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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências

Viviane R DE Sousa, Márcia S Couri
Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus of leaf mining flies, including species with high economic importance. The knowledge of this genus is very poor in the neotropics, with 12 known species, only six of them recorded from Brazil. This paper describes two new Agromyza species from "Cerrado" and "Pantanal" biomes and records three other species represented only by females that could not be identified to species level. We also present a taxonomic key to segregate the 14 Neotropical species. The specimens were collected in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states and are deposited at Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) collections...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Humberto M Barbosa, Jailson N DO Nascimento, Thiago A S Araújo, Filipe S Duarte, Ulysses P Albuquerque, Jeymesson R C Vieira, Edson R B DE Santana, Ricardo Yara, Cláudia S A Lima, Dayane A Gomes, Eduardo C Lira
Spondias tuberosa Arruda, popularly named as umbu, is native from savanna-like vegetation and widely used for medicinal purposes, however, the toxicological profile is not available yet. This study evaluated the phytochemical profile and acute toxicity and citoxicity of Ethanolic Extract of Spondias tuberosa Arruda Bark (EEStb) in hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Female Wistar rats were divided into: control (C) and animal treated single doses of 300mg/Kg (EEStb300) or 2.000mg/kg body weight (ESStb2...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Carlos H M Oliveira, Anderson A Simão, Marcus V C Trento, Pedro H S César, Silvana Marcussi
The enzyme inhibition by natural and/ or low-cost compounds may represent a valuable adjunct to traditional serotherapy performed in cases of snakebite, mainly with a view to mitigate the local effects of envenoming. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between vitamins and enzymes that comprise Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, in vitro. Proteolysis inhibition assays (substrates: azocasein, collagen, gelatin and fibrinogen), hemolysis, coagulation, hemagglutination were carried out using different proportions of vitamins in face of to inhibit minimum effective dose of each venom...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jade DE Oliveira, Marcos R Straliotto, Gianni Mancini, Claudia P Figueiredo, Antônio L Braga, João B R Teixeira, Andreza F Bem
Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Thus, reducing LDL oxidation is a potential approach to decrease the risk of the atherosclerosis. Organoselenium compounds have demonstrated promising atheroprotective properties in experimental models. Herein, we tested the in vitro atheroprotective capability of a modified organoselenium compound, Compound HBD, in protecting isolated LDL from oxidation as well as foam cells formation...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Neha Sharma, Savita Jandaik, Sanjeev Kumar
Combination therapy of antibiotics and nanoparticles can be used against multi drug resistant microorganisms. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported to show antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activities of doped ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were studied against fungi, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using the standard microdilution method. The interaction between the nanoparticle and the antibiotic was estimated by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index) of the combination through checkerboard assay...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Marcos O Valduga, Rafael D Zenni, Jean R S Vitule
Non-native tree plantations represent 7% of the world's forests and 1.24% of the Brazilian vegetation. Planted areas are expected to increase in the near future; thus, it is important to systematize existing knowledge on the ecological effects of plantations to aid forest management and biodiversity conservation. Here, we conducted a systematic review of the ecological literature associated with planted Pinus and Eucalyptus species in Brazil. We compared publication metrics with geographical distribution of species, ecosystems, biomes, studied taxa, and ecological impacts...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tatiana F Maria, Jan Vanaverbeke, Ann Vanreusel, André M Esteves
In this review, we summarize existing knowledge of the ecology of sandy-beach nematodes, in relation to spatial distribution, food webs, pollution and climate change. We attempt to discuss spatial scale patterns (macro-, meso- and microscale) according to their degree of importance in structuring sandy-beach nematode assemblages. This review will provide a substantial background on current knowledge of sandy-beach nematodes, and can be used as a starting point to delineate further investigations in this field...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Mauricio N Godoi, Edivaldo O DE Souza
Different vegetation types are distributed in mountains according to altitude, topography and soil. The composition and structure of bird communities in these areas can change in relation to the vegetation gradient, with particular communities occupying each habitat type. In this study we present the changes in composition, species richness and bird abundance over the gradient of forests, savannas and altitudinal grasslands of Maciço do Urucum, a mountainous region located in the Chiquitano Dry Forests domain in western Brazil...
September 22, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Olívia G S Araújo, Célio F B Haddad, Hélio R DA Silva, Lourdes A Pugener
Pipa is a Neotropical genus of frogs that dwell in freshwater environments. It includes four species that lack free-swimming larvae (P. aspera, P. arrabali, P. pipa, and P. snethlageae) and three with tadpoles (P. carvalhoi, P. myersi, and P. parva). Developmental tables such as the one proposed by Nieuwkoop and Faber might be useful for Pipa species with tadpoles. However, for the other Pipa species, to determine stages by this table or by any of the tables already prepared for frogs without tadpoles (e.g...
September 22, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jair Putzke, Antonio B Pereira
This study presents the description of Phaeosphaeria deschampsii, which was found in plant communities from Half Moon Island, South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica, in February 2014. Many patches of Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae), the only indigenous Poaceae specie in Antarctic, were found dead, parasitized by a fungi pathogen. Based on the shape of its perithecia, with oblique neck, erumpent in the grass tissues, ascospore form and septation, the specie was identified as new to science.
August 18, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Joel H Ellwanger, Silvia I R Franke, Diana L Bordin, Daniel Prá, João A P Henriques
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons, mainly in the substantia nigra, and causes serious locomotor dysfunctions. It is likely that the oxidative damage to cellular biomolecules is among the leading causes of neurodegeneration that occurs in the disease. Selenium is an essential mineral for proper functioning of the brain, and mainly due to its antioxidant activity, it is possible to exert a special role in the prevention and in the nutritional management of Parkinson's disease...
August 18, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Greice H S Peil, Anelise V Kuss, Andrés F G Rave, José P V Villarreal, Yohana M L Hernandes, Patrícia S Nascente
The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r)). Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration...
August 18, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Aryane C Reis, Ana Luiza Franco, Victória R Campos, Flávia R Souza, Cristiane Zorzatto, Lyderson F Viccini, Saulo M Sousa
Agapanthus (Agapanthaceae) has 10 species described. However, most taxonomists differ respect to this number because the great phenotypic plasticity of the species. The cytogenetic has been an important tool to aid the plant taxon identification, and to date, all taxa of Agapanthus L'Héritier studied cytologically, presented 2n = 30. Although the species possess large chromosomes, the group is karyologically little explored. This work aimed to increase the cytogenetic knowledge of Agapanthus africanus (L.) Hoffmanns by utilization of chromosome banding techniques with DAPI / CMA3 and Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH)...
August 18, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Walter Dias, Amanda M Baviera, Neusa M Zanon, Victor D Galban, Maria Antonieta R Garófalo, Celio R Machado, Elisa F L C Bailão, Isis C Kettelhut
Adaptive changes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism induced by 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 150 and 200 days of fasting were investigated in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.). Plasma glucose, lactate and free fatty acids (FFA) levels, liver and muscle glycogen and total lipid contents and rates of FFA release from mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) were measured. Plasma glucose levels showed significant differences only after 90 days of fasting, when glycemia was 34% lower (50±5mg.dL-1) than fed fish values (74±1mg.dL-1), remaining relatively constant until 200 days of fasting...
August 18, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Kainã R C Fagundes, Matheus M Rotundo, Renata B Mari
Morphological analysis of the digestive tract of Sphoeroides testudineus showed an esophagus with an anterior and a posterior portion, the abdominal pouch. No stomach was observed between the abdominal pouch and the intestine. The intestine was arranged in three segments and two loops, and the distal portion had the rectum opening into the anus. Histochemical analyses showed that the esophagus secreted acid mucosecretions, and that there was a qualitative increase in goblet cells from the proximal to distal area of the intestine...
August 18, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Danielle O Moreira, Sérgio L Mendes
Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries...
August 15, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Lilian P G DA Rosa, José F A Baumgratz, Sebastião J DA Silva
Taxonomic and floristic studies in the state of Rio de Janeiro allowed the rediscovery of Miconia gigantea, an endemic species to the Atlantic Forest, until recently known only from the type specimen, collected over 100 years by A.F.M. Glaziou. We present an amended and detailed description of M. gigantea, providing characteristics of the flowers, fruits and seeds, in addition to illustrations, comments about taxonomic affinities with closely related species, the presently known distribution together with new occurrence records, and the conservation status...
August 15, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jean P Kamdem, Amos O Abolaji, Daniel H Roos, Luciana Calabró, Nilda V Barbosa, Diogo O Souza, João Batista T Rocha
In Brazil, scientific performance of researchers is one important criteria for decision-making in grant allocation. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate and compare the profile of 82 seniors' investigators (graded as level 1A-D) which were receiving CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) productivity grant in Pharmacology, by analyzing the pattern of citation of their papers and h-index. Total documents, citations (with and without self-citations) and h-index (with and without self-citations) were retrieved from the Scopus database...
August 15, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Bernardo Melo, Joseana M S R Leitão, Luciano G C Oliveira, Sérgio E M Santos, Sabrina M P Carneiro, Klinger A F Rodrigues, Mariana H Chaves, Daniel D R Arcanjo, Fernando A A Carvalho
Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes...
August 15, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Patrícia Molz, Joel H Ellwanger, Fernanda F Zenkner, Deivis DE Campos, Daniel Prá, Marisa T L Putzke, Silvia I R Franke
This study evaluated the recognition memory and the levels of DNA damage (blood and hippocampus) in undernourished young Wistar rats. The experiment was conducted along 14-week with rodents divided in control group (CG, n=8) and undernourished group (UG, n=12) which was submitted to caloric restriction. Nutritional status for undernutrition was defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) ≤0.45g/cm2 and by weighting the organs/tissue (liver, spleen, intestine, peritoneal fat, kidney and encephalon). The Novel Object Recognition Test assessed recognition memory and the Comet Assay evaluated the levels of DNA damage...
August 4, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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