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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150229/correction-to-behaviour-of-nonhuman-primate-mothers-toward-their-dead-infants-uncovering-mechanisms
#1
Claire F I Watson, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150228/linking-sex-differences-to-the-evolution-of-infectious-disease-life-histories
#2
Matthew D Hall, Nicole Mideo
Sex differences in the prevalence, course and severity of infection are widespread, yet the evolutionary consequences of these differences remain unclear. Understanding how male-female differences affect the trajectory of infectious disease requires connecting the contrasting dynamics that pathogens might experience within each sex to the number of susceptible and infected individuals that are circulating in a population. In this study, we build on theory using genetic covariance functions to link the growth of a pathogen within a host to the evolution and spread of disease between individuals...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150227/on-the-role-of-sex-differences-for-evolution-in-heterogeneous-and-changing-fitness-landscapes-insights-from-pygmy-grasshoppers
#3
REVIEW
Anders Forsman
Much research has been devoted to study evolution of local adaptations by natural selection, and to explore the roles of neutral processes and developmental plasticity for patterns of diversity among individuals, populations and species. Some aspects, such as evolution of adaptive variation in phenotypic traits in stable environments, and the role of plasticity in predictable changing environments, are well understood. Other aspects, such as the role of sex differences for evolution in spatially heterogeneous and temporally changing environments and dynamic fitness landscapes, remain elusive...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150226/sex-differences-in-dispersal-syndrome-are-modulated-by-environment-and-evolution
#4
Abhishek Mishra, Sudipta Tung, P M Shreenidhi, Mohammed Aamir Sadiq, V R Shree Sruti, Partha Pratim Chakraborty, Sutirth Dey
Dispersal syndromes (i.e. suites of phenotypic correlates of dispersal) are potentially important determinants of local adaptation in populations. Species that exhibit sexual dimorphism in their life history or behaviour may exhibit sex-specific differences in their dispersal syndromes. Unfortunately, there is little empirical evidence of sex differences in dispersal syndromes and how they respond to environmental change or dispersal evolution. We investigated these issues using two same-generation studies and a long-term (greater than 70 generations) selection experiment on laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster There was a marked difference between the dispersal syndromes of males and females, the extent of which was modulated by nutrition availability...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150225/genetic-constraints-on-microevolutionary-divergence-of-sex-biased-gene-expression
#5
Scott L Allen, Russell Bonduriansky, Stephen F Chenoweth
The evolution of sex-specific phenotypes is an important dimension of diversification and local adaptation. The sex-dependent regulation of gene expression is considered a key genomic mechanism facilitating sex-dependent adaptation. In many species, genes with male-biased expression evolve faster in DNA sequence and expression level than genes with female-biased or sexually monomorphic expression. While positive selection may be responsible for rapid DNA sequence evolution, why expression of male-biased genes also evolves rapidly remains unclear...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150224/the-interaction-between-sex-specific-selection-and-local-adaptation-in-species-without-separate-sexes
#6
Colin Olito, Jessica K Abbott, Crispin Y Jordan
Local adaptation in hermaphrodite species can be based on a variety of fitness components, including survival, as well as both female and male sex-functions within individuals. When selection via female and male fitness components varies spatially (e.g. due to environmental heterogeneity), local adaptation will depend, in part, on variation in selection through each fitness component, and the extent to which genetic trade-offs between sex-functions maintain genetic variation necessary for adaptation. Local adaptation will also depend on the hermaphrodite mating system because self-fertilization alters several key factors influencing selection and the maintenance of genetic variance underlying trade-offs between the sex-functions (sexually antagonistic polymorphism)...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150223/evolution-of-female-choice-under-intralocus-sexual-conflict-and-genotype-by-environment-interactions
#7
Xiang-Yi Li, Luke Holman
In many species, females are hypothesized to obtain 'good genes' for their offspring by mating with males in good condition. However, female preferences might deplete genetic variance and make choice redundant. Additionally, high-condition males sometimes produce low-fitness offspring, for example because of environmental turnover and gene-by-environment interactions (GEIs) for fitness, or because fit males carry sexually antagonistic alleles causing them to produce unfit daughters. Here, we extend previous theory by investigating the evolution of female mate choice in a spatially explicit evolutionary simulation implementing both GEIs and intralocus sexual conflict (IASC), under sex-specific hard or soft selection...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150222/abandoning-the-ship-using-sex-dispersal-or-dormancy-multiple-escape-routes-from-challenging-conditions
#8
Nina Gerber, Hanna Kokko
Natural populations often experience environments that vary across space and over time, leading to spatio-temporal variation of the fitness of a genotype. If local conditions are poor, organisms can disperse in space (physical movement) or time (dormancy, diapause). Facultatively sexual organisms can switch between asexual and sexual reproduction, and thus have a third option available to deal with maladaptedness: they can engage in sexual reproduction in unfavourable conditions (an 'abandon-ship' response)...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150221/local-adaptation-and-the-evolution-of-inversions-on-sex-chromosomes-and-autosomes
#9
Tim Connallon, Colin Olito, Ludovic Dutoit, Homa Papoli, Filip Ruzicka, Lengxob Yong
Spatially varying selection with gene flow can favour the evolution of inversions that bind locally adapted alleles together, facilitate local adaptation and ultimately drive genomic divergence between species. Several studies have shown that the rates of spread and establishment of new inversions capturing locally adaptive alleles depend on a suite of evolutionary factors, including the strength of selection for local adaptation, rates of gene flow and recombination, and the deleterious mutation load carried by inversions...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150220/the-geography-of-sex-sexual-conflict-environmental-gradients-and-local-loss-of-sex-in-facultatively-parthenogenetic-animals
#10
Nathan W Burke, Russell Bonduriansky
Obligately asexual organisms tend to occur at higher altitudes or latitudes and occupy larger ranges than their obligately sexual relatives-a phenomenon called geographical parthenogenesis. Some facultatively parthenogenetic organisms that reproduce both sexually and asexually also exhibit spatial variation in reproductive mode. Theory suggests that sexual conflict and mate limitation can determine the relative frequency of sex in facultative parthenogens, but the effect of these dynamics on spatial distributions is unknown...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150219/sex-differences-in-local-adaptation-what-can-we-learn-from-reciprocal-transplant-experiments
#11
REVIEW
Erik I Svensson, Debora Goedert, Miguel A Gómez-Llano, Foteini Spagopoulou, Angela Nava-Bolaños, Isobel Booksmythe
Local adaptation is of fundamental interest to evolutionary biologists. Traditionally, local adaptation has been studied using reciprocal transplant experiments to quantify fitness differences between residents and immigrants in pairwise transplants between study populations. Previous studies have detected local adaptation in some cases, but others have shown lack of adaptation or even maladaptation. Recently, the importance of different fitness components, such as survival and fecundity, to local adaptation have been emphasized...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150218/hybridization-sex-specific-genomic-architecture-and-local-adaptation
#12
REVIEW
Anna Runemark, Fabrice Eroukhmanoff, Angela Nava-Bolaños, Jo S Hermansen, Joana I Meier
While gene flow can reduce the potential for local adaptation, hybridization may conversely provide genetic variation that increases the potential for local adaptation. Hybridization may also affect adaptation through altering sexual dimorphism and sexual conflict, but this remains largely unstudied. Here, we discuss how hybridization may affect sexual dimorphism and conflict due to differential effects of hybridization on males and females, and then how this, in turn, may affect local adaptation. First, in species with heterochromatic sexes, the lower viability of the heterogametic sex in hybrids could shift the balance in sexual conflict...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150217/sexual-conflict-in-its-ecological-setting
#13
Jennifer C Perry, Locke Rowe
Sexual conflict can lead to rapid and continuous coevolution between females and males, without any inputs from varying ecology. Yet both the degree of conflict and selection on antagonistic traits are known to be sensitive to local ecological conditions. This leads to the longstanding question: to what extent does variation in ecological context drive sexually antagonistic coevolution? In water striders, there is much information about the impacts of ecological factors on conflict, and about patterns of antagonistic coevolution...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150216/climatic-factors-and-species-range-position-predict-sexually-antagonistic-selection-across-taxa
#14
Stephen P De Lisle, Debora Goedert, Aaron M Reedy, Erik I Svensson
Sex differences in selection are ubiquitous in sexually reproducing organisms. When the genetic basis of traits is shared between the sexes, such sexually antagonistic selection (SAS) creates a potential constraint on adaptive evolution. Theory and laboratory experiments suggest that environmental variation and the degree of local adaptation may all affect the frequency and intensity of SAS. Here, we capitalize on a large database of over 700 spatially or temporally replicated estimates of sex-specific phenotypic selection from wild populations, combined with data on microclimates and geographical range information...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150215/linking-local-adaptation-with-the-evolution-of-sex-differences
#15
Tim Connallon, Florence Débarre, Xiang-Yi Li
Many conspicuous forms of evolutionary diversity occur within species. Two prominent examples include evolutionary divergence between populations differentially adapted to their local environments (local adaptation), and divergence between females and males in response to sex differences in selection (sexual dimorphism sensu lato ). These two forms of diversity have inspired vibrant research programmes, yet these fields have largely developed in isolation from one another. Nevertheless, conceptual parallels between these research traditions are striking...
October 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104439/the-quick-are-the-dead-pheasants-that-are-slow-to-reverse-a-learned-association-survive-for-longer-in-the-wild
#16
Joah R Madden, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Christine E Beardsworth, Jayden O van Horik
Cognitive abilities probably evolve through natural selection if they provide individuals with fitness benefits. A growing number of studies demonstrate a positive relationship between performance in psychometric tasks and (proxy) measures of fitness. We assayed the performance of 154 common pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus ) chicks on tests of acquisition and reversal learning, using a different set of chicks and different set of cue types (spatial location and colour) in each of two years and then followed their fates after release into the wild...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104438/linking-cognition-with-fitness-in-a-wild-primate-fitness-correlates-of-problem-solving-performance-and-spatial-learning-ability
#17
Franziska Huebner, Claudia Fichtel, Peter M Kappeler
Linking the cognitive performance of wild animals with fitness consequences is crucial for understanding evolutionary processes that shape individual variation in cognition. However, the few studies that have examined these links revealed differing relationships between various cognitive performance measures and fitness proxies. To contribute additional comparative data to this body of research, we linked individual performance during repeated problem-solving and spatial learning ability in a maze with body condition and survival in wild grey mouse lemurs ( Microcebus murinus )...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104437/how-does-cognition-shape-social-relationships
#18
REVIEW
Claudia A F Wascher, Ipek G Kulahci, Ellis J G Langley, Rachael C Shaw
The requirements of living in social groups, and forming and maintaining social relationships are hypothesized to be one of the major drivers behind the evolution of cognitive abilities. Most empirical studies investigating the relationships between sociality and cognition compare cognitive performance between species living in systems that differ in social complexity. In this review, we ask whether and how individuals benefit from cognitive skills in their social interactions. Cognitive abilities, such as perception, attention, learning, memory, and inhibitory control, aid in forming and maintaining social relationships...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104436/habitat-and-social-context-affect-memory-phenotype-exploration-and-covariance-among-these-traits
#19
Sarah Dalesman
Individual differences in cognitive ability are predicted to covary with other behavioural traits such as exploration and boldness. Selection within different habitats may act to either enhance or break down covariance among traits; alternatively, changing the environmental context in which traits are assessed may result in plasticity that alters trait covariance. Pond snails, Lymnaea stagnalis , from two laboratory strains (more than 20 generations in captivity) and F1 laboratory reared from six wild populations were tested for long-term memory and exploration traits (speed and thigmotaxis) following maintenance in grouped and isolated conditions to determine if isolation: (i) alters memory and exploration; and (ii) alters covariance between memory and exploration...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104435/stress-hormones-social-associations-and-song-learning-in-zebra-finches
#20
Neeltje J Boogert, Robert F Lachlan, Karen A Spencer, Christopher N Templeton, Damien R Farine
The use of information provided by others is a common short-cut adopted to inform decision-making. However, instead of indiscriminately copying others, animals are often selective in what, when and whom they copy. How do they decide which 'social learning strategy' to use? Previous research indicates that stress hormone exposure in early life may be important: while juvenile zebra finches copied their parents' behaviour when solving novel foraging tasks, those exposed to elevated levels of corticosterone (CORT) during development copied only unrelated adults...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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