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Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582985/septic-pericarditis-and-pneumopericardium-in-a-dog-with-an-oesophageal-foreign-body
#1
Willem J Botha, Varaidzo Mukorera, Robert M Kirberger
A 5-year-old, intact, male Yorkshire Terrier presented with a 6-day history of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed dental plaque accumulation, abdominal effort during respiration and muffled heart sounds. Thoracic radiographs revealed an enlarged globoid cardiac silhouette and mild pneumopericardium, transthoracic ultrasonography revealed a pericardial effusion after which pericardiocentesis, cytology and culture diagnosed septic pericarditis. Three multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated, two of which have been implicated in gas-producing infections before...
May 29, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582984/ileal-hypertrophy-and-associated-true-diverticulum-as-a-cause-of-colic-in-a-horse
#2
Arnold T Mahne, Driene Janse van Rensburg, Michael Hewetson
A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding underwent an explorative celiotomy for a suspected small intestinal obstruction. During surgery, an impacted diverticulum of the ileum was suspected, necessitating a jejunocaecostomy. The owner opted for euthanasia. On post-mortem examination and histopathology, a true diverticulum on the mesenteric side of the ileum, with ileal hypertrophy, was diagnosed.
May 26, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582983/occurrence-of-i-coxiella-burnetii-i-i-ehrlichia-canis-i-i-rickettsia-i-species-and-i-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-i-like-bacterium-in-ticks-collected-from-dogs-and-cats-in-south-africa
#3
Khethiwe Mtshali, Ryo Nakao, Chihiro Sugimoto, Oriel Thekisoe
Ticks are major vectors of arthropod-borne infections and transmit a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens. This study was conducted mainly to determine the occurrence of canine tick-borne bacterial and rickettsial pathogens especially those with zoonotic potential. We examined 276 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 38 Haemaphysalis elliptica and 4 Amblyomma hebraeum ticks from 90 dogs and 4 cats from the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and Mpumalanga provinces. DNA of Coxiella burnetii (41%), Ehrlichia or Anaplasma (18%), Rickettsia spp...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470080/genetic-characterisation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-i-staphylococcus-aureus-i-isolated-from-commercial-broiler-chickens-in-the-durban-metropolitan-area-south-africa
#4
Nelisiwe Mkize, Oliver T Zishiri, Samson Mukaratirwa
Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in human and veterinary medicine is a serious worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in commercial broiler chickens as well as to establish antimicrobial susceptibility and the distribution of genetic determinants conferring resistance and virulence. One hundred and ninety-four samples were aseptically collected from broiler chicken slaughterhouses and retail outlets around the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470079/validity-of-somatic-cell-count-as-indicator-of-pathogen-specific-intramammary-infections
#5
Inge-Marié Petzer, Joanne Karzis, Edward F Donkin, Edward C Webb, Eric M C Etter
The objective of this study was to determine whether somatic cell count (SCC) was an effective test, with a sensitivity exceeding 85%, to determine species-specific bacterial infections. In addition, the relation between the SCC and various udder pathogen groups was investigated. SCC thresholds of greater than 200 000 cells/mL were used in quarter and greater than 150 000 cells/mL in composite milk samples. A retrospective study was conducted on a data set for 89 635 quarter and 345 467 composite cow milk samples...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470078/a-study-of-the-incidence-of-milk-fever-in-jersey-and-holstein-cows-at-a-dairy-farm-in-beatrice-zimbabwe
#6
Bernard Chiwome, Erick Kandiwa, Borden Mushonga, Shepherd Sajeni, Gervais Habarugira
A 3-year prospective study investigated the incidence of milk fever in Jersey and Holstein cows at a commercial dairy farm in Beatrice, Zimbabwe. The overall incidence of milk fever at the farm was 7.98%. Incidence of milk fever in Jerseys (14.78%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in Holsteins (4.82%). Incidence of milk fever in Jerseys beyond their fourth parity (24.85%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in Jerseys in their second (5.90%), third (6.49%) and fourth (8.73%) parities...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397514/fatal-disseminated-toxoplasmosis-in-a-zoological-collection-of-meerkats-i-suricata-suricatta-i
#7
Monica Burger, Elizabeth C Du Plessis, Essa Suleman, Brett R Gardner
Two confirmed cases of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis occurred in an urban zoological collection of meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Both cases are suspected to be the result of feral cats gaining access to the enclosure. Toxoplasmosis has rarely been documented in meerkats. Subsequent to prophylactic treatment of all the animals and structural changes being implemented within the enclosure, no new cases have been recorded to date. Very little information is available on the disease in viverrids.
March 31, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397513/paratuberculosis-in-a-domestic-dog-in-south-africa
#8
Michele A Miller, Sewellyn C Davey, Lesley S Van Helden, Frank Kettner, Sandy M May, Rick Last, John D Grewar, Louise Botha, Paul D Van Helden
This case report shows that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection can cause clinical disease in domestic dogs, and should be considered as a differential diagnosis for gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions. A male dachshund presented with lethargy and pain. Enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were found on abdominal ultrasound examination. Cytological examination of lymph node aspirates was consistent with granulomatous inflammation, which was culture-confirmed as MAP. Although we were unable to confirm the source of infection, the dog's history included exposure to sheep in the Western Cape...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397512/evaluation-of-perlite-wood-shavings-and-corncobs-for-bedding-material-in-rats
#9
Fatih Yildirim, Betül A Yildirim, Ahmet Yildiz, Kübra A Kapakin Terim, Seyda Cengiz, Selçuk Özdemir
Bedding material, which is a significant part of rodent housing, affects the health and well-being of laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate perlite as a bedding material for rodents and to compare it with wood shavings, expanded perlite and corncobs. The animals used in this experiment were 48 male and 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats. The bedding materials collected from experimental groups were analysed microbiologically. Blood samples from rats were subjected to biochemical analysis for catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, superoxide and dismutase, and foot pad skins of rats were subjected to histopathological examination...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397511/enhanced-diagnosis-of-rabies-and-molecular-evidence-for-the-transboundary-spread-of-the-disease-in-mozambique
#10
Andre Coetzer, Iolanda Anahory, Paula T Dias, Claude T Sabeta, Terence P Scott, Wanda Markotter, Louis H Nel
Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease with veterinary and public health significance, particularly in Africa and Asia. The current knowledge of the epidemiology of rabies in Mozambique is limited because of inadequate sample submission, constrained diagnostic capabilities and a lack of molecular epidemiological research. We wanted to consider the direct, rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT) as an alternative to the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) for rabies diagnosis at the diagnostic laboratory of the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL), Directorate of Animal Science, Maputo, Mozambique...
March 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281771/an-evaluation-of-serological-tests-in-the-diagnosis-of-bovine-brucellosis-in-naturally-infected-cattle-in-kwazulu-natal-province-in-south-africa
#11
Songelwayo L Chisi, Yoanda Marageni, Prebashni Naidoo, Gloria Zulu, George W Akol, Henriette Van Heerden
The diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) of the Rose Bengal test (RBT), the complement fixation test (CFT), the serum agglutination test (SAT), the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the indirect ELISA (iELISA) were determined in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa with known infectious status from culture (gold standard). Natural brucellosis infection status of animals was determined by culturing and identification of Brucella abortus biovar 1 from abomasal fluid, milk, hygroma fluid, lymph nodes or uterine discharges samples...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281770/tremors-in-white-rhinoceroses-i-ceratotherium-simum-i-during-etorphine-azaperone-immobilisation
#12
Stephanie S De Lange, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Markus Hofmeyr, Peter Buss, Michele Miller, Leith C R Meyer
Little is known about the mechanisms causing tremors during immobilisation of rhinoceros and whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions alter their intensity. Therefore, we set out to determine the possible mechanisms that lead to muscle tremors and ascertain whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions affect tremor intensity. We studied tremors and physiological responses during etorphine-azaperone immobilisation in eight boma-held and 14 free-living white rhinoceroses. Repeated measures analysis of variance and a Friedman test were used to determine differences in variables over time and between interventions...
February 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281769/long-term-surgical-anaesthesia-with-isoflurane-in-human-habituated-nile-crocodiles
#13
George F Stegmann, Catherine J A Williams, Craig Franklin, Tobias Wang, Michael Axelsson
A suitable long-term anaesthetic technique was required for implantation of physiological sensors and telemetric devices in sub-adult Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) to allow the collection of physiological data. Five Nile crocodiles with a median body mass of 24 kg were used. After manual capture, they were blindfolded and 0.2 mL (1 mg/mL) medetomidine was administered intramuscularly in four of the animals which had an estimated body mass between 20 kg and 30 kg. One crocodile with an estimated body mass of 50 kg received 0...
February 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235289/screening-for-i-hepatozoon-i-parasites-in-gerbils-and-potential-predators-in-south-africa
#14
D James Harris, Ana Pereira, Ali Halajian, Wilmien J Luus-Powell, Katlego D Kunutu
Samples of gerbils and their potential predators were screened for the presence of Hepatozoon parasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) using both microscopic examination and sequencing of partial 18S rRNA sequences. Positive samples were compared to published sequences in a phylogenetic framework. The results indicate that genets can be infected with Hepatozoon felis. A Cape fox was infected with Hepatozoon canis, whereas the sequence from an infected rodent fell within a group of parasites primarily recovered from other rodents and snakes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155291/mycotic-rhinitis-in-a-mutton-merino-ewe
#15
Rhoda Leask, Johan Steyl
Although nasal masses are uncommon in sheep and may have several causes, including neoplasia and bacterial, fungal and viral infections, these lesions may lead to economic losses resulting from weight loss and even death. It is therefore important to differentiate between various categories of upper respiratory tract obstructions and lower respiratory tract infections. The correct aetiological diagnosis of obstructive masses is essential for appropriate treatment and management to be given or action to be taken...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155290/the-diagnosis-of-bilateral-primary-renal-paragangliomas-in-a-cat
#16
Ryan B Friedlein, Alain J Carter, Robert D Last, Sarah Clift
A 9-year-old sterilised female domestic short-hair cat was referred with a history of vomiting and anorexia of 3 months' duration. Biochemistry, full-blood counts, thoracic radiographs, feline pancreatic-specific lipase, abdominal ultrasonography and feline immunodeficiency virus/feline leukaemia virus (FIV/FeLV) SNAP tests had been performed. Mild hypochloraemia and moderate hypokalaemia were evident on initial presentation. Abdominal ultrasonography initially revealed unilateral renal nodules on the left side...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240033/seroprevalence-of-rift-valley-fever-in-cattle-along-the-akagera-nyabarongo-rivers-rwanda
#17
Thérèse Umuhoza, Dirk Berkvens, Isidore Gafarasi, Joseph Rukelibuga, Borden Mushonga, Savino Biryomumaisho
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is caused by a zoonotic arbovirus that is endemic to eastern and southern Africa. It has also been reported in West and North Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, but people can also become infected while handling blood or other body fluids of animals and humans with RVF. In 2007, there was a large outbreak of RVF in Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and Somalia. Outbreaks were also reported in South Africa in 2008-2011. The epidemiology of RVF and factors for disease occurrence in Rwanda are neither clear nor documented...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155295/repellent-activities-of-dichloromethane-extract-of-i-allium-sativum-i-garlic-liliaceae-against-i-hyalomma-rufipes-i-acari
#18
Felix Nchu, Solomon R Magano, Jacobus N Eloff
Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155294/pulmonary-gas-exchange-and-acid-base-status-during-immobilisation-of-black-rhinoceroses-i-diceros-bicornis-i-in-zimbabwe
#19
Åsa Fahlman, Anna Edner, Sandra Wenger, Chris Foggin, Görel Nyman
When immobilising wildlife, adverse side effects can include hypoxaemia, acidosis and hypertension. Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base status were evaluated during immobilisation of 25 free-ranging and one boma-held black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Zimbabwe. The effect of different body positions on arterial oxygenation was evaluated. A combination of the following drugs was used: an opioid (etorphine or thiafentanil), azaperone and an a2 -adrenoceptor agonist (detomidine or xylazine). Respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature and pulse oximetry-derived haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155296/paraquat-intoxication-and-associated-pathological-findings-in-three-dogs-in-south-africa
#20
June H Williams, Zandri Whitehead, Erna Van Wilpe
Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
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