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Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155291/mycotic-rhinitis-in-a-mutton-merino-ewe
#1
Rhoda Leask, Johan Steyl
Although nasal masses are uncommon in sheep and may have several causes, including neoplasia and bacterial, fungal and viral infections, these lesions may lead to economic losses resulting from weight loss and even death. It is therefore important to differentiate between various categories of upper respiratory tract obstructions and lower respiratory tract infections. The correct aetiological diagnosis of obstructive masses is essential for appropriate treatment and management to be given or action to be taken...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155290/the-diagnosis-of-bilateral-primary-renal-paragangliomas-in-a-cat
#2
Ryan B Friedlein, Alain J Carter, Robert D Last, Sarah Clift
A 9-year-old sterilised female domestic short-hair cat was referred with a history of vomiting and anorexia of 3 months' duration. Biochemistry, full-blood counts, thoracic radiographs, feline pancreatic-specific lipase, abdominal ultrasonography and feline immunodeficiency virus/feline leukaemia virus (FIV/FeLV) SNAP tests had been performed. Mild hypochloraemia and moderate hypokalaemia were evident on initial presentation. Abdominal ultrasonography initially revealed unilateral renal nodules on the left side...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155295/repellent-activities-of-dichloromethane-extract-of-i-allium-sativum-i-garlic-liliaceae-against-i-hyalomma-rufipes-i-acari
#3
Felix Nchu, Solomon R Magano, Jacobus N Eloff
Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155294/pulmonary-gas-exchange-and-acid-base-status-during-immobilisation-of-black-rhinoceroses-i-diceros-bicornis-i-in-zimbabwe
#4
Åsa Fahlman, Anna Edner, Sandra Wenger, Chris Foggin, Görel Nyman
When immobilising wildlife, adverse side effects can include hypoxaemia, acidosis and hypertension. Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base status were evaluated during immobilisation of 25 free-ranging and one boma-held black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Zimbabwe. The effect of different body positions on arterial oxygenation was evaluated. A combination of the following drugs was used: an opioid (etorphine or thiafentanil), azaperone and an a2 -adrenoceptor agonist (detomidine or xylazine). Respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature and pulse oximetry-derived haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155296/paraquat-intoxication-and-associated-pathological-findings-in-three-dogs-in-south-africa
#5
June H Williams, Zandri Whitehead, Erna Van Wilpe
Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155293/eco-epidemiological-and-pathological-features-of-wildlife-mortality-events-related-to-cyanobacterial-bio-intoxication-in-the-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#6
Roy Bengis, Danny Govender, Emily Lane, Jan Myburgh, Paul Oberholster, Peter Buss, Leon Prozesky, Dewald Keet
Over the past decade, several clustered, multispecies, wildlife mortality events occurred in the vicinity of two man-made earthen dams in the southern and south central regions of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. On field investigation, heavy cyanobacterial blooms were visible in these impoundments and analysis of water samples showed the dominance of Microcystis spp. (probably Microcystis aeruginosa). Macroscopic lesions seen at necropsy and histopathological lesions were compatible with a diagnosis of cyanobacterial intoxication...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155292/possible-over-wintering-of-bluetongue-virus-in-i-culicoides-i-populations-in-the-onderstepoort-area-gauteng-south-africa
#7
Jumari Steyn, Gert J Venter, Karien Labuschagne, Daphney Majatladi, Solomon N B Boikanyo, Carina Lourens, Karen Ebersohn, Estelle H Venter
Several studies have demonstrated the ability of certain viruses to overwinter in arthropod vectors. The over-wintering mechanism of bluetongue virus (BTV) is unknown. One hypothesis is over-wintering within adult Culicoides midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) that survive mild winters where temperatures seldom drop below 10 °C. The reduced activity of midges and the absence of outbreaks during winter may create the impression that the virus has disappeared from an area. Light traps were used in close association with horses to collect Culicoides midges from July 2010 to September 2011 in the Onderstepoort area, in Gauteng Province, South Africa...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796110/confirmation-of-occurrence-of-i-babesia-vogeli-i-in-a-dog-in-windhoek-central-namibia
#8
Barend L Penzhorn, Ilse Vorster, Gernot Redecker, Marinda C Oosthuizen
Although there is evidence of high seroprevalence of antibodies to Babesia spp. in dogs in central Namibia, clinical babesiosis is rarely diagnosed. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, the vector of Babesia vogeli, is common in Namibia while Haemaphysalis elliptica, the vector of the highly virulent but morphologically indistinguishable Babesia rossi, has rarely been recorded, mainly in northern Namibia. On the basis of vector occurrence, clinical cases of canine babesiosis in Windhoek, central Namibia, have been ascribed to B...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796108/a-study-on-the-prevalence-of-dog-erythrocyte-antigen-1-1-and-detection-of-canine-babesia-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-from-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-a-selected-rural-community-in-zimbabwe
#9
Solomon Dhliwayo, Tariro A Makonese, Belinda Whittall, Silvester M Chikerema, Davies M Pfukenyi, Musavenga T Tivapasi
A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of blood group antigen dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 in mixed breed dogs in rural Chinamhora, Zimbabwe. DEA 1.1 is clinically the most important canine blood group as it is the most antigenic blood type; hence, DEA 1.1 antibodies are capable of causing acute haemolytic, potentially life-threatening transfusion reactions. In this study, blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in Chinamhora, and blood typing was carried out using standardised DEA 1.1 typing strips with monoclonal anti-DEA 1...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796107/prevalence-of-lung-lesions-in-slaughtered-cattle-in-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#10
Ishmael F Jaja, Borden Mushonga, Ezekiel Green, Voster Muchenje
Information obtained from abattoirs on the causes of lung condemnation is important in preventing the spread of zoonotic diseases and for promoting food security. In this study, we assessed the causes of lung condemnation in cattle at three abattoirs represented as ANA, QTA and EBA to evaluate the financial losses associated with lung condemnation. A retrospective study (n = 51 302) involving the use of abattoir slaughter records of 2010-2012 and an active abattoir survey (n = 1374) was conducted from July to December 2013...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609459/a-radiological-evaluation-of-alveolar-bone-regeneration-between-the-left-and-right-mandibles-and-maxillae-of-the-chacma-baboon
#11
Marthinus J Kotze, Kurt-W Bütow, Steve A Olorunju, Harry F Kotze
There is a lack of information in comparing the healing rate between the left and right sides of the maxilla and mandible. Osteogenesis of alveolar bone was evaluated with digital radiology by comparing differences in bone density (BD) at different time points within the left and right maxilla and mandible. Alveolar bone defects were created in five healthy Chacma baboons. Standardised x-ray images were acquired over time and the densities of the selected trauma areas were measured pre-operatively, post-operatively and at 3 and 6 weeks post-operatively...
September 6, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609458/a-questionnaire-survey-on-diseases-and-problems-affecting-sheep-and-goats-in-communal-farming-regions-of-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#12
Gareth F Bath, Mary-Louise Penrith, Rhoda Leask
A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts...
August 31, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543039/a-field-survey-on-parasites-and-antibodies-against-selected-pathogens-in-owned-dogs-in-lilongwe-malawi
#13
Karin Alvåsen, Sandra M Johansson, Johan Höglund, Richard Ssuna, Ulf Emanuelson
The aim of this study was to screen for selected parasites and antibody levels against vectorborne pathogens in owned dogs in Lilongwe, Malawi. The study population consisted of 100 dogs; 80 participating in vaccination-spaying campaigns and 20 visiting a veterinary clinic as paying clients. All dogs went through a general physical examination including visual examination for signs of ectoparasites. A total of 100 blood samples were analysed using commercial snap tests and 40 faecal samples by egg flotation in saturated sodium chloride...
July 29, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543040/severe-canine-distemper-outbreak-in-unvaccinated-dogs-in-mozambique
#14
Julieta Zacarias, Alberto Dimande, Sara Achá, Paula T Dias, Elisa M Leonel, Aurora Messa, Baltazar Macucule, José L Júnior, Custódio G Bila
Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD) outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the kidney of one dog from the cohort...
July 15, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543038/investigation-of-stillbirths-perinatal-mortality-and-weakness-in-beef-calves-with-low-selenium-whole-blood-concentrations
#15
Anthony J Davis, Jan G Myburgh
In this on-farm investigation, we report on stillbirths, weakness and perinatal mortality seen in calves on a commercial beef farm in the Roossenekal area, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Post-mortem examination of these calves and histopathological examination of organ and tissue samples did not indicate an infectious aetiology. Affected calves had marginal to deficient whole blood selenium concentrations. Whole blood samples collected from adult cattle on this farm and five neighbouring farms were deficient in selenium...
July 15, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381881/the-effect-of-multivitamin-multimineral-supplementation-on-the-health-status-of-inbred-wistar-and-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-strains
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rosemarie U Höfler, Mahendra L Channa, Anand Nadar
The nutraceutical industry has proliferated in recent years, with the most popular form of supplementation being the multivitamin-multimineral (MVMM) supplement. In the animal health sector, supplement use has also expanded. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of MVMM supplementation, beneficial or otherwise, on the general health status of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, an animal model used in hypertension research. A commercially prepared MVMM supplement was given tri-weekly via oral dosing for 8 weeks to two groups of seven adult female SHR and Wistar rats...
June 9, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796109/animal-adapted-members-of-the-i-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-i-complex-endemic-to-the-southern-african-subregion
#17
REVIEW
Charlene Clarke, Paul Van Helden, Michele Miller, Sven Parsons
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion - that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus - are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed...
April 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246904/animal-adapted-members-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-endemic-to-the-southern-african-subregion
#18
REVIEW
Charlene Clarke, Paul Van Helden, Michele Miller, Sven Parsons
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion - that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus - are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed...
April 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796106/reference-intervals-for-selected-serum-biochemistry-analytes-in-cheetahs-i-acinonyx-jubatus-i
#19
Gavin C Hudson-Lamb, Johan P Schoeman, Emma H Hooijberg, Sonja K Heinrich, Adrian S W Tordiffe
Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated...
February 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26974036/reference-intervals-for-selected-serum-biochemistry-analytes-in-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#20
Gavin C Hudson-Lamb, Johan P Schoeman, Emma H Hooijberg, Sonja K Heinrich, Adrian S W Tordiffe
Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated...
February 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
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