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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538819/how-strong-is-the-relationship-between-rainfall-variability-and-caatinga-productivity-a-case-study-under-a-changing-climate
#1
Cleber Salimon, Liana Anderson
Despite the knowledge of the influence of rainfall on vegetation dynamics in semiarid tropical Brazil, few studies address and explore quantitatively the various aspects of this relationship. Moreover, Northeast Brazil is expected to have its rainfall reduced by as much as 60% until the end of the 21st Century, under scenario AII of the IPCC Report 2010. We sampled and analyzed satellite-derived monthly rainfall and a vegetation index data for 40 sites with natural vegetation cover in Paraíba State, Brazil from 2001 to 2012...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538815/effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-stress-and-anxiety-related-responses-in-rats
#2
Ricardo M Bassetto, Tatiana Wscieklica, Kathlein C P Pouza, Daniela Ortolani, Milena B Viana, Isabel C Cespedes, Regina C Spadari
The aim of this work was to investigate if eletroacupuncture at PC6 would modulate the stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and the level of activation of several brain areas. Rats were distributed in groups: control; submitted to immobilization; submitted to immobilization and eletroacupuncture at PC6 or at the tail. Immobilization increased grooming and decreased stretched attend postures and the time spent in the open arms of the ele-vated plus-maze. Eletroacupuncture at PC6 or tail canceled the effect of immobilization on grooming and attenuated the stretched attend posture...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538812/climatically-mediated-landcover-change-impacts-on-brazilian-territory
#3
Marina Zanin, Geiziane Tessarolo, Nathália Machado, Ana Luisa M Albernaz
In the face of climate change threats, governments are drawing attention to policies for mitigating its effects on biodiversity. However, the lack of distribution data makes predictions at species level a difficult task, mainly in regions of higher biodiversity. To overcome this problem, we use native landcover as a surrogate biodiversity, because it can represent specialized habitat for species, and investigate the effects of future climate change on Brazilian biomes. We characterize the climatic niches of native landcover and use ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution under current and future climate scenarios...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513782/soil-vegetation-relationships-and-community-structure-in-a-terra-firme-white-sand-vegetation-gradient-in-viru%C3%A3-national-park-northern-amazon-brazil
#4
Bruno A F DE Mendonça, Elpídio I Fernandes, Carlos E G R Schaefer, Júlia G F DE Mendonça, Bruno N F Vasconcelos
Viruá National Park encompasses a vast and complex system of hydromorphic sandy soils covered largely by the white sand vegetation ("Campinarana") ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vegetation gradient of "terra-firme"-white sand vegetation at the Viruá National Park. Nine plots representing three physiognomic units were installed for floristic and phytosociological surveys as well as to collect composite soil samples. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513781/mitochondria-rich-cells-changes-induced-by-nitrite-exposure-in-tambaqui-colossoma-macropomum-cuvier-1818
#5
Oscar T F DA Costa, Cleverson A Ramos, Wallice P Duncan, Juliana L V Lameiras, Marisa N Fernandes
The gill mitochondria-rich cells of the juvenile Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum were analyzed using light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy after 96 h exposure to 0.04 and 0.2 mM nitrite. Although the number of mitochondria-rich cells decreased significantly in the lamellar epithelium, no decrease was found in the interlamellar region of the gill filament. Nitrite exposure caused significant reduction on the apical surface area of individual mitochondria-rich cells (p < 0.05), with a resulting reduction of the fractional area of these cells in both the lamellar and filament epithelium...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513780/reduction-of-the-dna-damages-hepatoprotective-effect-and-antioxidant-potential-of-the-coconut-water-ascorbic-and-caffeic-acids-in-oxidative-stress-mediated-by-ethanol
#6
Vanderson S Bispo, Lucas S Dantas, Adriano B Chaves, Isabella F D Pinto, Railmara P DA Silva, Felipe A M Otsuka, Rodrigo B Santos, Aline C Santos, Danielle J Trindade, Humberto R Matos
Hepatic disorders such as steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis are common diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water spiked with standards: chlorogenic acid (0...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513779/the-preventive-effects-of-ascorbic-acid-supplementation-on-locomotor-and-acetylcholinesterase-activity-in-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-induced-by-ketamine
#7
Louyse S Damazio, Flávia R Silveira, Lara Canever, Adalberto A DE Castro, Jadne M Estrela, Josiane Budni, Alexandra I Zugno
Studies have shown that schizophrenic patients seem to have nutritional deficiencies. Ascorbic acid (AA) has an important antioxidant effect and neuromodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AA on locomotor activity and the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ). Rats were supplemented with AA (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg), or water for 14 days (gavage). Between the 9th and 15th days, the animals received Ketamine (Ket) (25 mg/kg) or saline (i...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513778/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-foods-and-clinical-samples-in-brazil
#8
Andrea L Miranda, Soraia M Cordeiro, Joice N Reis, Lucas G Cardoso, Alaíse G Guimarães
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella species has been a serious problem for public health worldwide. This study examines Salmonella spp. recovered from foods and clinical samples on serotype, antimicrobial resistance and PFGE genotypes. It identified 91 salmonellae, belonging to 31 different serotypes, from 36 isolates from food and 55 clinical samples. Salmonella Infantis (16.5%) and Salmonella Enteritidis (13.7%) are the most common among food isolates, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (29.0%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (16...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513777/population-dynamics-of-siderastrea-stellata-verrill-1868-from-rocas-atoll-rn-implications-for-predicted-climate-change-impacts-at-the-only-south-atlantic-atoll
#9
Barbara R Pinheiro, Natan S Pereira, Paula G F Agostinho, Manuel J F Montes
Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513776/characterization-and-influence-of-subtropical-persimmon-cultivars-on-juice-and-jelly-characteristics
#10
Paula N Curi, Bruna S Tavares, Aline B Almeida, Rafael Pio, Moacir Pasqual, Pedro M Peche, Vanessa R Souza
To increase the availability to consumers and add more value to persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), which is a very perishable and seasonal fruit and in order to identify which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for processing in the form of juice and jelly, as well as understand what the consumer profile is for these products, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different persimmon cultivars (Rama Forte, Mel, Guiombo and Taubaté) grown in subtropical regions of Brazil on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting juice and jelly in order to identify cultivars with the greatest potential for industrial use...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489202/diversity-and-distribution-of-epiphytic-bromeliads-in-a-brazilian-subtropical-mangrove
#11
Mariana M DE Sousa, Karine D Colpo
It is not unusual to find epiphytic bromeliads in mangroves, but most studies on mangrove vegetation do not record their presence. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. The richness, abundance and life form (atmospheric and tank) of bromeliads were recorded and compared among host tree species and waterline proximity. The effects of diameter and height of host trees on the abundance of bromeliads were also assessed. The mangrove was composed of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489200/a-new-species-of-tereancistrum-monogenea-dactylogyridae-from-the-gills-of-three-leporinus-species-characiformes-anostomidae-and-a-revised-description-of-tereancistrum-parvus
#12
Aline C Zago, Fábio H Yamada, Lidiane Franceschini, Marcela F Bongiovani, Priscilla O F Yamada, Reinaldo J DA Silva
The present study describes Tereancistrum flabellum n. sp. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae) from the gills of the anostomid fishes Leporinus friderici, Leporinus amblyrhynchus and Leporinus elongatus from two freshwater ecosystems in the south east of Brazil. This new species is mainly characterized by the morphology of the copulatory complex (such as the MCO base formed by two fan-shaped structures, and accessory piece flattened, curved, rigid and channeled), a dorsal anchor with a well-developed superficial and inconspicuous deep root, and the shape of the accessory anchor sclerite with small spathulate termination...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489199/compatibility-of-azospirillum-brasilense-and-pseudomonas-fluorescens-in-growth-promotion-of-groundnut-arachis-hypogea-l
#13
Andhare A Prasad, Subramanian Babu
We attempted to study the compatibility among plant beneficial bacteria in the culture level by growing them near in the nutrient agar plates. Among all the bacteria tested, Rhizobium was found to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. From the compatible group of PGPR, we have selected one biofertilizer (Azospirillum brasilense strain TNAU) and one biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PF1) for further studies in the pot culture. We have also developed a bioformulation which is talc powder based, for individual bacteria and mixed culture...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489198/are-the-dinosauromorph-femora-from-the-upper-triassic-of-hayden-quarry-new-mexico-three-stages-in-a-growth-series-of-a-single-taxon
#14
Rodrigo T Müller
The lagerpetid Dromomeron romeri and the theropod Tawa hallae are two dinosauromorphs from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of the Chinle Formation, situated in New Mexico, USA. However, a recent study suggests the inclusion of the holotype of D. romeri (GR 218) and paratype (GR 155) and referred (GR 235) specimens of T. hallae in an ontogenetic series of a single species. The specimens GR 218 and GR 155 include just an isolated femur, while GR235 includes femora, pelvis and tail. The inclusion of the specimens in an unique ontogenetic series relies on the putative immature condition and plastic deformation of the specimen GR 218...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489197/population-dynamics-of-rimapenaeus-constrictus-stimpson-1874-penaeoidea-on-the-southeastern-brazilian-coast-implications-for-shrimp-fishing-management-from-a-5-year-study-on-a-bycatch-species
#15
Ana Elisa B Lopes, Raphael C Grabowski, Joyce R Garcia, Adilson Fransozo, Rogério C DA Costa, Kátia A N Hiroki, Antonio L Castilho
This is the first study to evaluate in broad spatiotemporal scales the growth parameters and population structure of Rimapenaeus constrictus, a barely damaged species composing the bycatch from shrimp fishing in the Western Atlantic. The abundance and size-class frequency distribution, growth, longevity and sex ratio were evaluated from monthly samples obtained in the northern littoral of São Paulo state from Jan/1998 to Jun/2003. We measured 5,812 individuals in which the sex ratio was skewed toward females; this was more evident in size classes greater than 10 mm in CL (carapace length) (binomial test, p<0...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489196/parasite-infracommunities-of-leporinus-friderici-a-comparison-of-three-tributaries-of-the-jurumirim-reservoir-in-southeastern-brazil
#16
Fábio H Yamada, Marcela F Bongiovani, Priscilla O F Yamada, Reinaldo J DA Silva
The degradation and homogenization of natural habitats is considered a major cause of biotic homogenization. Many studies have been undertaken on the effects of dams on aquatic wildlife, in particular fish assemblages. But how do dams affect the parasitic fauna of such fish? The aim of the present study was to examine parasitic similarity, comparing the diversity and structure of parasite communities of Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae) in three upstream tributaries under the influence of the Jurumirim Dam on the Upper Paranapanema River in southeastern Brazil...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489194/antiproliferative-activity-in-tumor-cell-lines-antioxidant-capacity-and-total-phenolic-flavonoid-and-tannin-contents-of-myrciaria-floribunda
#17
Luis A C Tietbohl, Adriana P Oliveira, Ricardo S Esteves, Ricardo D D G Albuquerque, Diogo Folly, Francisco P Machado, Arthur L Corrêa, Marcelo G Santos, Ana L G Ruiz, Leandro Rocha
Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd.) O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell)...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489189/vitamin-e-and-organic-selenium-for-broilers-from-22-to-42-days-old-performance-and-carcass-traits
#18
Daniel M N Albuquerque, João B Lopes, Maíra S Ferraz, Mabell N Ribeiro, Sandra R G Silva, Elvânia M S Costa, Daniela C P Lima, Jefferson D M Ferreira, Pedro E B Gomes, Jackelline C O Lopes
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and selenium on performance, viability, productive efficiency, and yields of carcass, major cuts, and organs of broilers from 22 to 42 days submitted to cyclic-heat stress. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of selenium (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin E (300, 400, and 500 mg/kg), plus a control treatment. Animals were submitted to a natural condition of high cyclic temperature...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489188/cytogenotoxicity-of-rice-crop-water-after-application-of-the-tricyclazole-fungicide
#19
Alana C D Wandscheer, Enio Marchesan, Solange B Tedesco, Viviane Dal-Souto Frescura, Camille F Soares, Guilherme P Londero, Gustavo M Teló, Dâmaris S S Hansel
Tricyclazole is currently one of the fungicides recommended for the treatment of diseases in irrigated rice. However, there is relatively little information on its cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of rice crop water after apllication of the tricyclazole fungicide through the Allium cepa L. test. The rice crop water samplings were collected before and 1, 15 and 30 days after application of the fungicide in rice plant shoots. The Allium cepa roots were placed in contact with the rice crop water to check for possible chromosomal abnormalities and mitotic index of the bioindicators meristematic cells...
May 2, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489203/evaluation-of-methods-for-the-quantification-of-ether-extract-contents-in-forage-and-cattle-feces
#20
Marcília M Barbosa, Edenio Detmann, Sebastião C Valadares, Kelly S C Detmann, Marcia O Franco, Erick D Batista, Gabriel C Rocha
The objective of this study was to compare the estimates of ether extract (EE) contents obtained by the Randall method and by the high-temperature method of the American Oil Chemist's Society (AOCS; Am 5-04) in forages (n = 20) and cattle feces (n = 15). The EE contents were quantified by using the Randall extraction or AOCS method and XT4 filter bags or cartridges made of qualitative filter paper (80 g/m²) as containers for the samples. It was also evaluated the loss of particles, and concentration of residual chlorophyll after extraction and the recovery of protein and minerals in the material subjected to extraction...
April 27, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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