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Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227142/perineal-urethrostomy-to-treat-obstructive-urolithiasis-in-a-captive-hand-raised-steenbok-i-raphicerus-campestris-i
#1
Luke A Poore, Ross Hendry, Johan Steyl, Silke Pfitzer
The steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) is a small antelope of the family Bovidae native to the African continent. Urolithiasis, the formation of urinary calculi in the urinary tract, can be caused by a variety of factors such as diet, dehydration, infection and anatomical predisposition. Urolithiasis, with uroliths identified as magnesium calcium phosphate carbonate in composition, was diagnosed in a hand-reared 5-month-old steenbok. Perineal urethrostomy was performed as a component of the broad treatment regime that included fluid therapy, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227141/cervical-porcupine-quill-foreign-body-involving-the-spinal-cord-of-a-dog-a-description-of-various-imaging-modality-findings
#2
Christelle Le Roux, Frans J Venter, Robert M Kirberger
Although porcupine quill injuries are common in dogs, the detailed appearance of the quill on diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has not been sufficiently described. A 4-year-old, intact, female Jack Russel terrier presented with severe neck pain and ataxia after an altercation with a porcupine 2 weeks earlier. Radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were all utilised to identify a quill imbedded in the cervical vertebral canal and cervical musculature and were compared to each other...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227140/range-expansion-of-the-economically-important-asiatic-blue-tick-i-rhipicephalus-microplus-i-in-south-africa
#3
Nkululeko Nyangiwe, Ivan G Horak, Luther Van der Mescht, Sonja Matthee
The Asiatic blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, a known vector of bovine babesiosis and bovine anaplasmosis, is of great concern in the cattle industry. For this reason, detailed knowledge of the distribution of R. microplus is vital. Currently, R. microplus is believed to be associated mainly with the northern and eastern Savanna and Grassland vegetation in South Africa. The objective of the study was to record the distribution of R. microplus, and the related endemic Rhipicephalus decoloratus, in the central-western region of South Africa that comprises Albany Thicket, Fynbos and Savanna vegetation...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227143/corrigendum-ileal-hypertrophy-and-associated-true-diverticulum-as-a-cause-of-colic-in-a-horse
#4
Arnold T Mahne, Drienie D Janse van Rensburg, Michael Hewetson
No abstract available.
November 30, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227139/phenotypic-hip-and-elbow-dysplasia-trends-in-rottweilers-and-labrador-retrievers-in-south-africa-2007-2015-are-we-making-progress
#5
Robert M Kirberger
Canine hip and elbow dysplasia are major orthopaedic problems prevalent the world over, and South Africa is no exception. Hip and elbow dysplasia phenotypic status is certified by a number of different radiographic schemes in the world. South Africa uses the Fédération Cynologique Internationale system to certify hips, and the International Elbow Working Group scheme to certify elbows. One way of reducing these often crippling conditions is by selective breeding using only dogs with no or marginal dysplastic joints...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227138/a-comparison-of-mycotoxin-contamination-of-premium-and-grocery-brands-of-pelleted-cat-food-in-south-africa
#6
Sanil D Singh, Sooraj Baijnath, Anil A Chuturgoon
Contamination with mycotoxins is of concern to pet owners and veterinary practitioners owing to their ability to cause disease and exacerbate the pathological changes associated with other diseases. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding the mycotoxin content of common premium brand (PB) and grocery brand (GB) cat feeds. Therefore, we undertook to determine the mycobiota content of feed samples, from both categories (n = 6 each), and measured the levels of aflatoxin (AF), fumonisin (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041787/a-comparative-analysis-of-mycotoxin-contamination-of-supermarket-and-premium-brand-pelleted-dog-food-in-durban-south-africa
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sanil D Singh, Anil A Chuturgoon
Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs]) and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]). For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20). These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA]) using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041788/use-of-i-brucella-abortus-i-species-specific-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-bovine-brucellosis
#8
Songelwayo L Chisi, Tracy Schmidt, George W Akol, Henriette Van Heerden
Serology is primarily used in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Bacterial culture and isolation is the gold standard in diagnosing brucellosis but, like serology, it does not offer complete (100%) diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been suggested to offer better specificity and sensitivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Brucella abortus species specific (BaSS) PCR directly from different samples in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa with known infectious status from culture...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041786/census-and-vaccination-coverage-of-owned-dog-populations-in-four-resource-limited-rural-communities-mpumalanga-province-south-africa
#9
Anne Conan, Joy A C Geerdes, Oluyemisi A Akerele, Bjorn Reininghaus, Gregory J G Simpson, Darryn Knobel
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie) in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828865/comparison-of-thiafentanil-medetomidine-to-etorphine-medetomidine-immobilisation-of-impalas-i-aepyceros-melampus-i
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
Impalas (Aepyceros melampus) are increasingly valuable in the South African wildlife industry, and there is a greater need to chemically immobilise them, ideally with minimal risk. This study aimed to compare the times to recumbency and physiological effects of thiafentanilmedetomidine versus etorphine-medetomidine immobilisation. A combination of thiafentanil (2 mg) + medetomidine (2.2 mg) and etorphine (2 mg) + medetomidine (2.2 mg) was administered (to nine impalas; crossover design) via a dart. After darting, a stopwatch was started to record times to recumbency (time from darting until recumbent without attempts to stand)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697614/genetic-variation-in-and-relationships-among-faecal-worm-eggs-recorded-in-different-seasons-of-the-year-at-the-tygerhoek-farm-in-south-africa
#11
Ziyanda Mpetile, Kennedy Dzama, Schalk W P Cloete
Gastrointestinal nematodes result in severe economic and production losses to the sheep industry. An increase in resistance of the nematodes to chemicals used for control, as well as a demand of consumers for meat products free from chemicals, has fostered research on alternative control strategies. Breeding for resistance to nematodes offers an alternative to control parasitism but its effectiveness depends on genetic variation in faecal worm egg count (FWEC), an indirect measure of parasite resistance. A historic dataset of FWEC from four Merino lines subjected to natural parasite challenge was used to estimate genetic parameters for FWEC in three seasons (autumn, winter and spring) using a repeated records animal model, followed by a three-trait animal model analysis treating FWEC in different seasons as separate traits...
July 7, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697613/relationship-between-age-and-brainstem-allometry-in-the-african-grasscutter-i-thryonomys-swinderianus-i-temminck-1827
#12
Chikera S Ibe, Ekele Ikpegbu, Oliver Nzalak
Allometric values of brainstem structures were evaluated in African grasscutters Thryonomys swinderianus (n = 27). Brain samples were extracted from 9 animals each of 3 days (neonates), 72 days (juveniles) and 450 days of age (adults). The midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata were separated from each brain sample and dimensions and weights obtained. The weights of the midbrain in the neonate, juvenile and adult African grasscutters were 0.33 g ± 0.01 g, 0.47 g ± 0.01 g and 0.93 g ± 0.02 g, respectively. The increase from neonate to juvenile (p = 0...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697612/seroprevalence-of-i-rhodococcus-equi-i-in-horses-in-israel
#13
Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Sevil E Gürbilek, Osman Y Tel, Oktay Keskin, Amir Steinman
Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals...
June 26, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697611/comparison-of-cow-side-diagnostic-tests-for-subclinical-mastitis-of-dairy-cows-in-musanze-district-rwanda
#14
Blaise Iraguha, Humphrey Hamudikuwanda, Borden Mushonga, Erick Kandiwa, Jean P Mpatswenumugabo
Four subclinical mastitis diagnostic tests (the UdderCheck® test [a lactate dehydrogenasebased test], the California Mastitis Test [CMT], the Draminski® test [a conductivity-based test] and the PortaSCC® test [a portable somatic cell count-based test]) were compared in a study comprising crossbreed dairy cows (n = 30) during September and October 2015. Sensitivity and specificity of the CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests were compared with the PortaSCC® as reference. The CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® test results were compared with the results of the PortaSCC® test using kappa statistics...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582985/septic-pericarditis-and-pneumopericardium-in-a-dog-with-an-oesophageal-foreign-body
#15
Willem J Botha, Varaidzo Mukorera, Robert M Kirberger
A 5-year-old, intact, male Yorkshire Terrier presented with a 6-day history of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed dental plaque accumulation, abdominal effort during respiration and muffled heart sounds. Thoracic radiographs revealed an enlarged globoid cardiac silhouette and mild pneumopericardium, transthoracic ultrasonography revealed a pericardial effusion after which pericardiocentesis, cytology and culture diagnosed septic pericarditis. Three multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated, two of which have been implicated in gas-producing infections before...
May 29, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582984/ileal-hypertrophy-and-associated-true-diverticulum-as-a-cause-of-colic-in-a-horse
#16
Arnold T Mahne, Driene Janse van Rensburg, Michael Hewetson
A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding underwent an explorative celiotomy for a suspected small intestinal obstruction. During surgery, an impacted diverticulum of the ileum was suspected, necessitating a jejunocaecostomy. The owner opted for euthanasia. On post-mortem examination and histopathology, a true diverticulum on the mesenteric side of the ileum, with ileal hypertrophy, was diagnosed.
May 26, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582983/occurrence-of-i-coxiella-burnetii-i-i-ehrlichia-canis-i-i-rickettsia-i-species-and-i-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-i-like-bacterium-in-ticks-collected-from-dogs-and-cats-in-south-africa
#17
Khethiwe Mtshali, Ryo Nakao, Chihiro Sugimoto, Oriel Thekisoe
Ticks are major vectors of arthropod-borne infections and transmit a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens. This study was conducted mainly to determine the occurrence of canine tick-borne bacterial and rickettsial pathogens especially those with zoonotic potential. We examined 276 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 38 Haemaphysalis elliptica and 4 Amblyomma hebraeum ticks from 90 dogs and 4 cats from the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and Mpumalanga provinces. DNA of Coxiella burnetii (41%), Ehrlichia or Anaplasma (18%), Rickettsia spp...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470080/genetic-characterisation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-i-staphylococcus-aureus-i-isolated-from-commercial-broiler-chickens-in-the-durban-metropolitan-area-south-africa
#18
Nelisiwe Mkize, Oliver T Zishiri, Samson Mukaratirwa
Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in human and veterinary medicine is a serious worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in commercial broiler chickens as well as to establish antimicrobial susceptibility and the distribution of genetic determinants conferring resistance and virulence. One hundred and ninety-four samples were aseptically collected from broiler chicken slaughterhouses and retail outlets around the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470079/validity-of-somatic-cell-count-as-indicator-of-pathogen-specific-intramammary-infections
#19
Inge-Marié Petzer, Joanne Karzis, Edward F Donkin, Edward C Webb, Eric M C Etter
The objective of this study was to determine whether somatic cell count (SCC) was an effective test, with a sensitivity exceeding 85%, to determine species-specific bacterial infections. In addition, the relation between the SCC and various udder pathogen groups was investigated. SCC thresholds of greater than 200 000 cells/mL were used in quarter and greater than 150 000 cells/mL in composite milk samples. A retrospective study was conducted on a data set for 89 635 quarter and 345 467 composite cow milk samples...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470078/a-study-of-the-incidence-of-milk-fever-in-jersey-and-holstein-cows-at-a-dairy-farm-in-beatrice-zimbabwe
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Bernard Chiwome, Erick Kandiwa, Borden Mushonga, Shepherd Sajeni, Gervais Habarugira
A 3-year prospective study investigated the incidence of milk fever in Jersey and Holstein cows at a commercial dairy farm in Beatrice, Zimbabwe. The overall incidence of milk fever at the farm was 7.98%. Incidence of milk fever in Jerseys (14.78%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in Holsteins (4.82%). Incidence of milk fever in Jerseys beyond their fourth parity (24.85%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in Jerseys in their second (5.90%), third (6.49%) and fourth (8.73%) parities...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
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