explore the response of pathogen transmission dynamics to changes in biodiversity that are driven by habitat loss using an allometrically scaled multi-host model...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438920/conservation-of-biodiversity-as-a-strategy-for-improving-human-health-and-well-being
#2
REVIEW
A Marm Kilpatrick, Daniel J Salkeld, Georgia Titcomb, Micah B Hahn
The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438919/ecosystem-change-and-human-health-implementation-economics-and-policy
#3
REVIEW
S K Pattanayak, R A Kramer, J R Vincent
Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health, EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438918/does-the-impact-of-biodiversity-differ-between-emerging-and-endemic-pathogens-the-need-to-separate-the-concepts-of-hazard-and-risk
#4
REVIEW
Parviez R Hosseini, James N Mills, Anne-Hélène Prieur-Richard, Vanessa O Ezenwa, Xavier Bailly, Annapaola Rizzoli, Gerardo Suzán, Marion Vittecoq, Gabriel E García-Peña, Peter Daszak, Jean-François Guégan, Benjamin Roche
Biodiversity is of critical value to human societies, but recent evidence that biodiversity may mitigate infectious-disease risk has sparked controversy among researchers. The majority of work on this topic has focused on direct assessments of the relationship between biodiversity and endemic-pathogen prevalence, without disentangling intervening mechanisms; thus study outcomes often differ, fuelling more debate. Here, we suggest two critical changes to the approach researchers take to understanding relationships between infectious disease, both endemic and emerging, and biodiversity that may help clarify sources of controversy...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438917/disease-ecology-health-and-the-environment-a-framework-to-account-for-ecological-and-socio-economic-drivers-in-the-control-of-neglected-tropical-diseases
#5
A Garchitorena, S H Sokolow, B Roche, C N Ngonghala, M Jocque, A Lund, M Barry, E A Mordecai, G C Daily, J H Jones, J R Andrews, E Bendavid, S P Luby, A D LaBeaud, K Seetah, J F Guégan, M H Bonds, G A De Leo
Reducing the burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is one of the key strategic targets advanced by the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the unprecedented effort deployed for NTD elimination in the past decade, their control, mainly through drug administration, remains particularly challenging: persistent poverty and repeated exposure to pathogens embedded in the environment limit the efficacy of strategies focused exclusively on human treatment or medical care. Here, we present a simple modelling framework to illustrate the relative role of ecological and socio-economic drivers of environmentally transmitted parasites and pathogens...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438916/nearly-400-million-people-are-at-higher-risk-of-schistosomiasis-because-dams-block-the-migration-of-snail-eating-river-prawns
#6
Susanne H Sokolow, Isabel J Jones, Merlijn Jocque, Diana La, Olivia Cords, Anika Knight, Andrea Lund, Chelsea L Wood, Kevin D Lafferty, Christopher M Hoover, Phillip A Collender, Justin V Remais, David Lopez-Carr, Jonathan Fisk, Armand M Kuris, Giulio A De Leo
Dams have long been associated with elevated burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socio-economic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In the Senegal River Basin, there is evidence that prawn populations declined and schistosomiasis increased after completion of the Diama Dam. Restoring prawns to a water-access site upstream of the dam reduced snail density and reinfection rates in people...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438915/conservation-development-and-the-management-of-infectious-disease-avian-influenza-in-china-2004-2012
#7
Tong Wu, Charles Perrings
There is growing evidence that wildlife conservation measures have mixed effects on the emergence and spread of zoonotic disease. Wildlife conservation has been found to have both positive (dilution) and negative (contagion) effects. In the case of avian influenza H5N1 in China, the focus has been on negative effects. Lakes and wetlands attracting migrating waterfowl have been argued to be disease hotspots. We consider the implications of waterfowl conservation for H5N1 infections in both poultry and humans between 2004 and 2012...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438914/does-deforestation-promote-or-inhibit-malaria-transmission-in-the-amazon-a-systematic-literature-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-current-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Joanna M Tucker Lima, Amy Vittor, Sami Rifai, Denis Valle
Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438913/conservation-biodiversity-and-infectious-disease-scientific-evidence-and-policy-implications
#9
Hillary S Young, Chelsea L Wood, A Marm Kilpatrick, Kevin D Lafferty, Charles L Nunn, Jeffrey R Vincent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438912/effects-of-conservation-management-of-landscapes-and-vertebrate-communities-on-lyme-borreliosis-risk-in-the-united-kingdom
#10
REVIEW
Caroline Millins, Lucy Gilbert, Jolyon Medlock, Kayleigh Hansford, Des Ba Thompson, Roman Biek
Landscape change and altered host abundance are major drivers of zoonotic pathogen emergence. Conservation and biodiversity management of landscapes and vertebrate communities can have secondary effects on vector-borne pathogen transmission that are important to assess. Here we review the potential implications of these activities on the risk of Lyme borreliosis in the United Kingdom. Conservation management activities include woodland expansion, management and restoration, deer management, urban greening and the release and culling of non-native species...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438911/human-infectious-disease-burdens-decrease-with-urbanization-but-not-with-biodiversity
#11
Chelsea L Wood, Alex McInturff, Hillary S Young, DoHyung Kim, Kevin D Lafferty
Infectious disease burdens vary from country to country and year to year due to ecological and economic drivers. Recently, Murray et al. (Murray CJ et al 2012 Lancet380, 2197-2223. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4)) estimated country-level morbidity and mortality associated with a variety of factors, including infectious diseases, for the years 1990 and 2010. Unlike other databases that report disease prevalence or count outbreaks per country, Murray et al. report health impacts in per-person disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), allowing comparison across diseases with lethal and sublethal health effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438910/lyme-disease-ecology-in-a-changing-world-consensus-uncertainty-and-critical-gaps-for-improving-control
#12
REVIEW
A Marm Kilpatrick, Andrew D M Dobson, Taal Levi, Daniel J Salkeld, Andrea Swei, Howard S Ginsberg, Anne Kjemtrup, Kerry A Padgett, Per M Jensen, Durland Fish, Nick H Ogden, Maria A Diuk-Wasser
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in temperate regions of North America, Europe and Asia, and the number of reported cases has increased in many regions as landscapes have been altered. Although there has been extensive work on the ecology and epidemiology of this disease in both Europe and North America, substantial uncertainty exists about fundamental aspects that determine spatial and temporal variation in both disease risk and human incidence, which hamper effective and efficient prevention and control...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438909/interacting-effects-of-land-use-and-climate-on-rodent-borne-pathogens-in-central-kenya
#13
Hillary S Young, Douglas J McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Charles L Nunn, Michael G Campana, Bernard Agwanda, Erik R Otarola-Castillo, Eric R Castillo, Robert M Pringle, Kari E Veblen, Daniel J Salkeld, Kristin Stewardson, Robert Fleischer, Eric F Lambin, Todd M Palmer, Kristofer M Helgen
Understanding the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on zoonotic disease risk is both a critical conservation objective and a public health priority. Here, we evaluate the effects of multiple forms of anthropogenic disturbance across a precipitation gradient on the abundance of pathogen-infected small mammal hosts in a multi-host, multi-pathogen system in central Kenya. Our results suggest that conversion to cropland and wildlife loss alone drive systematic increases in rodent-borne pathogen prevalence, but that pastoral conversion has no such systematic effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396483/reply-to-coll-et-al-important-methodological-issues-regarding-the-use-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-investigate-interoceptive-processing-2017
#14
Olga Pollatos, Thomas Kammer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396482/preface-the-2013-2016-west-african-ebola-epidemic-data-decision-making-and-disease-control
#15
Peter Piot, Cordelia E M Coltart, Katherine E Atkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396481/important-methodological-issues-regarding-the-use-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-investigate-interoceptive-processing-a-comment-on-pollatos-et-al-2016
#16
Michel-Pierre Coll, Tegan Penton, Hannah Hobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396480/key-data-for-outbreak-evaluation-building-on-the-ebola-experience
#17
REVIEW
Anne Cori, Christl A Donnelly, Ilaria Dorigatti, Neil M Ferguson, Christophe Fraser, Tini Garske, Thibaut Jombart, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Pierre Nouvellet, Steven Riley, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Harriet L Mills, Isobel M Blake
Following the detection of an infectious disease outbreak, rapid epidemiological assessment is critical for guiding an effective public health response. To understand the transmission dynamics and potential impact of an outbreak, several types of data are necessary. Here we build on experience gained in the West African Ebola epidemic and prior emerging infectious disease outbreaks to set out a checklist of data needed to: (1) quantify severity and transmissibility; (2) characterize heterogeneities in transmission and their determinants; and (3) assess the effectiveness of different interventions...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396479/heterogeneities-in-the-case-fatality-ratio-in-the-west-african-ebola-outbreak-2013-2016
#18
Tini Garske, Anne Cori, Archchun Ariyarajah, Isobel M Blake, Ilaria Dorigatti, Tim Eckmanns, Christophe Fraser, Wes Hinsley, Thibaut Jombart, Harriet L Mills, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Emily Newton, Pierre Nouvellet, Devin Perkins, Steven Riley, Dirk Schumacher, Anita Shah, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Christopher Dye, Neil M Ferguson, Christl A Donnelly
The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest on record with 28 616 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11 310 deaths officially recorded by 10 June 2016, the true burden probably considerably higher. The case fatality ratio (CFR: proportion of cases that are fatal) is a key indicator of disease severity useful for gauging the appropriate public health response and for evaluating treatment benefits, if estimated accurately. We analysed individual-level clinical outcome data from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone officially reported to the World Health Organization...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396478/what-we-have-learnt-about-the-world-health-organization-from-the-ebola-outbreak
#19
REVIEW
Clare Wenham
The World Health Organization's (WHO) reputation became irrefutably damaged during the Ebola outbreak, with a general consensus in the global health community that it fell short of its leadership responsibilities. This commentary offers a brief synopsis of the WHO's role during the outbreak and suggests that the disease outbreak demonstrates the tension that exists between the organization's normative and operational roles in health crises. While the WHO did offer some normative leadership during the Ebola outbreak, as per its constitution, it did not provide an effective operational response, yet nor did it have a mandate to do so...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396477/command-and-control-of-sierra-leone-s-ebola-outbreak-response-evolution-of-the-response-architecture
#20
Emma Ross
Management, coordination and logistics were critical for responding effectively to the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone, and the duration of the epidemic provided a rare opportunity to study the management of an outbreak that endured long enough for the response to mature. This qualitative study examines the structures and systems used to manage the response, and how and why they changed and evolved. It also discusses the quality of relationships between key responders and their impact. Early coordination mechanisms failed and the President took operational control away from the Ministry of Health and Sanitation and established a National Ebola Response Centre, headed by the Minister of Defence, and District Ebola Response Centres...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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