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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509927/correction-to-enso-effects-on-the-transpiration-of-eastern-amazon-trees
#1
Mauro Brum, Jose Gutiérrez López, Heidi Asbjornsen, Julian Licata, Thomas Pypker, Gilson Sanchez, Rafael S Oliveira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509926/challenges-and-future-prospects-for-developing-ca-and-mg-water-quality-guidelines-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Sarah J Bogart, Ali Azizishirazi, Greg G Pyle
Anthropogenic activities have the potential to increase water hardness (Ca + Mg) in receiving waters to toxic concentrations, and thus, water quality guidelines (WQG) for Ca and Mg are warranted. However, Ca can modify Mg toxicity in Ca-poor water and additional interactions with other major ions (Na+ , K+ , HCO3 - /CO3 2- , SO4 2- and Cl- ) may occur, potentially obscuring the water hardness-effect relationship. In a meta-analysis of toxicological studies, we: (i) evaluate the performance of three WQG derivation methods, and (ii) determine the influence of several variables (acute/chronic data, anions, Ca:Mg ratios, non-geographically relevant species) on the models...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509925/sensitivity-of-freshwater-species-under-single-and-multigenerational-exposure-to-seawater-intrusion
#3
C Venâncio, B B Castro, R Ribeiro, S C Antunes, N Abrantes, A M V M Soares, I Lopes
Salinization of coastal freshwater ecosystems is already occurring in some regions of the world. This phenomenon raises serious concerns on the protection of coastal freshwater ecosystems, since many of them support and shelter a large number of species and are considered hotspots of biodiversity. This work intended to assess the adverse effects that salinization, caused by the intrusion of seawater (SW), may pose to freshwater organisms. In this study, three specific goals were addressed: (i) to assess if sodium chloride (NaCl) may be used as a surrogate of natural SW at early-stages of risk assessment; (ii) to identify the most sensitive freshwater species to salinity NaCl; and (iii) to determine if increased tolerance to salinity may be acquired after multigenerational exposure to low levels of salinization (induced with NaCl)...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509924/salinization-effects-on-coastal-ecosystems-a-terrestrial-model-ecosystem-approach
#4
C S Pereira, I Lopes, I Abrantes, J P Sousa, S Chelinho
In coastal areas, intrusion/irrigation with seawater can threaten biodiversity along with crop yields, and the leaching of salts from areas affected by these processes can increase the salinity of water bodies nearby. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of salinization on coastal soil ecosystems due to saline intrusion/irrigation. Terrestrial model ecosystems were used to simulate two soil salinization scenarios: (i) seawater intrusion and irrigation with distilled water and (ii) seawater intrusion and irrigation with saline water...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509923/temperature-affects-acute-mayfly-responses-to-elevated-salinity-implications-for-toxicity-of-road-de-icing-salts
#5
John K Jackson, David H Funk
Salinity in freshwater ecosystems has increased significantly at numerous locations throughout the world, and this increase often reflects the use or production of salts from road de-icing, mining/oil and gas drilling activities, or agricultural production. When related to de-icing salts, highest salinity often occurs in winter when water temperature is often low relative to mean annual temperature at a site. Our study examined acute (96 h) responses to elevated salinity (NaCl) concentrations at five to seven temperature treatments (5-25°C) for four mayfly species (Baetidae: Neocloeon triangulifer , Procloeon fragile ; Heptageniidae: Maccaffertium modestum ; Leptophlebiidae: Leptophlebia cupida ) that are widely distributed across eastern North America...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509922/multiple-riparian-stream-connections-are-predicted-to-change-in-response-to-salinization
#6
REVIEW
Sally A Entrekin, Natalie A Clay, Anastasia Mogilevski, Brooke Howard-Parker, Michelle A Evans-White
Secondary freshwater salinization, a common anthropogenic alteration, has detrimental, lethal and sub-lethal effects on aquatic biota. Ions from secondary salinization can become toxic to terrestrial and aquatic organisms when exposed to salinized runoff that causes periodic high-concentration pulses. Gradual, low-level (less than 1000 ppm salinity) increases in salt concentrations are also commonly documented in regions with urbanization, agriculture, drilling and mining. Despite widespread low-level salt increases, little is known about the biological and ecological consequences in coupled riparian-stream systems...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509921/drivers-of-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-salinity-in-spanish-rivers-a-nationwide-assessment
#7
Edurne Estévez, Tamara Rodríguez-Castillo, Alexia María González-Ferreras, Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles, José Barquín
The salinization of freshwaters is a global water quality problem that leads to the biological degradation of aquatic ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial extent of freshwater salinization and the relative contribution of each human activity (e.g. agriculture, urbanization, mining or shale-gas extraction). Here, we investigated environmental factors that explain spatio-temporal patterns of water salinity and examined the causes, the extent and the degree of salinization of Spanish rivers. Results showed a strong variation in water salinity among river typologies and between river reaches in good and poor ecological status according to the Water Framework Directive...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509920/why-are-mayflies-ephemeroptera-lost-following-small-increases-in-salinity-three-conceptual-osmophysiological-hypotheses
#8
REVIEW
Ben J Kefford
The salinity of many freshwaters is increasing globally as a result of human activities. Associated with this increase in salinity are losses of Ephemeroptera (mayfly) abundance and richness. The salinity concentrations at which Ephemeroptera decline in nature are lower than their internal salinity or haemolymph osmolality. Many species also suffer substantial mortality in single species laboratory toxicity tests at salinities lower than their internal salinity. These findings are problematic as conventional osmoregulation theory suggests that freshwater animals should not experience stress where external osmolality is greater than haemolymph osmolality...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509919/biological-interactions-mediate-context-and-species-specific-sensitivities-to-salinity
#9
J P Bray, J Reich, S J Nichols, G Kon Kam King, R Mac Nally, R Thompson, A O'Reilly-Nugent, B J Kefford
Toxicants have both sub-lethal and lethal effects on aquatic biota, influencing organism fitness and community composition. However, toxicant effects within ecosystems may be altered by interactions with abiotic and biotic ecosystem components, including biological interactions. Collectively, this generates the potential for toxicant sensitivity to be highly context dependent, with significantly different outcomes in ecosystems than laboratory toxicity tests predict. We experimentally manipulated stream macroinvertebrate communities in 32 mesocosms to examine how communities from a low-salinity site were influenced by interactions with those from a high-salinity site along a gradient of salinity...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509918/regulations-are-needed-to-protect-freshwater-ecosystems-from-salinization
#10
REVIEW
Matthew S Schuler, Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles, William D Hintz, Brenda Dyack, Sebastian Birk, Rick A Relyea
Anthropogenic activities such as mining, agriculture and industrial wastes have increased the rate of salinization of freshwater ecosystems around the world. Despite the known and probable consequences of freshwater salinization, few consequential regulatory standards and management procedures exist. Current regulations are generally inadequate because they are regionally inconsistent, lack legal consequences and have few ion-specific standards. The lack of ion-specific standards is problematic, because each anthropogenic source of freshwater salinization is associated with a distinct set of ions that can present unique social and economic costs...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509917/are-fungal-strains-from-salinized-streams-adapted-to-salt-rich-conditions
#11
Ana Lúcia Gonçalves, Adriana Carvalho, Felix Bärlocher, Cristina Canhoto
Anthropogenic salinization of freshwater is a global problem with largely unknown consequences for stream functions. We compared the effects of salt addition (6 g l-1 NaCl) in microcosms on leaf mass loss and microbial parameters in single- and multispecies assemblages of fungal strains ( Heliscus lugdunensis , HELU; Tetracladium marchalianum , TEMA; Flagellospora curta , FLCU) isolated from a reference (R) or salinized (S) stream. Fungal growth and interactions were also assessed. Salinization inhibited leaf decomposition and fungal biomass, but no differences were observed between species, strains or species combinations...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509916/novel-chemical-cocktails-in-inland-waters-are-a-consequence-of-the-freshwater-salinization-syndrome
#12
Sujay S Kaushal, Gene E Likens, Michael L Pace, Shahan Haq, Kelsey L Wood, Joseph G Galella, Carol Morel, Thomas R Doody, Barret Wessel, Pirkko Kortelainen, Antti Räike, Valerie Skinner, Ryan Utz, Norbert Jaworski
Widespread changes in water temperatures, salinity, alkalinity and pH have been documented in inland waters in North America, which influence ion exchange, weathering rates, chemical solubility and contaminant toxicity. Increasing major ion concentrations from pollution, human-accelerated weathering and saltwater intrusion contribute to multiple ecological stressors such as changing ionic strength and pH and mobilization of chemical mixtures resulting in the freshwater salinization syndrome (FSS). Here, we explore novel combinations of elements, which are transported together as chemical mixtures containing salts, nutrients and metals as a consequence of FSS...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509915/are-sulfate-effects-in-the-mayfly-neocloeon-triangulifer-driven-by-the-cost-of-ion-regulation
#13
David Buchwalter, Shane Scheibener, Hsuan Chou, David Soucek, James Elphick
Elevated major ion concentrations in streams are commonly observed as a consequence of resource extraction, de-icing and other anthropogenic activities. Ecologists report biodiversity losses associated with increasing salinity, with mayflies typically being highly responsive to increases of different major ions. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer reared for its entire larval phase in a gradient of sulfate concentrations. Two natural waters were amended with SO4 as a blend of CaSO4 and MgSO4 and exposures ranged from 5 to 1500 mg l-1 SO4...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509914/evolved-tolerance-to-freshwater-salinization-in-zooplankton-life-history-trade-offs-cross-tolerance-and-reducing-cascading-effects
#14
William D Hintz, Devin K Jones, Rick A Relyea
Recent discoveries have documented evolutionary responses to freshwater salinization. We investigated if evolutionary responses to salinization exhibit life-history trade-offs or if they can mitigate ecological impacts such as cascading effects through mechanisms of tolerance and cross-tolerance. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment using populations of Daphnia pulex -a ubiquitous algal grazer-that were either naive or had previously experienced selection to become more tolerant to sodium chloride (NaCl)...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509913/effects-of-salinity-changes-on-aquatic-organisms-in-a-multiple-stressor-context
#15
REVIEW
Josefa Velasco, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, María Botella-Cruz, David Sánchez-Fernández, Paula Arribas, José Antonio Carbonell, Andrés Millán, Susana Pallarés
Under global change, the ion concentration of aquatic ecosystems is changing worldwide. Many freshwater ecosystems are being salinized by anthropogenic salt inputs, whereas many naturally saline ones are being diluted by agricultural drainages. This occurs concomitantly with changes in other stressors, which can result in additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects on organisms. We reviewed experimental studies that manipulated salinity and other abiotic stressors, on inland and transitional aquatic habitats, to (i) synthesize their main effects on organisms' performance, (ii) quantify the frequency of joint effect types across studies and (iii) determine the overall individual and joint effects and their variation among salinity-stressor pairs and organism groups using meta-analyses...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509912/salinity-impacts-on-river-ecosystem-processes-a-critical-mini-review
#16
REVIEW
Elisabeth Berger, Oliver Frör, Ralf B Schäfer
In many dry parts of the world, salinization of water resources threatens freshwater biodiversity and the livelihood of people. However, ecological impact studies remain scarce. Here, we review field-observations of salinity impacts on ecosystem processes such as leaf decomposition, metabolism, biomass production and nutrient cycling, with a special emphasis on dryland ecosystems. In addition, we discuss the potential linkages of these processes to ecosystem service delivery-the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems-as additional nature conservation arguments and the challenges associated with this endeavour...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509911/do-all-roads-lead-to-rome-exploring-community-trajectories-in-response-to-anthropogenic-salinization-and-dilution-of-rivers
#17
Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, David Sánchez-Fernández, Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles, Andrés Millán, Josefa Velasco, Raúl Acosta, Pau Fortuño, Neus Otero, Albert Soler, Núria Bonada
Abiotic stress shapes how communities assemble and support ecological functions. However, it remains unclear whether artificially increasing or decreasing stress levels would lead to communities assembling predictably along a single axis of variation or along multiple context-dependent trajectories of change. In response to stress intensity alterations, we hypothesize that a single trajectory of change occurs when trait-based assembly prevails, while multiple trajectories of change arise when dispersal-related processes modify colonization and trait-filtering dynamics...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509910/insect-communities-in-saline-waters-consist-of-realized-but-not-fundamental-niche-specialists
#18
REVIEW
Paula Arribas, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, María Botella-Cruz, Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles, José Antonio Carbonell, Andrés Millán, Susana Pallarés, Josefa Velasco, David Sánchez-Fernández
Considering how organisms adapt to stress is essential if we are to anticipate biological responses to global change in ecosystems. Communities in stressful environments can potentially be assembled by specialists (i.e. species that only occur in a limited range of environmental conditions) and/or generalist species with wider environmental tolerances. We review the existing literature on the salinity tolerance of aquatic insects previously identified as saline specialists because they were exclusively found in saline habitats, and explore if these saline realized niche specialists are also specialists in their fundamental niches or on the contrary are fundamental niche generalist species confined to the highest salinities they can tolerate...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509909/lost-in-translation-the-german-literature-on-freshwater-salinization
#19
REVIEW
Claus-Jürgen Schulz, Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles
Human activities have globally increased and altered the ion concentration of freshwater ecosystems. The proliferation of potash mines in Germany (especially intense in the early 1900s) constitutes a good example of it. The effluents and runoff coming from potash mines led to extreme salt concentrations (e.g. 72 g l-1 of total salt content, approx. 149 mS cm-1 ) in surrounding rivers and streams, causing ecosystem degradation (e.g. massive algal blooms and fish kills). This promoted scientific research that was mostly published in German, thereby being neglected by the wide scientific community...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509908/naturalizing-pollution-a-critical-social-science-view-on-the-link-between-potash-mining-and-salinization-in-the-llobregat-river-basin-northeast-spain
#20
REVIEW
Santiago Gorostiza, David Saurí
The scientific literature distinguishes between primary or natural and secondary or human-induced salinization. Assessing this distinction is of vital importance to assign liabilities and responsibilities in pollution cases and for designing the best policy and management actions. In this context, actors interested in downplaying the role of certain drivers of human-induced salinization can attempt to neglect its importance by referring to natural salinization, in a similar fashion to other pollution and health-related cases, from tobacco smoke to climate change...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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