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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538819/how-strong-is-the-relationship-between-rainfall-variability-and-caatinga-productivity-a-case-study-under-a-changing-climate
#1
Cleber Salimon, Liana Anderson
Despite the knowledge of the influence of rainfall on vegetation dynamics in semiarid tropical Brazil, few studies address and explore quantitatively the various aspects of this relationship. Moreover, Northeast Brazil is expected to have its rainfall reduced by as much as 60% until the end of the 21st Century, under scenario AII of the IPCC Report 2010. We sampled and analyzed satellite-derived monthly rainfall and a vegetation index data for 40 sites with natural vegetation cover in Paraíba State, Brazil from 2001 to 2012...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538818/contributions-to-a-brazilian-code-of-conduct-for-fieldwork-in-geology-an-approach-based-on-geoconservation-and-geoethics
#2
Kátia L Mansur, Luiza C M O Ponciano, Aline R S F DE Castro
When considering the numerous events that have prohibited the development of scientific projects or caused destruction of outcrops, it is clear that there is rapidly increasing necessity to define a Brazilian Code of Conduct for geological fieldwork. In general, this destruction is attributed to lack of knowledge as to the relevance of geological sites. The aim of this Code of Conduct is to guide geologists to adopt good practices during geoscience activities. Proposed guidelines are based on Codes of Conduct from other countries, mainly Scotland and England, on situations described in papers and on the personal experience of the authors...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538817/in-vitro-and-cellular-activities-of-the-selected-fruits-residues-for-skin-aging-treatment
#3
Nattaya Lourith, Mayuree Kanlayavattanakul, Puxvadee Chaikul, Chaisak Chansriniyom, Pichaporn Bunwatcharaphansakun
Peel extracts of litchi and rambutan, and that of tamarind seed coat were investigated in relation to their utility in skin-aging treatments. Standardized extracts of tamarind were significantly (p < 0.05) more efficient at O2 •- scavenging (IC50 = 27.44 ± 0.09) than those of litchi and rambutan (IC50 = 29.57 ± 0.30 and 39.49 ± 0.52 μg/ml, respectively) and the quercetin standard (IC50 = 31.88 ± 0.15 μg/ml). Litchi extract proved significantly (p < 0.05) more effective for elastase and collagenase inhibition (88...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538816/antioxidant-effect-of-quinoline-derivatives-containing-or-not-selenium-relationship-with-antinociceptive-action-quinolines-are-antioxidant-and-antinociceptive
#4
Ethel A Wilhelm, Ana Teresinha Ferreira, Mikaela P Pinz, Angélica S Dos Reis, Ane G Vogt, Andre L Stein, Gilson Zeni, Cristiane Luchese
The present study investigated the antioxidant effect of a new class of quinoline derivatives (a-d) on assays in vitro. Lipid peroxidation, thiol peroxidase-like and free radical scavenging activities were determined to evaluate antioxidant activity of compounds. Thiol oxidase-like and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activities were performed as a toxicological parameter. A second objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antinociceptive effect of the compound with better antioxidant effect and without toxic effects in a model of nociception induced by formalin in mice...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538815/effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-stress-and-anxiety-related-responses-in-rats
#5
Ricardo M Bassetto, Tatiana Wscieklica, Kathlein C P Pouza, Daniela Ortolani, Milena B Viana, Isabel C Cespedes, Regina C Spadari
The aim of this work was to investigate if eletroacupuncture at PC6 would modulate the stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and the level of activation of several brain areas. Rats were distributed in groups: control; submitted to immobilization; submitted to immobilization and eletroacupuncture at PC6 or at the tail. Immobilization increased grooming and decreased stretched attend postures and the time spent in the open arms of the ele-vated plus-maze. Eletroacupuncture at PC6 or tail canceled the effect of immobilization on grooming and attenuated the stretched attend posture...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538814/maize-dry-matter-production-and-macronutrient-extraction-model-as-a-new-approach-for-fertilizer-rate-estimation
#6
Karla V Martins, Durval Dourado-Neto, Klaus Reichardt, José L Favarin, Felipe F Sartori, Guilherme Felisberto, Simone C Mello
Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538813/mechanisms-of-endothelial-protection-by-natural-bioactive-compounds-from-fruit-and-vegetables
#7
Bernardita Monsalve, Anibal Concha-Meyer, Iván Palomo, Eduardo Fuentes
The endothelium is fundamental for the regulation of vascular tone and structure. Under disease conditions, including the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, the endothelium loses its protective role and becomes a proatherosclerotic structure. In this article we searched for strategies from PUBMED and Science Direct databases using the following key words: endothelium, natural bioactive compounds, polyphenols and cardiovascular diseases. The search was restricted to english language papers. Studies have identified the contribution of diet to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538812/climatically-mediated-landcover-change-impacts-on-brazilian-territory
#8
Marina Zanin, Geiziane Tessarolo, Nathália Machado, Ana Luisa M Albernaz
In the face of climate change threats, governments are drawing attention to policies for mitigating its effects on biodiversity. However, the lack of distribution data makes predictions at species level a difficult task, mainly in regions of higher biodiversity. To overcome this problem, we use native landcover as a surrogate biodiversity, because it can represent specialized habitat for species, and investigate the effects of future climate change on Brazilian biomes. We characterize the climatic niches of native landcover and use ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution under current and future climate scenarios...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513782/soil-vegetation-relationships-and-community-structure-in-a-terra-firme-white-sand-vegetation-gradient-in-viru%C3%A3-national-park-northern-amazon-brazil
#9
Bruno A F DE Mendonça, Elpídio I Fernandes, Carlos E G R Schaefer, Júlia G F DE Mendonça, Bruno N F Vasconcelos
Viruá National Park encompasses a vast and complex system of hydromorphic sandy soils covered largely by the white sand vegetation ("Campinarana") ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vegetation gradient of "terra-firme"-white sand vegetation at the Viruá National Park. Nine plots representing three physiognomic units were installed for floristic and phytosociological surveys as well as to collect composite soil samples. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513781/mitochondria-rich-cells-changes-induced-by-nitrite-exposure-in-tambaqui-colossoma-macropomum-cuvier-1818
#10
Oscar T F DA Costa, Cleverson A Ramos, Wallice P Duncan, Juliana L V Lameiras, Marisa N Fernandes
The gill mitochondria-rich cells of the juvenile Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum were analyzed using light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy after 96 h exposure to 0.04 and 0.2 mM nitrite. Although the number of mitochondria-rich cells decreased significantly in the lamellar epithelium, no decrease was found in the interlamellar region of the gill filament. Nitrite exposure caused significant reduction on the apical surface area of individual mitochondria-rich cells (p < 0.05), with a resulting reduction of the fractional area of these cells in both the lamellar and filament epithelium...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513780/reduction-of-the-dna-damages-hepatoprotective-effect-and-antioxidant-potential-of-the-coconut-water-ascorbic-and-caffeic-acids-in-oxidative-stress-mediated-by-ethanol
#11
Vanderson S Bispo, Lucas S Dantas, Adriano B Chaves, Isabella F D Pinto, Railmara P DA Silva, Felipe A M Otsuka, Rodrigo B Santos, Aline C Santos, Danielle J Trindade, Humberto R Matos
Hepatic disorders such as steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis are common diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water spiked with standards: chlorogenic acid (0...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513779/the-preventive-effects-of-ascorbic-acid-supplementation-on-locomotor-and-acetylcholinesterase-activity-in-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-induced-by-ketamine
#12
Louyse S Damazio, Flávia R Silveira, Lara Canever, Adalberto A DE Castro, Jadne M Estrela, Josiane Budni, Alexandra I Zugno
Studies have shown that schizophrenic patients seem to have nutritional deficiencies. Ascorbic acid (AA) has an important antioxidant effect and neuromodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AA on locomotor activity and the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ). Rats were supplemented with AA (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg), or water for 14 days (gavage). Between the 9th and 15th days, the animals received Ketamine (Ket) (25 mg/kg) or saline (i...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513778/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-foods-and-clinical-samples-in-brazil
#13
Andrea L Miranda, Soraia M Cordeiro, Joice N Reis, Lucas G Cardoso, Alaíse G Guimarães
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella species has been a serious problem for public health worldwide. This study examines Salmonella spp. recovered from foods and clinical samples on serotype, antimicrobial resistance and PFGE genotypes. It identified 91 salmonellae, belonging to 31 different serotypes, from 36 isolates from food and 55 clinical samples. Salmonella Infantis (16.5%) and Salmonella Enteritidis (13.7%) are the most common among food isolates, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (29.0%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (16...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513777/population-dynamics-of-siderastrea-stellata-verrill-1868-from-rocas-atoll-rn-implications-for-predicted-climate-change-impacts-at-the-only-south-atlantic-atoll
#14
Barbara R Pinheiro, Natan S Pereira, Paula G F Agostinho, Manuel J F Montes
Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513776/characterization-and-influence-of-subtropical-persimmon-cultivars-on-juice-and-jelly-characteristics
#15
Paula N Curi, Bruna S Tavares, Aline B Almeida, Rafael Pio, Moacir Pasqual, Pedro M Peche, Vanessa R Souza
To increase the availability to consumers and add more value to persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), which is a very perishable and seasonal fruit and in order to identify which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for processing in the form of juice and jelly, as well as understand what the consumer profile is for these products, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different persimmon cultivars (Rama Forte, Mel, Guiombo and Taubaté) grown in subtropical regions of Brazil on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting juice and jelly in order to identify cultivars with the greatest potential for industrial use...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492736/effect-of-drying-method-on-mechanical-thermal-and-water-absorption-properties-of-enzymatically-crosslinked-gelatin-hydrogels
#16
Rayssa C Simoni, Gislaine F Lemes, Sandra Fialho, Odinei H Gonçalves, Angela M Gozzo, Viviane Chiaradia, Claudia Sayer, Marianne A Shirai, Fernanda V Leimann
Enzymatically crossliked gelatin hydrogel was submitted to two different drying methods: air drying and freeze drying. The resulting polymeric tridimensional arrangement (compact or porous, respectively) led to different thermal and swelling properties. Significant differences (p < 0.05) on thermal and mechanical characteristics as well as swelling in non-enzymatic gastric and intestinal simulated fluids (37 ºC) were detected. Water absorption data in such media was modelled according to Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, and Peppas-Sahlin equations...
May 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492735/subclinical-diabetes
#17
Luís M T R Lima
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and those non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed comprise a significant group compared to those diagnosed. Accumulated scientific evidence indicate that the current diagnostic markers (fasting glycemia, 2h glycemia after an oral glucose load and HbA1c) are indeed late diagnostic criteria when considering the incidence of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities, which are also at high risk in some groups among normoglycemic individuals. Additionally, the earlier identification of future risk of diabetes is desirable since it would allow better adherence to preventive actions such as lifestyle intervention, ultimately avoiding complications and minimizing the economic impact/burden on health care expenses...
May 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492734/anesthesia-of-epinephelus-marginatus-with-essential-oil-of-aloysia-polystachya-an-approach-on-blood-parameters
#18
Carine O Fogliarini, Quelen I Garlet, Thaylise V Parodi, Alexssandro G Becker, Luciano O Garcia, Berta M Heinzmann, Ana Maria S Pereira, Bernardo Baldisserotto
This study investigated the anesthetic potential of the essential oil (EO) of Aloysia polystachya in juveniles of dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). Fish were exposed to different concentrations of EO of A. polystachya to evaluate time of induction and recovery from anesthesia. In the second experiment, fish were divided into four groups: control, ethanol and 50 or 300 µL L-1 EO of A. polystachya, and each group was submitted to induction for 3.5 min and recovery for 5 or 10 min. The blood gases and glucose levels showed alterations as a function of the recovery times, but Na+ and K+ levels did not show any alteration...
May 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492733/simultaneous-determination-of-furan-and-vinyl-acetate-in-vapor-phase-of-mainstream-cigarette-smoke-by-gc-ms
#19
Aifei Xu, Zhong Fan, Zhiyan Chen, Yun Zhou, Shaohua Liu, Shijie Huang, Xuequin Xu, Congyun Long, Weigang Wang, Jing Zhu, Xiaolan Li, Chunping Xu
A simple and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of furan and vinyl acetate (VA) in vapor phase of mainstream cigarette smoke with cold trap and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. A Cambridge filter pad (CFP) was placed in front of the impingers of smoking machine to remove the particle phase from cigarette smoke. Furan and VA in vapor phase of mainstream cigarette smoke were collected in two impingers connected in series by filled with methanol at -78°C. The solutions were added with deuterium-labeled furan-d4 and VA-d6 as internal standards and analyzed by GC-MS...
May 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492732/going-beyond-academic-integrity-might-broaden-our-understanding-of-plagiarism-in-science-education-a-perspective-from-a-study-in-brazil
#20
Christiane C Santos, Patrícia S Dos Santos, Maurício C Sant'ana, Hatisaburo Masuda, Monica B Barboza, Sonia M R Vasconcelos
Fostering innovation and creativity is a priority in the science and education policy agenda of most countries, which have advocated that innovative minds and processes will boost scientific and economic growth. While our knowledge society has embraced this view, fostering creativity is among the major challenges faced by educators and policymakers. For example, plagiarism, which may be considered a form of imitation and repetition, is a global concern at schools and universities. However, most discussions focus on academic integrity, which, we believe, leaves some gaps in the approach to the problem...
May 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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