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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências

Hemanoel Passarelli-Araujo, Jussara K Palmeiro, Kanhu C Moharana, Francisnei Pedrosa-Silva, Libera M Dalla-Costa, Thiago M Venancio
Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that play a key role in antimicrobial treatment of Multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli, typically in combination with β-lactams. Ribosomal 16S RNA modification by methyltransferases (e.g. RmtG) is an aminoglycoside resistance mechanism that, along with the occurrence carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), has become a clinical concern. In Brazil, rmtG genes were initially reported in Klebsiella pneumoniae, and monitoring isolates from other species carrying this gene is critical for epidemiological studies and to prevent dissemination...
December 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jorge O Calvo, Bernardo Gonzalez Riga
We describe a dentary of a new titanosaur sauropod, Baalsaurus mansillai, gen. et sp. nov. from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. The material comes from the Portezuelo Formation, Neuquén Group. Titanosaur sauropods lower jaws are scarce and only nine taxa with dentaries have been described. There are two types of morphology in titanosaur dentaries; "L" shaped or "U" shaped based on the shape, without a phylogenetic issue. In this paper; we recognize a new taxa, Baalsaurus mansillai, represented by an "L" shaped dentary with three apomorphic characters that are not present in other taxa: dentary alveoli with 10 teeth in the anterior ramus, a ventrally and anteriorly inclined symphysis and a wide ventral Meckelian groove surrounded by a thin lamina that forms a keel on the ventral border of the dentary...
December 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Frederic M Hughes, José Eugênio Côrtes-Figueira, Maria Auxiliadora Drumond
Our understanding of the impacts of ongoing global warming on terrestrial species has increased significantly during the last several years, but how climatic change has affected, and will affect, the distribution of earthworms remains largely unknown. We used climate niche modeling to model the current distribution of the giant earthworm Rhinodrilus alatus - an endemic species of the Cerrado Domain in Brazil, which is traditionally harvested and commercialized for fishing bait. R. alatus is sensitive to environmental changes because climate, in synergy with soil attributes, determine its annual reproductive cycle and distribution...
December 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jeamylle Nilin, Anderson A O Santos, Meggie K S Nascimento
Most studies evaluating the impacts of river pollution in the semi-arid region of Brazil have been geared towards physiochemical analyses, and investigations of the adverse effects of water pollution on associated organisms are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the water quality in the Poxim river estuary in Aracaju, Sergipe throughout the dry and rainy season by evaluating the survival of the microcrustacean Mysidopsis juniae and physicochemical analyses. The evaluation of physiochemical parameters revealed a decrease in dissolved oxygen content in the rainy season...
December 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Yasin Bayir, Harun Un, Elif Cadirci, Erol Akpinar, Busra Diyarbakir, Ilknur Calik, Zekai Halici
Our aim is to investigate the potentially preventive effects of Aliskiren in a carrageenan-induced lung pleurisy model and to compare the standard anti-inflammatory agents, indomethacin and dexamethasone. The pleurisy model was induced through the injection of carrageenan (0.2 ml-%2) into the pleural cavity. After the experiment, serum and lung tissues were collected and biochemical, molecular and pathological examinations were performed. In our study, pleural inflammation decreased superoxide dismutase activity and the glutathione level and increased the malondialdehyde level in the lung of rats, while Aliskiren increased the superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione level and decreased the malondialdehyde level...
December 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Paulo M S Cavalcanti, Maria DO Carmo C Martins, Paulo H M Nunes, Francisco C Alves Filho, Janyerson D P Silva, Suzana M G Cavalcanti
This study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract from the bark of Combretum leprosum (ECL) on intestinal transit and castor-oil induced diarrhea in mice. The oral administration of ECL (750 and 1000 mg/kg) slowed intestinal transit (ID50 of 455 mg/kg). The ECL (250-1000 mg/kg) reduced castor-oil induced diarrhea, in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). To determine if antidiarrheal effect of ECL involves α2-adrenergic or opioid receptor activation, the mice were pretreated with antagonists of these receptors, yohimbine or naloxone respectively...
December 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Rafael L Macêdo, Vanessa G Lopes, Betina Kozlowskysuzuki, Christina W C Branco
Studies of the limnetic zooplankton in Brazilian freshwater have been done using several sampling strategies which are frequently associated to personal preferences, system constraints and objectives of the studies. It is known that a better sampling technique exists for each group of investigated zooplankton. So, the challenge is to provide a good sampling method for all groups at once. Regarding this theme we are contributing by pointing out the merits and demerits of two collecting methods of zooplankton widely used in many studies in Brazilian reservoirs to clarify the information about communities' structure in past published and non-published biological data and also find a more useful sampler for future studies...
December 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jane C F Oliveira, Juliane Pereira-Ribeiro, Gisele R Winck, Carlos F D Rocha
Data on the structure of lizard communities in the different biomes and ecosystems of Brazil are still limited. In this study, we related the species richness, abundance and the spatial occurrence of lizards to the structure of the vegetation found on the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, to determine whether habitat influences the structure of lizard communities. We conducted fieldwork in 2012, 2013 and 2014, collecting data in standardized samples. We analyze whether variables of vegetation structure influenced species richness and abundance, using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs)...
December 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Ana C M Milanezi, João P D Witusk, Sueli T VAN DER Sand
Yeasts are unicellular fungi widespread in the environment, and studies suggest that there is a positive correlation between yeast and polluted aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to analyze the diversity and resistance of yeasts isolated from water samples collected along the Arroio Dilúvio in Porto Alegre to antifungals. Yeast isolates from the Arroio Dilúvio were subjected to susceptibility assays against antifungals using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, and amplification of the ITS1-5...
December 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Ione M P Haygert-Velho, Gabriel M DA Conceição, Luiz C Cosmam, Dileta R M Alessio, Marcos Busanello, Micheli R Sippert, Cássia Damiani, Ana Paula A Almeida, João Pedro Velho
Our objective was to quantify the relationship between seasons of the year, milk production, and milk composition of a dairy farm based on data for 48 consecutive months, using multivariate statistical analyses. The dataset contained information on productive indexes and milk composition from the bulk tank milk, which was measured from milk samples, collected monthly and used to determine the total dry extract and defatted dry extract, lactose, fat, protein, somatic cell count, and total bacterial count. Seasons of the year and milk production/hectare were also considered...
November 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Érika Branco, Caroline S P DE Sena, Luciana F Pantoja, Paola C Soares, Ana Rita DE Lima
Behavioral intelligence among non-human primates is a somewhat puzzling area to study, since it is closely linked to the morphology of the central nervous system. However, this morphology is still unknown to science in the case of Saimiri collinsi. As a means of assisting future studies on the social behavior of this species, we analyzed the brains of six adult females from the National Primate Center / Pará, which were sent to the Animal Morphological Research Laboratory at the Federal Rural University of Amazônia after death by natural causes...
November 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Paulo Henrique G A DE Oliveira, Ana Claudia O Barbosa, Rafael P Diniz, Eder J DE Oliveira, Claudia F Ferreira
The objective of the present work was to use MAS in self-pollinated cassava populations for obtaining individuals with high inbreeding (f) aimed at rapid development of partial inbred lines. Three progenies (F0222, F1378 and F1662) were self-pollinated, generating a total of 233 S1 individuals. The progenies and the S1 individuals were evaluated in the seedlings and clonal evaluation trials (CETs). In the CET, plants were evaluated for the following traits: plant height (PH), root dry matter content (DMC), above ground yield (AGY), root (RY) and starch yield (SY)...
November 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Vytória P Cavalcanti, Neilton A F Araújo, Kátia R F Schwanestrada, Moacir Pasqual, Joyce Dória
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plays an important role in popular culture due to its dietary and medicinal uses. It is also used to produce a wide range of pharmacologically interesting molecules. Several pathogens affect garlic plants, especially Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii, a fungus that is widespread and causes large economic losses. It causes direct damage to crops and leads to plant stress, which induces secondary metabolite production in plants. The use of microorganisms as biocontrol agents may induce the production of beneficial metabolites in plants that will protect it and promote resistance to pathogen attack...
November 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Lucas R Beluci, Allan L Bacha, Arthur A M Barroso, Pedro Luis C A Alves
The new technology of sugarcane planting, known as one-eye-set seedlings, offer a high standard of plant health and vegetative vigor. However, there are no reports in the literature that evaluate the weed competition with one-eye-set sugarcane seedlings, and the periods in which weed communities need to be controlled in this system. Two interference experiments were conducted in field conditions. The first experiment determined the periods of weed interference of an infesting community predominated by Ipomoea hederifolia and Merremia aegyptia in sugarcane...
November 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tanveer Ahmad, Bilal Ahmad, Rana M Sabir Tariq, M Zia-Ul-Hassan Syed, Zahoor Ahmad
Broomrapes (Orobanche sp.) are root holoparasitic plants causing severe damage to various families of horticultural crops. A Preliminary survey was carried in tomato fields infested with orobanche in Potohar plateau of Pakistan. Results indicated that each planting bed comprising10-12 tomato plants contained 7-8 parasitic weeds. Overall survey indicated the 65-70% plants suffered partial or complete yield loss. Further, it was estimated that the number of weeds inhabiting plant-1 was ranged from 2-4. Yield loss was estimated at 57...
November 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Anderson C Weber, Paulo E Degrande, Ellen P DE Souza, Rosalia Azambuja, Marcos G Fernandes
Recently, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Pentatomidae: Hemiptera), has been detected in cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado. Several reliable surveys have been conducted on the spatial distribution of stink bugs in soybean; however, few studies have examined the behavior of this insect in cotton in Brazil. Thus, this study examined the spatial distribution of E. heros in cotton using aggregation indices based on the variance-to-mean ratio, Morisita index, exponent k, Poisson and negative binomial distributions...
November 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Ivan C A Alvarenga, Fernanda V Pacheco, Amauri A Alvarenga, Suzan K V Bertolucci, José Eduardo B P Pinto
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., Asteraceae) is an important medicinal plant used worldwide for its medicinal properties such as the analgesic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and production of photosynthetic pigments and of volatile constituents of Achillea millefolium L. under different irrigation depths. The treatments were the application of 55, 110, 220, 440 and 880 mm of water for a period of 110 days. Data were submitted to polynomial regression analysis at 5% probability, while the volatile constituents were analyzed by standard deviation...
November 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Denilsa P Fernandes, Muriel M L Pimentel, Fernanda A Dos Santos, Érika A Praxedes, Parmênedes D DE Brito, Mikael A Lima, Ivana C N G Lelis, Michelly F DE Macedo, Marcelo B Bezerra
Hematological and biochemical profile studies help to evaluate functional changes of animals used in experiments. The aim of this study was to determine the hematological and biochemical profile of immunosuppressed BALB/c nude and C57BL/6 SCID mice after bovine ovarian xenotransplantation. Therefore, a total of 74 female mice were divided into four groups: non-xenotransplanted animals, xenotransplanted animals, xenotransplanted animals treated with eCG and xenotransplanted animals treated with FSH + LH. After anesthesia, blood samples were collected and hematologic and biochemical values were evaluated...
October 25, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Luciano C Cancian, Ricardo S D Dalmolin, Alexandre T Caten
Bibliometric analyses provide a clear understanding of the scientific performance and relate them with standards of the global scientific production. Soil science is an outstanding and developing field among environmental sciences. Knowledge about soil characteristics and their distribution in the environment has been enriched by the use of new geotechnologies, resulting in what is known as digital soil mapping. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize the scientific production in digital soil mapping in Brazil and in the world, in the period from 1996 to 2017, in databases such as Scopus and Web of Science...
October 25, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Danice M Luvizotto, Juliana E Araujo, Michele DE Cássia P Silva, Armando C F Dias, Beate Kraft, Halina Tegetmeye, Marc Strous, Fernando D Andreote
Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea, characterized by periodic flooding that confer to its unique characteristics. Little is known about the transformation of nutrients that occur during the organic matter degradation in this system. In this study, we monitor the nitrogen transformations in soils from three mangroves with distinct levels of contamination using labeled 15NO3-. We also screened the mangroves metagenomes for the presence of genes that encode enzymes involved in denitrification (nirS, nirK, nosZ, norB and narG), anaerobic oxidation of ammonia (anammox) (hh, hao and hzo) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) (nrfA)...
October 25, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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