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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717027/regulation-of-the-calvin-benson-bassham-cycle-in-the-enigmatic-diatoms-biochemical-and-evolutionary-variations-on-an-original-theme
#1
REVIEW
Erik Jensen, Romain Clément, Stephen C Maberly, Brigitte Gontero
In Plantae, the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle is highly regulated and most of its enzymes have been thoroughly studied. Since diatoms arose as a result of secondary endosymbiosis with one or more Plantae ancestors, their precise evolutionary history is enigmatic and complex resulting in biochemical variations on the original CBB cycle theme. The Rubisco Michaelis constant for CO2 is higher in diatoms than land plants and the nuclear-encoded Rubisco activase in Plantae is replaced by an analogous chloroplast-encoded CbbX (Calvin-Benson-Bassham protein X) in diatoms...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717026/acquisition-and-metabolism-of-carbon-in-the-ochrophyta-other-than-diatoms
#2
REVIEW
John A Raven, Mario Giordano
The acquisition and assimilation of inorganic C have been investigated in several of the 15 clades of the Ochrophyta other than diatoms, with biochemical, physiological and genomic data indicating significant mechanistic variation. Form ID Rubiscos in the Ochrophyta are characterized by a broad range of kinetics values. In spite of relatively high K0.5CO2 and low CO2 : O2 selectivity, diffusive entry of CO2 occurs in the Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae. Eustigmatophyceae and Phaeophyceae, on the contrary, have CO2 concentrating mechanisms, usually involving the direct or indirect use of [Formula: see text] This variability is possibly due to the ecological contexts of the organism...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717025/the-role-of-intraspecific-variation-in-the-ecological-and-evolutionary-success-of-diatoms-in-changing-environments
#3
REVIEW
Anna Godhe, Tatiana Rynearson
Intraspecific variation in diatoms has been shown to play a key role in species' responses to several important environmental factors such as light, salinity, temperature and nutrients. Furthermore, modelling efforts indicate that this variation within species extends bloom periods, and likely provides sufficient variability in competitive interactions between species under hydrographically variable conditions. The intraspecific variation most likely corresponds to optimal fitness in temporary microhabitats and may help to explain the paradox of the plankton...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717024/inorganic-carbon-availability-in-benthic-diatom-communities-photosynthesis-and-migration
#4
REVIEW
Jorge Marques da Silva, Sónia Cruz, Paulo Cartaxana
Diatom-dominated microphytobenthos (MPB) is the main primary producer of many intertidal and shallow subtidal environments, being therefore of critical importance to estuarine and coastal food webs. Owing to tidal cycles, intertidal MPB diatoms are subjected to environmental conditions far more variable than the ones experienced by pelagic diatoms (e.g. light, temperature, salinity, desiccation and nutrient availability). Nevertheless, benthic diatoms evolved adaptation mechanisms to these harsh conditions, including the capacity to move within steep physical and chemical gradients, allowing them to perform photosynthesis efficiently...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717023/the-evolution-of-diatoms-and-their-biogeochemical-functions
#5
REVIEW
Anne-Sophie Benoiston, Federico M Ibarbalz, Lucie Bittner, Lionel Guidi, Oliver Jahn, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Chris Bowler
In contemporary oceans diatoms are an important group of eukaryotic phytoplankton that typically dominate in upwelling regions and at high latitudes. They also make significant contributions to sporadic blooms that often occur in springtime. Recent surveys have revealed global information about their abundance and diversity, as well as their contributions to biogeochemical cycles, both as primary producers of organic material and as conduits facilitating the export of carbon and silicon to the ocean interior...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717022/response-of-co2-starved-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-to-light-intensity-transition
#6
Parisa Heydarizadeh, Wafâa Boureba, Morteza Zahedi, Bing Huang, Brigitte Moreau, Ewa Lukomska, Aurélie Couzinet-Mossion, Gaëtane Wielgosz-Collin, Véronique Martin-Jézéquel, Gaël Bougaran, Justine Marchand, Benoît Schoefs
In this study, we investigated the responses of Phaeodactylum tricornutum cells acclimated to 300 µmol m(-2) s(-1) photon flux density to an increase (1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) or decrease (30 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) in photon flux densities. The light shift occurred abruptly after 5 days of growth and the acclimation to new conditions was followed during the next 6 days at the physiological and molecular levels. The molecular data reflect a rearrangement of carbon metabolism towards the production of phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) and/or pyruvate...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717021/genetic-and-metabolic-engineering-in-diatoms
#7
REVIEW
Weichao Huang, Fayza Daboussi
Diatoms have attracted considerable attention due to their success in diverse environmental conditions, which probably is a consequence of their complex origins. Studies of their metabolism will provide insight into their adaptation capacity and are a prerequisite for metabolic engineering. Several years of investigation have led to the development of the genome engineering tools required for such studies, and a profusion of appropriate tools is now available for exploring and exploiting the metabolism of these organisms...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717020/towards-an-understanding-of-the-molecular-regulation-of-carbon-allocation-in-diatoms-the-interaction-of-energy-and-carbon-allocation
#8
REVIEW
Heiko Wagner, Torsten Jakob, Andrea Fanesi, Christian Wilhelm
In microalgae, the photosynthesis-driven CO2 assimilation delivers cell building blocks that are used in different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known about how the cell regulates the subsequent carbon allocation to, for example, cell growth or for storage. However, knowledge about these regulatory mechanisms is of high biotechnological and ecological importance. In diatoms, the situation becomes even more complex because, as a consequence of their secondary endosymbiotic origin, the compartmentation of the pathways for the primary metabolic routes is different from green algae...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717019/3-hydroxyisobutyryl-coa-hydrolase-involved-in-isoleucine-catabolism-regulates-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#9
Yufang Pan, Juan Yang, Yangmin Gong, Xiaolong Li, Hanhua Hu
Since methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase appears to be absent in the majority of photosynthetic organisms, including diatoms, (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA, the intermediate of isoleucine (Ile) catabolism, cannot be metabolized to (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA then to succinyl-CoA. In this study, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) RNAi silenced strains and 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) overexpression strains were constructed to elucidate the Ile degradation pathway and its influence on lipid accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum based on growth, neutral lipid content and metabolite profile analysis...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717018/structure-and-properties-of-oil-bodies-in-diatoms
#10
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Maeda, Daisuke Nojima, Tomoko Yoshino, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Diatoms accumulate triacylglycerols in spherical organelles called oil bodies when exposed to nutrient deprivation conditions. Oil body biology in diatoms has attracted significant attention due to the complexity of the intracellular organelles and the unique combination of genes generated by the evolutionary history of secondary endosymbiosis. The demand for biofuel production has further increased the interest in and importance of a better understanding of oil body biology in diatoms, because it could provide targets for genetic engineering to further enhance their promising lipid accumulation...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717017/modulation-of-lipid-biosynthesis-by-stress-in-diatoms
#11
REVIEW
Olga Sayanova, Virginie Mimouni, Lionel Ulmann, Annick Morant-Manceau, Virginie Pasquet, Benoît Schoefs, Johnathan A Napier
Diatoms are responsible for up to 40% of the carbon fixation in our oceans. The fixed carbon is moved through carbon metabolism towards the synthesis of organic molecules that are consumed through interlocking foodwebs, and this process is strongly impacted by the abiotic environment. However, it has become evident that diatoms can be used as 'platform' organisms for the production of high valuable bio-products such as lipids, pigments and carbohydrates where stress conditions can be used to direct carbon metabolism towards the commercial production of these compounds...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717016/the-effects-of-phosphorus-limitation-on-carbon-metabolism-in-diatoms
#12
REVIEW
Tore Brembu, Alice Mühlroth, Leila Alipanah, Atle M Bones
Phosphorus is an essential element for life, serving as an integral component of nucleic acids, lipids and a diverse range of other metabolites. Concentrations of bioavailable phosphorus are low in many aquatic environments. Microalgae, including diatoms, apply physiological and molecular strategies such as phosphorus scavenging or recycling as well as adjusting cell growth in order to adapt to limiting phosphorus concentrations. Such strategies also involve adjustments of the carbon metabolism. Here, we review the effect of phosphorus limitation on carbon metabolism in diatoms...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717015/the-peculiar-carbon-metabolism-in-diatoms
#13
Benoît Schoefs, Hanhua Hu, Peter G Kroth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717014/investigating-mixotrophic-metabolism-in-the-model-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#14
Valeria Villanova, Antonio Emidio Fortunato, Dipali Singh, Davide Dal Bo, Melissa Conte, Toshihiro Obata, Juliette Jouhet, Alisdair R Fernie, Eric Marechal, Angela Falciatore, Julien Pagliardini, Adeline Le Monnier, Mark Poolman, Gilles Curien, Dimitris Petroutsos, Giovanni Finazzi
Diatoms are prominent marine microalgae, interesting not only from an ecological point of view, but also for their possible use in biotechnology applications. They can be cultivated in phototrophic conditions, using sunlight as the sole energy source. Some diatoms, however, can also grow in a mixotrophic mode, wherein both light and external reduced carbon contribute to biomass accumulation. In this study, we investigated the consequences of mixotrophy on the growth and metabolism of the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, using glycerol as the source of reduced carbon...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717013/mechanisms-of-carbon-dioxide-acquisition-and-co2-sensing-in-marine-diatoms-a-gateway-to-carbon-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Yusuke Matsuda, Brian M Hopkinson, Kensuke Nakajima, Christopher L Dupont, Yoshinori Tsuji
Diatoms are one of the most successful marine eukaryotic algal groups, responsible for up to 20% of the annual global CO2 fixation. The evolution of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) allowed diatoms to overcome a number of serious constraints on photosynthesis in the marine environment, particularly low [CO2]aq in seawater relative to concentrations required by the CO2 fixing enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), which is partly due to the slow diffusion rate of CO2 in water and a limited CO2 formation rate from [Formula: see text] in seawater...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717012/intracellular-metabolic-pathway-distribution-in-diatoms-and-tools-for-genome-enabled-experimental-diatom-research
#16
REVIEW
Ansgar Gruber, Peter G Kroth
Diatoms are important primary producers in the oceans and can also dominate other aquatic habitats. One reason for the success of this phylogenetically relatively young group of unicellular organisms could be the impressive redundancy and diversity of metabolic isoenzymes in diatoms. This redundancy is a result of the evolutionary origin of diatom plastids by a eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis, a process that implies temporary redundancy of functionally complete eukaryotic genomes. During the establishment of the plastids, this redundancy was partially reduced via gene losses, and was partially retained via gene transfer to the nucleus of the respective host cell...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673922/correction-to-modelling-auditory-attention
#17
Emine Merve Kaya, Mounya Elhilali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673921/two-social-brains-neural-mechanisms-of-intersubjectivity
#18
REVIEW
Kai Vogeley
It is the aim of this article to present an empirically justified hypothesis about the functional roles of the two social neural systems, namely the so-called 'mirror neuron system' (MNS) and the 'mentalizing system' (MENT, also 'theory of mind network' or 'social neural network'). Both systems are recruited during cognitive processes that are either related to interaction or communication with other conspecifics, thereby constituting intersubjectivity. The hypothesis is developed in the following steps: first, the fundamental distinction that we make between persons and things is introduced; second, communication is presented as the key process that allows us to interact with others; third, the capacity to 'mentalize' or to understand the inner experience of others is emphasized as the fundamental cognitive capacity required to establish successful communication...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673920/why-are-there-so-many-explanations-for-primate-brain-evolution
#19
REVIEW
R I M Dunbar, Susanne Shultz
The question as to why primates have evolved unusually large brains has received much attention, with many alternative proposals all supported by evidence. We review the main hypotheses, the assumptions they make and the evidence for and against them. Taking as our starting point the fact that every hypothesis has sound empirical evidence to support it, we argue that the hypotheses are best interpreted in terms of a framework of evolutionary causes (selection factors), consequences (evolutionary windows of opportunity) and constraints (usually physiological limitations requiring resolution if large brains are to evolve)...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673919/dynamic-modulation-of-sociality-and-aggression-an-examination-of-plasticity-within-endocrine-and-neuroendocrine-systems
#20
REVIEW
Aubrey M Kelly, Maren N Vitousek
Endocrine and neuroendocrine systems are key mediators of behavioural plasticity and allow for the ability to shift social behaviour across dynamic contexts. These systems operate across timescales, modulating both rapid responses to environmental changes and developmental plasticity in behavioural phenotypes. Thus, not only do endocrine systems mediate behavioural plasticity, but also the systems themselves exhibit plasticity in functional capabilities. This flexibility at both the mechanistic and behavioural levels can be crucial for reproduction and survival...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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