journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483875/evolution-caused-by-extreme-events
#1
Peter R Grant, B Rosemary Grant, Raymond B Huey, Marc T J Johnson, Andrew H Knoll, Johanna Schmitt
Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483874/climate-change-climatic-variation-and-extreme-biological-responses
#2
Georgina Palmer, Philip J Platts, Tom Brereton, Jason W Chapman, Calvin Dytham, Richard Fox, James W Pearce-Higgins, David B Roy, Jane K Hill, Chris D Thomas
Extreme climatic events could be major drivers of biodiversity change, but it is unclear whether extreme biological changes are (i) individualistic (species- or group-specific), (ii) commonly associated with unusual climatic events and/or (iii) important determinants of long-term population trends. Using population time series for 238 widespread species (207 Lepidoptera and 31 birds) in England since 1968, we found that population 'crashes' (outliers in terms of species' year-to-year population changes) were 46% more frequent than population 'explosions'...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483873/effect-of-extreme-sea-surface-temperature-events-on-the-demography-of-an-age-structured-albatross-population
#3
Deborah Pardo, Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Henri Weimerskirch, Christophe Barbraud
Climate changes include concurrent changes in environmental mean, variance and extremes, and it is challenging to understand their respective impact on wild populations, especially when contrasted age-dependent responses to climate occur. We assessed how changes in mean and standard deviation of sea surface temperature (SST), frequency and magnitude of warm SST extreme climatic events (ECE) influenced the stochastic population growth rate log(λs) and age structure of a black-browed albatross population. For changes in SST around historical levels observed since 1982, changes in standard deviation had a larger (threefold) and negative impact on log(λs) compared to changes in mean...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483872/integrating-plant-ecological-responses-to-climate-extremes-from-individual-to-ecosystem-levels
#4
REVIEW
Andrew J Felton, Melinda D Smith
Climate extremes will elicit responses from the individual to the ecosystem level. However, only recently have ecologists begun to synthetically assess responses to climate extremes across multiple levels of ecological organization. We review the literature to examine how plant responses vary and interact across levels of organization, focusing on how individual, population and community responses may inform ecosystem-level responses in herbaceous and forest plant communities. We report a high degree of variability at the individual level, and a consequential inconsistency in the translation of individual or population responses to directional changes in community- or ecosystem-level processes...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483871/learning-from-single-extreme-events
#5
REVIEW
Res Altwegg, Vernon Visser, Liam D Bailey, Birgit Erni
Extreme climatic events (ECEs) have a disproportionate effect on ecosystems. Yet much of what we know about the ecological impact of ECEs is based on observing the effects of single extreme events. We examined what characteristics affect the strength of inference that can be drawn from single-event studies, which broadly fell into three categories: opportunistic observational studies initiated after an ECE, long-term observational studies with data before and after an ECE and experiments. Because extreme events occur rarely, inference from such single-event studies cannot easily be made under the usual statistical paradigm that relies on replication and control...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483870/how-birds-cope-physiologically-and-behaviourally-with-extreme-climatic-events
#6
REVIEW
John C Wingfield, Jonathan H Pérez, Jesse S Krause, Karen R Word, Paulina L González-Gómez, Simeon Lisovski, Helen E Chmura
As global climate change progresses, the occurrence of potentially disruptive climatic events such as storms are increasing in frequency, duration and intensity resulting in higher mortality and reduced reproductive success. What constitutes an extreme climatic event? First we point out that extreme climatic events in biological contexts can occur in any environment. Focusing on field and laboratory data on wild birds we propose a mechanistic approach to defining and investigating what extreme climatic events are and how animals cope with them at physiological and behavioural levels...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483869/no-phenotypic-plasticity-in-nest-site-selection-in-response-to-extreme-flooding-events
#7
Liam D Bailey, Bruno J Ens, Christiaan Both, Dik Heg, Kees Oosterbeek, Martijn van de Pol
Phenotypic plasticity is a crucial mechanism for responding to changes in climatic means, yet we know little about its role in responding to extreme climatic events (ECEs). ECEs may lack the reliable cues necessary for phenotypic plasticity to evolve; however, this has not been empirically tested. We investigated whether behavioural plasticity in nest-site selection allows a long-lived shorebird (Haematopus ostralegus) to respond to flooding. We collected longitudinal nest elevation data on individuals over two decades, during which time flooding events have become increasingly frequent...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483868/evolution-of-phenotypic-plasticity-in-extreme-environments
#8
REVIEW
Luis-Miguel Chevin, Ary A Hoffmann
Phenotypic plasticity, if adaptive, may allow species to counter the detrimental effects of extreme conditions, but the infrequent occurrence of extreme environments and/or their restriction to low-quality habitats within a species range means that they exert little direct selection on reaction norms. Plasticity could, therefore, be maladaptive under extreme environments, unless genetic correlations are strong between extreme and non-extreme environmental states, and the optimum phenotype changes smoothly with the environment...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483867/on-detecting-ecological-impacts-of-extreme-climate-events-and-why-it-matters
#9
Andrew R Solow
There is growing interest in identifying the impacts of extreme climate events on natural systems. Two principles of such detection are that it should be based on a scientific understanding of the processes by which climate affects the system of interest and that non-climate factors that also affect the system should be controlled for. Using a simple temperature-dependent predator-prey model, this paper illustrates the importance of these principles in the context of establishing a link between temperature and population extremes...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483866/extreme-weather-and-climate-events-with-ecological-relevance-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Caroline C Ummenhofer, Gerald A Meehl
Robust evidence exists that certain extreme weather and climate events, especially daily temperature and precipitation extremes, have changed in regard to intensity and frequency over recent decades. These changes have been linked to human-induced climate change, while the degree to which climate change impacts an individual extreme climate event (ECE) is more difficult to quantify. Rapid progress in event attribution has recently been made through improved understanding of observed and simulated climate variability, methods for event attribution and advances in numerical modelling...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483865/behavioural-ecological-and-evolutionary-responses-to-extreme-climatic-events-challenges-and-directions
#11
Martijn van de Pol, Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Marcel E Visser
More extreme climatic events (ECEs) are among the most prominent consequences of climate change. Despite a long-standing recognition of the importance of ECEs by paleo-ecologists and macro-evolutionary biologists, ECEs have only recently received a strong interest in the wider ecological and evolutionary community. However, as with many rapidly expanding fields, it lacks structure and cohesiveness, which strongly limits scientific progress. Furthermore, due to the descriptive and anecdotal nature of many ECE studies it is still unclear what the most relevant questions and long-term consequences are of ECEs...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483864/multiple-extreme-climatic-events-strengthen-selection-for-earlier-breeding-in-a-wild-passerine
#12
Pascal Marrot, Dany Garant, Anne Charmantier
Global climate warming results in an increase in mean temperatures and in the frequency of extreme climatic events (ECEs), which could both strongly impact ecosystems and populations. Most studies assessing the impact of global warming on ecosystems have focused on warming trends while neglecting ECEs. In particular, the effects of multiple ECEs on fitness, and their consequences for selection, are still missing. Here we explored the effects of daily extreme rainfalls, as well as the occurrence of extremely hot and cold days, on clutch size and laying date in a wild blue tit population (Cyanistes caeruleus) monitored over 25 years...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483863/effects-of-extreme-weather-on-two-sympatric-australian-passerine-bird-species
#13
Janet L Gardner, Eleanor Rowley, Perry de Rebeira, Alma de Rebeira, Lyanne Brouwer
Despite abundant evidence that natural populations are responding to climate change, there are few demonstrations of how extreme climatic events (ECEs) affect fitness. Climate warming increases adverse effects of exposure to high temperatures, but also reduces exposure to cold ECEs. Here, we investigate variation in survival associated with severity of summer and winter conditions, and whether survival is better predicted by ECEs than mean temperatures using data from two coexisting bird species monitored over 37 years in southwestern Australia, red-winged fairy-wrens, Malurus elegans and white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis Changes in survival were associated with temperature extremes more strongly than average temperatures...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483862/quantifying-thermal-extremes-and-biological-variation-to-predict-evolutionary-responses-to-changing-climate
#14
REVIEW
Joel G Kingsolver, Lauren B Buckley
Central ideas from thermal biology, including thermal performance curves and tolerances, have been widely used to evaluate how changes in environmental means and variances generate changes in fitness, selection and microevolution in response to climate change. We summarize the opportunities and challenges for extending this approach to understanding the consequences of extreme climatic events. Using statistical tools from extreme value theory, we show how distributions of thermal extremes vary with latitude, time scale and climate change...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438921/null-expectations-for-disease-dynamics-in-shrinking-habitat-dilution-or-amplification
#15
Christina L Faust, Andrew P Dobson, Nicole Gottdenker, Laura S P Bloomfield, Hamish I McCallum, Thomas R Gillespie, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Raina K Plowright
As biodiversity declines with anthropogenic land-use change, it is increasingly important to understand how changing biodiversity affects infectious disease risk. The dilution effect hypothesis, which points to decreases in biodiversity as critical to an increase in infection risk, has received considerable attention due to the allure of a win-win scenario for conservation and human well-being. Yet some empirical data suggest that the dilution effect is not a generalizable phenomenon. We explore the response of pathogen transmission dynamics to changes in biodiversity that are driven by habitat loss using an allometrically scaled multi-host model...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438920/conservation-of-biodiversity-as-a-strategy-for-improving-human-health-and-well-being
#16
REVIEW
A Marm Kilpatrick, Daniel J Salkeld, Georgia Titcomb, Micah B Hahn
The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438919/ecosystem-change-and-human-health-implementation-economics-and-policy
#17
REVIEW
S K Pattanayak, R A Kramer, J R Vincent
Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health, EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438918/does-the-impact-of-biodiversity-differ-between-emerging-and-endemic-pathogens-the-need-to-separate-the-concepts-of-hazard-and-risk
#18
REVIEW
Parviez R Hosseini, James N Mills, Anne-Hélène Prieur-Richard, Vanessa O Ezenwa, Xavier Bailly, Annapaola Rizzoli, Gerardo Suzán, Marion Vittecoq, Gabriel E García-Peña, Peter Daszak, Jean-François Guégan, Benjamin Roche
Biodiversity is of critical value to human societies, but recent evidence that biodiversity may mitigate infectious-disease risk has sparked controversy among researchers. The majority of work on this topic has focused on direct assessments of the relationship between biodiversity and endemic-pathogen prevalence, without disentangling intervening mechanisms; thus study outcomes often differ, fuelling more debate. Here, we suggest two critical changes to the approach researchers take to understanding relationships between infectious disease, both endemic and emerging, and biodiversity that may help clarify sources of controversy...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438917/disease-ecology-health-and-the-environment-a-framework-to-account-for-ecological-and-socio-economic-drivers-in-the-control-of-neglected-tropical-diseases
#19
A Garchitorena, S H Sokolow, B Roche, C N Ngonghala, M Jocque, A Lund, M Barry, E A Mordecai, G C Daily, J H Jones, J R Andrews, E Bendavid, S P Luby, A D LaBeaud, K Seetah, J F Guégan, M H Bonds, G A De Leo
Reducing the burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is one of the key strategic targets advanced by the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the unprecedented effort deployed for NTD elimination in the past decade, their control, mainly through drug administration, remains particularly challenging: persistent poverty and repeated exposure to pathogens embedded in the environment limit the efficacy of strategies focused exclusively on human treatment or medical care. Here, we present a simple modelling framework to illustrate the relative role of ecological and socio-economic drivers of environmentally transmitted parasites and pathogens...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438916/nearly-400-million-people-are-at-higher-risk-of-schistosomiasis-because-dams-block-the-migration-of-snail-eating-river-prawns
#20
Susanne H Sokolow, Isabel J Jones, Merlijn Jocque, Diana La, Olivia Cords, Anika Knight, Andrea Lund, Chelsea L Wood, Kevin D Lafferty, Christopher M Hoover, Phillip A Collender, Justin V Remais, David Lopez-Carr, Jonathan Fisk, Armand M Kuris, Giulio A De Leo
Dams have long been associated with elevated burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socio-economic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In the Senegal River Basin, there is evidence that prawn populations declined and schistosomiasis increased after completion of the Diama Dam. Restoring prawns to a water-access site upstream of the dam reduced snail density and reinfection rates in people...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
journal
journal
25870
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"