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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289265/contact-structure-mobility-environmental-impact-and-behaviour-the-importance-of-social-forces-to-infectious-disease-dynamics-and-disease-ecology
#1
REVIEW
Ronan F Arthur, Emily S Gurley, Henrik Salje, Laura S P Bloomfield, James H Jones
Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289264/parasite-transmission-in-a-natural-multihost-multiparasite-community
#2
Stuart K J R Auld, Catherine L Searle, Meghan A Duffy
Understanding the transmission and dynamics of infectious diseases in natural communities requires understanding the extent to which the ecology, evolution and epidemiology of those diseases are shaped by alternative hosts. We performed laboratory experiments to test how parasite spillover affected traits associated with transmission in two co-occurring parasites: the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidata Both parasites were capable of transmission from the reservoir host (Daphnia dentifera) to the spillover host (Ceriodaphnia dubia), but this occurred at a much higher rate for the fungus than the bacterium...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289263/fast-killing-parasites-can-be-favoured-in-spatially-structured-populations
#3
Helen C Leggett, Geoff Wild, Stuart A West, Angus Buckling
It is becoming increasingly clear that the evolution of infectious disease is influenced by host population structure. Theory predicts that parasites should be more 'prudent'-less transmissible-in spatially structured host populations. However, here we (i) highlight how low transmission, the phenotype being selected for in this in context, may also be achieved by rapacious host exploitation, if fast host exploitation confers a local, within-host competitive advantage and (ii) test this novel concept in a bacteria-virus system...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289262/uncertain-links-in-host-parasite-networks-lessons-for-parasite-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system
#4
Josephine G Walker, Michaela Plein, Eric R Morgan, Peter A Vesk
For many parasites, the full set of hosts that are susceptible to infection is not known, and this could lead to a bias in estimates of transmission. We used counts of individual adult parasites from historical parasitology studies in southern Africa to map a bipartite network of the nematode parasites of herbivore hosts that occur in Botswana. Bipartite networks are used in community ecology to represent interactions across trophic levels. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to predict the full set of host-parasite interactions from existing data on parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of wild and domestic ungulates given assumptions about the distribution of parasite counts within hosts, while accounting for the relative uncertainty of less sampled species...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289261/growth-rate-transmission-mode-and-virulence-in-human-pathogens
#5
Helen C Leggett, Charlie K Cornwallis, Angus Buckling, Stuart A West
The harm that pathogens cause to hosts during infection, termed virulence, varies across species from negligible to a high likelihood of rapid death. Classic theory for the evolution of virulence is based on a trade-off between pathogen growth, transmission and host survival, which predicts that higher within-host growth causes increased transmission and higher virulence. However, using data from 61 human pathogens, we found the opposite correlation to the expected positive correlation between pathogen growth rate and virulence...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289260/host-heterogeneity-affects-both-parasite-transmission-to-and-fitness-on-subsequent-hosts
#6
Jessica F Stephenson, Kyle A Young, Jordan Fox, Jukka Jokela, Joanne Cable, Sarah E Perkins
Infectious disease dynamics depend on the speed, number and fitness of parasites transmitting from infected hosts ('donors') to parasite-naive 'recipients'. Donor heterogeneity likely affects these three parameters, and may arise from variation between donors in traits including: (i) infection load, (ii) resistance, (iii) stage of infection, and (iv) previous experience of transmission. We used the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, and a directly transmitted monogenean ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, to experimentally explore how these sources of donor heterogeneity affect the three transmission parameters...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289259/who-acquires-infection-from-whom-and-how-disentangling-multi-host-and-multi-mode-transmission-dynamics-in-the-elimination-era
#7
REVIEW
Joanne P Webster, Anna Borlase, James W Rudge
Multi-host infectious agents challenge our abilities to understand, predict and manage disease dynamics. Within this, many infectious agents are also able to use, simultaneously or sequentially, multiple modes of transmission. Furthermore, the relative importance of different host species and modes can itself be dynamic, with potential for switches and shifts in host range and/or transmission mode in response to changing selective pressures, such as those imposed by disease control interventions. The epidemiology of such multi-host, multi-mode infectious agents thereby can involve a multi-faceted community of definitive and intermediate/secondary hosts or vectors, often together with infectious stages in the environment, all of which may represent potential targets, as well as specific challenges, particularly where disease elimination is proposed...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289258/host-species-exploitation-and-discrimination-by-animal-parasites
#8
Mark R Forbes, André Morrill, Jennifer Schellinck
Parasite species often show differential fitness on different host species. We developed an equation-based model to explore conditions favouring host species exploitation and discrimination. In our model, diploid infective stages randomly encountered hosts of two species; the parasite's relative fitness in exploiting each host species, and its ability to discriminate between them, was determined by the parasite's genotype at two independent diallelic loci. Relative host species frequency determined allele frequencies at the exploitation locus, whereas differential fitness and combined host density determined frequency of discrimination alleles...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289257/host-allometry-influences-the-evolution-of-parasite-host-generalism-theory-and-meta-analysis
#9
Josephine G Walker, Amy Hurford, Jo Cable, Amy R Ellison, Stephen J Price, Clayton E Cressler
Parasites vary widely in the diversity of hosts they infect: some parasite species are specialists-infecting just a single host species, while others are generalists, capable of infecting many. Understanding the factors that drive parasite host-generalism is of basic biological interest, but also directly relevant to predicting disease emergence in new host species, identifying parasites that are likely to have unidentified additional hosts, and assessing transmission risk. Here, we use mathematical models to investigate how variation in host body size and environmental temperature affect the evolution of parasite host-generalism...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289256/global-change-parasite-transmission-and-disease-control-lessons-from-ecology
#10
REVIEW
Joanne Cable, Iain Barber, Brian Boag, Amy R Ellison, Eric R Morgan, Kris Murray, Emily L Pascoe, Steven M Sait, Anthony J Wilson, Mark Booth
Parasitic infections are ubiquitous in wildlife, livestock and human populations, and healthy ecosystems are often parasite rich. Yet, their negative impacts can be extreme. Understanding how both anticipated and cryptic changes in a system might affect parasite transmission at an individual, local and global level is critical for sustainable control in humans and livestock. Here we highlight and synthesize evidence regarding potential effects of 'system changes' (both climatic and anthropogenic) on parasite transmission from wild host-parasite systems...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289255/transmission-dynamics-critical-questions-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Janis Antonovics
This article overviews the dynamics of disease transmission in one-host-one-parasite systems. Transmission is the result of interacting host and pathogen processes, encapsulated with the environment in a 'transmission triangle'. Multiple transmission modes and their epidemiological consequences are often not understood because the direct measurement of transmission is difficult. However, its different components can be analysed using nonlinear transmission functions, contact matrices and networks. A particular challenge is to develop such functions for spatially extended systems...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289254/mechanistic-movement-models-to-understand-epidemic-spread
#12
REVIEW
Abdou Moutalab Fofana, Amy Hurford
An overlooked aspect of disease ecology is considering how and why animals come into contact with one and other resulting in disease transmission. Mathematical models of disease spread frequently assume mass-action transmission, justified by stating that susceptible and infectious hosts mix readily, and foregoing any detailed description of host movement. Numerous recent studies have recorded, analysed and modelled animal movement. These movement models describe how animals move with respect to resources, conspecifics and previous movement directions and have been used to understand the conditions for the occurrence and the spread of infectious diseases when hosts perform a type of movement...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289253/what-is-a-vector
#13
REVIEW
Anthony James Wilson, Eric René Morgan, Mark Booth, Rachel Norman, Sarah Elizabeth Perkins, Heidi Christine Hauffe, Nicole Mideo, Janis Antonovics, Hamish McCallum, Andy Fenton
Many important and rapidly emerging pathogens of humans, livestock and wildlife are 'vector-borne'. However, the term 'vector' has been applied to diverse agents in a broad range of epidemiological systems. In this perspective, we briefly review some common definitions, identify the strengths and weaknesses of each and consider the functional differences between vectors and other hosts from a range of ecological, evolutionary and public health perspectives. We then consider how the use of designations can afford insights into our understanding of epidemiological and evolutionary processes that are not otherwise apparent...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289252/breaking-beta-deconstructing-the-parasite-transmission-function
#14
Hamish McCallum, Andy Fenton, Peter J Hudson, Brian Lee, Beth Levick, Rachel Norman, Sarah E Perkins, Mark Viney, Anthony J Wilson, Joanne Lello
Transmission is a fundamental step in the life cycle of every parasite but it is also one of the most challenging processes to model and quantify. In most host-parasite models, the transmission process is encapsulated by a single parameter β Many different biological processes and interactions, acting on both hosts and infectious organisms, are subsumed in this single term. There are, however, at least two undesirable consequences of this high level of abstraction. First, nonlinearities and heterogeneities that can be critical to the dynamic behaviour of infections are poorly represented; second, estimating the transmission coefficient β from field data is often very difficult...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289251/the-evolution-of-transmission-mode
#15
REVIEW
Janis Antonovics, Anthony J Wilson, Mark R Forbes, Heidi C Hauffe, Eva R Kallio, Helen C Leggett, Ben Longdon, Beth Okamura, Steven M Sait, Joanne P Webster
This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289250/lost-in-transmission%C3%A2
#16
Joanne Lello, Andy Fenton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242742/correction-to-precision-mapping-of-the-vibrissa-representation-within-murine-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#17
Per M Knutsen, Celine Mateo, David Kleinfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242741/correction-to-origin-of-animal-multicellularity-precursors-causes-consequences-the-choanoflagellate-sponge-transition-neurogenesis-and-the-cambrian-explosion
#18
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242740/movement-suppression-brain-mechanisms-for-stopping-and-stillness
#19
Roger Carpenter, Imran Noorani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242739/freeze-for-action-neurobiological-mechanisms-in-animal-and-human-freezing
#20
REVIEW
Karin Roelofs
Upon increasing levels of threat, animals activate qualitatively different defensive modes, including freezing and active fight-or-flight reactions. Whereas freezing is a form of behavioural inhibition accompanied by parasympathetically dominated heart rate deceleration, fight-or-flight reactions are associated with sympathetically driven heart rate acceleration. Despite the potential relevance of freezing for human stress-coping, its phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings remain largely unexplored in humans...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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