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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893944/making-a-virtue-of-necessity-the-pleiotropic-role-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
George Kassiotis, Jonathan P Stoye
Like all other mammals, humans harbour an astonishing number of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), as well as other retroelements, embedded in their genome. These remnants of ancestral germline infection with distinct exogenous retroviruses display various degrees of open reading frame integrity and replication capability. Modern day exogenous retroviruses, as well as the infectious predecessors of ERVs, are demonstrably oncogenic. Further, replication-competent ERVs continue to cause cancers in many other species of mammal...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893943/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-and-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#2
REVIEW
James A DeCaprio
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the highly aggressive and relatively rare skin cancer known as Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). MCPyV also causes a lifelong yet relatively innocuous infection and is one of 14 distinct human polyomaviruses species. Although polyomaviruses typically do not cause illness in healthy individuals, several can cause catastrophic diseases in immunocompromised hosts. MCPyV is the only polyomavirus clearly associated with human cancer. How MCPyV causes MCC and what oncogenic events must transpire to enable this virus to cause MCC is the focus of this essay...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893942/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Giuseppe Mariggiò, Sandra Koch, Thomas F Schulz
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), taxonomical name human gammaherpesvirus 8, is a phylogenetically old human virus that co-evolved with human populations, but is now only common (seroprevalence greater than 10%) in sub-Saharan Africa, around the Mediterranean Sea, parts of South America and in a few ethnic communities. KSHV causes three human malignancies, Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and many cases of the plasmablastic form of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) as well as occasional cases of plasmablastic lymphoma arising from MCD; it has also been linked to rare cases of bone marrow failure and hepatitis...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893941/viral-hepatitis-and-liver-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Marc Ringehan, Jane A McKeating, Ulrike Protzer
Hepatitis B and C viruses are a global health problem causing acute and chronic infections that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These infections are the leading cause for HCC worldwide and are associated with significant mortality, accounting for more than 1.3 million deaths per year. Owing to its high incidence and resistance to treatment, liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with HCC representing approximately 90% of all primary liver cancer cases...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893940/oncogenic-human-papillomaviruses
#5
REVIEW
Alison A McBride
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an ancient group of viruses with small, double-stranded DNA circular genomes. They are species-specific and have a strict tropism for mucosal and cutaneous stratified squamous epithelial surfaces of the host. A subset of these viruses has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of several human cancers. Here, we review the biology, natural history, evolution and cancer association of the oncogenic HPVs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'.
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893939/human-t-cell-leukaemia-virus-type-1-parasitism-and-pathogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Charles R M Bangham, Masao Matsuoka
Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes not only adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma (ATL), but also inflammatory diseases including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV-1 transmits primarily through cell-to-cell contact, and generates abundant infected cells in the host in order to survive and transmit to a new host. The resulting high proviral load is closely associated with the development of ATL and inflammatory diseases. To increase the number of infected cells, HTLV-1 changes the immunophenotype of infected cells, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis through the cooperative actions of two viral genes, tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ)...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893938/epstein-barr-virus-associated-lymphomas
#7
REVIEW
Claire Shannon-Lowe, Alan B Rickinson, Andrew I Bell
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), originally discovered through its association with Burkitt lymphoma, is now aetiologically linked to a remarkably wide range of lymphoproliferative lesions and malignant lymphomas of B-, T- and NK-cell origin. Some occur as rare accidents of virus persistence in the B lymphoid system, while others arise as a result of viral entry into unnatural target cells. The early finding that EBV is a potent B-cell growth transforming agent hinted at a simple oncogenic mechanism by which this virus could promote lymphomagenesis...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893937/epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Sai Wah Tsao, Chi Man Tsang, Kwok Wai Lo
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple types of human cancer, including lymphoid and epithelial cancers. The closest association with EBV infection is seen in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is endemic in the southern Chinese population. A strong association between NPC risk and the HLA locus at chromosome 6p has been identified, indicating a link between the presentation of EBV antigens to host immune cells and NPC risk. EBV infection in NPC is clonal in origin, strongly suggesting that NPC develops from the clonal expansion of a single EBV-infected cell...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893936/take-your-pikk-tumour-viruses-and-dna-damage-response-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Neha J Pancholi, Alexander M Price, Matthew D Weitzman
Viruses regulate cellular processes to facilitate viral replication. Manipulation of nuclear proteins and pathways by nuclear replicating viruses often causes cellular genome instability that contributes to transformation. The cellular DNA damage response (DDR) safeguards the host to maintain genome integrity, but DNA tumour viruses can manipulate the DDR to promote viral propagation. In this review, we describe the interactions of DNA tumour viruses with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinase (PIKK) pathways, which are central regulatory arms of the DDR...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893935/tumour-virus-vaccines-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-papillomavirus
#10
REVIEW
Margaret Stanley
Two of the most important human oncogenic viruses are hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). HBV infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982; vaccination of neonates and infants is highly effective, resulting already in decreased rates of new infections, chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma. Nonetheless, HBV remains a global public health problem with high rates of vertical transmission from mother to child in some regions. Prophylactic HPV vaccines composed of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 capsid protein have been licensed since 2006/2007...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893934/tumour-viruses-and-innate-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Sharon E Hopcraft, Blossom Damania
Host cells sense viral infection through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an innate immune response. PRRs are localized to several different cellular compartments and are stimulated by viral proteins and nucleic acids. PRR activation initiates signal transduction events that ultimately result in an inflammatory response. Human tumour viruses, which include Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and Merkel cell polyomavirus, are detected by several different PRRs...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893933/tumour-virus-epidemiology
#12
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, Gloria D Jahnke, Charles S Rabkin
A viral etiology of cancer was first demonstrated in 1911 by Peyton Rous who injected cell-free filtrate from a chicken sarcoma into healthy chickens and found it induced a tumour. Since the discovery over 50 years ago of the Epstein-Barr virus as the cause of Burkitt lymphoma, seven other human viruses or groups of viruses-hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, some human papillomaviruses, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Merkel cell polyomavirus-have been linked to human cancer...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893932/tumour-virology-in-the-era-of-high-throughput-genomics
#13
REVIEW
Ka-Wei Tang, Erik Larsson
With the advent of massively parallel sequencing, oncogenic viruses in tumours can now be detected in an unbiased and comprehensive manner. Additionally, new viruses or strains can be discovered based on sequence similarity with known viruses. Using this approach, the causative agent for Merkel cell carcinoma was identified. Subsequent studies using data from large collections of tumours have confirmed models built during decades of hypothesis-driven and low-throughput research, and a more detailed and comprehensive description of virus-tumour associations have emerged...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893931/human-oncogenic-viruses-nature-and-discovery
#14
Yuan Chang, Patrick S Moore, Robin A Weiss
Seven kinds of virus collectively comprise an important cause of cancer, particularly in less developed countries and for people with damaged immune systems. Discovered over the past 54 years, most of these viruses are common infections of humankind for which malignancy is a rare consequence. Various cofactors affect the complex interaction between virus and host and the likelihood of cancer emerging. Although individual human tumour viruses exert their malignant effects in different ways, there are common features that illuminate mechanisms of oncogenesis more generally, whether or not there is a viral aetiology...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847829/nucleosome-remodelling-dna-repair-and-transcriptional-regulation-build-negative-feedback-loops-in-cancer-and-cellular-ageing
#15
REVIEW
Reiko Watanabe, Shin-Ichiro Kanno, Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh, Ayako Ui, Akira Yasui
Nucleosome remodelling (NR) regulates transcription in an ATP-dependent manner, and influences gene expression required for development and cellular functions, including those involved in anti-cancer and anti-ageing processes. ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodelling factor (ACF) and Brahma-associated factor (BAF) complexes, belonging to the ISWI and SWI/SNF families, respectively, are involved in various types of DNA repair. Suppression of several BAF factors makes U2OS cells significantly sensitive to X-rays, UV and especially to cisplatin, and these BAF factors contribute to the accumulation of repair proteins at various types of DNA damage and to DNA repair...
October 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847828/and-yet-it-moves-nuclear-and-chromatin-dynamics-of-a-heterochromatic-double-strand-break
#16
REVIEW
P Christopher Caridi, Laetitia Delabaere, Grzegorz Zapotoczny, Irene Chiolo
Heterochromatin is mostly composed of repeated DNA sequences prone to aberrant recombination. How cells maintain the stability of these sequences during double-strand break (DSB) repair has been a long-standing mystery. Studies in Drosophila cells revealed that faithful homologous recombination repair of heterochromatic DSBs relies on the striking relocalization of repair sites to the nuclear periphery before Rad51 recruitment and repair progression. Here, we summarize our current understanding of this response, including the molecular mechanisms involved, and conserved pathways in mammalian cells...
October 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847827/the-ino80-remodeller-in-transcription-replication-and-repair
#17
REVIEW
Jérôme Poli, Susan M Gasser, Manolis Papamichos-Chronakis
The accessibility of eukaryotic genomes to the action of enzymes involved in transcription, replication and repair is maintained despite the organization of DNA into nucleosomes. This access is often regulated by the action of ATP-dependent nucleosome remodellers. The INO80 class of nucleosome remodellers has unique structural features and it is implicated in a diverse array of functions, including transcriptional regulation, DNA replication and DNA repair. Underlying these diverse functions is the catalytic activity of the main ATPase subunit, which in the context of a multisubunit complex can shift nucleosomes and carry out histone dimer exchange...
October 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847826/genome-maintenance-functions-of-the-ino80-chromatin-remodeller
#18
REVIEW
Ashby J Morrison
Chromatin modification is conserved in all eukaryotes and is required to facilitate and regulate DNA-templated processes. For example, chromatin manipulation, such as histone post-translational modification and nucleosome positioning, play critical roles in genome stability pathways. The INO80 chromatin-remodelling complex, which regulates the abundance and positioning of nucleosomes, is particularly important for proper execution of inducible responses to DNA damage. This review discusses the participation and activity of the INO80 complex in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways, with emphasis on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system...
October 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847825/transcription-associated-events-affecting-genomic-integrity
#19
REVIEW
Robin Sebastian, Philipp Oberdoerffer
Accurate maintenance of genomic as well as epigenomic integrity is critical for proper cell and organ function. Continuous exposure to DNA damage is, thus, often associated with malignant transformation and degenerative diseases. A significant, chronic threat to genome integrity lies in the process of transcription, which can result in the formation of potentially harmful RNA : DNA hybrid structures (R-loops) and has been linked to DNA damage accumulation as well as dynamic chromatin reorganization. In sharp contrast, recent evidence suggests that active transcription, the resulting transcripts as well as R-loop formation can play multi-faceted roles in maintaining and restoring genome integrity...
October 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847824/dna-replication-through-a-chromatin-environment
#20
REVIEW
James M Bellush, Iestyn Whitehouse
Compaction of the genome into the nuclear space is achieved by wrapping DNA around octameric assemblies of histone proteins to form nucleosomes, the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin. Aside from providing a means by which to fit larger genomes into the cell, chromatinization of DNA is a crucial means by which the cell regulates access to the genome. While the complex role that chromatin plays in gene transcription has been appreciated for a long time, it is now also apparent that crucial aspects of DNA replication are linked to the biology of chromatin...
October 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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