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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920390/life-history-trade-offs-the-intensity-of-competition-and-coexistence-in-novel-and-evolving-communities-under-climate-change
#1
Lesley T Lancaster, Gavin Morrison, Robert N Fitt
The consequences of climate change for local biodiversity are little understood in process or mechanism, but these changes are likely to reflect both changing regional species pools and changing competitive interactions. Previous empirical work largely supports the idea that competition will intensify under climate change, promoting competitive exclusions and local extinctions, while theory and conceptual work indicate that relaxed competition may in fact buffer communities from biodiversity losses that are typically witnessed at broader spatial scales...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920389/resistance-in-persisting-bat-populations-after-white-nose-syndrome-invasion
#2
Kate E Langwig, Joseph R Hoyt, Katy L Parise, Winifred F Frick, Jeffrey T Foster, A Marm Kilpatrick
Increases in anthropogenic movement have led to a rise in pathogen introductions and the emergence of infectious diseases in naive host communities worldwide. We combined empirical data and mathematical models to examine changes in disease dynamics in little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) populations following the introduction of the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes the disease white-nose syndrome. We found that infection intensity was much lower in persisting populations than in declining populations where the fungus has recently invaded...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920388/human-drivers-of-ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-in-emerging-and-disappearing-infectious-disease-systems
#3
REVIEW
Mary A Rogalski, Camden D Gowler, Clara L Shaw, Ruth A Hufbauer, Meghan A Duffy
Humans have contributed to the increased frequency and severity of emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to wild and domestic species, as well as human health. This review examines major pathways by which humans influence parasitism by altering (co)evolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites on ecological timescales. There is still much to learn about these interactions, but a few well-studied cases show that humans influence disease emergence every step of the way. Human actions significantly increase dispersal of host, parasite and vector species, enabling greater frequency of infection in naive host populations and host switches...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920387/adaptive-capabilities-and-fitness-consequences-associated-with-pollution-exposure-in-fish
#4
REVIEW
Patrick B Hamilton, Gregor Rolshausen, Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Charles R Tyler
Many fish populations are exposed to harmful levels of chemical pollution and selection pressures associated with these exposures have led to the evolution of tolerance. Our understanding of the physiological basis for these adaptations is limited, but they are likely to include processes involved with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion of the target chemical. Other potential adaptive mechanisms include enhancements in antioxidant responses, an increased capacity for DNA and/or tissue repair and alterations to the life cycle of fish that enable earlier reproduction...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920386/does-eutrophication-driven-evolution-change-aquatic-ecosystems
#5
REVIEW
Timothy J Alexander, Pascal Vonlanthen, Ole Seehausen
Eutrophication increases primary production and changes the relative abundance, taxonomic composition and spatial distribution of primary producers within an aquatic ecosystem. The changes in composition and location of resources alter the distribution and flow of energy and biomass throughout the food web. Changes in productivity also alter the physico-chemical environment, which has further effects on the biota. Such ecological changes influence the direction and strength of natural and sexual selection experienced by populations...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920385/sublethal-streptomycin-concentrations-and-lytic-bacteriophage-together-promote-resistance-evolution
#6
Johannes Cairns, Lutz Becks, Matti Jalasvuori, Teppo Hiltunen
Sub-minimum inhibiting concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics frequently occur in natural environments owing to wide-spread antibiotic leakage by human action. Even though the concentrations are very low, these sub-MICs have recently been shown to alter bacterial populations by selecting for antibiotic resistance and increasing the rate of adaptive evolution. However, studies are lacking on how these effects reverberate into key ecological interactions, such as bacteria-phage interactions. Previously, co-selection of bacteria by phages and antibiotic concentrations exceeding MICs has been hypothesized to decrease the rate of resistance evolution because of fitness costs associated with resistance mutations...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920384/antibiotic-resistance-in-the-wild-an-eco-evolutionary-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Teppo Hiltunen, Marko Virta, Anna-Liisa Laine
The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920383/effects-of-fragmentation-on-plant-adaptation-to-urban-environments
#8
Jonathan Dubois, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou
Urban ecosystems are relatively recent and heavily human-altered terrestrial ecosystems with a surprisingly high diversity of animals, plants and other organisms. Urban habitats are also strongly fragmented and subject to higher temperatures, providing a compelling model for studying adaptation to global change. Crepis sancta (Asteraceae), an annual Mediterranean wasteland weed, occupies fragmented urban environments as well as certain unfragmented landscapes in southern France. We tested for shifts in dispersal, reproductive traits and size across a rural-urban gradient to learn whether and how selection may be driving changes in life history in urban and fragmented habitats...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920382/adaptation-to-fragmentation-evolutionary-dynamics-driven-by-human-influences
#9
REVIEW
Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Anna L Hargreaves, Dries Bonte, Hans Jacquemyn
Fragmentation-the process by which habitats are transformed into smaller patches isolated from each other-has been identified as a major threat for biodiversity. Fragmentation has well-established demographic and population genetic consequences, eroding genetic diversity and hindering gene flow among patches. However, fragmentation should also select on life history, both predictably through increased isolation, demographic stochasticity and edge effects, and more idiosyncratically via altered biotic interactions...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920381/harvest-induced-evolution-insights-from-aquatic-and-terrestrial-systems
#10
REVIEW
Anna Kuparinen, Marco Festa-Bianchet
Commercial and recreational harvests create selection pressures for fitness-related phenotypic traits that are partly under genetic control. Consequently, harvesting can drive evolution in targeted traits. However, the quantification of harvest-induced evolutionary life history and phenotypic changes is challenging, because both density-dependent feedback and environmental changes may also affect these changes through phenotypic plasticity. Here, we synthesize current knowledge and uncertainties on six key points: (i) whether or not harvest-induced evolution is happening, (ii) whether or not it is beneficial, (iii) how it shapes biological systems, (iv) how it could be avoided, (v) its importance relative to other drivers of phenotypic changes, and (vi) whether or not it should be explicitly accounted for in management...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920380/genetic-architecture-of-age-at-maturity-can-generate-divergent-and-disruptive-harvest-induced-evolution
#11
Anna Kuparinen, Jeffrey A Hutchings
Life-history traits are generally assumed to be inherited quantitatively. Fishing that targets large, old individuals is expected to decrease age at maturity. In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), it has recently been discovered that sea age at maturity is under strong control by a single locus with sexually dimorphic expression of heterozygotes, which makes it less intuitive to predict how life histories respond to selective fishing. We explore evolutionary responses to fishing in Atlantic salmon, using eco-evolutionary simulations with two alternative scenarios for the genetic architecture of age at maturity: (i) control by multiple loci with additive effects and (ii) control by one locus with sexually dimorphic expression...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920379/domestication-impacts-on-plant-herbivore-interactions-a-meta-analysis
#12
Susan R Whitehead, Martin M Turcotte, Katja Poveda
For millennia, humans have imposed strong selection on domesticated crops, resulting in drastically altered crop phenotypes compared with wild ancestors. Crop yields have increased, but a long-held hypothesis is that domestication has also unintentionally decreased plant defences against herbivores. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis comparing insect herbivore resistance and putative plant defence traits between crops and their wild relatives. Our database included 2098 comparisons made across 73 crops in 89 studies...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920378/the-eco-evolutionary-impacts-of-domestication-and-agricultural-practices-on-wild-species
#13
REVIEW
Martin M Turcotte, Hitoshi Araki, Daniel S Karp, Katja Poveda, Susan R Whitehead
Agriculture is a dominant evolutionary force that drives the evolution of both domesticated and wild species. However, the various mechanisms of agriculture-induced evolution and their socio-ecological consequences are not often synthetically discussed. Here, we explore how agricultural practices and evolutionary changes in domesticated species cause evolution in wild species. We do so by examining three processes by which agriculture drives evolution. First, differences in the traits of domesticated species, compared with their wild ancestors, alter the selective environment and create opportunities for wild species to specialize...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920377/phenological-shifts-of-native-and-invasive-species-under-climate-change-insights-from-the-boechera-lythrum-model
#14
REVIEW
Robert I Colautti, Jon Ă…gren, Jill T Anderson
Warmer and drier climates have shifted phenologies of many species. However, the magnitude and direction of phenological shifts vary widely among taxa, and it is often unclear when shifts are adaptive or how they affect long-term viability. Here, we model evolution of flowering phenology based on our long-term research of two species exhibiting opposite shifts in floral phenology: Lythrum salicaria, which is invasive in North America, and the sparse Rocky Mountain native Boechera stricta Genetic constraints are similar in both species, but differences in the timing of environmental conditions that favour growth lead to opposite phenological shifts under climate change...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920376/invasions-and-extinctions-through-the-looking-glass-of-evolutionary-ecology
#15
REVIEW
Robert I Colautti, Jake M Alexander, Katrina M Dlugosch, Stephen R Keller, Sonia E Sultan
Invasive and endangered species reflect opposite ends of a spectrum of ecological success, yet they experience many similar eco-evolutionary challenges including demographic bottlenecks, hybridization and novel environments. Despite these similarities, important differences exist. Demographic bottlenecks are more transient in invasive species, which (i) maintains ecologically relevant genetic variation, (ii) reduces mutation load, and (iii) increases the efficiency of natural selection relative to genetic drift...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920375/eco-evolutionary-dynamics-in-urbanized-landscapes-evolution-species-sorting-and-the-change-in-zooplankton-body-size-along-urbanization-gradients
#16
Kristien I Brans, Lynn Govaert, Jessie M T Engelen, Andros T Gianuca, Caroline Souffreau, Luc De Meester
Urbanization causes both changes in community composition and evolutionary responses, but most studies focus on these responses in isolation. We performed an integrated analysis assessing the relative contribution of intra- and interspecific trait turnover to the observed change in zooplankton community body size in 83 cladoceran communities along urbanization gradients quantified at seven spatial scales (50-3200 m radii). We also performed a quantitative genetic analysis on 12 Daphnia magna populations along the same urbanization gradient...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920374/urban-driven-phenotypic-changes-empirical-observations-and-theoretical-implications-for-eco-evolutionary-feedback
#17
REVIEW
Marina Alberti, John Marzluff, Victoria M Hunt
Emerging evidence that cities drive micro-evolution raises the question of whether rapid urbanization of Earth might impact ecosystems by causing systemic changes in functional traits that regulate urban ecosystems' productivity and stability. Intraspecific trait variation-variation in organisms' morphological, physiological or behavioural characteristics stemming from genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity-has significant implications for ecological functions such as nutrient cycling and primary productivity...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920373/human-influences-on-evolution-and-the-ecological-and-societal-consequences
#18
Andrew P Hendry, Kiyoko M Gotanda, Erik I Svensson
Humans have dramatic, diverse and far-reaching influences on the evolution of other organisms. Numerous examples of this human-induced contemporary evolution have been reported in a number of 'contexts', including hunting, harvesting, fishing, agriculture, medicine, climate change, pollution, eutrophication, urbanization, habitat fragmentation, biological invasions and emerging/disappearing diseases. Although numerous papers, journal special issues and books have addressed each of these contexts individually, the time has come to consider them together and thereby seek important similarities and differences...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872378/abstraction-and-generalization-in-statistical-learning-implications-for-the-relationship-between-semantic-types-and-episodic-tokens
#19
REVIEW
Gerry T M Altmann
Statistical approaches to emergent knowledge have tended to focus on the process by which experience of individual episodes accumulates into generalizable experience across episodes. However, there is a seemingly opposite, but equally critical, process that such experience affords: the process by which, from a space of types (e.g. onions-a semantic class that develops through exposure to individual episodes involving individual onions), we can perceive or create, on-the-fly, a specific token (a specific onion, perhaps one that is chopped) in the absence of any prior perceptual experience with that specific token...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872377/towards-a-theory-of-individual-differences-in-statistical-learning
#20
REVIEW
Noam Siegelman, Louisa Bogaerts, Morten H Christiansen, Ram Frost
In recent years, statistical learning (SL) research has seen a growing interest in tracking individual performance in SL tasks, mainly as a predictor of linguistic abilities. We review studies from this line of research and outline three presuppositions underlying the experimental approach they employ: (i) that SL is a unified theoretical construct; (ii) that current SL tasks are interchangeable, and equally valid for assessing SL ability; and (iii) that performance in the standard forced-choice test in the task is a good proxy of SL ability...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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