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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876358/animal-models-in-biological-and-biomedical-research-experimental-and-ethical-concerns
#1
Monica L Andersen, Lucile M F Winter
Animal models have been used in experimental research to increase human knowledge and contribute to finding solutions to biological and biomedical questions. However, increased concern for the welfare of the animals used, and a growing awareness of the concept of animal rights, has brought a greater focus on the related ethical issues. In this review, we intend to give examples on how animals are used in the health research related to some major health problems in Brazil, as well as to stimulate discussion about the application of ethics in the use of animals in research and education, highlighting the role of National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal - CONCEA) in these areas...
September 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876357/phosphate-solubilization-by-endophytic-bacteria-isolated-from-banana-trees
#2
Amanda D M Matos, Izabela C P Gomes, Silvia Nietsche, Adelica A Xavier, Wellington S Gomes, José A Dos Santos, Marlon C T Pereira
Forty isolates of endophytic bacteria isolated from banana tree roots were assessed as to their capacity to solubilize phosphate in a solid culture medium supplemented with different inorganic and one organic source of phosphorus. The amount of phosphorus (P) in each liquid medium was quantified, and an indirect assessment of acid phosphatase activity was performed. All assays had a fully randomized design, with three repetitions. Approximately 67.5% of the 40 isolates assessed in solid medium solubilized phosphorus from tricalcium phosphate and 7...
September 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876401/landslides-zonation-hazard-relation-between-geological-structures-and-landslides-occurrence-in-hilly-tropical-regions-of-brazil
#3
Rodrigo I Cerri, Fábio A G V Reis, Marcelo F Gramani, Lucilia C Giordano, José Eduardo Zaine
This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes) and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876400/biological-activity-of-piper-aduncum-extracts-on-anticarsia-gemmatalis-h%C3%A3-bner-lepidoptera-erebidae-and-spodoptera-frugiperda-j-e-smith-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#4
Daiane C Lucena, Lucia R Bertholdo-Vargas, Wilson C Silva, Aaron F Machado, Tamiris S Lopes, Sidnei Moura, Neiva M Barros
Piper aduncum found naturally in the Amazon and southeastern Brazil, is known for its secondary metabolites that have activity on insects. Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda are among the major insect pests associated with agricultural production. This research evaluated the biological activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of P. aduncum leaves on mortality and duration of larval and pupal periods, as well as weight, width, and length of A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda pupae. The mortality of A...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876399/new-seminal-variety-of-stevia-rebaudiana-obtaining-fractions-with-high-antioxidant-potential-of-leaves
#5
Paula G Milani, Maysa Formigoni, Antonio S Dacome, Livia Benossi, Cecília E M DA Costa, Silvio C DA Costa
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antioxidant potential of leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia UEM-13). Stevia leaves of UEM-13 contain rebaudioside A as the main glycoside, while most wild Stevia plants contain stevioside. Furthermore can be multiplied by seed, which reduces the cost of plant culture techniques as other clonal varieties are multiplied by buds, requiring sophisticated and expensive seedling production systems. Ethanol and methanol were used in the extraction to determine the bioactive compounds...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876398/remote-sensing-of-the-chlorophyll-a-based-on-oli-landsat-8-and-msi-sentinel-2a-barra-bonita-reservoir-brazil
#6
Fernanda Watanabe, Enner Alcântara, Thanan Rodrigues, Luiz Rotta, Nariane Bernardo, Nilton Imai
In this present research, we assessed the performance of band algorithms in estimating chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration based on bands of two new sensors: Operational Land Imager onboard Landsat-8 satellite (OLI/Landsat-8), and MultiSpectral Instrument onboard Sentinel-2A (MSI/Sentinel-2A). Band combinations designed for Thematic Mapper onboard Landsat-5 satellite (TM/Landsat-5) and MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard Envisat platform (MERIS/Envisat) were adapted for OLI/Landsat-8 and MSI/Sentinel-2A bands...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876397/leaf-area-estimation-from-linear-measurements-in-different-ages-of-crotalaria-juncea-plants
#7
Juliana O DE Carvalho, Marcos Toebe, Francieli L Tartaglia, Cirineu T Bandeira, André L Tambara
The goal of this study was to estimate the leaf area of Crotalaria juncea according to the linear dimensions of leaves from different ages. Two experiments were conducted with C. juncea cultivar IAC-KR1, in the 2014/2015 sowing seasons. At 59, 82, 102, 129 days after sowing (DAS) of the first and 61, 80, 92, 104 DAS of the second experiment, 500 leaves were collected, totaling 4,000 leaves. In each leaf, the linear dimensions were measured (length, width, length/width ratio and length × width product) and the specific leaf area was determined through Digimizer and Sigma Scan Pro software, after scanning images...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876396/preparation-and-characterization-of-alginate-and-gelatin-microcapsules-containing-lactobacillus-rhamnosus
#8
Susiany Lopes, Luciano Bueno, Francisco DE Aguiar, Christine Finkler
This paper describes the preparation and characterization of alginate beads coated with gelatin and containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Capsules were obtained by extrusion method using CaCl2 as cross linker. An experimental design was performed using alginate and gelatin concentrations as the variables investigated, while the response variable was the concentration of viable cells. Beads were characterized in terms of size, morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), moisture content, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR), thermal behavior and cell viability during storage...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876395/oral-insulin-improves-metabolic-parameters-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#9
Leandro C Lipinski, Louise B Kmetiuk, Paulo C F Mathias, Ananda Malta, Giovani M Favero, Tatiane A Ribeiro, Alceu Toledo, Mario R Montemor Netto, Marcos R S Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION/AIM: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876394/efficiency-of-essential-oils-of-ocimum-basilicum-and-cymbopogum-flexuosus-in-the-sedation-and-anaesthesia-of-nile-tilapia-juveniles
#10
José D Limma Netto, Rebeca S M Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Copatti
This study aimed to verify the sedative and anaesthetic effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum) (EOOB) and lemongrass (Cymbopogum flexuosus) (EOCF) in Nile tilapia juveniles. The fish were transferred to aquaria containing different concentrations of each essential oil: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 μL L-1. The time of sedation ranged from 7 to 31 seconds and the recommended concentration was 10 or 25 μL L-1 for both essential oils. The best times for anaesthesia and recovery were found for the concentrations of 400 μL L-1 for EOOB (135...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876393/a-new-saurolophine-hadrosaurid-dinosauria-ornithopoda-from-the-upper-cretaceous-of-shandong-china
#11
Jialiang Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Qiang Wang, Shunxing Jiang, Xin Cheng, Ning Li, Rui Qiu
A new saurolophine hadrosaurid, Laiyangosaurus youngi gen. et sp. nov. is described and phylogenetically analyzed based on several cranial elements from the Jingangkou Formation, Wangshi Group, Upper Cretaceous of Laiyang, Shandong, China. Laiyangosaurus youngi differs from other members of the saurolophine clade on the basis of a number of autapomorphies, including a prominent and narrow ridge on the lateral side of the nasal which forms the posterodorsal and posterior margin of the circumnasal depression, a primary ridge that runs along most of the maxillary tooth row that is slightly deflected posteriorly, a retroarticular process of the surangular that is dorsolateroposteriorlly recurved, and orbital margins that are wider than the infratemporal margins of the jugal...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876392/antifungal-and-antioxidant-activity-of-fatty-acid-methyl-esters-from-vegetable-oils
#12
Maria E A Pinto, Sthéfane G Araújo, Marcela I Morais, Nívea P Sá, Caroline M Lima, Carlos A Rosa, Ezequias P Siqueira, Susana Johann, Luciana A R S Lima
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL). All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876391/agronomic-viability-of-new-zealand-spinach-and-kale-intercropping
#13
Arthur B Cecílio, Matheus S Bianco, Caroline F Tardivo, Gabriel C M Pugina
The intercropping is a production system that aims to provide increased yield with less environmental impact, due to greater efficiency in the use of natural resources and inputs involved in the production process. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the agronomic viability of kale and New Zealand spinach intercropping as a function of the spinach transplanting time. (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting of the kale). The total yield (TY) and yield per harvest (YH) of the kale in intercropping did not differ from those obtained in monoculture...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876390/the-influence-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-paracetamol-used-for-pain-control-of-orthodontic-tooth-movement-a-systematic-review
#14
Adriano S Corrêa, Vinícius L DE Almeida, Beatriz M V Lopes, Ademir Franco, Felipe R DE Matos, Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior, Sigmar M Rode, Luiz R Paranhos
The present study aimed to perform a systematic literature review to determine if there is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that interferes less within tooth movement. This research was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Articles were searched in eight electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO, Google Scholar, and Open Grey). Only experimental studies on male Wistar rats were selected, which included experiments related to the influence of NSAIDs on orthodontic movement...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876389/the-use-of-proteinase-k-to-access-genitalia-morphology-vouchering-and-dna-extraction-in-minute-wasps
#15
Arturo B Martinelli, Cecilia Waichert, Diego N Barbosa, Valéria Fagundes, Celso O Azevedo
Genitalia are rich source of characters in insect taxonomy. Usually, they are examined after dissection and cleaning with potassium hydroxide (KOH), procedure that may damage both genital morphological structures and intracellular molecular contents. Enzymatic procedure with Proteinase K has been used to clean muscle off the genitalia while extract DNA, but its damage to the genital structures has not been evaluated. Herein, we qualitatively compare the use of KOH and Proteinase K to prepare genital structures in minute insects (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876388/brazilian-science-communication-research-national-and-international-contributions
#16
Germana Barata, Graça Caldas, Toss Gascoigne
Science communication has emerged as a new field over the last 50 years, and its progress has been marked by a rise in jobs, training courses, research, associations, conferences and publications. This paper describes science communication internationally and the trends and challenges it faces, before looking at the national level. We have documented science communication activities in Brazil, the training courses, research, financial support and associations/societies. By analyzing the publication of papers, dissertations and theses we have tracked the growth of this field, and compared the level of activity in Brazil with other countries...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876387/assessment-of-cow-and-farm-level-risk-factors-associated-with-ureaplasma-diversum-in-pasture-based-dairy-systems-a-field-study
#17
Josefa M Nascimento-Rocha, Benedito D DE Oliveira, Emannuel Arnhold, Regiani N G Pôrto, Svetlana F Lima, Maria Lucia Gambarini
Potential risk factors for Ureaplasma diversum in the vaginal mucus of 1,238 dairy cows were included in a multivariate logistic regression model, based on the cow level (i.e., granular vulvovaginitis [+GVV], yearly milk production [4500 kg or more], pregnancy, predominance of Bos taurus [+Bos Taurus], score of corporal condition [at least 2.5], concomitant positivity for Escherichia coli [+E.coli]), and farm level i.e., milking room hygiene (-Milking room), dunghill location, and replacement female). Ureaplasma diversum was present in 41...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876386/a-possible-relationship-between-gluconeogenesis-and-glycogen-metabolism-in-rabbits-during-myocardial-ischemia
#18
Raquel R DE Aguiar, Daniela F Vale, Renato M DA Silva, Yolanda P Muniz, Fernanda Antunes, Carlos Logullo, André L A Oliveira, Adriana J DE Almeida
Ischemia is responsible for many metabolic abnormalities in the heart, causing changes in organ function. One of modifications occurring in the ischemic cell is changing from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. This change causes the predominance of the use of carbohydrates as an energy substrate instead of lipids. In this case, the glycogen is essential to the maintenance of heart energy intake, being an important reserve to resist the stress caused by hypoxia, using glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. In order to study the glucose anaerobic pathways utilization and understand the metabolic adaptations, New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to ischemia caused by Inflow occlusion technique...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876385/carbon-and-nutrient-stocks-of-three-fabaceae-trees-used-for-forest-restoration-and-subjected-to-fertilization-in-amazonia
#19
Roberto K Jaquetti, José Francisco C Gonçalves
Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876384/influence-of-substrate-on-the-richness-and-composition-of-neotropical-cave-fauna
#20
Tamires Zepon, Maria Elina Bichuette
The food base in the subterranean environment consists mainly of allochthonous materials. In this environment the resources are distributed generally in a heterogeneous dispersed way and the distribution of resources and their availability determine where the terrestrial invertebrates will reside, which is important for understanding ecological relationships and to establish conservation strategies. Thus, we tested how the complexity of substrates influences the richness and composition of the subterranean terrestrial invertebrates in the Presidente Olegário karst area, southeastern Brazil...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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