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Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397514/fatal-disseminated-toxoplasmosis-in-a-zoological-collection-of-meerkats-i-suricata-suricatta-i
#1
Monica Burger, Elizabeth C Du Plessis, Essa Suleman, Brett R Gardner
Two confirmed cases of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis occurred in an urban zoological collection of meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Both cases are suspected to be the result of feral cats gaining access to the enclosure. Toxoplasmosis has rarely been documented in meerkats. Subsequent to prophylactic treatment of all the animals and structural changes being implemented within the enclosure, no new cases have been recorded to date. Very little information is available on the disease in viverrids.
March 31, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397513/paratuberculosis-in-a-domestic-dog-in-south-africa
#2
Michele A Miller, Sewellyn C Davey, Lesley S Van Helden, Frank Kettner, Sandy M May, Rick Last, John D Grewar, Louise Botha, Paul D Van Helden
This case report shows that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection can cause clinical disease in domestic dogs, and should be considered as a differential diagnosis for gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions. A male dachshund presented with lethargy and pain. Enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were found on abdominal ultrasound examination. Cytological examination of lymph node aspirates was consistent with granulomatous inflammation, which was culture-confirmed as MAP. Although we were unable to confirm the source of infection, the dog's history included exposure to sheep in the Western Cape...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397512/evaluation-of-perlite-wood-shavings-and-corncobs-for-bedding-material-in-rats
#3
Fatih Yildirim, Betül A Yildirim, Ahmet Yildiz, Kübra A Kapakin Terim, Seyda Cengiz, Selçuk Özdemir
Bedding material, which is a significant part of rodent housing, affects the health and well-being of laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate perlite as a bedding material for rodents and to compare it with wood shavings, expanded perlite and corncobs. The animals used in this experiment were 48 male and 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats. The bedding materials collected from experimental groups were analysed microbiologically. Blood samples from rats were subjected to biochemical analysis for catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, superoxide and dismutase, and foot pad skins of rats were subjected to histopathological examination...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397511/enhanced-diagnosis-of-rabies-and-molecular-evidence-for-the-transboundary-spread-of-the-disease-in-mozambique
#4
Andre Coetzer, Iolanda Anahory, Paula T Dias, Claude T Sabeta, Terence P Scott, Wanda Markotter, Louis H Nel
Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease with veterinary and public health significance, particularly in Africa and Asia. The current knowledge of the epidemiology of rabies in Mozambique is limited because of inadequate sample submission, constrained diagnostic capabilities and a lack of molecular epidemiological research. We wanted to consider the direct, rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT) as an alternative to the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) for rabies diagnosis at the diagnostic laboratory of the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL), Directorate of Animal Science, Maputo, Mozambique...
March 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281771/an-evaluation-of-serological-tests-in-the-diagnosis-of-bovine-brucellosis-in-naturally-infected-cattle-in-kwazulu-natal-province-in-south-africa
#5
Songelwayo L Chisi, Yoanda Marageni, Prebashni Naidoo, Gloria Zulu, George W Akol, Henriette Van Heerden
The diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) of the Rose Bengal test (RBT), the complement fixation test (CFT), the serum agglutination test (SAT), the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the indirect ELISA (iELISA) were determined in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa with known infectious status from culture (gold standard). Natural brucellosis infection status of animals was determined by culturing and identification of Brucella abortus biovar 1 from abomasal fluid, milk, hygroma fluid, lymph nodes or uterine discharges samples...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281770/tremors-in-white-rhinoceroses-i-ceratotherium-simum-i-during-etorphine-azaperone-immobilisation
#6
Stephanie S De Lange, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Markus Hofmeyr, Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Leith C R Meyer
Little is known about the mechanisms causing tremors during immobilisation of rhinoceros and whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions alter their intensity. Therefore, we set out to determine the possible mechanisms that lead to muscle tremors and ascertain whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions affect tremor intensity. We studied tremors and physiological responses during etorphine-azaperone immobilisation in eight boma-held and 14 free-living white rhinoceroses. Repeated measures analysis of variance and a Friedman test were used to determine differences in variables over time and between interventions...
February 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281769/long-term-surgical-anaesthesia-with-isoflurane-in-human-habituated-nile-crocodiles
#7
George F Stegmann, Catherine J A Williams, Craig Franklin, Tobias Wang, Michael Axelsson
A suitable long-term anaesthetic technique was required for implantation of physiological sensors and telemetric devices in sub-adult Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) to allow the collection of physiological data. Five Nile crocodiles with a median body mass of 24 kg were used. After manual capture, they were blindfolded and 0.2 mL (1 mg/mL) medetomidine was administered intramuscularly in four of the animals which had an estimated body mass between 20 kg and 30 kg. One crocodile with an estimated body mass of 50 kg received 0...
February 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235289/screening-for-i-hepatozoon-i-parasites-in-gerbils-and-potential-predators-in-south-africa
#8
D James Harris, Ana Pereira, Ali Halajian, Wilmien J Luus-Powell, Katlego D Kunutu
Samples of gerbils and their potential predators were screened for the presence of Hepatozoon parasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) using both microscopic examination and sequencing of partial 18S rRNA sequences. Positive samples were compared to published sequences in a phylogenetic framework. The results indicate that genets can be infected with Hepatozoon felis. A Cape fox was infected with Hepatozoon canis, whereas the sequence from an infected rodent fell within a group of parasites primarily recovered from other rodents and snakes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155291/mycotic-rhinitis-in-a-mutton-merino-ewe
#9
Rhoda Leask, Johan Steyl
Although nasal masses are uncommon in sheep and may have several causes, including neoplasia and bacterial, fungal and viral infections, these lesions may lead to economic losses resulting from weight loss and even death. It is therefore important to differentiate between various categories of upper respiratory tract obstructions and lower respiratory tract infections. The correct aetiological diagnosis of obstructive masses is essential for appropriate treatment and management to be given or action to be taken...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155290/the-diagnosis-of-bilateral-primary-renal-paragangliomas-in-a-cat
#10
Ryan B Friedlein, Alain J Carter, Robert D Last, Sarah Clift
A 9-year-old sterilised female domestic short-hair cat was referred with a history of vomiting and anorexia of 3 months' duration. Biochemistry, full-blood counts, thoracic radiographs, feline pancreatic-specific lipase, abdominal ultrasonography and feline immunodeficiency virus/feline leukaemia virus (FIV/FeLV) SNAP tests had been performed. Mild hypochloraemia and moderate hypokalaemia were evident on initial presentation. Abdominal ultrasonography initially revealed unilateral renal nodules on the left side...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240033/seroprevalence-of-rift-valley-fever-in-cattle-along-the-akagera-nyabarongo-rivers-rwanda
#11
Thérèse Umuhoza, Dirk Berkvens, Isidore Gafarasi, Joseph Rukelibuga, Borden Mushonga, Savino Biryomumaisho
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is caused by a zoonotic arbovirus that is endemic to eastern and southern Africa. It has also been reported in West and North Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, but people can also become infected while handling blood or other body fluids of animals and humans with RVF. In 2007, there was a large outbreak of RVF in Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and Somalia. Outbreaks were also reported in South Africa in 2008-2011. The epidemiology of RVF and factors for disease occurrence in Rwanda are neither clear nor documented...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155295/repellent-activities-of-dichloromethane-extract-of-i-allium-sativum-i-garlic-liliaceae-against-i-hyalomma-rufipes-i-acari
#12
Felix Nchu, Solomon R Magano, Jacobus N Eloff
Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155294/pulmonary-gas-exchange-and-acid-base-status-during-immobilisation-of-black-rhinoceroses-i-diceros-bicornis-i-in-zimbabwe
#13
Åsa Fahlman, Anna Edner, Sandra Wenger, Chris Foggin, Görel Nyman
When immobilising wildlife, adverse side effects can include hypoxaemia, acidosis and hypertension. Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base status were evaluated during immobilisation of 25 free-ranging and one boma-held black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Zimbabwe. The effect of different body positions on arterial oxygenation was evaluated. A combination of the following drugs was used: an opioid (etorphine or thiafentanil), azaperone and an a2 -adrenoceptor agonist (detomidine or xylazine). Respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature and pulse oximetry-derived haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155296/paraquat-intoxication-and-associated-pathological-findings-in-three-dogs-in-south-africa
#14
June H Williams, Zandri Whitehead, Erna Van Wilpe
Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155293/eco-epidemiological-and-pathological-features-of-wildlife-mortality-events-related-to-cyanobacterial-bio-intoxication-in-the-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#15
Roy Bengis, Danny Govender, Emily Lane, Jan Myburgh, Paul Oberholster, Peter Buss, Leon Prozesky, Dewald Keet
Over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. On field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of Microcystis spp. (probably Microcystis aeruginosa). Macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with a diagnosis of cyanobacterial intoxication...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155292/possible-over-wintering-of-bluetongue-virus-in-i-culicoides-i-populations-in-the-onderstepoort-area-gauteng-south-africa
#16
Jumari Steyn, Gert J Venter, Karien Labuschagne, Daphney Majatladi, Solomon N B Boikanyo, Carina Lourens, Karen Ebersohn, Estelle H Venter
Several studies have demonstrated the ability of certain viruses to overwinter in arthropod vectors. The over-wintering mechanism of bluetongue virus (BTV) is unknown. One hypothesis is over-wintering within adult Culicoides midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) that survive mild winters where temperatures seldom drop below 10 °C. The reduced activity of midges and the absence of outbreaks during winter may create the impression that the virus has disappeared from an area. Light traps were used in close association with horses to collect Culicoides midges from July 2010 to September 2011 in the Onderstepoort area, in Gauteng Province, South Africa...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796110/confirmation-of-occurrence-of-i-babesia-vogeli-i-in-a-dog-in-windhoek-central-namibia
#17
Barend L Penzhorn, Ilse Vorster, Gernot Redecker, Marinda C Oosthuizen
Although there is evidence of high seroprevalence of antibodies to Babesia spp. in dogs in central Namibia, clinical babesiosis is rarely diagnosed. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, the vector of Babesia vogeli, is common in Namibia while Haemaphysalis elliptica, the vector of the highly virulent but morphologically indistinguishable Babesia rossi, has rarely been recorded, mainly in northern Namibia. On the basis of vector occurrence, clinical cases of canine babesiosis in Windhoek, central Namibia, have been ascribed to B...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796108/a-study-on-the-prevalence-of-dog-erythrocyte-antigen-1-1-and-detection-of-canine-babesia-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-from-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-a-selected-rural-community-in-zimbabwe
#18
Solomon Dhliwayo, Tariro A Makonese, Belinda Whittall, Silvester M Chikerema, Davies M Pfukenyi, Musavenga T Tivapasi
A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of blood group antigen dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 in mixed breed dogs in rural Chinamhora, Zimbabwe. DEA 1.1 is clinically the most important canine blood group as it is the most antigenic blood type; hence, DEA 1.1 antibodies are capable of causing acute haemolytic, potentially life-threatening transfusion reactions. In this study, blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in Chinamhora, and blood typing was carried out using standardised DEA 1.1 typing strips with monoclonal anti-DEA 1...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796107/prevalence-of-lung-lesions-in-slaughtered-cattle-in-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#19
Ishmael F Jaja, Borden Mushonga, Ezekiel Green, Voster Muchenje
Information obtained from abattoirs on the causes of lung condemnation is important in preventing the spread of zoonotic diseases and for promoting food security. In this study, we assessed the causes of lung condemnation in cattle at three abattoirs represented as ANA, QTA and EBA to evaluate the financial losses associated with lung condemnation. A retrospective study (n = 51 302) involving the use of abattoir slaughter records of 2010-2012 and an active abattoir survey (n = 1374) was conducted from July to December 2013...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609459/a-radiological-evaluation-of-alveolar-bone-regeneration-between-the-left-and-right-mandibles-and-maxillae-of-the-chacma-baboon
#20
Marthinus J Kotze, Kurt-W Bütow, Steve A Olorunju, Harry F Kotze
There is a lack of information in comparing the healing rate between the left and right sides of the maxilla and mandible. Osteogenesis of alveolar bone was evaluated with digital radiology by comparing differences in bone density (BD) at different time points within the left and right maxilla and mandible. Alveolar bone defects were created in five healthy Chacma baboons. Standardised x-ray images were acquired over time and the densities of the selected trauma areas were measured pre-operatively, post-operatively and at 3 and 6 weeks post-operatively...
September 6, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
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