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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012750/the-late-upper-palaeolithic-and-earliest-mesolithic-evidence-of-burials-in-europe
#1
Jörg Orschiedt
Burials of the Late Palaeolithic (14 000-11 600 cal years before present, henceforth BP) are a rare phenomenon in Europe. Several sites possess burials of single and double individuals. As with the preceding Magdalenian, the burial of more than two individuals in the same grave cutting seems to be unusual, but does occur occasionally. The deposition of isolated and disarticulated human remains with or without cut marks seems additionally to belong to the Magdalenian context. In the final Palaeolithic phase (13 000-11 600 cal years BP) there is evidence for cemetery-like clusters of burials, which contrast to the Magdalenian evidence, instead showing some similarities with the succeeding Mesolithic...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012749/comparative-thanatology-an-integrative-approach-exploring-sensory-cognitive-aspects-of-death-recognition-in-vertebrates-and-invertebrates
#2
REVIEW
André Gonçalves, Dora Biro
Evolutionary thanatology benefits from broad taxonomic comparisons of non-human animals' responses to death. Furthermore, exploring the sensory and cognitive bases of these responses promises to allow classification of the underlying mechanisms on a spectrum from phylogenetically ancient to more derived traits. We draw on studies of perception and cognition in invertebrate and vertebrate taxa (with a focus on arthropods, corvids, proboscids, cetaceans and primates) to explore the cues that these animals use to detect life and death in others, and discuss proximate and ultimate drivers behind their capacities to do so...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012748/evolutionary-thanatology
#3
James R Anderson, Dora Biro, Paul Pettitt
Societies, including those of humans, have evolved multiple ways of dealing with death across changing circumstances and pressures. Despite many studies focusing on specialized topics, for example necrophoresis in eusocial insects, mortuary activities in early human societies, or grief and mourning in bereavement, there has been little attempt to consider these disparate research endeavours from a broader evolutionary perspective. Evolutionary thanatology does this by adopting an explicit evolutionary stance for studies of death and dying within the sociological, psychological and biological disciplines...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012747/behaviour-of-nonhuman-primate-mothers-toward-their-dead-infants-uncovering-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Claire F I Watson, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
In comparative thanatology, most reports for nonhuman mammals concern mothers' behavioural responses to their dead offspring: most prominently, dead-infant carrying (sometimes of extended duration); but also inspection, proximity, maternal care such as grooming, protective behaviours and filial cannibalism. Documented across many primate species, these behaviours remain poorly understood in all. The literature is dominated by relatively brief qualitative descriptions of isolated anecdotal cases in apes and monkeys...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012746/social-relationships-and-death-related-behaviour-in-aquatic-mammals-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Melissa A L V Reggente, Elena Papale, Niall McGinty, Lavinia Eddy, Giuseppe Andrea de Lucia, Chiara Giulia Bertulli
Some aquatic mammals appear to care for their dead, whereas others abandon their live offspring when conditions are unfavourable. This incredible variety in behaviours suggests the importance of comparing and contrasting mechanisms driving death-related behaviours among these species. We reviewed 106 cases of aquatic mammals (81 cetaceans and 25 non-cetaceans) reacting to a death event, and extrapolated 'participant' ( age class , sex , relationship and decomposition ) and 'social' characteristics ( escorting , calf dependence , alloparental care , herding and dispersal patterns ) from published and unpublished literature...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012745/occurrence-and-variability-of-tactile-interactions-between-wild-american-crows-and-dead-conspecifics
#6
Kaeli Swift, John M Marzluff
Observations of some mammals and birds touching their dead provoke questions about the motivation and adaptive value of this potentially risky behaviour. Here, we use controlled experiments to determine if tactile interactions are characteristic of wild American crow responses to dead crows, and what the prevalence and nature of tactile interactions suggests about their motivations. In Experiment 1, we test if food or information acquisition motivates contact by presenting crows with taxidermy-prepared dead crows, and two species crows are known to scavenge: dead pigeons and dead squirrels...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012744/managing-the-risks-and-rewards-of-death-in-eusocial-insects
#7
REVIEW
Qian Sun, Kenneth F Haynes, Xuguo Zhou
Eusocial insects frequently face death of colony members as a consequence of living in large groups where the success of the colony is not dependent on the fate of the individual. Whereas death of conspecifics commonly triggers aversion in many group-living species due to risk of pathogens, eusocial insects perform cooperative corpse management. The causes and social context of the death, as well as feeding and nesting ecology of the species, influence the way that corpses are treated. The corpse itself releases cues that dictate the colony's response...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012743/chimpanzees-and-death
#8
REVIEW
James R Anderson
Information about responses to death in nonhuman primates is important for evolutionary thanatology. This paper reviews the major causes of death in chimpanzees, and how these apes respond to cues related to dying and death. Topics covered include disease, human activities, predation, accidents and intra-species aggression and cannibalism. Chimpanzees also kill and sometimes eat other species. It is argued that, given their cognitive abilities, their experiences of death in conspecifics and other species are likely to equip chimpanzees with an understanding of death as cessation of function and irreversible...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012742/hominin-evolutionary-thanatology-from-the-mortuary-to-funerary-realm-the-palaeoanthropological-bridge-between-chemistry-and-culture
#9
Paul Pettitt
Palaeoanthropology, or more precisely Palaeolithic archaeology, offers the possibility of bridging the gap between mortuary activities that can be observed in the wider animal community and which relate to chemistry and emotion; to the often-elaborate systems of rationalization and symbolic contextualisation that are characteristic of recently observable societies. I draw on ethological studies to provide a core set of mortuary behaviours one might expect hominoids to inherit, and on anthropological observations to explore funerary activity represented in the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic, in order to examine how a distinctly human set of funerary behaviours arose from a more widespread set of mortuary behaviours...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012741/speaking-of-death
#10
E Matthew Husband
As a human-specific trait, language offers a unique window on human cognition. Grammatical constraints on the ways we speak about events, for instance, have long been thought to reveal the representational formats that our minds impose on the ways that we think about events. In recent research, verbs that name events of death have stood out as key counterexamples to standard theories of the grammatical constraints on possible verbs. The special status of these thanatological verbs raises two important questions: why, given the vast number of verbs in any language, is it that verbs of death hold this special status, and what do they tell us about the restrictions on the representational format for possible verbs? This paper reexamines the evidence coming from verbs of death, confirming that they are counterexamples to standard theories, but that their behaviour suggests a more revealing constraint on our mental representations-that our minds impose strict restrictions on the format of asserted meaning...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012740/social-bonds-with-the-dead-how-funerals-transformed-in-the-twentieth-and-twenty-first-centuries
#11
Katsumi Shimane
Evolutionary thanatology includes the study of necrophoresis-the removal of dead individuals by the living among social insects. In human societies, 'necrophoresis' is performed via the funeral ceremony. In pre-modern societies, relatives and local community members helped to conduct funerals. In this way, holding a funeral was a form of mutual help, a social exchange of duty and responsibility essential to individuals. These societies developed systems to ensure the survival of humans as social animals based on mutual trust built over long periods of time within the same community...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012739/complicated-grief-recent-developments-in-diagnostic-criteria-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Satomi Nakajima
Although grief is a natural response to loss among human beings, some people have a severe and prolonged course of grief. In the 1990s, unusual grief persisting with a high level of acute symptoms became known as 'complicated grief (CG)'. Many studies have shown that people who suffer from CG are at risk of long-term mental and physical health impairments and suicidal behaviours; it is considered a pathological state, which requires clinical intervention and treatment. DSM-5 (2013 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders , 5th edn) proposed 'persistent complex bereavement disorder' as a psychiatric disorder; it is similar to CG in that it is a trauma- and stress-related disorder...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012738/changing-relationship-between-the-dead-and-the-living-in-japanese-prehistory
#13
Naoko Matsumoto
The aim of this paper is to propose a new insight on the changing burial practice by regarding it as a part of the cognitive system for maintaining complex social relationships. Development of concentrated burials and their transformation in Japanese prehistory are examined to present a specific case of the changing relationship between the dead and the living to highlight the significance of the dead in sociocultural evolution. The essential feature of the burial practices observed at Jomon sites is the centrality of the dead and their continuous presence in the kinship system...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012737/the-moral-standing-of-the-dead
#14
Steven Luper
In choosing to do certain things, we appear to presuppose that we can act in the interests the dead, and that we have a duty to do so. For example, some of us go to great lengths to carry out their final wishes. Given that the dead no longer exist, however, it seems that nothing can be good or bad for them: they lack prudential interests. In that case, it is hard to see how we could owe them anything. They seem to lack moral standing altogether. In this essay, I will rebut this line of thought. I will claim that in some cases things that happen after people die are indeed good or bad for them...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012736/the-lure-of-death-suicide-and-human-evolution
#15
Nicholas Humphrey
At some point in evolutionary history, human beings came to understand, as no non-human animals do, that death brings to an end a person's bodily and mental presence in the world. A potentially devastating consequence was that individuals, seeking to escape physical or mental pain, might choose to kill themselves.This article is part of the theme issue 'Evolutionary thanatology: impacts of the dead on the living in humans and other animals'.
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012735/the-integrated-motivational-volitional-model-of-suicidal-behaviour
#16
REVIEW
Rory C O'Connor, Olivia J Kirtley
Suicide is a major public health concern accounting for 800 000 deaths globally each year. Although there have been many advances in understanding suicide risk in recent decades, our ability to predict suicide is no better now than it was 50 years ago. There are many potential explanations for this lack of progress, but the absence, until recently, of comprehensive theoretical models that predict the emergence of suicidal ideation distinct from the transition between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts/suicide is key to this lack of progress...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012734/sources-of-children-s-knowledge-about-death-and-dying
#17
REVIEW
Sarah Longbottom, Virginia Slaughter
In the last century, decreases in infant and child mortality, urbanization and increases in healthcare efficacy have reduced children's personal exposure to death and dying. So how do children acquire accurate conceptions of death in this context? In this paper, we discuss three sources of children's learning about death and dying, namely, direct experience of death, parental communication about death and portrayals of death in the media and the arts. We conclude with recommendations about how best to teach modern children about this aspect of life...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012733/children-s-understanding-of-death-from-biology-to-religion
#18
REVIEW
Paul L Harris
Young children construct a biological conception of death, recognizing that death terminates mental and bodily processes. Despite this recognition, many children are receptive to an alternative conception of death, which affirms that the deceased has an afterlife elsewhere. A plausible interpretation of children's receptivity to this alternative conception is that human beings, including young children, are naturally disposed to remember and keep in mind individuals to whom they are attached even when those individuals leave and are absent for extended periods...
September 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967308/can-we-identify-general-architectural-principles-that-impact-the-collective-behaviour-of-both-human-and-animal-systems
#19
Alan Penn, J Scott Turner
The search for general common principles that unify disciplines is a longstanding challenge for interdisciplinary research. Architecture has always been an interdisciplinary pursuit, combining engineering, art and culture. The rise of biomimetic architecture adds to the interdisciplinary span. We discuss the similarities and differences among human and animal societies in how architecture influences their collective behaviour. We argue that the emergence of a fully biomimetic architecture involves breaking down what we call 'pernicious dualities' that have permeated our discourse for decades, artificial divisions between species, between organism and environment, between genotype and phenotype, and in the case of architecture, the supposed duality between the built environment and its builders...
August 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967307/split-between-two-worlds-automated-sensing-reveals-links-between-above-and-belowground-social-networks-in-a-free-living-mammal
#20
Jennifer E Smith, Denisse A Gamboa, Julia M Spencer, Sarah J Travenick, Chelsea A Ortiz, Riana D Hunter, Andy Sih
Many animals socialize in two or more major ecological contexts. In nature, these contexts often involve one situation in which space is more constrained (e.g. shared refuges, sleeping cliffs, nests, dens or burrows) and another situation in which animal movements are relatively free (e.g. in open spaces lacking architectural constraints). Although it is widely recognized that an individual's characteristics may shape its social life, the extent to which architecture constrains social decisions within and between habitats remains poorly understood...
August 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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