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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109232/recombination-the-good-the-bad-and-the-variable
#1
Jessica Stapley, Philine G D Feulner, Susan E Johnston, Anna W Santure, Carole M Smadja
Recombination, the process by which DNA strands are broken and repaired, producing new combinations of alleles, occurs in nearly all multicellular organisms and has important implications for many evolutionary processes. The effects of recombination can be good, as it can facilitate adaptation, but also bad when it breaks apart beneficial combinations of alleles, and recombination is highly variable between taxa, species, individuals and across the genome. Understanding how and why recombination rate varies is a major challenge in biology...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109231/correction-to-overexpression-of-plastid-terminal-oxidase-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-alters-cellular-redox-state
#2
Kathleen Feilke, Ghada Ajlani, Anja Krieger-Liszkay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109230/background-selection-as-null-hypothesis-in-population-genomics-insights-and-challenges-from-drosophila-studies
#3
Josep M Comeron
The consequences of selection at linked sites are multiple and widespread across the genomes of most species. Here, I first review the main concepts behind models of selection and linkage in recombining genomes, present the difficulty in parametrizing these models simply as a reduction in effective population size (Ne) and discuss the predicted impact of recombination rates on levels of diversity across genomes. Arguments are then put forward in favour of using a model of selection and linkage with neutral and deleterious mutations (i...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109229/are-the-effects-of-elevated-temperature-on-meiotic-recombination-and-thermotolerance-linked-via-the-axis-and-synaptonemal-complex
#4
REVIEW
Christopher H Morgan, Huakun Zhang, Kirsten Bomblies
Meiosis is unusual among cell divisions in shuffling genetic material by crossovers among homologous chromosomes and partitioning the genome into haploid gametes. Crossovers are critical for chromosome segregation in most eukaryotes, but are also an important factor in evolution, as they generate novel genetic combinations. The molecular mechanisms that underpin meiotic recombination and chromosome segregation are well conserved across kingdoms, but are also sensitive to perturbation by environment, especially temperature...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109228/connecting-theory-and-data-to-understand-recombination-rate-evolution
#5
REVIEW
Amy L Dapper, Bret A Payseur
Meiotic recombination is necessary for successful gametogenesis in most sexually reproducing organisms and is a fundamental genomic parameter, influencing the efficacy of selection and the fate of new mutations. The molecular and evolutionary functions of recombination should impose strong selective constraints on the range of recombination rates. Yet, variation in recombination rate is observed on a variety of genomic and evolutionary scales. In the past decade, empirical studies have described variation in recombination rate within genomes, between individuals, between sexes, between populations and between species...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109227/the-impact-of-recombination-on-human-mutation-load-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Isabel Alves, Armande Ang Houle, Julie G Hussin, Philip Awadalla
Recombination promotes genomic integrity among cells and tissues through double-strand break repair, and is critical for gamete formation and fertility through a strict regulation of the molecular mechanisms associated with proper chromosomal disjunction. In humans, congenital defects and recurrent structural abnormalities can be attributed to aberrant meiotic recombination. Moreover, mutations affecting genes involved in recombination pathways are directly linked to pathologies including infertility and cancer...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109226/the-red-queen-model-of-recombination-hot-spot-evolution-a-theoretical-investigation
#7
Thibault Latrille, Laurent Duret, Nicolas Lartillot
In humans and many other species, recombination events cluster in narrow and short-lived hot spots distributed across the genome, whose location is determined by the Zn-finger protein PRDM9. To explain these fast evolutionary dynamics, an intra-genomic Red Queen model has been proposed, based on the interplay between two antagonistic forces: biased gene conversion, mediated by double-strand breaks, resulting in hot-spot extinction, followed by positive selection favouring new PRDM9 alleles recognizing new sequence motifs...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109225/the-consequences-of-sequence-erosion-in-the-evolution-of-recombination-hotspots
#8
REVIEW
Irene Tiemann-Boege, Theresa Schwarz, Yasmin Striedner, Angelika Heissl
Meiosis is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) introduced in the DNA by a highly controlled process that is repaired by recombination. In many organisms, recombination occurs at specific and narrow regions of the genome, known as recombination hotspots, which overlap with regions enriched for DSBs. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that conversions and mutations resulting from the repair of DSBs lead to a rapid sequence evolution at recombination hotspots eroding target sites for DSBs. We still do not fully understand the effect of this erosion in the recombination activity, but evidence has shown that the binding of trans-acting factors like PRDM9 is affected...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109224/low-recombination-rates-in-sexual-species-and-sex-asex-transitions
#9
Christoph R Haag, Loukas Theodosiou, Roula Zahab, Thomas Lenormand
In most sexual, diploid eukaryotes, at least one crossover occurs between each pair of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, presumably in order to ensure proper segregation. Well-known exceptions to this rule are species in which one sex does not recombine and specific chromosomes lacking crossover. We review other possible exceptions, including species with chromosome maps of less than 50 cM in one or both sexes. We discuss the idea that low recombination rates may favour sex-asex transitions, or, alternatively may be a consequence of it...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109223/what-drives-the-evolution-of-condition-dependent-recombination-in-diploids-some-insights-from-simulation-modelling
#10
Sviatoslav R Rybnikov, Zeev M Frenkel, Abraham B Korol
While the evolutionary advantages of non-zero recombination rates have prompted diverse theoretical explanations, the evolution of essential recombination features remains underexplored. We focused on one such feature, the condition dependence of recombination, viewed as the variation in within-generation sensitivity of recombination to external (environment) and/or internal (genotype) conditions. Limited empirical evidence for its existence comes mainly from diploids, whereas theoretical models show that it only easily evolves in haploids...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109222/recombination-rate-plasticity-revealing-mechanisms-by-design
#11
REVIEW
Laurie S Stevison, Stephen Sefick, Chase Rushton, Rita M Graze
For over a century, scientists have known that meiotic recombination rates can vary considerably among individuals, and that environmental conditions can modify recombination rates relative to the background. A variety of external and intrinsic factors such as temperature, age, sex and starvation can elicit 'plastic' responses in recombination rate. The influence of recombination rate plasticity on genetic diversity of the next generation has interesting and important implications for how populations evolve...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109221/coevolution-between-transposable-elements-and-recombination
#12
REVIEW
Tyler V Kent, Jasmina Uzunovińá, Stephen I Wright
One of the most striking patterns of genome structure is the tight, typically negative, association between transposable elements (TEs) and meiotic recombination rates. While this is a highly recurring feature of eukaryotic genomes, the mechanisms driving correlations between TEs and recombination remain poorly understood, and distinguishing cause versus effect is challenging. Here, we review the evidence for a relation between TEs and recombination, and discuss the underlying evolutionary forces. Evidence to date suggests that overall TE densities correlate negatively with recombination, but the strength of this correlation varies across element types, and the pattern can be reversed...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109220/evolution-of-recombination-rates-between-sex-chromosomes
#13
REVIEW
Deborah Charlesworth
In species with genetic sex-determination, the chromosomes carrying the sex-determining genes have often evolved non-recombining regions and subsequently evolved the full set of characteristics denoted by the term 'sex chromosomes'. These include size differences, creating chromosomal heteromorphism, and loss of gene functions from one member of the chromosome pair. Such characteristics and changes have been widely reviewed, and underlie molecular genetic approaches that can detect sex chromosome regions. This review deals mainly with the evolution of new non-recombining regions, focusing on how certain evolutionary situations select for suppressed recombination (rather than the proximate mechanisms causing suppressed recombination between sex chromosomes)...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109219/variation-in-recombination-frequency-and-distribution-across-eukaryotes-patterns-and-processes
#14
REVIEW
Jessica Stapley, Philine G D Feulner, Susan E Johnston, Anna W Santure, Carole M Smadja
Recombination, the exchange of DNA between maternal and paternal chromosomes during meiosis, is an essential feature of sexual reproduction in nearly all multicellular organisms. While the role of recombination in the evolution of sex has received theoretical and empirical attention, less is known about how recombination rate itself evolves and what influence this has on evolutionary processes within sexually reproducing organisms. Here, we explore the patterns of, and processes governing recombination in eukaryotes...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061902/non-adaptive-origins-of-evolutionary-innovations-increase-network-complexity-in-interacting-digital-organisms
#15
Miguel A Fortuna, Luis Zaman, Andreas Wagner, Jordi Bascompte
The origin of evolutionary innovations is a central problem in evolutionary biology. To what extent such innovations have adaptive or non-adaptive origins is hard to assess in real organisms. This limitation, however, can be overcome using digital organisms, i.e. self-replicating computer programs that mutate, evolve and coevolve within a user-defined computational environment. Here, we quantify the role of the non-adaptive origins of host resistance traits in determining the evolution of ecological interactions among host and parasite digital organisms...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061901/geographic-mosaics-and-changing-rates-of-cereal-domestication
#16
Robin G Allaby, Chris Stevens, Leilani Lucas, Osamu Maeda, Dorian Q Fuller
Domestication is the process by which plants or animals evolved to fit a human-managed environment, and it is marked by innovations in plant morphology and anatomy that are in turn correlated with new human behaviours and technologies for harvesting, storage and field preparation. Archaeobotanical evidence has revealed that domestication was a protracted process taking thousands of plant generations. Within this protracted process there were changes in the selection pressures for domestication traits as well as variation across a geographic mosaic of wild and cultivated populations...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061900/the-niche-construction-of-cultural-complexity-interactions-between-innovations-population-size-and-the-environment
#17
Laurel Fogarty, Nicole Creanza
Niche construction is a process through which organisms alter their environments and, in doing so, influence or change the selective pressures to which they are subject. 'Cultural niche construction' refers specifically to the effect of cultural traits on the selective environments of other biological or cultural traits and may be especially important in human evolution. In addition, the relationship between population size and cultural accumulation has been the subject of extensive debate, in part because anthropological studies have demonstrated a significant association between population size and toolkit complexity in only a subset of studied cultures...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061899/cognitive-innovations-and-the-evolutionary-biology-of-expertise
#18
REVIEW
Reuven Dukas
Animal life can be perceived as the selective use of information for maximizing survival and reproduction. All organisms including bacteria and protists rely on genetic networks to build and modulate sophisticated structures and biochemical mechanisms for perceiving information and responding to environmental changes. Animals, however, have gone through a series of innovations that dramatically increased their capacity to acquire, retain and act upon information. Multicellularity was associated with the evolution of the nervous system, which took over many tasks of internal communication and coordination...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061898/inferring-processes-of-cultural-transmission-the-critical-role-of-rare-variants-in-distinguishing-neutrality-from-novelty-biases
#19
James P O'Dwyer, Anne Kandler
Neutral evolution assumes that there are no selective forces distinguishing different variants in a population. Despite this striking assumption, many recent studies have sought to assess whether neutrality can provide a good description of different episodes of cultural change. One approach has been to test whether neutral predictions are consistent with observed progeny distributions, recording the number of variants that have produced a given number of new instances within a specified time interval: a classic example is the distribution of baby names...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061897/innovation-and-social-transmission-in-experimental-micro-societies-exploring-the-scope-of-cumulative-culture-in-young-children
#20
Nicola McGuigan, Emily Burdett, Vanessa Burgess, Lewis Dean, Amanda Lucas, Gillian Vale, Andrew Whiten
The experimental study of cumulative culture and the innovations essential to it is a young science, with child studies so rare that the scope of cumulative cultural capacities in childhood remains largely unknown. Here we report a new experimental approach to the inherent complexity of these phenomena. Groups of 3-4-year-old children were presented with an elaborate array of challenges affording the potential cumulative development of a variety of techniques to gain increasingly attractive rewards. In contrast to a prior study, we found evidence for elementary forms of cumulative cultural progress, with inventions of solutions at lower levels spreading to become shared innovations, and some children then building on these to create more advanced but more rewarding innovations...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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